Lesson 2: Practical Deep Learning for Coders

So one of the things I wanted to talk about (this really came up when I was looking at the survey responses) what is different about how we’re trying to teach this course and how will it impact you as participants in this course Really we’re trying to teach this course in a very different way from the way most teaching is done, at least most teaching in the United States Rachel and I are both very keen fans of David Perkins, who has this wonderful book called “Making Learning Whole, How Seven Principles of Teaching can Transform Education” We are trying to put these principles in practice in this course I’ll give you a little anecdote from the book to give you a sense of how this works If you were to learn baseball the way that math is taught, you would first learn about the shape of a parabola Then you would learn about the materials science design behind stitching baseballs, and so forth And 20 years later, after you completed your PhD and post-doc, you’d be taken to your first baseball game and you’d be introduced to the rules of baseball And then 10 years later, you might get to hit The way that in practice baseball is taught is we take a kid down to the baseball diamond and we say, “These people are playing baseball, would you like to play?” And they say, “Yea, sure I would.” “Okay, stand here, I’m going to throw this Hit it, now run.” Good, you’re playing baseball So that’s why we started our first class with, “Here are 7 lines of code you can run to do deep-learning.” Not just to do deep-learning but to do image classification on any dataset as long as you structure it in the right way So this means you will very often be in the situation (we’ve heard a lot of your questions about this during the week); Gosh, there’s a whole lot of details I don’t understand Like this fine-tuning thing What is fine-tuning? And the answer is we haven’t told you yet It’s a thing you do in order to do effective image classification in deep-learning We’re going to start from the top and gradually work our way down, and down, and down The reason that you are going to want to learn the additional level of detail is so that when you get to the point where you want to do something that no one’s done before, you’ll know how to go into that detail and create something that does what you want We’re going to keep going down a level and down a level and down a level through the hierarchy of software libraries, through the hierarchy of the way computers work, through the hierarchy of the algorithms and the math, but only at the speed that’s necessary to let’s make a better model, or let’s make a model that can do something we couldn’t do before Those will always be our goals So it’s very different I don’t know if anybody’s been reading the Yoshua Bengio, Ian Goodfellow and Aaron Courville book (www.deeplearningbook.org), which is a great mathematical deep learning book It literally starts with 5 chapters of everything you need to know about probability, everything you need to know about calculus, everything you need to know about linear algebra, everything you need to know about optimizations, and so forth I don’t know that in the whole book, there’s ever actually a point where it says, here is how you do deep-learning Even if you read the whole thing I’ve read 2/3 of it It’s a really good math book Anybody who’s interested in understanding the math of deep-learning, I would strongly recommend But it’s kind of the opposite of how we’re teaching this course So if you often find yourself thinking, I don’t really know what’s going on, that’s fine But I also want you to always be thinking about, okay how can I figure out a bit more about what’s going on So we’re trying to let you experiment Generally speaking, the assignments during the week are trying to give you enough room to find a way to dig in into what you’ve learnt and do a little bit more Make sure you can do what you’ve seen and also that you can learn a little bit more about it So you are all coders So you are all expected to look at that first notebook, and look at what are the inputs to every one of those cells, what are the outputs from every one of those cells How is it that the output can be used as the input to that cell, why is this transformation going on This is why we did not tell you how do you use Kaggle CLI, how do you prepare a submission in the correct format, because we wanted you to see if you could figure it out and also to leverage the community that we have to ask questions when you’re stuck [Time: 5 minute mark] Being stuck and failing is terrific because it means you have found some limit of your

knowledge or your current expertise You can then think really hard, read lots of documentation and ask the rest of the community until you are no longer stuck At which point you now know something you didn’t know before So that’s the goal Asking for help is a key part of this, so there is a whole wiki page called “How to ask for Help” It’s really important, and so far about half the times I have seen people ask for help, there is not enough information for your colleagues to really help you effectively So when people point you at this page, it’s not because they’re trying to be a pain, it’s because they’re saying I want to help you but you haven’t given me enough information So, in particular, what have you tried so far What did you expect to happen? What actually happened? What do you think might be going on? What have you tried to test this out? And tell us everything you can about your computer and your software? Show us screenshots, error messages, your code The better you get at asking for help, the more enjoyable experience you’re going to have because continually you’ll find your problems can be solved very quickly and you can move on There was a terrific recommendation from the head of Google Brain, Vincent Vanhoucke, on a Reddit AMA a few weeks ago where he said he tells everybody in his team, if you’re stuck work at it yourself for half an hour (you have to work at it yourself for half an hour) If you’re still stuck, you have to ask for help from somebody else The idea being that you are always making sure that you try everything you can, but you’re also never wasting your time when somebody else can help you I think that’s a really good suggestion, so maybe you can think about this half an hour rule yourself I wanted to highlight a great example of a really successful how to ask for help a great example of a really successful how to ask for help Who asked this particular question? That was really well done, really nice What’s your background before taking this class, maybe you can introduce yourself quickly I graduated from USF two years ago with a bachelor’s in Data Science You can see here that he explained here what he’s going to do, what happened last time, what error message he got He’s got a screenshot to show you want he typed and what he came back He shows what resources he’s going to use, what these resources say and so forth Did you get your question answered? Kicho says, yes, Rachel emailed me Okay, great Rachel says the question was so clear, it was easy to answer As you might have noticed, the wiki is rapidly coming out with some great information, so please start exploring it You’ll see on the left-hand side, there is a recent changes section and you can see every day there’s lots of people who’ve been contributing lots of things, so it’s continually improving There’s some great kind of diagnostic sections If you are trying to diagnose something which is not covered and you solve it, please add your solution to this diagnostic section One of the things I lvoed seeing today was Tom was asking a question about how fine-tuning works, we talked about the answers and then he went ahead and created a very small little wiki page There’s not much information there, but there’s more than there used to be This is exactly what we want You can even see in the places where he wasn’t quite sure, he put some question marks So now somebody else can go back and edit his wiki page, and Tom’s going to come back tomorrow and say now I’ve got even more questions answered This is the kind of approach where you’re going to learn a lot [Time: 10 minute mark] This is another great example of something that I think is very helpful

Melissa, who we heard from earlier, went ahead and told us all, Here is my understanding of the 17 steps necessary to complete the things we were asked to do this week So this is great for Melissa to make sure she understands it correctly, but everybody else can say that’s a really handy resource that we can draw on as well There are 718 messages in Slack in a single channel That’s way too much to expect to use this as a learning resource, so this is my suggestion as to how you might want to be careful of how you use Slack I wanted to spend maybe quite a lot of time talking about the resources that are available, because I feel like if we get that out now then we’re all going to speed along a lot more quickly Thanks for your patience as we talk about some non-deep-learning stuff We expect the vast majority of learning to happen outside of class In fact, if we go back and finish off our survey, I know that one of the questions asked about that How much time are you willing to commit most weeks to this class? And the majority was 8-15 hours Some are 15-30, and a small number are Less than 8 If you’re in the Less than 8 group, I understand that’s not something you can probably change If you had more time, you’d put in more time So if you’re in the Less than 8 group, think about how you want to prioritize what you want to get out of this course Be aware that it’s not really designed that you’re going to be able to do everything in less than 8 hours a week, so maybe make more use of the forums and the wiki and focus your assignments during the week on the stuff that you’re most interested in Don’t worry too much if you don’t feel like you’re getting everything because you have less time available For those of you in the 15-30 group, I really hope that you’ll find that you’re getting a huge amount out of the time that you’re putting in Something I’m glad I asked (because I found it really helpful) was “How much of the material from Lesson 1 was new to you?” And for half of you, the answer is Most of it And for well over half of you, Most of it or Nearly all of it If you’re one of the people that I’ve spoken to during the week who’s said, “Holy shit, that was a firehose of information I feel kind of overwhelmed, kind of excited,” you are amongst friends Remember, during the week there are about 100 of you going through this same journey So if you want to catch up with some people during the week and have a coffee and talk more about the class, or join a study group here at USF, or if you’re from the South Bay, find some people from the South Bay, I would strongly suggest doing that So for example, if you’re in Menlo Park, you could create a Menlo Park Slack Channel and put out a message, “Hey, anybody else in Menlo Park availabe on Wednesday night, I’d like to get together and maybe do some peer programming or whatever.” For some of you, not very much of it was new and for those of you, I do want to make sure that you feel comfortable pushing ahead, trying out your own projects and so forth Basically in the last lesson, what we learned was a pretty standard data science computing stack – AWS, JuPyteR notebook, a bit of Numpy, Bash This is all stuff that regardless of what kind of data science you do, you’re going to be seeing a lot more of (if you stick in this area) These are all very, very useful things Those of that who have spent some time in this field will have seen most of it before Hopefully that is useful background So last week we were really looking at the basic foundations, computing foundations necessary for data science more generally, and for big learning more particularly This week, we’re going to do something very similar, but we’re going to be looking at the key algorithm pieces [TIme: 15 minute mark] So in particular, we’re going to go back and say, “Hey, what did we actually do last week,

and why did that work, and how did that work.” For those of you who don’t have much algorithmic background around machine learning, this is going to be the same firehouse of information as last week was for those of you who don’t kind of have a software, Bash, AWS background So again, if there’s a lot of information, don’t worry This is being recorded There are all the resources during the week So the key this is to come away with an understanding of what are the key pieces being discussed Why are those pieces important? What are they doing (even if you don’t understand the detail) So if at any point you’re thinking, okay Jeremy’s talking about activation functions I have no idea what he just said about what an activation function is, or why I should care Please go on to the InClass Slack Channel, and probably @Rachel I don’t know what Jeremy’s talking about at all; Rachel’s got a microphone and she can let me know Or else put up your hand and ask So I do want to make sure you guys feel very comfortable asking questions I have done this class now once before because I did it for the Skype students last night I’ve heard a few of the questions already, so hopefully I can cover some things that are likely to come up Before we look at digging in to what’s going on, the first thing we’re going to do is see how do we do the basic homework assignment from last week So the basic homework assignment from last week was can you enter the Kaggle Dogs and Cats Redux competition So how many of you managed to submit something to that competition and get some kind of result? Okay, that’s not bad So for those of you who haven’t yet, keep trying during this week and use all of those resources I showed you because quite a few of your colleagues have done it successfully and therefore we can all help you And I can show you how I did it The basic idea here is we have to download the data to a directory, so to do that I just use “kg download” after using the “kg config” command kg is part of the Kaggle CLI and Kaggle CLI can be installed by typing “pip install kaggle-cli” This works fine without any changes if you’re using our AWS instances and setup scripts In fact, it’s fine if you’re using Anaconda pretty much anywhere If you’re not doing any of those two things, you may have found this step more challenging But once it’s installed it’s as simple as saying “kg config”, with your username, password and competition name (kg config -g -u userName -p password -c competitionName) When you put in the competition name, you can find that out by just going to the Kaggle website and you’ll see that when you go to the comptetion in the URL, it has here a name So just copy and paste that, that’s the competion name kaggle-cli is a script that somebody created in their spare time and didn’t spend a lot of time on it There’s no error-handling, there’s no checking, or anything So for example, if you haven’t gone to Kaggle and accepted the competition rules, then attempting to run “kg download” will not give you an error, it will create a zip file that actually contains the contents of the Kaggle webpage saying, Please accept the competition rules So for those of you that had to unzip that, and it said it’s not a zipfile If you go ahead and cat that, you’ll see it’s not a zipfile it’s a HTML file So this is pretty common with recent-ish data science tools, and particularly with deep-learning stuff A lot of it’s pretty new, it’s pretty rough and you really have to expect to do a lot of debugging It’s very different than using Excel or PhotoShop or something So when I said “kg download”, it created a test.zip and a train.zip, so I went ahead and I unzipped both of those things, that created a test and a train, and they contain a whole bunch of files, cat.1.jpg, and so forth [Time: 20 minute mark] So the next thing I did to make my life easier was I made a list of what I belived I had

to do (I find life much easier with a to-do list) I need to create a validation set, I need to create a sample, I need to move my cats into a cats directory, my dogs into a dogs directory, I’m going to have to fine-tune and train, I then need to submit I went ahead then and created Markdown headings for these things and started filling them out So Create Validation Set and Sample A very handy thing in JuPyteR notebook is you can create a cell that starts with a “%” (percent sign), and that allows you to type magic commands There are lots of magic commands, all kinds of useful things They do include things like “%cd”, and “%mkdir” and so forth Another cool thing you can do is you can use the “!” (exclamation mark) and then type any Bash command The nice thing about doing this stuff in a notebook rather than Bash is that you’ve got a record of everything you did So if you want to go back and do it again, you can If you make a mistake, you can go back and figure it out This kind of reproducible research is very highly recommended I try to do everything in a single notebook so I can go back and fix the problems that I always make Here you can see I’ve gone into the directory, I’ve created my validation set I then used 3 lines of Python to go ahead and grab all of the jpg file names [g=glob(‘*.jpg’)], create a random permutation of them [np.random.permutation(g)] And so then the first 2000 of that random permutation are 2000 random files, and then I move them into my validation directory, valid I did the exact same thing for my sample, but rather than moving them, I copied them And then I did that for my sample training and my sample validation, and that was enough to create my validation set and sample The next thing I had to do was move all my cats into my cats directory and my dogs into my dogs directory Which was as complex as typing “%mv cat.*.jpg cats/” and ” mv dog.*.jpg dogs/” And the cool thing is that now that I’ve done that I can just copy and paste the 7 lines of code from our previous lesson, these lines of code are totally unchanged I added one more line of code which was save_weights Once you’ve trained something, it’s a great idea to save the weights so that you don’t have to train it again You can always go back later and say load_weights So I now had a model which predicted cats and dogs through my Redux competition My final step was to submit it to Kaggle Kaggle tells us exactly what they expect The way they do that is by showing us a sample of the submission file And the sample shows us that they expect an id column and a label column The id is the file number So if you have a look at the test set, you’ll see everyone’s got a number So it’s expecting to get the number of the file along with your probability So you have to figure out how to take your model and create something of that form This is clearly something that you’re going to be doing a lot, so once I figured out how to do it, I actually created a method to do it in one step So I’m going to go and show you the method I wrote So I’ve got this utils module that I usually kind of tuck everything in, but I’m going to put this in my vgg module (vgg16.py) There’s a few ways you can possibly do this Basically you know you have a way of grabbing a mini-batch of data at a time, or a mini-batch of predictions at a time So one thing you could do would be to grab your mini-batch of size 64, you grab your 64 predictions and you just keep appending them, 64 at a time to an array until eventually you have your 12500 test images, all with a prediction, in an array That is actually a perfectly valid way to do it How many people solved it using that kind of approach? Not many of you That’s interesting, but works perfectly well [Time: 25 minute mark]

Those of you who didn’t (I guess) either asked on the forum or read the documentation and discovered there’s a very handy thing in Keras called predict_generator And what predict_generator does is it lets you send in a bunch of batches (something we created with get_batches) and it will run the predictions on every one of those batches and return them all in a single array So that’s what we want to do If you read the Keras documentation (which you should do very often), you will find out that predict_generator generally will give you the labels but not the probabilities (cat 1, dog 0) In this case, for this competition, they told us that they want probabilities, not labels So instead of calling the get_batches which we wrote; here is the get_batches we wrote; you can see all it’s doing is it’s calling something else which is flow_from directory To get predict_generator to give you probabilities instead of classes, you have to pass in an extra argument, which is class_mode= and rather than “catgorical”, you have to say “none” So in my case, I actually modified get_batches to take an extra argument, which was “class_mode” And then in my test mode that I created, I then added class_mode=”none” And so then I could call model.predict_generator passing in my batches, and that is going to give me everything I need So once I do, I can say vgg.test, pass in my test directory, pass in my batch size That returns two things, it returns the predictions and it returns the batches I can then use batches.filenames to grab the filenames because I need the filenames in order to grab the IDs So that, looks like this There’s a few predictions, there’s a few filenames Now one thing interesting, at least for the first 5 is the probabilities are all 1’s and 0’s, rather than .6, .8, and so forth We’re going to talk about why that is in just a moment For now, it is what it is It’s not doing anything wrong, it really thinks that that’s the answer Because Kaggle wants something which is isDog, we grab the second column from this, and the numbers from this, paste them together as columns and send that across So here is grabbing the first column from the predictions, call it “isdog” Here is grabbing from the 8th character until the dot in filenames, turning it into an integer to get my IDs Numpy has something called stack which lets you put 2 columns next to each other So here is my IDs and my probabilities And then Numpy lets you save that as a CSV file using savetxt You can now either ssh to your AWS instance and use “kg submit”, or my preferred technique is to use a handly little iPython thing called FileLink If you type FileLink and pass in a file that is on your server, it gives you a little URL like this, which I can click on and it downloads it to my computer And so now on my computer I can go to Kaggle and I can submit it in the usual way I prefer that because it lets me find out if there’s any error messages, or if there’s anything going wrong on Kaggle, I can see what’s happening So as you can see, rerunning what we learnt last time to submit something to Kaggle really requires just a little bit of coding to just creat the submission file, a little bit of Bash scripting to move things to the right place, and rerunning the 7 lines of code, the actual deep-learning itself is incredibly straightforward Here’s where it gets interesting When I submitted (my 1’s and 0’s) to Kaggle, the first thing I submitted was isCat rather than isDog, so that put me in last place

[Time: 30 minute mark] Then when I was putting in 1’s and 0’s, I was in 110th place, which is still not that great Now the funny thing was I was pretty confident that my model was doing well because the validation set for my model told me that my accuracy was 97.5% I’m pretty confident that the people are not all of them doing better than that So I thought something weird’s going on So that’s a good time to figure out what does this number mean? What is 12, what is 17? So let’s go and find out It says here that it is a LogLoss, so if we go to Evaluation, we can find out what LogLoss is, and here is the definition of LogLoss LogLoss is known in Keras as binary entropy or categorical entropy You’ll actually find it very familiar because every single time we’ve been creating the model, when we compile the model we have been using categorical_crossentropy So it’s probably a good time for us to find out what this is The short answer is that it’s this mathematical function But let’s dig into this a little bit more and find out what’s going on I would strongly recommend that when you want to figure out how something works, you whip out a spreadsheet Spreadsheets are my favorite tool for doing small scale data analysis They are among the least well-utilized tools among professional data scientists Which I find really surprising because back when I was in consulting, everybody used them for everything They were the most over-used tool So what I’ve done here is I’ve gone ahead and created a little column of isCats and isDogs, and a column of possible predictions And then I’ve gone in and I’ve typed in the formula from that Kaggle page And so here it is It’s the truthLabel times logOfThePrediction minus (1-truthLabel) times log(1-prediction) Now if you think about it, the truth label is always 1 or 0, so this is probably more understood using an if function It’s exactly the same thing Rather than multiplying by 1 and 0, let’s use an if function If it’s a cat, then take the log of the prediction Otherwise, take log of (1-prediction) Now this is hopefully pretty intuitive If it’s the cat and your prediction is really high, we’re taking the log of that and getting a small number If it’s not a cat, and our prediction is really low, then we will take the log of 1 minus that So you can kind of get a sense of it by looking here Here’s like a non-cat, which we thought was a non-cat, and therefore we end up with 1 minus that, it’s a low number Here’s a cat which we’re pretty confident isn’t a cat, so here is log of that Notice this is all with a negative sign in the front just to make it so that smaller numbers are better So this is LogLoss or binary or categorical crossentropy And this is where we find out what’s going on because I’m now going to go and say well hat did I submit I submitted predictions that were all 1’s and 0’s What if I submit 1’s and 0’s Ouch We’re taking logs of 1’s and 0’s That’s no good So Kaggle’s been pretty nice not to return just an error I actually know why this happens because I wrote this functionality on Kaggle Kaggle modifies it by a tiny bit, like .0001, just to make sure it doesn’t die So if you say 1, it actually treats it as 999 If you say 0, it treats it as .0001 So our incredibly over-confident model is getting massively penalized for that over-confidence So what would be better to do would be, instead of sending off 1’s and 0’s, why not send across actual probabilities you think are reasonable [Time: 35 minute mark] So in my case, what I did was I added a line which was Numpy clip (np.clip) and clip it

to .05 and .95 So anything less than .05 becomes .05 and anything greater than .95 becomes .95 And then I tried submitting that, and that moved me from 100th place to 40th place Suddenly I was in the top half So the goal of this week was to try and get in the top half of the competition and that’s all you had to do, run a single epoch and realize with this evalution function you need to be submitting things that aren’t 1’s and 0’s So probably I should have used (and I’d be interested to try this tomorrow) for resubmission, I probably should have done .025 and .975 because I know that my accuracy on the validation set was .975 So that’s probably the probability that I should have used I would need to think about it more though Because it’s a non-linear loss function, is it better to under-estimate how confident you are, or over-estimate how confident you are? In the end, I said, it’s about 97.5 and I have a feeling that being over-confident might be a bad thing because the shape of the function, so I’ll just be a little bit on the tame side I then tried .02 and .98 and I did actually get a slightly better answer I actually got a little bit better than that in the end This afternoon, I ran a couple more epochs just to see what would happen and that got me to 24th So I’ll show you how you can get to 24th position, and it’s incredibly simple You take these two lines here vgg.fit and vgg.model.save_weights, and copy and paste them a bunch of times And you can see I saved the weights under a different filename each time, just so that I could always go back and use a model that I created earlier Something that we’ll talk about more in the class later is that after 2 epochs, I changed my learning rate from .1 to .01, just because I happen to know that this is often a good idea I haen’t tried it without doing that I suspect it might be just as good or even better, but that was just something I tried So interestingly by the time I run 4 epochs, my accuracy is 98.3% That would have been 2nd place in the original Cats and Dogs competition So you can see it doesn’t take much to get really good results And each one of these took 10 minutes to run on my AWS P2 instance The original Cats and Dogs used a different evaluation function which was just accuracy They changed it for the Redux one to use LogLoss, which makes it a bit more interesting The reason I just didn’t say nb_epoch=4 is that I really wanted to save the results after each epoch under a different weights filename Just in case at some point it overfit a bit, I could always go back and use one that I got in the middle.A In this case, we have added a single linear layer to the end (we’re going to learn a lot about this) And so we actually are not training very many parameters My guess would be that in this case we could run as many epochs as we like and it would probably keep getting better and better until it eventually levels off

That would be my guess [Time: 40 minute mark] So I wanted to talk about what are these probabilities One way to do that, and also to talk about how can you make this model better, is anytime I build a model and I think about how to make it better, my first step is to draw a picture Data scientists don’t draw enough pictures Everything from printing out the first 5 lines of your array to see what it looks like to drawing complex plots For computer vision, you can draw lots of pictures because we’re classifying pictures I’ve given you some tips here about what I think are super-useful things to visualize So when I want to find out why my Kaggle submission is 110th place Every time I build a model and think about how to make it better, I run my standard 5 steps The steps are lets look at a few examples of images we got right; let’s look at a few examples of images we got wrong; let’s look at some of the cats we felt were the most cat-like, some of the dogs we felt were the most dog-like, and vice-versa; some of the cats we were most wrong about, some of the dogs we were most wrong about; and then finally some of the most cats and dogs that are model is most unsure about This little bit of code I suggest you keep around somewhere because this is a super useful thing to do any time you do image recognition So the first thing I did was I loaded my weights back up (just to make sure they were there) just to make sure they were there from my very first epoch And I used my vgg.test method I showed you that I created This time I passed in my validation set, not the test set, because the validation set I know the correct answer So then from the batches I can get the correct labels and I can get the filenames I then grab the probabilities and the class predictions, and that then allowed me to do the 5 things I just mentioned So here’s #1 – a few correct labels at random np.where(preds==labels)[0], numpy where the predictions are equal to the labels permutation(correct[:n_view], a random permutation and grab the first 4, and then plot them by index So here are 4 examples of things that we got right Not suprisingly this cat looks like a cat and this dog looks like a dog Here are four things we got wrong It’s kind of interesting You can see here a very black underexposed thing on a bright background Here is something that is on a totally unusual angle Here is somethign that is so curled up you can’t see its face Here is something you can’t see its face either So this gives me a sense of the things it’s getting wrong, it’s reasonable to get those things wrong If you looked at this and they were really obvious cats and dogs, you would think there’s something wrong with your model But in this case, the things it’s finding hard are genuinely hard Here are some cats that we felt very sure are cats Here are some dogs we felt very sure were dogs Question: The weights you’re saving, are those ImageNet weights or the ones we trained on Cats and Dogs? Answer: So these weights, “results/ft1.h5”, the “ft” stands for fine-tune As you can see here, I saved my weights after I did my fine-tuning, so these are for Cats and Dogs Question: In the fine-tuning are you just training the last layer? Answer: Yes, I’m just trainng the last layer We’re not talking about that yet We just used the finetune command, and later today we’re going to learn about what that does These, I think, are the most interesting Here are the images we were most confident were cats, but they’re actually dogs And you can see, well here’s one that is only 50×60 pixels, that’s very difficult Here’s one that is almost totally in front of a person and is also standing upright, that’s difficult because it’s unusual This one is very white and is totally from the front, that’s quite difficult This one, I’m guessing the color of the floor and the color of the fur are nearly identical So again, this makes senses These do look genuinely difficult and so if we want to do really well in this competition, we want to think about should we start building some models of very very small images, because we now know that sometimes Kaggle gives us 50×50 images, which are going to be very difficult for us to deal with [Time: 45 minute mark]

Here are some pictures that we were actually very confident were dogs, but they’re actually cats Again, not being able to see the face seems like a common problem And then finally, here’s some examples that we were most uncertain about Notice that the most uncertain are still not very uncertain, they’re still nearly 1 or nearly 0 So why is that? We will learn in a moment about exactly what is going on from a mathematical point of view when we calculate these things, but the short answer is the probabilities that come out of a deep learning network are not probabilities in any statistical sense of the term So this is not actually saying that there is 1 chance out of a 100,000 that this is a dog It’s only a probability from a mathe mathematical point of view In math, a probability means between 0 and 1, and all of the possibilities add up to 1 It’s not a probability in a sense that this actually tells you how often this is going to be right, this is going to be wrong So for now, just be aware of that When we talk about these probabilities that come out of neural network training, you can’t interpret them in any kind of intuitive way We will learn about how to create better probabilities down the track Every time you do another epoch, your network is going to get more and more confident This is why when I loaded the weights, I loaded the weights from the very first epoch If I’d loaded the weights from the last epoch, they all would have been 1’s and 0’s So this is just something to be aware of So hopefully you can all go back and get great results on the Kaggle competition Even though I’m going to share all this, you will learn a lot more by trying to do it yourself, and only referring to this when and if you’re stuck If you do get stuck, rather than copying and pasting my code, find out what I used and then go to the Keras documentation and read about it, and then try and write that line of code without looking at mine The more you can do that, the more you’ll think I can do this, I understand how to do this myself Just some suggestions, it’s entirely up to you Okay, let’s move on I wanted to show you one other thing, which is the last part of the homework was redo this on a different dataset And so, I decided to grab the State Farm Distracted Driving competition The Kaggle State Farm Distracted Driving competition has pictures of people in 10 different types of distracted driving, ranging from drinking coffee to changing the radio station I wanted to show you how I entered this competition It took me 1/4 hour to enter the competition All I did was I duplicated my Dogs and Cats redux notebook and then I started re-running everything But in this case, it was even easier because when you download the State Farm competition data, they have already put it into directories, one for each type of distracted driving, which I was delighted to discover If I type “tree -d” that shows you my directory structure You can see in the directory train, it already had the 10 directories, so I can skip that whole section So I only had to create the validation and sample set If all I wanted to do was enter the competition, I wouldn’t have even had to have done that I won’t go through it, it’s basically exactly the same code I had before to create my validation set and sample I deleted all of the bits which moved things into separate sub-folders I then used exactly the same 7 lines of code as before, and that was basically done I’m not getting good accuracy yet, I don’t know why So I’m going to have to actually figure out what’s going on with this But as you can see, this general approach works for any kind of image classification There’s nothing specific about Cats and Dogs So you now have a very general tool in your toolbox And all of the stuff I showed you about visualizing the errors and stuff, you can use all that as well So maybe when you’re done you can try this as well

[Time: 50 minute mark] Question: Would this work for CT scans and cancer? Answer: I can tell you that the answer is yes because I’ve done it My previous company I created was something called Enlitic, which was the first deep-learning for medical diagnostics company And the first thing I did with 4 of my staff was we downloaded the National Lung Screening Trial Data, which is 1000 examples of people with cancer, CT scans of their lungs; and 5000 people without cancer, CT scans of their lungs We did the same thing, we took ImageNet, we fine-tuned ImageNet, but in this case instead of Cats and Dogs we had malignant tumor vs non-malignant tumor We then took the result of that and saw how accurate it was, and we discovered it was more accurate than a panel of 4 of the world’s best radiologists Tat ended up getting covered on TV, on CNN So making major breakthroughs in domains is not necessarily technically that challenging The technical challenges in this case were really about dealing with the fact that CT scans are pretty big, so we’ve got some resource issues Also they’re black and white, so we had to think about how we would change ImageNet pre-training to black and white, and stuff like that But the basic example was not much more or different code than you see here Question: Earlier you had a learning rate of .01, is that the right rate???? Answer: The State Farm data is 4 gigabytes and I only downloaded it about 1/2 hour before class started, so I only ran a small fraction of an epoch just ot make sure it works If I ran a whole epoch it probably would have taken overnight So let’s go back to Lesson 1, and there was a little bit at the end that we didn’t look at How many of you have watched this video? Some of you haven’t; you need to Because I mentioned a couple of times in emails, the last 2/3 of it was a surprise Lesson 0 of this class and it’s where I teach what convolutions are So if you haven’t watched it, please do Rachel will add it to the in-class Slack channel and also to the Lesson 2 resources wiki page Really, really important that you watch this video The first 20 minutes or so is more of a general background of it The rest is a discussion of exactly what convolutions are For now, I’ll try not to assume too much that you know what they are The rest of it hopefully will be reasonably stand-alone anyway But I want to talk about fine-tuning, and I want to talk about why we do fine-tuning Why do we start with an ImageNet network and then fine-tune it, rather than just train our own network And the reason why is that an ImageNet network has learned a whole lot of stuff about what the world looks like A guy called Matt Zeiler wrote this fantastic paper a few years ago in which he showed us what these networks learn And in fact the year after he wrote this paper, he went on to win ImageNet so this is a powerful example of why spending time thinking about visualizations are helpful

By spending time thinking about visualizing networks, he then realized what was wrong with the networks at the time He then made them better and won the next year’s ImageNet [Time: 55 minute mark] We’re not going to talk about that, we’re going to talk about some of these pictures that he drew Here are 9 examples of what the very first layer of an ImageNet convolutional neural network looks like, what do the filters look like And you can see here that here is a filter that learns to find a diagonal edge, a diagonal line So you can see, it’s saying look for something where there’s no pixels, then there’s bright pixels and then there’s no pixels, so that’s finding a diagonal line Here’s something that finds a diagnoal line in the other direction Here’s something that finds a gradient, horizontal from orange to blue, here’s one diagonal from orange to blue As I said, these are just 9 There are 60 or so of these filters in Layer 1 of this ImageNet trained network So what happens (those of you who have watched the video I just mentioned will be aware of this) is that each of these filters gets placed pixel by pixel, or group of pixels by group of pixels, over a photo, over an image, to find which parts of an image get matches So which parts have a diagonal line And over here, it shows 9 examples of little bits of actual ImageNet images which match this first filter As you can see they all are little diagonal lines So here are 9 examples which match the next filter with diagonal lines in the opposite direction, and so forth The filters in the very first layer of a deep-learning network are very easy to display This has happened for a long time and we’ve also known for a long time that this is what they look like We also know that the human vision system is very similar The human vision system has filters that look much the same To really answer the question of what are we doing back here, I would say watch the video The short answer is this is a 7×7 pixel patch which is slid over the image one group of 7 pixels at a time to find which 7×7 patches look like that Here is one example of a 7×7 patch which looks like that So for example, this gradient Here are some examples of 7×7 patches that look like that So we know that the human vision system actually looks for very similar kinds of things The kind of things they look for are called Gabor Filters If you want to google for Gabor Filters, you can see some examples It’s a little bit harder to visualize what the second layer of a neural net looks like, but Zeiler figured out a way to do it, and in his paper he shows us a number of examples of the second layer of his Internet trained neural network Because we can’t directly visualize them, instead we have to show examples of what the filter can look like So here is an example of a filter which clearly tends to pick up corners So in other words, it’s taking the straight lines from the previous layer and combining them to find corners There’s another one which is learning to find circles, and another one learning to find curves And so you can see, here are 9 examples from actual pictures on ImageNet which actually did get heavily activated by this corner filter And here are some which got activated by this circle filter The third layer then can take these filters and combine them (remember this is 16 out of 100) in the ImageNet architecture In Layer 3, we can combine all of those to create even more sophisticated filters And so in Layer 3, there’s a filter which can find repeating gemetrical patterns

[Time: 1 hour mark] Here’s a filter, what is it finding? Let’s go look at the examples Well, that’s interesting It’s finding pieces of text And here’s something which is finding edges of natural things, like fur and plants Layer 4 is finding certain kind of dog face, Layer 5 is finding the eyeballs of birds and reptiles, and so forth So there are 16 layers in our VGG network What we do when we fine-tune is we say, let’s keep all of these learnt filters and use them and just learn how to combine the most complex, subtle nuanced filters to find Cats vs Dogs rather than combine them to learn 1000 categories of ImageNet This is why we do fine-tuning So when I answered Annette’s earlier question does this work for CT scans and lung cancer and the answer was yes, these kinds of filters that find dog faces are not very helpful for looking at a CT scan and looking for cancer But these earlier ones that can recognize repeating images, or corners, or curves, certainly are So really regardless of what computer vision work you’re doing, starting with some kind of pre-trained network is almost certainly a good idea Because at some level that pre-trained network has learned to find some kinds of features that are going to be useful for you And so if you start from scratch, you have to learn them from scratch In Cats vs Dogs, we only had 25,000 pictures And so from 25,000 pictures to learn this whole hierarchy of geometric and semantic structures would have been very difficult So let’s not learn it, let’s use one that’s already been learnt on ImageNet, which is 1.5 million images So that’s the short answer to the question why do fine-tuning The longer answer really requires answering the question, what exactly is fine-tuning? And to answer the question what exactly is fine-tuning, we have to answer the question what exactly is a neural network Question: Which layer should you fine-tune from? Answer: We’ll learn more about this shortly, but the short answer is if you’re not sure, try all of them Generally speaking, if you’re doing something with natural images, the second-to-the-last layer is very likely to be the best But I just tend to try a few things And we’re going to see, today or next week, ways that we can actually experiment with it So as per usual, in order to learn about something we will use Excel And here is a deep neural network in Excel Rather than having a picture with a bunch of pixels, I just have 3 inputs A single row with 3 inputs, x1, x2, x3, and the numbers are 2, 3, 1 Rather than trying to pick out whether it’s a dog or a cat, we’re going to assume there are 2 outputs, 5 and 6 So here’s a single row that we’re feeding into a deep neural network So what is a deep neural network? A deep neural network basically is a bunch of matrix products So what I’ve done here is I’ve created a bunch of random numbers They are normally distributed random numbers, and this is the standard deviation that I’m using for my normal distribution, and I’m using 0 as the mean So here’s a bunch of random numbers What if I then take my input vector and matrix multiply them by my random weights, and here it is Matrix multiply that by that, and here is the answer I get So for example, 24.03=2*11.07 + 3*(-2.81) + 1*10.31, and so forth

[Time: 1.05 hour mark] Any of you who are either not familiar with or are a little shakey on your matrix vector products, tomorrow please go to the Kahn Academy website and look for linear algebra and watch the videos about matrix vector products They are very, very simple, but you also need to understand them very, very intuitively, comfortably Just like you understand plus and times in regular algebra; I really want you to get to that level of comfort with linear algebra because this is the basic operation we’re doing again and again Question: Can you increase the font size of the formula? Answer: I don’t think I can But instead what I will do is I will select it Matrix multiply and the blue thing is find derivatives So that is a single layer How do we turn that into multi-layers? Not surprisingly, we create another bunch of weights And now we take the new bunch of weights times the previous activations with our matrix multiply, and get a new set of activations And then we do it again We create another bunch of weights and multiply them by our previous activations to get another set of activations Note that the number of columns in your weight matrix, you can make it as big or as small as you like, as long as the last one has the same number of columns as your output We had two outputs, 5 and 6, so our final weight matrix had to have two columns so that our final activations has two things With our random numbers, our activations are not very close to what we hoped they would be, not surprisingly So the basic idea here is that we now have to use some kind of optimization algorithm to make the weights a little bit better, and a little bit better We’ll see how to do that in a moment But for now, hopfully you are all familiar that there is such a thing as an optimization algorithm An optimization algorithm is something that takes some kind of output to some kind of mathematical function and finds the inputs to that function that makes the outputs as low as possible In this case, the thing we would like to make as small as possible would be like the sum-of-squares errors between the activations and the outputs I want to point out something here, which is that when we stuck in these random numbers; the activations that came out, not only are they wrong, they’re not even in the same general scale as the activations that we want So that’s a bad problem The reason it’s a bad problem is that they’re so much bigger than the scale that we were looking for As we change these weights just a little bit, it’s going to change the activations by a lot, and this makes it very hard to train In general, you want your neural network (even with random weights) to start off with activations which are all of similar scale to each other, and the output activations would be of similar scale to the output For a very long time, nobody really knew how to do this So for a very long time, people could not really train deep neural networks It turns out that it was incredibly easy to do, and there is a whole body of work talking about neural network initializations It turns out that a really simple and really effective neural network initialization is called Xavier Initialization (named after it’s founder, Xavier Gloret) and it is 2 divided by (in+out) Like many things in deep-learning, you will find this complex looking thing, Xavier Weight Initialization Scheme, and when you look into it you will find it is something about this easy This is about as complex as deep learning gets So I am now going to go ahead and implement Xavier Deep Learning Weight Initialization Schemes in Excel So I’m going to go up here and in this cell put in equals 2 divided by (3 in + 4 out), and press enter

So now my first set of weights have that as its standard deviation [Time: 1.10 hour mark] My second set of weights I also have pointing to the same place because they also have 4 in and 3 out And then my third, equals 2 dividided by (3 in + 2 out) Done So I have now implemented it in Excel You can see that my activations are indeed of the right general scale Generally speaking, you would normalize your inputs and outputs to be mean 0 and standard deviation 1 We want them to be of the same kind of scale Obviously they’re not going to be in 5 and 6 because we haven’t done any optimization yet, but we don’t want them to be 100,000 We want them to be somewhere around 5 and 6 If we start off with them really, really high or really, really low, an optimization is going to be really hard to do For decades, when people tried to train deep-learning networks, the training took forever or was so incredibly unresiliant that it was useless This one thing, a better weight initialization was a huge step It was like 3 years ago that this was invented It’s not like we’re going back a long time, this is relatively recent Now the good news is Keras (and pretty much any decent neural network library) will handle your initialization for you Until recently, they pretty much all used this There are some even more recent, slightly better approaches, but they’ll give you a set of weights where your outputs will generally have a reasonable scale Question: Is it arbitrary what dimensions we’re using here? Answer: So what’s not arbitrary is you are given your input dimensionalities In our case, for example, it would be 224×224 pixels, 3 things You are given your output dimensionality, in our case, for example, for Cats vs Dogs it’s 2 The thing in the middle about how many columns does each of your weight matrices have is entirely up to you The more columns you add, the more complex your model, and we’re going to learn a lot about that As Rachel said, this is all about your choice of architecture So in my first one here I had 4 columns, and therefore I had 4 outputs In my next one, I had 3 columns, and therefore I had 3 outputs In my final one I had 2 columns and therefore I had 2 outputs, and that is the number of outputs that I want This thing of how many columns do you have in your weight matrix is where you get to decide how complex your model is, so we’re going to see that So let’s go ahead and create a linear model So we’re going to learn how to create a linear model Let’s first of all learn how to create a linear model from scratch (and this is something that we did in that original USF Data Institute launch video) Without using Keras at all, I can define a line as being a*x+b, I can then create some synthetic data, I can assume a=3 and b=8, create some random x’s, and my y will be a*x+b So here’s some x’s and some y’s, and not surprisingly the scatterplot looks like so [Time: 1.15 hour mark] The job of somebody creating a linear model is to say I don’t know what a and b is, how

can we calculate it Forget that we know they’re 3 and 8, let’s guess that they are -1 and 1 How can we make our guess better? To make our guess better, we need a loss function A loss function is a mathematical function that will be high if your guess is bad, and it’s low if it’s good The loss function I’m using here is just sum-of-square errors, which is my actual minus my prediction squared, and add them up So if I define my loss function like that and I say my guess is -1 and 1, I can calculate my average loss and it is 9 So my average loss with my random guesses is not very good In order to create an optimizer, I need something that can make my weights a little bit better If I have something that can make my weights better, I can just call it again and again and again That’s actually very easy to do If you know the derivative of your loss function with respect to your weights, then all you need to do is update your weights by the opposite of that So remember, the derivative is the thing that says as your weight changes, your output changes by this amount That’s what the derivative is Question: So you start with something random and by iterating you’re going to get something that works? Answer: Yes Let’s try it In this case we y=a+b and we have our loss function is actual – predicted, squared and add it up We’re now going to create a function update (upd), which is going to take our “a” guess and our “b” guess and make them a little bit better And to make them a little bit better, we calculate the derivative of our loss function with respect to “b” and the derivative of our loss function with respect to “a” How do we calculate those? We go to Wolfram Alpha and we enter in “d” along with our formula and the thing we want to get the derivative of, and it tells us the anwer So that’s all I did I went to Wolfram Alpha, found the correct derivative, pasted them in here What this means then is that this formula here tells me as I increase “b” by 1, my sum-of-square errors will change by this amount (dydb) And this says that as I change “a” by 1, my sum-of-square error will change by this amount (dyda) So if I know that dyda=3, if I know that my loss function gets higher by 3 if I increase “a” by 1, then clearly I need to make “a” a little bit smaller If I make it a little bit smaller, my loss function will go down So that’s why our final step is to say take our guess and subtract from it our derivative times a little bit “lr” stands for learning rate As you can see, I’m setting it to .01 How much is a little bit is something that people spend a lot of time thinking about and studying and we will spend time talking about But you can always trial-and-error to find a good learning rate When you use Keras, you will always need to tell it what learning rate to use That’s something that you want the highest number you can get away with; you’ll see more of this next week The important thing to realize here is if we update our guess minus-equals our derivative, our guess is going to be a little bit better because we know going in the opposite direction makes the loss function a little bit lower So let’s run those two things We’ve now got a function called update (upd) which every time you run it makes our predictions a little bit better . Finally now I’m basically doing a little animation here that says every time you calculate an animation, call my animate function which 10 times will call my update function So let’s see what happens when I animate that There it is So it starts with a really bad line (my -1,1) and it gets better and better So this is how stochastic gradient descent works Stochastic gradient descent is the most important algorithm in deep learning Stochastic gradient descent is the thing that starts with random weights (like this) and ends with weights that do what you want to do

[Time: 1.20 hour mark] As you can see, stochastic gradient descent is incredibly simple and yet incredibly powerful because it can take any function and find the set of parameters that does exactly what we want to do with that function And when that function is a big learning neural network, that becomes particularly powerful Just to remind ourselves about the setup for this, we started out by saying this spreadsheet is showing up a deep neural network with a bunch of random parameters Can we come up with a way to replace the random parameters with parameters that actually give us the right answer So we need to come up with a way to do mathematical optimization So rather than showing how to do that wit a deep neural network, let’s see how to do it with a line So we start out by saying let’s have a line, a*x+b, where a=3 and b=8 Pretend we didn’t know that “a” is 3 and “b” is 8 Make a wild guess as to what “a” and “b” might be Come up with an update function where every time we call it, it makes “a” and “b” a little bit better Call that update function lots of times and confirm that eventually our line fits our data Conceptually take that exact same idea and apply it to these weight matrices Question: Shouldn’t there be a random element to avoid local minimums? Answer: The question is there a problem here that as we run this update function, might be get to a point where our function looks like this Currently we’re trying to optimize the sum-of-square errors and the sum-of-square errors looks like this A more complex function would kind of look like this So if we started here and gradually tried to make it better and better, we might get to a point where the derivative is 0, and we then can’t get any better, this would be called a local minimum The question was suggesting a particula approach to avoiding that Here’s the good news, in deep-learning you don’t have local mimimum Why not? The reason is that in an actual deep-learning network, you don’t hae one or two parameters, you have hundreds of millions of parameters So rather than looking like this, over even like a 3D version, it’s a 600 million dimensional space And for something to be a local minimum, it means that the stochastic gradient descent has wandered around and got to a point where in every one of those 600 million directions it can’t get any better And the probability of that happening is 2 to the poer of 600 million So for actual deep-learning in practice, there’s always enough parameters that it’s basically unheard of to get to a point where there’s no direction to go to get better So the answer is, no For deep-learning, stochastic gradient descent is just as simple as this, it’s exactly as simple as this We will learn some tweaks to allow us to get faster, but this basic approach works just fine Question: So what if you don’t know the derivative? [Time: 1.25 hour mark] Answer: That’s a great question For a long time, this was a royal GD pain Anybody who wanted to create stochastic gradient descent in a neural network had to go through

and calculate all the derivatives And if you’ve got 600 million parameters, that’s a lot of trips to Wolfram Alpha So nowadays we don’t have to worry about that because all the modern neural network libraries do symbolic differentiation In other words, it’s like they have their own little copy of Wolfram Alpha inside them and they calculate the derivatives for you So you’re never going to be the situation where you don’t know the derivatives You just tell it your architecture and it will automatically calculate the derivatives So let’s take a look Let’s take this linear example and see what it looks like in Keras In Keras, we can do exactly the same thing So let’s start by creating some random numbers, but this time let’s make it a bit more complex, we’re going to have a random matrix with 2 columns And so to craft out our y values, we’ll do a little matrix multiply with our x, vit a vector of [2,3] and then we’ll add in a constant of 1 Here’s our x’s, and here’s the first few y’s So here 3.2 = (.56 * 2) + (.37 * 3) + 1 Hopefully this looks very familiar, because it’s exactly what we did in Excel How do we create a linear model in Keras? Keras calls a linear model Dense, it’s also known in our other libraries as fully_connected So when we go Dense with an input of 2 columns and an output of 1 column, we have defined a linear model that can go from this 2 column array to this 1 column output The second thing we have in Keras is we have some way to build multiple layer networks, and Keras calls this Sequential Sequential takes an array that contains all of the layers that you have in your neural network So for example, in Excel here, I would have had 3 layers In a linear model, we have just 1 layer So to create a linear model in Keras, you say Sequential, pass in an array with a single layer, that is a dense layer A dense layer is just a simple linear layer We tell it that there are two inputs and one output This will automatically initialize the weights in a sensible way, it will automatically calculate the derivatives, so all we have to tell it is how do we want to optimize the weights And we will say, please use stochastic gradient descent with a learning rate of .1, and we’re attempting to minimize our loss of a mean-square-error So if I do that, that does everything except the last solving step that we saw in the previous notebook To do the solving, we just type fit (lm.fit) Before we start, we can say evaluate (lm.evaluate) to find out our loss function with random weights, which is pretty krappy And then we run 5 epochs and the loss function gets better and better and better using the stochastic gradient descent update rule we just learned So at the end, we can evaulate and it’s better And then let’s take a look at the weights They should be (2, 3, 1) and they’re actually (1.8, 2.7, 1.2) That’s not bad So why don’t we run another 5 epochs Loss function keeps getting better We evaluate it now and it’s better, and the weights are now closer again to (2, 3, 1) So we now know everything that Keras is doing behind the scenes, exactly Not like hand-waving over details, that is it We now know what it’s doing So if we now say to Keras, don’t just create a single layer, but create multiple layers by passing multiple layers to the sequential, we can start to build and optimize deep neural networks But before we do that, we can actually use this to create a pretty decent entry to our Cats vs Dogs competition So forget all the fine-tuning stuff because I haven’t told you how fine-tuning works yet How do we take the output of an ImageNet network and as simply as possible create an entry

to our Cats vs Dogs competetion: [Time: 1.30 hour mark] So the basic problem here is that our current ImageNet network returns 1000 probabilities in a lot of detail It returns not just cat vs dog, but it returns Animals->DomesticAnimals Ideally, it would be Cat and Dog here, but it’s not It keeps going – Egyptian cat, Persian cat, and so forth So one thing we could do is we could write code to take this hierarchy and roll it up into cats vs dogs I’ve got a couple of ideas here as to how we could do that For instance, we could find the largest probability that’s either a cat or a dog (from the 1000) and use that, or we could average all of the cat categories and all of the dog categories and use that But the downsides here is that would require manual coding for something we should be learning from data, and more importantly, it’s ignoring information So let’s say out of those 1000 categories, the category for a bone was very high It’s more likely a dog is with a bone than a cat is with a bone So therefore, it out to take advantage, it should learn to recognize environments that cats are in versus environments that dogs are in Or even recognize things that look like cats from things that look like dogs So what we could do is learn a linear model that takes the output of the ImageNet model, the 1000 predictions and uses that as the input, and uses the dog-cat label as the target And that linear model would solve our problem We have everything we need to know to create this model now So let me show you how that works Let’s again import our VGG model, and we’re going to try to do 3 things 1) For every image, we’ll get the True labels, isCat or isDog 2) We going to get the 1000 ImageNet category predictions, so that will be 1000 floats for every image Then we’re going to use the output of 2) as the input of our linear model and we’re going to use the output of 1) as the target for our linear model, and create this linear model and build some predictions So as per usual, we start by creating our validation batches and our batches, just like before I’ll show you a trick Because one of the steps here is get the 1000 ImageNet category predictions for every image, that takes a few minutes There’s no need to do that again and again Once we’ve done it once, let’s save the result Let me show you how you can save Numpy arrays Unfortunately most of the stuff you’ll find online about saving Numpy arrays takes a very, very long time to run and it takes a shitload of space There’s a really cool library called bcolz that almost nobody knows about that can save Numpy arrays very, very quickly and in very little space So I’ve created these two little things here called save_array and load_array, which you should definitely add to your toolbox They’re actually in the utils.py, so you can use them in the future And once you grab the predictions, you can use these to just save the predictions and load them back later, rather than recalculating them each time I’ll show you something else we’ve got Before we even worry about calculating the predictions, we just need to load up the images When we load the images, there’s a few things we have to do, we have to decode the jpg images and we have to convert them to 224×224 pixel images (because that’s what VGG expects) That’s kind of slow too So let’s also save the result of that So I’ve created this little function called get_data, which basically grabs all of the validation images and all of the training images and sticks them in a Numpy array Here’s a cool trick In iPython notebook, if you put “??” before something, it shows you the source of it So if you want to know what is get_data doing, go “??get_data” and you can see exactly what it’s doing, it’s concatenating all of the different batches together Anytime you’re using one of my little convenience functions, I strongly suggest you look at the source code to see what it’s doing They are all super super small

[Time: 1.35 hour mark] So I can grab the data (the validation data, the training data) and then I can just save it so that in the future I can, rather than having to watch and wait for that to pre-process, I can just go load_array and that goes ahead and loads it off disk It still takes a few seconds, but this will be way faster than having to calculate it directly So what that does is it creates a numpy array with my 23,000 images, each of which has 3 colors and is 224×224 in size If you remember (from Lesson 1) the labels that Keras expects are in a very particular format Let’s look at the format and see what it looks like Here they are, the format of the labels is each one has two things – it has the probability that it’s a cat and the probability that it’s a dog, and it’s always just 0’s and 1’s So here is [0 1.] is a dog, [1 0.] is a cat, [1 0.] is a cat, [0 1.] is a dog This approach where you have a vector where every element of it is a 0 except for a single 1 for the class you want is called one-hot encoding and this is used for nearly all deep-learning So that’s why I created a little function called onehot that makes it very easy for you to one-hot encode your data So for example if your data was just like 0,1,2,1,0, one-hot encoding that would look like this (1,0,0), (0,1,0), (0,0,1), (0,1,0), (1,0,0) So that would be the kind of raw form, and that is the one-hot encoded form The reason that we use one-hot encoding a lot is that if you take this and you do a matrix multiply by a bunch of weights, [w1,w2,w3], you can calculate a matrix multiply, these two are compatible So this is what makes you do deep-learning easily with categorical variables So the next thing I want to do is I want to grab my labels and I want to one-hot encode them by using this onehot function And so you can take a look at that You can see here that the first few classes look like so [array([[1.,0.],[1.,0.],[1.,0.],[1.,0.]]), but the first few labels are one-hot encoded like so [array([[1.,0.],[1.,0.],[1.,0.],[1.,0.]]) So we’re now at a point where we can finally do Step #2 So to remind you, Step #2 was get the 1000 ImageNet category predictions for every image So Keras makes that really easy for us We can just say model.predict and pass in our data So model.predict with train data is going to give us the 1000 predictions from ImageNet for our train data, and this will give it for our validation data And again, running this takes a few minutes So I save it and then I will load it So you can see we now have the 23000x3x224x224, it is now 23000×1000 So for every image we have 1000 probabilities So let’s look at one of them (trn_features[0]) Not surprisingly if we look at just one of these, nearly all of them are 0 So for the 1000 categories, only one of these numbers should be big It can’t be lots of different things, it can’t be a cat and a dog and a jet airplane Not surprisingly nearly all of these things are very close to 0, hopefully just one of them is very close to 1

So that’s exactly what we expect [Time: 1.40 hour mark] So now that we’ve got our 1000 features for each of our training images and for each of our validation images, we can go ahead and create a linear model So here it is, here’s our linear model The input is 1000 columns, every one of those ImageNet predictions The output is two columns, it’s a dog or it’s a cat We will optimize it with, I’m actually not going to use SGD, I’m going to use a slightly better thing called RMSprop which I will teach you about next week It’s a very minor tweak on SGD that tends to be a lot faster So I suggest in practice we use RMSprop, not SGD, it’s almost the same thing Now that we know how to fit a model once it’s defined, we can just go model.fit and it runs basically instantly because all it has to do … Let’s take a look at our model [lm.summary()], it’s just one layer with 2000 weights So running 3 epochs took 0 seconds and we got an accuracy of .9735 After another 3 epochs an accuracy of .9770, even better So you can see this is like the simplest possible model I haven’t done any fine-tuning All I’ve done is I’ve taken the ImageNet predictions for every image and built a linear model that maps from those predictions to Cat or Dog A lot of the amateur deep-learning papers that you see, one was classifying leaves by whether they’re sick, one was classifying skin lesions by type of lesion Often this is all people do, they take a pre-trained model, they grab the outputs and they stick it into a linear model and then they use it As you can see, it actually works often pretty well So I just wanted to point out here that in getting this .9770 result, we have not used any magic libraries at all It’s more code than it looks like because we’re saving stuff as we go We grabbed our batches, we grabbed the data We turned our images into a Numpy array We took the Numpy array and ran model.predict on them We grabbed our labels and we one-hot encoded them And then finally, we took the one-hot encoded labels and the 1000 probabilities and we fed them to a linear model with 1000 inputs and 2 outputs And then we trained it and we ended up with a validation accuracy of .9770 So what we’re doing is we’re digging right deep into the details We know exactly how SGD works, we know exactly how the layers are being calculated And we know exactly therefore what Keras is doing behind the scenes So we started way up high with something that was totally obscure as to what was going on (we were just using it like you might use Excel) and we’ve gone all the way down to see exactly what’s going on and we’ve got a pretty good result So the last thing we’re going to do is take this and turn it into a fine-tuning model to get a slightly better result What is fine-tuning? In order to understand fine-tuning, we’re going to have to understand one more piece of a deep-learning model, and this is activation functions This is our last major piece I want to point something out to you In this view of the deep-learning model we went matrix multiply, matrix multiply, matrix multiply Who wants to tell me how can you simplify a matrix multiply on top of a matrix multipy on top of a matrix multiply? What’s that actually doing? A linear model on a linear model on a linear model is itself a linear model So in fact, this whole thing could be turned into a single matrix multiply because it’s just doing linear on top of linear on top of linear

[Time: 1.45 hour mark] So this clearly cannot be what deep-learning is really doing, because deep-learning is doing a lot more than a linear model So what is deep-learning actually doing? What deep-learning is actually doing is at every one of these points where it says activations, with deep-learning we do one more thing, which is we put each of these activations through a non-linearity of some sort There are various things we can use Sometimes we’ll use tanh, sometimes people use sigmoid, but most commonly these days people use max(0,x), which is called ReLU, or Rectified Linear So when you see rectified linear activation function, people actually mean max(0,x) So if we took is Excel spreadsheet and added max(0,x) and we replaced the activation with this for each layer, we now have a genuine modern deep-learning network Interestingly it turns out that this kind of neural network is capable of approximating any given function In the lesson, you’ll see that there is a link to a fantastic tutorial by Michael Nielson on this topic What he does is he shows you how, with exactly this kind of approach, where you put functions on top of functions, he actually let’s you drag them up and down to see how you can change the parameters and see what they do He gradually builds up so that once you have a function of a function of a function of this type, he shows you how you can create arbitrarily complex shapes So using this incredibly simple approach where you have a matrix multiplication followed by a rectified linear (like max(0,x)) and stick that on top of each other on top of each other, that’s actually what’s going on in a deep learning neural network And you will see in all of the deep neural networks we have created so far, we have always had this extra parameter “activation=” and generally you’ll see “activation=’relu'” That’s what it’s doing, it’s saying after you do the matrix product, do a max(0,x) So what we need to do is we need to take our final layer, which has both a matrix multiplication and an activation function, and what we’re going to do is we are going to remove it And I’ll show you why If we look at our model, our VGG model, let’s take a look at it (vgg.model.summary()) What does the input look like? The very last layer is a dense layer, the very last layer is a linear layer It seems weird therefore that in that previous section where we added an extra dense layer Why would we add a dense layer on top of a dense layer, given that this dense layer has been tuned to find the 1000 ImageNet categories Why you would you want to take that and add on top of it something that has been fine-tuned to find cats and dogs? How about we remove this and instead use the previous dense layer with its 4096 activations and use that to find our cats and dogs? So to do that, it’s as simple as saying model.pop (that will remove the very last layer), and then we can go model.add and add in our new linear layer with 2 outputs, cat and dog [Time 1.50 minute mark] So when we said “??vgg.finetune” earlier, here is the sourcecode – model.pop, model.add

a dense layer with the correct number of classes So it’s basically doing a model.pop and model.add(Dense,..) So once we’ve done that we will now have a new model which is designed to calculate Cats vs Dogs, rather than designed to calculate ImageNet categories and then calculate Cats vs Dogs So when we use that approach, everything else is exactly the same We then compile it, giving it an optimizer And then we can call model.fit Anything where we want to use batches by the way we have to use something underscore generator So model.fit_generator and we pass it in batches, and if we run it for 2 epochs, you can see we get 97.35 If we run it for a little bit longer, eventually we will get something quite a bit better than our previous linear model on top of ImageNet approach In fact, we know we can We got 98.3 with fine-tuning earlier So that’s the only difference between fine-tuning and adding an additional linear layer; we just do a pop first before we add Once we calculate it, I would then go ahead and save the weights and then we can use that again in the future So from here on in, you’ll often find that after I get my fine-tuned model I will often go model.load_weights with ‘finetune1.h5’ because this is now something that we can use as a pretty good starting point for all of our future Dogs and Cats models Okay, I think that’s about everything that I wanted to show you for now For anybody who is interested in going futher during the week there is one more section here in this lesson showing you how you can train more than just the last layer But we’ll look at that next week as well So during this week, the assignment is very similar to last week’s assignment, but just take it further Now that you actually know what’s going on with fine-tuning and with linear layers, there’s a couple things you can do One is, for those of you who have not yet entered the Cats vs Dogs competition, get your entry in And then have a think about everything you know about the evaluation function, the categorical cross-entropy loss function, fine-tuning and see if you can find ways to make your model better And see how high up the leaderboard you can get using this information Maybe you can push yourself a little further, read some of the other forum threads on Kaggle, on our forums and see if you can get the best result you can If you really want to push yourself then, see if you can do the same thing by writing all of the code yourself, don’t use our fine-tune at all, don’t use our notebooks at all See if you can build it from scratch so that you really understand how it works And then, of course, if you want to go further, see if you can enter not just the Dogs vs Cats competition but see if you can enter one of the other competitions we talk about on our website, such as Galaxy Zoo, or The Plankton competition, or the State Farm Distracted Driver competition


TPP, Free Trade and Globalization by Janet M. Eaton

who have been around for that whole long ride and now it becomes a challenge as to how to present that and not to lose that context and that’s what I tried to do in this PowerPoint often will see the way to combat these trade agreements is to pick them apart and to look at each section which I am going to do today as well you know and point out how undemocratic they are and how expensive they’re going to be and the loss of sovereignty but but what I want to do today is to show that all that is important in making the case but I think it’s also very important to reframe things now to go back and look at what free trade really is and whether it really followed what it was supposed to be doing and the same with globalization and I think we’ll come to a very important some important answers that perhaps need to be part of the picture as we go forward especially since every single day as I track what’s happening with the global corporate economy I see failures written all over everything so it’s going to move us it might move us beyond the nitty-gritty before long into what as the iisd said yesterday or the day before the need for Canada to be actually negotiating new kinds of trade deals that are appropriate for the 21st century that we’re now living in so anyway there’s a little bit of an introduction I’ll probably cover some of that again but let’s let’s get started now and it’s great to be here with all of you I gather your organizers and that’s so important one of the things we’re hearing today is that it’s really important for governments to know that people you know care about these things and that still does mean people in the streets as well as people writing letters and so Council of Canadians has always been so great at being on the forefront of that kind of activism which is one thing I very much admire about the council so that’s just to give you an idea of what I’m going to be talking about the the glow economic context the free trade and globalization context what does free trade mean within globalization the mega trade agreements and the TPP what is it and where is that where is it and why is it I think that’s the very important thing to why we don’t always look at that and I think we need to and then the impacts of TPP and I’ve done TPP more than cita because that’s what I started out working on but I do throw some things in about Sita as well and then some recommendations that I’ve tried to pick recommendations that have already been made publicly by the consulate aliens by the iisd the international institute for sustainable development and one or two of my own and and those might be helpful going forward as well so those are the those are the categories so with the corporate economic globalization I think it’s important to go back I could go right back to Adam Smith I’ve done some research on that but for now we’ll just look at that the time when when globalization and neoliberalism is when sometimes call it I came into the picture and it happened with a some structural economic shifts back in the nineteen late 70s and at that time the old Keynesian type system and social democracy didn’t seem to be working and the economies were faltering and unfortunately in that void some very right-wing neoliberal well they weren’t called that it’s time but some very right-wing economists filled that gap and two of them were Frederick Hayek and Milton Friedman and you may have heard of those names and they they influenced economists to favorite favorite free market capitalism and at the same time the politicians like Thatcher and Reagan bought into that whole model we heard the name there is no alternative Tina and so they sold it as if there was no alternative and that’s a very dangerous thing you know in terms of keeping free speech and free thought a foot in the world and at the time we had Brian Mulrooney here who was also a big cheerleader for free trade and it sounded good it sounded good at the time but you know actually none of the politicians had read it not one American thirty thousand dollars to anyone that could that had read it and he didn’t lose any money on that it also goes back to report that Maude and Tony in some of their early books they they

mentioned this quite frequently and that is the report on the crisis of democracy which said that we have a crisis of democracy in the world and it can best be solved by transnational corporations and so this was the the kind of the the other line that we often used in the earlier days to examine how the corporate economic model was working and basically it had free market rules free trade which of course is that was is always considered a draw a major driver of economic growth privatization deregulation smaller government cutting public expenditures for social services like health education and so on and money for the poor and eliminating the concept of the public good and replacing it with individual responsibility and of course that is carried through from that time until today although now we’re seeing changes but up until recently in Canada I i had a clickable link here to susan george who is one of the older european intellectuals who’s been an academic and in a very activist person in the anti-globalization movement as well and now she’s written yet another book I believe she’s in her 80s now it’s called shadow sovereigns how global corporations are seizing power and the one thing I would point out about this is that she says and this is from observing what’s been happening in Europe and in garden regard to the SITA we need to be cognizant of this and she’s explaining how corporations have taken over all branches of government as well as international governance in particular through trade treaties such as this the proposed sita and tea tip and in the World Economic Forum they have this initiative I hadn’t even realized this until I read your book it’s called the global redesign initiative and it’s very frightening because it’s 84 committees that are set up now and they basically are rewriting they’re rewriting the rules for governments in national governments and so you’ll you can see that in the in certain aspects of the TPP especially there by the regulatory coherence chapter and you can see how they’re really delimiting the ability of our of our national governments to to make the rules and the regulations and then finally she points out the incursion of the corporations into the UN and I know that goes well back anyway and I know mod has fought and I’m the other water activists in United Nations for where the corporations have been trying to take over and so anyway these are just some of the names for corporate economic globalization neoliberalism which is a term commonly used in America’s global capitalism and less a fair global capitalism the Washington Consensus is another name that seemed to follow on that report on the excess of democracy mcworld and neoclassical economics would be the actual economic term and that goes back over a hundred years it’s a new version of that on steroids and the French call it la pulse a unique which is just a really a term that kind of makes fun of the whole thing and the third way in the UK and interestingly enough the third way was a the way some academics described the time when Tony Blair took over and now just yesterday I read an article on a very good website called social Europe which puts out about three papers a day from intellectuals all over the world and especially in Europe and there was one saying is the third way dead and I think probably it is the neoliberal structures and we’re going to go in the next slide we’ll see more about the the different trade agreements but it’s important to know that the gap that was the general agreement on trade and tariffs which went back to after the war when they were trying to rehabilitate all the world and and Europe especially which had been devastated and flattened they decided back around 1999 that it wasn’t moving fast enough because they only met every four years to try to bring down the tariffs to move towards a one world economy and so they’re at the Uruguay meeting around in the late 90s the corporation’s became very involved and they helped to write the World Trade Organization rules and gas which was the service site the World Bank is another

big player the IMF then the free-trade secretary it’s especially NAFTA that’s a very influential one because that’s when the investor state isds first came and then the bank for international settlements and that’s a whole side story but the financing is along with trade two of the most critical aspects of all the downsides of this and then the World Economic Forum which I just mentioned to you in terms of the global redesign initiative and so then we have these myths that have company capitalism and neoliberalism along the way which I think all of them now you’ll agree we have been exposed and thanks to all of the ecological analysis that’s going on that the earth is inexhaustible and nature’s a giant machine this is the all mechanistic way of looking at the world life is a struggle where only the fittest survive the market corrects economic gaps and will make everything run smoothly and so on I mean and these are these are the basic assumptions in this model and again it’s useful to expose that and then these are all of the other things that neoliberalism was supposed to bring us democracy and and more prosperity and eliminate poverty and better human rights and and through agribusiness we were supposed to reduce world hunger all of that and anyway we can see in most of those areas that that has that has failed it may have worked for a while with some of those new economies in Singapore where many jobs were created but in the end we were just building up a whole lot of externalities that would come back to haunt us so and in terms of the failures of neoliberalism which I was just speaking about these are just some of the things that have come out within the last few months and I mentioned that the third way is dead it was actually LeMond d that’s lamont deed diplomatique is a left-wing newspaper in France there’s a very good a new book out called post capitalism a guide to our future and I don’t know if you’ve ever heard of kondratyev cycles but that’s the theory that which is shown and demonstrated that the whole global count the capitalist system operates in waves long waves of 50 years where it rise the growth rises and then it goes into depressions for quite a few years and we should have be coming out of a that fourth or fifth wave now and it’s not happening and now we’re moving to major economist’s like Robert Gordon and Larry Summers suggesting that we’re in something called secular stagnation and we may be there for Larry says ten the other guy says 25 years in other words we have reached probably the end of growth financially as well as ecologically so and there are many many more that I could cite and those are just the ones who have been in the mainstream who are suddenly getting it whereas there’s a whole host of other kinds of economists and bio economic economist ecological economists and D growth there’s a whole feel that have been explaining this all along so now I hope to get some of that out there so we can see I’m just looking for my arrow okay so that’s a very quick run through the the globalization context bringing us right up to present and then let’s go on to free trade and globalization and here how we doing for time Sujata I guess we just started 10 minutes ago right right 1321 right now so you’ve got about 40 or 50 minutes left okay so I mentioned the trade agreements going back to the gap and I often when I was teaching I used to say the get begat the WTO and I’ve heard many people speak that were there I heard one professor speak who was there and but basically what one region said it was basically the corporations that that were writing that agreement and then the next big one that came along with NAFTA which we’ve mentioned and we know the big thing about NAFTA was it included the investor state dispute settlement mechanism which before was not part of trade agreements the multilateral agreement on investment was all of the OECD countries that’s 28 countries including the European countries in Canada and the US and a few others and they were signing an agreement that basically had a very similar mechanism to that one in NAFTA but that was defeated and a lot of us were online fighting that one sharing information all around the world getting websites up and finally getting information to the politicians who knew nothing about it and finally the European Parliament defeated it when and we got to enough of the parliamentarians throughout Europe and they realized what it meant so time and again when people see into these the depths of these agreements they start to get it that it’s not on the side of a parliamentary

democracy or whatever the FTAA that was free trade area of America’s they wanted to open up all of the Americas from tip to toe for big big development major superhighways canals everything to open it up and play havoc of course with the environment and the native peoples that was defeated some of us I I know when I was I was there with Sierra Club and Elizabeth had rented a very large rooming house just under the hill where all the big meetings were taking place and where the protests were happening every day and it was quite exciting to be there with helicopters flying overhead and and smoke fumes gas fumes everywhere anyway it wasn’t just our test although it was a huge one with 60 or 80 60 more than 60,000 people but later the all through the Americas the people protested as well and I remember being at the world social forum in 2003 and we marched in the streets with a hundred and hundred and thirty thousand people I think with nary a policeman in sight you know it was all very peaceful but they were marching against against this free trade area of the Americas and the Iraq war as well at the same time and so but anyway that that was defeated although it throughout the Harper rain it was always on his agenda to try to re-establish that whole free trade area now what we have is all we have with the TPP there are only two countries that signed on to that Chile and Peru so the others did not want to fall into that gambit the spp the security prosperity partnership of North America that was a huge struggle in battle it was eventually defeated at montebello and again the council played a huge role in that and in exposing it for what it really was and then of course there’s been many bilateral agreements and I remember the CCF ta de that was a big one that we fought long and hard for about a year through the trade justice network that’s the Canadian Colombia free trade agreement and we didn’t want to sign it because Colombia has such horrendous human rights violations but some of the politicians thought well that’s the only way we can bring them round is if we sign up and become friends with them but unfortunately that hasn’t happened with the Colombia free trade agreement then we get into the era of the mega agreements CT tip TPP tisa and some of you may not have heard of tisa and that’s a scary because it’s for it’s an agreement with services so they aim to liberalize worldwide trade of services such as banking education health care and so on and this could be this is going to have to be a big battle as well and hopefully the unions are already working on this but dr. Patricia run out from the University of Sydney she said amendments from the US are seeking to end publicly provided services like public pension funds which are referred to as monopolies if you can imagine but this is something that the neoliberals how do you know they always named our public services and our public sector what we always considered to be our rights they they try to frame them in this other way and call it a monopoly because they should have more input into it and so on so that’s um that’s another one of the mega agreements now what I want to do here very briefly is to show how the whole look at the back and look at free trade for what it is and to see if we can make an argument there as well as just by picking apart the the TPP or the sita or the isds and one way I found useful I first read about it from David korten who you may remember as the way way back when we were just starting all the anti-globalization work he did when corporations rule the world and it was a very influential book and so he reminds us that David Ricardo who was one of the early economists just 50 years after Adam Smith and he he proposed that we would have comparative advantage if we traded in a particular way between nations that had one advantage over another and but he said that the trade between the partners must be balanced and investment capital must be anchored locally so David korten has picked up on that and he says however market fundamentalists could even conveniently ignore the conditions for comparative advantage and this is important because

even in in almost all of the trade agreements being the government signs they will say the big advantage is economic more jobs higher GDP and then they’ll also say they’ll cite the comparative advantage for us even though look at this it’s not really any more comparative advantage because we don’t we ignore these conditions that were there originally for free trade that it would operate within a nation state and each of the training partners countries must be largely self-reliant in meeting its own needs trade only its surplus with its neighbors keep exports and imports and balance and keep capital ownership national and this is a huge issue in Canada now because we have a major court case with galati Rocco Galati which is I think just been defeated but to try to see if we can keep our bank of canada which from the 30s to the 70s created most of the things we’re proud of you know the healthcare system and the canals and the highways and the health system and everything anyway and then we sold out to the Bank of International Settlements and started borrowing from private things so this whole business about where the financing comes from you know I think Ricardo saw that that was essential he saw that in those days people wouldn’t want to leave you know and invest their money in another country they wanted to be where they trusted people and so I think that’s why you can have an invisible hand talked about in those days because you were near where your money was invested so anyway cortland goes on to show us how this kind of an economy is not an ideal one to foster at this time in history so I want to also in terms of the free trade system point this out to you and I probably won’t have time to go through it all today but irie been seeing david herman Daly’s name for years and years but i’ve picked up just in the last few years on the things he had to say about free trade and in his famous book Beyond growth which I think i bought a picture of there it is right there in he has a chapter free trade and globalization versus environment and community and he presents a summary case against the overall policy of economic integration by free trade which I got on the next page and free capital mobility but he also goes on to say how when how he is able very easily to deconstruct the two most usual objections to the case so people will always come back and say oh but economic growth induced by free trade is such a benefit that it outweighs whatever costs it entails well we can certainly make that argument now and I’ve got some more specific research that just came out a few months ago to show that and also the principle of comparative advantage from Ricardo it’s a blessing to free trade and globalization is currently understood well we see from what I just said from the last slide but that’s not the case either and he says he was he was very he was able to make that argument it was strikingly easy to make that argument so I think that this is critical I was doing some work on the concept of planned d growth and it came up again that that Daly says the only way that we can hope to have a sustainable society the ecologically sustainable society is to come have to have control closer to home at a national or sub-national level that’s the way any study calls for tariffs to make that possible and these are things we’re going to have to consider going forward as they say we’re going to somehow have to get control again if we if we want that to happen I think so here’s some of his case against free trade first of all the high cost of energy intensive transport and you think that that’s already failing all those huge huge cargo ships laden with boxes and containers from China they’re all imports now there’s some kind of index 0 to forget what it’s called it something like write x or something in it shows it’s the lowest it’s been and these ships are hauled up in ports all around the Atlantic and throughout there’s no no nothing for them now so what what folly to to build all those things just like the big cities in China that they built that are sitting empty whole cities so just to go back to so he says that so those are all the things that you know that he points to and we know most of these this comes out in the anti-globalization litter cheers well it may be said slightly differently but we know we don’t want increased dependence on distance supplies and markets it’s too easy for them beaded to

be disrupted with Wars and as he says huge disasters like the tsunami and the food cheap Fukushima and they also need to reduce range of choice of occupation and firms in competitive environment all have an incentive to externalize costs and that’s not good that means that they ignore our laws and that we are put there to protect us and we see that I love this for this this graphic that some of you may be familiar with from Canadian CCPA and all the things that are going into the meat the meat grinder of the corporate hog firms and threatening small family farms jobs public health environment clean water air quality everything when we move to these mega agreements we have to remember all of the things that we’re losing and then we see if we look at these agreements like the TPP and the regulatory chapter and the investor state chapter how they’re things built into those agreements you know to allow this to happen and to diminish our laws that are in place and that is a frightening thing only and this is a really crucial one and this is this is him speaking 20 years ago he saw the natural capital as the limiting factor so that’s the limits to ecological growth that he’s talking about and there’s so much being written about that now not just peak oil which we see actually there is oil around but it’s peaked for another reason still but there’s peak other minerals as well and and so we can’t we can’t be digging up the planet at the rate that we’ve been doing anymore we’ve reached a point where yeah we’re we’re we’re feeling the crunch and let me just go and so I think that this is a good mental model to keep in mind and probably to view of seeing something like this and it’s been the other way around and now we have to recognize that the environment is our is our vessel that we live in and the society lives only because of that environment and the economy must fit within that I remember a conference well it was the Council of Canadians when they went across the country trying to get the pulse of the nation on on something I forget which it was now but they were meeting at Mount Saint Vincent and David Suzuki was on the panel that they had and he said he was just taking a course on economics at UBC his first course and he only lasted about three weeks because he couldn’t stand the premises and the assumptions of a traditional economics course that didn’t recognize that the environment is the crucial thing so now thanks to many many people have gone before us and thanks to the awareness of climate change that’s happening we’re starting to see a trend in the other direction now and so that’s and then in terms of debunking the whole to free trade system and looking at the failures another important thing to look at are the studies that have come out and they’ve been out ever since earlier days of NAFTA that we don’t even have we don’t we’re not getting the benefits that were promised and you see sometimes we have to wait for these studies to come out and let us know that our own Canadian economist he’s now with what’s it called um unifor and he said that there’s been no gain at all for the average Canadian and the average worker spent since 1980 and later on I’ve got a study on the TPP that was just done by Tufts University ji Dae global development and environmental group that shows that there’s nothing there’s they said there might be minimal economic benefits over the next 10 years for for the TPP and now the studies that were done with a proper UN model with the proper assumptions he’s showing that there is not any benefit at all in terms of the economy and not with jobs either that we act so you lose job the facts that we really need to get out there and there’s a conference coming up April first in Ottawa at the University of Ottawa and the author of that study that I just mentioned referenced from tops University um callate I forget his name it’s like Culebra or something he is going to be there and so this is the kind of information we really need to start spreading around and joseph stiglitz whose name you see he is coming up so strongly now against the GP he’s speaking everywhere and he is going to be at that conference on April first I’m think I’m going to have to fly up for this one and he’s and this is really important he says it is one of the basic principles of economics that trade is good and more trade is better but some economists have come to doubt the relevance of that orthodoxy the cost of

globalization have been greater and more enduring than they expected in government efforts to mitigate the impact on American workers have often proved insufficient so what else do you say here the argument was always that the winners could compensate the losers he said but the winners never do and that becomes particularly relevant when we have a society with as much inequality so I think that you know we’re starting to see the the Orthodox position of economics now turning to a head and more hetero docs I think they call it kind of model so the TPP then we’ve got a background now of how to look at these trade agreements within the context of the the bigger picture free trade which is don’t forget the major growth generator for global corporate capitalism if you want to call it that and so you can see where it is it’s you know the country’s I think I don’t need I don’t need to mention that again when i’m going to skip that one but it’s in about two years time or possibly before if they get enough country signing on ahead of time which i hope they don’t and they only need a certain number of countries that create about eighty-five percent of the combined gdp to sign on those are our own guys Scott and uh Scott Sinclair and Stewart true who are doing wonderful writing on the TPP and and the only thing they’ve said there is that it’s it’s NAFTA on steroids it used to be called napped of the Pacific and here’s our own Council of Canadians protesting about the secret negotiations going on and Sierra Club picked up on that in the United States you know and made the note that anything behind closed doors must be bad for those of us that are locked out which indeed is the case and that’s the other thing that hundreds of big corporations got to see this got to help plan it and and politicians themselves were not allowed to see it you know or they had to go into a basement in read and not take it home and not photocopy anything so that tells us something doesn’t it about who’s in control so we know what it is I’m going to suggest that it’s not just the things we usually hear in the government documents but it’s a global corporate power vehicle and it’s a global investment agreement that benefits the corporations even the new Sita investor court system which was supposed to quell the rebellion of citizens in Europe against it and we just were on a Sujata and I on a webinar or the other day and there’s still a huge amount of criticism about what they are proposing as a new and better court so let’s see I think that’s all we need to say about that I’m not going to go into all this but you can see this is a 6,000 page document with all of those chapters so what I’m going to do is just pick out a few of the chapters and the sectors that are that we are concerned about in this country I’m not going to be able to click on these we tried but if you want when you go back to look at this online you’ll be able to click on those links and you’ll get short little videos which are quite good and they help you conceptualize the actual trade agreement especially its negative aspects quite quickly and this is a good little one the third one down that just came out fact checking the president so you see the president you know making these great pronouncements and then you get Lori Wallach who’s aight trade international trade lawyer for publicist and ralph nader’s organization originally and joseph stiglitz and so that’s really worth seeing their 20 minutes left but i could actually do a screen share and click on the links myself if you want to show one of them maybe at the end let me just go through and then i’ll pick ok why don’t you how long would it take you to do that well now let’s not interrupt let’s let’s do it at the very end ok this in case anything goes wrong so and the why of it so this is from the United States Trade Representative so you see all these highfalutin things that are supposed to happen raise the living standards and we have to say a home and productivity and enhance innovation and all of this reduce poverty good governance yeah good governance for who because as I said with the global redesign initiative we know where that’s going but here’s some things that we need to know about this what are the political reasons and I even who think I even heard the trade minister interview on the house this morning talking about political aspects of the the TPP that are important for the u.s. in terms of their relations in the Far East but what we know is and this has been written up in in journals like foreign policy very

reputable journals that it’s become one of the primary tools in the United States geopolitical pivot towards the asia-pacific their pivoting their policies in that direction because they would like to constrain and surround China and keep it on the oats because they view China now as one of their major potential enemies in the future I’m not sure now where China’s economy is tanking so badly but that was the plan anyway a couple years ago so as the WTO became dysfunctional and this whole multilateral free trade regime which had its it’s real concerns as well as given way to what stieglitz calls a discordant managed trade regime built on a divide-and-conquer strategy with overlapping trade bloc’s and agreements according to joseph stiglitz like i just said um let’s see we know that it’s covering more than eighty percent of the world it’s got a little docking mechanism so that you other countries can join in but here’s the thing the United States is in control of that this is what Michael Geist was saying on the TPP webinar yesterday I hadn’t realized it to what extent the United States controls is what’s being written in it who’s going to join in when Canada joined we were late to the table and we had to go in with with severe restraints like making sure that we let some of us a supply system go and then I’ve already mentioned this that see tip is one of several mechanisms to enhance global corporate governments so these are just some of the things we need to be aware of and then the economic reasons I’ve already mentioned that when I was talking about Herman daily you know that these are the things that we always hear increased integration in the global economy and increased growth in GDP and increased jobs increase markets and so on well this is the study I mentioned the global development and environment Institute ji Dae at Tufts and I’ve been following them for quite a few years now and there they just this is very timely they came out with a study just a few months ago and well just actually like two or three months ago and they show the nice mentioned this already but the GDP will be lower job growth I said well I didn’t tell you the Mach numbers will not materialize and over the all those countries nearly looks like love 770,000 nearly a million jobs will be lost and 58,000 in Canada as much as you can try to predict that and incomes not likely to decrease so and as I said we’re going to see the here the author of that speaking soon in in Ottawa and this is adrien martens kirkwood a researcher with the CCPA and he said if the TPP had a saving grace an item for the pro list it was that it was going to grow the economy and create jobs so as the evidence mounts against even modest macro economic benefits however the trade-offs are looking increasingly on palatable so here’s the question is the TPP worth it for Canada we say no and we think that Canadians agree a deal that costs too much and delivers too little is not a deal at Canada needs that’s a good point i think that we should make when we’re organizing against this and this is a tariff logic the tariffs are practically diminished at this point to three percent or five percent and then also he’s talking here about the amount of imports and exports that we have with some of these countries in the Far East and they’re going to be doing most of the importing and it’s going to do increase our trade imbalance so again it doesn’t make any sense from that perspective so you have to wonder exactly what they’re what they’re concerned about now this this is a section I maybe just go through fairly quickly because there’s quite a lot in it but you can go back and look at it I’ll just read the highlights the impacts on the health care system this is from ccp a policy change could in terms of the patents could change could add 636 million annually to the price tag of drugs in canada and then another one on the impact of a whole system we could weaken the canadian public health care system undermine health regulation and obstruct efforts to renew and expand public health care so not good on the health side the financial threats are huge in terms of blocking any kind of regulation on financial products and even the risky the risky ones that we’ve already seen that we’re so damaging in the 2008 to financial collapse they they would be enabled again by this according to what Public Citizen did in their initial analysis I think this is another one that Council of Canadians will want

to make than they always have with these agreements and that is about the impact on local government and so I would recommend this paper that you see there I think it’s Jean Kelsey the the activist lawyer professor from New Zealand anyway you can see in the paragraph the list the newsle activities that have the greatest potential be to be affected and policymaking bylaws technical standards public procurement contracts and that’s a big huge one for any of us that are concerned about food and I am living here in wolfville in the Annapolis Valley and having worked on the food movement here and this is a huge issue for us to consider for our future there’s another there’s another window or lens into this as well when we talk about the globalization when we need to look at there’s a whole literature on collapse that I’ve been reading for years and if you look at that model if we assume that that things could fall apart and and governance might have to come back to a more local level one of the things we want for sure is we want control over our own food we want it now for safety reasons but in the future it may well be for survival reasons so we’ve got to really I think fight this one and get the municipalities on side right across this country flavor impacts this is just some of the things the labor folks were the first ones off the mark to get in and see the trade minister and you can see there what they were calling for and this is a good article by Scott Sinclair and Stewart true on the costs and the impacts of the TPP in terms of intellectual property affecting the the cost of drugs if affecting the our security and safety and so on and I just wanted to point out you vulvar jim balsillie I’m sure on the radio and he’s really against it from his perspective as a big business person and then professor Michael Geist I heard him speak yesterday and he’s probably one of the biggest experts in this country on intellectual property unfortunately I didn’t get his references from yesterday they didn’t publish them yet or I would have put that in but watch for that and that’s another one I just to show you that the World Bank even the World Bank is warning about intellectual property things that are in this TPP agreement so when you get the World Bank concerned we need to take note and I just mentioned how important the small farms are going to be going forward and how if you remember that meat grinder diagram how the big corporate farms destroy that this is the National Farmers Union saying exactly the same thing the environmental impacts that’s the analysis from Sierra Club of us they have some very good trade analysts on board there and they’ve been through it and Obama and the Americans are raving about how much better it is on the environmental impacts on the environmental side but again the rules aren’t strong enough the multilateral environmental agreements with we’ve had for years they get overridden by the investor state we have there’s an environmental side agreement we’ve had that on NAFTA to started out all right but then once it started to do some good even steven professor Stephen Clarkson who sadly just passed away and it was one of our greatest academics in this country on these issues he spoke about you know the detriment of to the environment by the default of the politicians basically sidelining the environmental agreement and this has happened time and again so we’ve still got that happening with this agreement and then as well the investor state is still going to allow that further attacks on environmental legislation the regulatory cooperation coherence chapter looks like we can have corporations influencing how our regulations and so on are made and the other disturbing thing is that fracking and other sources of fossil fuel extraction and exports will be enhanced will be allowed within this agreement if it goes through I mean that’s one of the ones we have to be very concerned about plus agricultural issues which relate to the environment as well climate action this is a fence it’s really an important one the TPP will hurt the climate goals by expanding the rights of corporations to challenge regulations that’s the investor state and we’ve already seen but that lets come into play in several instances it drives now she is exports in production which is contrary to what we want and it limits support for local renewable energy systems which we saw in Ontario when they tried to put in their green energy plan and to try to have a little employment created and create some of

their own products for the further energy system and then immediately they were sued or taken to court by Japan and one Europe and through the WTO I think that was so then you have the council Canadians was right on the front line here recognizing the need to have a car vote at the Paris conference so that the investor state wouldn’t be you wouldn’t be used against any good suggestions that are made to delimit this kind of fossil fuel economy we already saw with the German vattenfall case which is the case where Germany tried to phase out its power plants the companies supplying the materials and the plants came right back with a major multi-billion dollar a lot soon so gus van harten did write a piece of legislation that could be added so this might be something to if you’re talking about organizing to really push for this because this is one of the council Canadian seas there’s Maude was big writing on this and I’m not sure whether she wasn’t even the one that suggested to Gus that they do that then especially in the u.s. a lot of the NGOs and university folks are decrying this his latest transnet canada pipeline nafta case after Obama refused to let the Keystone pipeline go through so i don’t think anything more needs to be said about that i mean it’s it’s very it shows how difficult how bad this investor state can be if we’re trying to stop climate change there in so used to having their way you know that the economy in the last twenty to thirty years has always trumped the public sector and the public good so again we’re going to have to see where that all comes but and then been BTW who’s the analyst for sierra club now he said as they stand these trade agreements are the single biggest threat to meeting our climate change goals which the canadian government proudly announced only a month ago so there we go we I don’t how they’re going to get through this one if they keep talking out of both sides of their mouth and the regulatory harmonization I’ve got two references there for you what stiglitz says is what they want is stripping away regulations harmonizing down not upward to the citizens advantage harmonizing to a standard that is to the advantage of Big Pharma against American people Europe people young people and so on but not just infirm pharmaceuticals but in in many many areas that’s just the one who mentioned and it’s a okay let’s just keep going here so we’re getting towards the end how much time have we got Sujata we have about we’re about five to two so about five minutes or so five two you know five to ten minutes okay we did we started a little bit late so let’s say 10 minutes I’m saying we can go till 210 or something okay that would be perfect I think we’ll get through it then we’re getting there now what is this whole investor state dispute settlement it’s a really hard one to get our heads around and I finally about a year and a half ago when I had to get back involved with the digging at quarry case again which I’d worked on to stop in which we did stop and then and then bill con the company sued and they won their case and so we had to go back again we’re back on looking at that again and so at that point I really tried to dig in and see what this was all about and I realized one of the reasons we hadn’t been able to make a good point is because we didn’t go into enough detail and professor Gus Van heart and really sort of crack this one open when he laid out you know what and in the other other agencies and other writers have as well but this is basically what i glean from one of the studies and that is we know that there’s a series of corporate rights that are built into investment agreements and this this came with the the NAFTA agreement that you give any foreign company national treatment most favorite nation treatment minimal standard of treatment which has a subtext of fair and equal treatment which was one of the things that came into play with the dig the net quarry and then expropriation and the danger there is it’s not just expropriation of the physical factories and properties which is what it was originally meant to be in early investment agreements back around the time the European empires were collapsing and all of the the new countries were setting up and having investments coming and people were afraid that they might be expropriated you know they might be nationalized but now when you’ve got you’ve gotten in northern countries against northern countries that doesn’t work that’s not what’s going to happen so the way it’s written is that they can they can sue for lost profits so you can have a company that was like in deep v-neck was

just a front company you know and that they’re suing now for a third of a billion dollars because they were stopped so that’s that’s what the rights are then they had this privatized dispute settlement instead of having a domestic court although I think they could choose to go into a domestic court but most of the times they go to what they call these offshore courts and they call them international but they’re not like an international a true international court they’re privatized the they have private sector international trade lawyers instead of permanent lawyers paid by the public sector they have no tenure like a proper judge in a court would there’s no body of established law there’s no permanent court or a location although sometimes they go to the World Bank there’s several different courts that in name you know iron but but a lot of times they just meet in hotel rooms there’s big conflict of interest if you look on the right of that slide that was a really good report the corporate Europe group one of our colleagues in Europe put together property from injustice to end in the the links under isds to the two films that I’ve got there of one German and one Dutch it really shows you know the conflict of interest that’s going on there it is a huge money-making business for trade international trade lawyers now to get involved these cases and even to push the idea with the companies that they can do this so that it’s almost becoming a way for corporations and lawyers to make money so you can’t have that with a proper international court or domestic court so the rulings don’t rely on binding precedent I found this out when I was researching how the decision in digby neck was made it was shocking huge awards for damages paid out by governments in a normal court case in a normal court there’s no damages so they’ve got this written in as well so you can see this one is really worked on the side of the corporations and there was no appeal process brought in so even though Digby neck was known by the one dissenting arbitration tribunal list it was it was known to be flawed and it should have been a case that went to a domestic court it’s still there was still no true appeal process that you know for our government although right now there’s there’s something in the works I think anyway and it’s for corporations only governments can’t sue the corporation so I just wanted to point that them so that you can see that there’s a really good case now because this case is been made so well the CETA agreement in Europe and what they’ve done there is they’ve tried to pick out a few of these things to to make it fairer and I’ll point that out in a few minutes and these are some of the analyses that show that what’s what’s happening in the investment chapter of the TPP because it’s different than the one in the cedar agreements so I’m not going into that but just to know it hasn’t changed much and before I go that I just these are the issues now this is the Commissioner Cecilia malmström the Commissioner for the european commission that has helped to create a slightly better agreement but the problem is that they did they tried to build in a right to regulate but our guys of these are international lawyers and experts have said that it hardly generates any meaningful power of constraint to have the right to regulate a new method of selecting arbitrators and there would be a right to appeal but there’s still these issues that the corporation still have all the built-in rights to challenge and strike down laws and it sets high standards for protection of foreign investors by all these other things and there’s our mod and she says the reworked pack still gives foreign companies a unique forum in which they can challenge domestic laws and then David Schneiderman had an excellent article in The Globe and Mail just recently I’m not going to go read it right now because we’re trying to skip through there’s still other alternatives because that one that Sita one we don’t feel it’s gone far enough that she actually asked for a full-fledged international investment corp which would be like the other UN courts and it would be fair but people said oh it would take too long but that is still a possibility and gus van harten professor at Osgoode Hall is one of our experts on that rejection of ISPs back to the state to state arbitration I’ve read about insurance through the World Bank that companies could get it they’re worried about anything and in the end in the Caribbean area there was a declaration of 12 countries to form a conference of the states to deal with challenges posed so they were going to set their own thing up I know what’s happened to that those are some links that you might be able to click on when this gets up online because there were two films made and one of them was in built in digby neck the german

documentary i worked with the producer to help get some interviews set up and met him when he was here it’s very good and then finally the recommendations now this is what the Council of Canadians has said establish a full public review including a comprehensive and independent analysis of the TPP text by the Parliamentary Budget Officer that would assess the deal’s impact on all of these areas now I can only assume that with this new parliamentary committee process and hearings that was announced they did say they’re going to study it so I think this is one thing the council will want to do is to make sure that that parliamentary committee is actually doing this kind of a study that they’ve asked for the Parliamentary Budget Officer to do that would be important then I think I mentioned it’s the the Institute the International is due for sustainable development recommended that governments not ratify the agreement as it is rather the TPP should act as a jumping-off point for a new global dialogue on the right direction for trade agreements I really like this one they said it is time for Canada to lead in reevaluating what type of trade agreements are needed for this century then they said Canada now has a unique opportunity to step back reflect and then return to lead global trade law into a sustainable development era and I think Howard man who also is their senior advisor at the Iast made that statement so I think these are really important things now for us to pick up on that just was just published in the newspaper like two or three days ago so this is the other thing when when we’re doing the activism and the organizing for this it’s going to be really important to keep on top of the of the flow of information and knowledge that’s coming out daily almost on this so that we don’t get out there and start rooting for the wrong thing so that’s good that we can work together on that also this was the thought of mine that establish a think tank on economic alternatives which involves which would have NGOs Institute’s academics and the social movements involved not just the usual government agents and negotiators we need to be thinking to the future as we’re thinking to the future of what kind of trade agreements we need as the iisd said we ought to know what kind of an economic system we’re going to need and as I said there are many many other other systems that we could be thinking of now and then finally and I just heard about this yesterday when i was posting an obituary about Stephen Clarke’s and professor Stephen Clarkson who I’d met and whose work i’d greatly admire he had been working according to one of my colleagues he had been working on an international conference to take place next year with the goal of setting rules governing the activities of multinationals that affect the rights of sovereign nations that I think we must ensure that this important conference happens that’s going to be crucial and I believe it probably will but I put that information out into the trade networks now so I think that somehow that will happen this was what Justin Trudeau said when he was elected that they will hold full and open public debate to ensure that Canadians are consulted don’t like that word are consulted I mean it’s more to have input but anyway so then they came up with this website and where you could send your commentary as an individual but again that’s not real participatory democracy so yesterday marks the 10th or the day before what was it two days ago this pub this press release came out and I don’t know how many of you saw it so I’ll just highlight a couple of things because this is almost the last slide the House of Commons standing committee on international trade decided to conduct a study on the TPP agreement the committee’s primary objective is to assess the extent to which the agreement once implemented would be in the best interest of Canadians and it will result in a report so that’s where when they’re doing this study the council Canadians can push to make sure that that their recommendation through through the budget officer you know that all of those suggestions would be inherent in this study and then as part of its study the committee is inviting Canadian individuals and organizations to provide written submissions that express their views on the TPP agreement and it’s also inviting Canadians to request to appear as witnesses before the committee and if you look down below this is exciting they think they’re going to be able to do it they expect to hold hearings across Canada over the coming months once cross-country hearings are confirmed information will be provided about dates and locations so this might be another thing to add to your list

Jennifer in the organizing to as a target to prepare you know for many members to be ready for you know the hearings or different regional groups to be ready to participate in those hearings and there will there is some guidelines the submissions to be no more than 1500 words and there’s a place to submit and if you wish to appear as a witness make the request any time during the study which would be before the end of april i think so those are just some things i really i put a very minimal version of this together two or three months ago and i presented a little group we have here called cinema politique and these were some things i had written at the time i’m sure it’s a bit presumptive to even bother sharing them with you people who are so well aware of all these things anyway but I just I’ll just go over to use and share this another resources to learn more about the TPP and Sharon learn from articles and info on social media call mp’s office set up visits to express your concerns write letters to editors pointing out threats of the TPP and demand more study consultation well now we’ve we’ve got that so another suggestion and other people have said this right in opposition to articles in newspapers which are blatantly false providing evidence of concerns with the deal well this PowerPoint hopefully would provide some of the information in terms of get when they get it wrong about the promises of the of the TPP prepare for forthcoming rallies and marches on this issue which I think you’re doing organized learning events and discussions and communities which you guys are really good at and provided written submissions possibly to the the parliamentary committee and then that’s that’s it did I get through one time shift sagita so Jacqueline Sujata hello hi Janet it’s Jennifer you were exactly one hour from when we started thank you okay yes I mush I’m not sure where Sujata what happened with sujata but um yeah it was really empowering and we balled Nepal meds down the side is that Sujata bug yeah she’s got a second web kind of a web senior moment oh well as long as I was still connected I worried I wasn’t connected when I was talking there at the end about a minute during the whole thing and that I had to come back on and then I forgot to put my mic back on but yeah this is this is a very very interesting conversation head gives up a lot of meat and a lot of substance and a lot of you know a lot of lot more detail that we can use the history what we can what’s in the agreement this is a very very much appreciative and I’m sure that a lot of people have questions so now we’re going to be taking questions so how it’s gonna work there are are there any people who are on the phone because some people could only come in by phone were there any way is there anyone who’s on the phone but they are they can ask your question directly right you can also call in to that number if you want to ask your question by phone I’m also going to start reading some of the comments of the chat so i will be reading some of the questions you can ask bye bye bye chat as well so far there’s quite a lot of people saying thank you so much for the information people are happy that we can pick up apart the information for our own use there is a Fiona saying I’m in awe of how well Janet covered all that info just an hour I’m so exceedingly grateful there’s a thank you very much fantastic so appreciated a question about how can this presentation the access for sharing I will have it put up and sent to the group at some point or for everybody to have a copy of this Jennifer can I just ask a question well that will be like a proper webinar hosting where the people will hear the voice as well I’m going to talk to you about that offline and we can see what we’re going to do I have but both a recording of this and so we can talk about something will be and I see Ruth cook saying that please get this close to the ASAP and no one organized this ok thanks Ruth ok right well yeah there’ll be some way that we can get this close to that i will i’ll get back to you about exactly how but you’ll have a copy for sure great any chance we can have it tomorrow ah well uh Kathy I can send want a copy to you tomorrow for tomorrow

that’s for sure jennifer jesse has a question so jeff has says that that Sita is a negative list exactly how does this affect municipalities um with the negative list you have to you have to cite the things that you don’t want on the list and I think the way that the municipality level in terms of I don’t know how it does to tell you the truth for everything but I know in terms of the contracts anything it’s the three hundred thousand dollars is the threshold so I they can anything over 300,000 has to go out on a website and to be available for any corporation in Europe and that could actually that could be quite damaging because for example in this province several of our of our municipalities work together in order to provide major services so the contracts with the over 300,000 and they are not allowed to subdivide them it could also impact our ability to increase our productivity for local food because they like to use hospitals and schools to be able to have a dedicated market when they do grow more food and that could be impacted as well and I don’t know in terms of some of the other aspects that we saw there about whether I’m not I tell you the truth I’m not quite sure about that one but it’s something we should look into I guess because I want to definitely write something on that for municipalities okay there’s a number of people also asking to have the presentation on the TPP by Monday I could try my best to get it sent to you it’s a probably a very big file so I’ll send it to you by too big for email to the participants only the video but now when you when you’re going to try to put it up online as well are you yeah I’m enjoy that but they want it by monday so that I can do yeah and I think there might be some advantage in having the the audio just like we did for the other two webinars earlier this week because there was an awful lot more in the audio than there is in the PowerPoint this would be a big hole video audio thing yeah okay great that would be great ok Tim Collier says I think we should be deeply skeptical articles by larry summers joseph stiglitz oh shoot i can’t read the clement now oh wait i can and books endorsed by mikhail gorbachev former neoliberals now recent curve it converts to Keynesianism use caution citing them and mentioned to their background stiglitz now appearing often in favor altar at favorable terms even summers so I guess that’s a comment yeah I could just respond I’m quite aware and that stiglitz are not stiglitz but especially Larry Summers he was our nemesis in the anti-globalization movement for years um the point I’m making is he is a turncoat but even he as a farmer neoliberal is willing to admit that we may have come to the end of growth that was the only point but I agree with the whoever said that you know that we do have to be cautious on that front then Chris there’s a lot of contracting out of public spaces likes health and education that are contracting on Europe is that part of the SITA agreement sorry good would you read that again there is a lot of contracting out of public services like health and edgy nation in Europe is that part of the sea de agreement I think the CETA agreement will will allow for that to happen even more so it’s certainly not going to stop it and the services agreement the tisa agreement will have a lot more to say about that I can talk a little bit about Sita because i’m leavin campaigning in europe lon on CETA alright what happens public public service is is that when you privatize a public service you can no longer bring it back to the public realm that’s what happens through because you can never isds kind of lawsuit and what’s happened is European companies a lot of the things that we do municipal as public services we do in the public realm so if we were to make those things private they bein companies who are often involved in things like water and sanitation would be really are really looking at that in terms of markets as well and and it’s so it’s when you went up latina when you put something a public service on the you know you privatize it it’s really hard to bring it back the other thing that’s happening is that through our municipalities we are saying that anything that any for anything that come comes in in terms of contracts everyone has a right to bid on it and that means

that sometimes our public services are will then have they can camping by local and then the European companies then have access to those to those markets Islands healin yeah that was the point I was making I think young just the same times I hope that made sense Fiona’s saying Cena applies to sub meant so that means sectors under provincial jurisdiction or vulnerable I think that’s a comment yes Cathy Clark what is the current status of tisa there are more information on that Sujata I know that from the trade justice network perspective it’s something that we’ve got on our the screen on the horizon but haven’t started working on it yet and as I said I think some of the unions are are looking at this already yeah it’s a very important issue it’s a very scary agreement from the things we’ve heard about it unfortunately I haven’t had the capacity to look at tisa but I know that there’s a lot of international groups that are working on tisa yeah it’s definitely something that we should be we should be looking at for sure it’s very very worrisome yeah are there any other questions Cena can jesse saying see that can municipalities be sued we think so wouldn’t you say sujata well the thing is that what happened to whip seat with seat and all the agreements what happens is you don’t actually sue the sub-national governments you soothe the the gov the Canadian government so but a municipality could make a decision that affects prophets and their em Canada is down by they can company consume over municipal decisions is what I’m saying they can and one thing that Harper said and I don’t know that it’s ever been clarified but when the opportunity case in Newfoundland was taking place over what the rights to water under the ground he said that in the future he would like to see the provinces where the case initiated be responsible for the the payouts and that would be a big huge thing for some of our smaller provinces especially if we sign on to these big agreements bringing thousands more corporations into the capacity to sue so that is a big issue Jesse’s saying but SIA is the first agreement to to include prevention provinces and municipalities of you municipalities done like I my I it’s I think we’re we’re confusing two things oh god there’s too many questions now I don’t know how I’m going to answer the most there’s two things I SDS applies to to everyone but what you’re talking about is procurement procurement is is when I’m a government and I go out and I contract different products in that case the municipalities have to open those markets to two different for 2ne1 and Sita that’s what we’re talking about when we’re talking about municipal and provincial governments but any point isds affects any government decision that is made in enact I where there’s not the sita or TPP right and there’s there’s quite a it’s quite an onerous task for a small municipality actually I’ve been reading too to try to get them get the information out on websites and to try to make the decisions and so on they went through this in yeah it’s on in the New England states they used to have globalization and committees and I read some and watch looked at some powerpoints about how negatively that affected the the smaller the smaller states question from Cathy Clark is the council Canadians considering a cross-country tour on the TPP yes yes we are working on a very very big project but it’s still kind of embryonic right now a cross-country tour and consultation on the on the TPP we also have seen at the same time so it’s a bit of a juggling act because it’s either is also coming down or going to Europe for all of April because it’ll be going to

the European Parliament this year but yes Lynn Armstrong asks on TPP chapter 9 says hearings will be open but the anti TPP literature says TPP will have secret Tribunal’s so what she’s saying is she’s heard that in chapter 2 in chapter 9 that the the isds hearings will be open so why do we think it’s credit well we were basically saying that it was all secretive when it was being negotiated and the traditionally the isds tribunals have been secretive but it’s not just TPP that would be one that’s been for several years now some of them have chosen to to be open to accept briefs from other groups and to and many governments have been putting more and more information online as they realize the the criticism that was coming so so that’s nothing new that doesn’t Genesis Airy make it right you know just because there’s a little more exposure Julie picking Cooper Cooper I hope I’m pronouncing that right would there be any point in trying to vote out not got to stop the precedent of isds to vote it out that’s not what you said that’s the question is asking um first of all you’d have to get a government to put it on the table to vote that’s not how you would do it actually built into NAFTA is a clause that says you you have you have six months that you could actually get out of that deal if you petition to do so or you can put forward complaints and concerns about things that you want to have repealed in a few years back we had several political parties were on side to repeal the investor state and the proportionality claws on oil between canada and us and several other aspects of it then that kind of died away there was a time when even michael ignatieff floated the that idea about about the getting rid of the oil one but it fell on deaf ears so yes there are ways built in to try to get out of some aspects of it and actually the whole thing but i think with some of the newer deals that’s what’s worse about them is that it would be years to get over them whereas you know with nafta it’s only i forget if it’s six months you can still appeal to get oh so i think with the fifo with china it’s it’s huge it’s like 50 or more than 30 years and I think with the gpp likewise


LinkedIn – Utilzing Connections to Succeed – Sit And Learn Webinar

nars I appreciate everybody in attendance looks like we have a few people still coming on board so I wanted to show you guys a few things about your interface real quick sit and learn webinar series is sponsored by standard stretch we put together these webinars to sort of educate the community and let people know how these online spaces can help your business today we’re talking about LinkedIn which is really just one of my fun networking sites it is the professional networking site to be on so we’re going to talk about a lot of things today so right now if you would take a moment and look around the environment you’ll probably notice that there is a control panel I’m going to ask a few questions and we can test this right now for example does everybody see where the raising your hand thing is if you are a click it and raise your hand awesome I see some people raising their hand that’s cool what it’s going to ask few questions every now and then you know and I raise your hands and we’ll see how that works I appreciate everybody’s patience we’re going to be waiting just a few more moments and I just tell you a little bit more about today’s a webinar we’re going to be talking about LinkedIn how it’s used for Deborah several different things including growing your business making connections we’re going to look at the new profile some people might not know that there’s a new linkedin profile that’s becoming available it’s being rolled out so we’re going to talk about some professional tips we’re going to talk about my LinkedIn a lot we’re going to see a lot about what Lucas is doing on linkedin I think that link linkedin for me is a professional net that captures people’s attention when they first are introduced to to me and if they find me on LinkedIn it’s a great wonderful precursor we’re going to talk a little bit about that if you have any we’ve picked up some questions from Facebook and so I’ve laid out some questions throughout the webinar we’re going to be looking at that and then I also have some polls some interactive polls they’ll be asked in the in just a few moments looks like we got a few more people coming to join us on the other side of things you can see that there’s a question so we’re going to be talking about the opportunity for you to ask independent questions and sort of just get an idea about what we’re flowing in and out of and they don’t want to get anybody to get stuck so you have the opportunity to say hey stop go back can you explain that in more depth and we have Jamie with us and we’ll be introducing her in just a moment so so cool looks like we got enough people here I want to go ahead and get started thanks again for everybody showing up you can follow up with this at sit and learn dot biz you’ll see that URL throughout and then of course ricketts go ahead and get started again linkedin is almost at 200 million people and I want to just kind of walk through some of the ideas that we we put into place as far as strategy profile optimization some basics so people on the webinar might not know everything there is to know about it so I’m going to walk through some stats just real quick I love the stats part of this I really use the stats as the bait that gets you interested in knowing what LinkedIn means to your professional persona and then of course as always take a moment while we’re getting involved and tweet out to Twitter and say having a great webinar with standard stretch hashtag sit and learn so trying to capitalize on some Twitter things here so I thank you again and we’re going to get right started into the intro you’ll see here looka Schaffer that’s me right there the guy holding up his hands and if you could see me in my office my hands are in the air I am very very into moving around while I’m talking which also noticed game McConnell she’s on board with us see you there Jamie I’m here I everybody thanks for joining us today I’ll be answering any questions you got throughout the webinar so I feel free to type in anything and after handling very good thank you jamie i appreciate that so she’s on board she’ll help organize some of that some of the things that are going on here the sponsor of this of the webinar a standard stretch so standard stretches has been grateful enough and it’s funny but it’s been grateful enough to allow us to put together an online web are put together all the pieces the reporting the marketing that goes behind it and then any attendance and I appreciate everybody again for showing up and we’re an interactive marketing agency geared around web mobile social advertising and print so thank you very much so let’s talk about LinkedIn this gets us geared up into our first poll I want to go ahead and launch that while I talk about this a little bit we have a LinkedIn is a social networking site geared towards companies and industry professionals do you have a linkedin profile already so you can see here click yes no and for those people who are not sure thank you for attending so

we’ll see we have a lot of people looks like this looks good about eighty six percent of people were voted so I’m going to share this poll to everybody looks like everybody that I’m bored today that participated in the poll has said resounding yes we have a LinkedIn profile so that’s good so maybe I can go into more with the strategy part linkedin again is geared towards the professional personas where the members can create customized profiles detailed employment history what I call the living resume business accomplishments and other professional athletes some of this is geared towards a piece of the puzzle where even students that don’t have a lot of professional history still are able to build out a very nice resume for with LinkedIn so our next stack going into LinkedIn nearly one and two companies are doing their online due diligence for prospective job candidates this is one of the characteristics of the LinkedIn profile if you’re out there people aren’t going to be looking for you in a recruitment sense so I want you to remember that if you go out until all of your employees or all of your team members to go update and do all the things that we talked about today there is a chance that a recruiter might try to get them and and and offer them wonderful thing so this is not to set up your team to leave but it’s to make sure that everybody is doing a the right first impression for their professional persona so that’s something to consider in the business world forty-one percent of the people who are I’ve generated business as used it for marketing you’ll notice that some of them are using for job hunting and then of course the majority of what LinkedIn is is a recruitment opportunity for businesses to look for professionals that are in the zone that are doing some good things will look at an actual recruitment email that i received them I put make it a part of this because I think it’s a measurement of whether or not your LinkedIn profile works we have I have an occasional email maybe once a month that really sparks interest in me and I tell you if I didn’t have such a cool thing going on with stand and stretch and the things that we’re doing I would be inclined to saddle up and move out to San Francisco or go to Atlanta and and do some cool things so I’m going to show you some what of that recruitment looks like when you’re doing the profile correctly so again hiring is one of the biggest things you’ll see that Harris Interactive did some great research with career builder finding that forty-five percent of the HR professionals are using social networking to research job candidates with an additional eleven percent planning to implement some social media tactics so the idea is you know over half of the HR recruitment part of LinkedIn is looking for people out there so so that’s that’s one of the focuses so let’s switch it back and talk about how you can build linkedin into a business structure so what’s going on inside of LinkedIn this is the state of LinkedIn the last number as you see I keep this number keeps going up as I do this presentation 187 million registered members for for those with great eyesight you can actually read these but I’m going to go over just like the top five or six of these of course high tech has the most users / the United States market finance on top of that you can see by a big lead hitex out there finance a second manufacturing third medical educational consumer goods recreational corporate this structure is an industry breakdown of those registered users just a good biopic of what LinkedIn represents so if you’re in agriculture it might not be a great opportunity for you to be on linkedin even though I still think it’s probably a necessity very cool stuff so out of those industries what job functions are taking up mostly inside of LinkedIn so if you’re if you’re in one of these positions including sales and marketing engineering you are going to find the most of your colleagues and and other professionals in your area in this zone and you can see very down in the in the small crack so this you’ll see the product and the biz development you have you have the academics operation IT finance taking over majority of the job functions that are available for that are showing from the available public profiles of linkedin members so getting into some of the basics of linkedin linkedin has roughly 20 1.4 million unique visitors a day from i think that’s actually a month from from LinkedIn’s reports this is a look at the new linkedin homepage it looks very similar to the old one but I took a screenshot of this last night you can see some differences here if you take a look down that center column you have what i call the newsfeed a very very

commonplace feature of something like Facebook and Twitter this is other people that you’ve been connexes with what they’re doing you can see that we have some interaction through people connecting to other people posting of information you can see linkedin today trying to recommend news directly for me on the right column you can see that people I might want to connect with an advertisement who’s viewed your profile so seven people have viewed my profile in the last three days so and I popped up in the search results 12 times so how do we increase those numbers how do we how do we create the awareness of your of your expertise in certain areas and that’s what we’re going to get into next sonu linkedin profiles this is the sample profile that they are showing everybody you’ll notice it has sort of a modern everything sort of grouped sleek look and it’s just a few moments I’ll show you some of the things detect but some of the ideas I put into my personal linkedin profile and you’ll see how this kind of differs a little bit there’s a lot of flat colors in this what i would call pastels being drawn the attention of a more modern sleek look so I got a second poll here I want to want to throw out there for you and basically states that what do you think of the new linkedin profile sample personally i like it i think that there’s some attribute in organization and getting away from what you’ll see from what my profile looks like it’s once you do start filling it out putting a lot of information into it it can get a little bit robust so so let’s see what what we said here looks like a lot of people are digging it some people that are saying that’s okay but we have a lot of people that are liking it so that’s really great one of the things that we had a question pop up on facebook so i want to take a moment here and point this out you know linkedin has just started something new with the new profiles rolling out in the past properties at say problem is best four to five weeks i’ve been using it and as a business strategy this has got to be one of the most important things you take away today i usually spend a lot of time talking about the recommendation cycle now you have to give to receive i’ve accumulated over 25 26 recommendations on my linkedin profile that are written by professionals in the area and I appreciate the ones that I that I get and I don’t have to send a request for or or or ask relentlessly but I feel like the recommendation cycle is you ask and they knew you give and then you receive one of the greatest new things about the new linkedin is the endorsement features and everybody sort of seen this it’s the skills & expertise expertise recommendations if you go to somebody’s profile it says you know hey we have three different things that are that are built around SEO training online marketing and says would you like to endorse this person for for these skill sets and Cheryl this is this is great because your question actually links right in this that’s why I put the question on here let me tell you what happens when you endorse somebody this is the greatest thing that’s next to email marketing this next to the recommendations that I’ll talk about in just a minute but if you actually take the moment to endorse somebody through the skills & expertise recommendations you’ll actually get the opportunity to get them an email sent into their mailbox instantaneously letting them know that hey Lucas just said something really nice about you he said to the public into the world that you are good at social media marketing you are good at web design these recommendation emails come to me and in turn I go out and endorse the people who are endorsing me and it turns into this wonderful cascading waterfall of niceness so we have the opportunity to look at the endorsements and as an opportunity to make connections if you’re in a market and you’re trying to reach out to somebody who’s already a connection of yours but you’re having trouble this might be an opportunity to visit their profile and endorse some of their skills now it’s wonderful because I think the subject of the of the headline I’m sorry the subject of the email actually says Lucas has endorsed you for these skills or has done something amazing for you so there’s that that already setting you up for what can I do amazing for this person so you can see here this is what my skills and expertise looks like over the past five weeks just going out and visiting these people’s profiles and saying you’re good at this stuff you’re you’re you know and that comes back to me and ten fold some how to endorse them just visit their LinkedIn profile page and right above their head their their their profile picture right above the headline you’ll see a box it sometimes it used to say would you like to complete your profile and you of course they know i don’t want not touching my profile right now I’m just here to make a connection whatever those those those excuses maybe now you’ll see that there’s an opportunity to endorse people on the singular level and now if you visit their profile you can actually

endorse them multiple times by clicking the plus button in their endorsement area so this is a new feature for LinkedIn this is every time you do this you send an email to them making them a very happy person in fact if you’re wanting to do something like this now please go visit my LinkedIn profile and endorsed me woohoo okay cool let’s move on so LinkedIn suggests that forty percent greater chance of networking success if you complete your profile one hundred percent yep a hundred percent so we always see that there’s like a ninety percent a 75-percent it’s asking you these these wonderful things and you just need to fill mountain linkedin suggest that you’ll have a greater percentage of marketing yourself or your business to other people if you have a hundred percent completion on your profile you’ll see here my profiles on the right I have a headline I have tons of information here and we’ll talk about a little bit more as we go so what are some profile tips that I would recommend just like any good content strategy used for website design for facebook marketing for blogging you got to have something set in place so when it comes to the question that you see on the board going over some bit some ways businesses can use LinkedIn pages as a marketing tool sort of like Pinterest and Facebook one of the greatest marketing tools for LinkedIn for me is to be able to encounter new connections and have them know that I am a professional and these are my sets of skills so putting together some type of content strategy and then using those inside of these first little areas for example using a professional image we are very casual at standard stretch we do not have sort of a corporate dress code as part of our charm so to speak so when somebody sees this picture of me I hope they feel this dis dis engaged in the corporate structure and they’re coming to hang out and talk about some things that we can do with their business so I’m going after something there a compelling headline you know 120 characters at the top of your profile is sort of like either say it and say it say it very concisely or or as you can see here I’ve done I’ve used word experienced interactive marketing architect so basically that those four words have put in so much information you know I’m experienced part of our target market is interactive we do marketing for these market spaces we do and I’m an architect so I’m not a producer digital builder I’m not a thing I draw the plans and I create the opportunities of marketing inside of interactive spaces so then I also added with a slight hint of nerd to defuse the the toughness of what architects stands for so I’m playing at two different compelling points of this headline also listing current positions at least two past positions is sort of a minimum that LinkedIn is going to make you do so you can see here I had some feedback from this when I my lawyer actually went and visited my my linkedin page when I first met him and we were sort of connecting on those on those professional levels and and he saw my LinkedIn profile says Lucas I couldn’t even read it all how did you have time to do all this stuff and I said well I’ve had a linkedin profile for over five years now so I come back in and I touch touch it up and do what I say you know going into the living resume aspect and as I get a new job as I get a new thing as I as I hope start a new business I go in here and I fill up the information so you can see here that I’ve really done a good job at listening at least past positions into a definitive state so I’m experimenting I’m always experimenting with LinkedIn I’ve I read somewhere from from another linkedin webinar and the guy that I follow Lewis house he does great things with linkedin and wrote a couple books about it one of the things I picked up from that was that this summary it’s almost like an opportunity for you to get into someone’s head so what you see here is I’ve actually switched my summary around to third person so instead of I am leading a team of professionals that stay in a stretch I’m making the behavior of the person that’s reading this in his in that in that person’s mind saying the name Luca Shaffer well so Luca Schafer is leading a team of professionals Luca Shaffer completed his master’s and and so on and as a newlywed Lucas blank and so I’m always using Lucas and I switched all of the tents around to the third person and so everything kind of mirrors what somebody would be reading about what somebody wrote about me so so there’s there’s there’s some mission behavioral mechanics that are going into this I want them to understand my name be comfortable with it when they see it in other places and I didn’t wanted to feel like there was that that I was preaching to them

you know I am good at this I am good at that I am I am this I am that so so I’m just experimenting it’s been highly successful matter of fact my LinkedIn profile shows up on the front page of my search engine results when you type in Lucca Schaefer so inside of that content strategy i’ve been able to identify some keys that have helped grow my linkedin connections quite substantially i’ve also listed out my specialties this has now become known as skills & expertise but there is still an area for specialties and it’s a section that utilizes customer-focused keywords so yes this is also searchable so when Walmart comes searching for you know someone to help with their communication channels they might tag onto one of these specialties and then in connect with me and we’ll see just a moment how that works linkedin profile tips I you know this is we’re still in that same zone giving recommendations first here’s sort of a list of some of the things that we’ve been able to achieve as far as getting recommendations I always write recommendations or most of time write recommendations and then then receive them there’s a higher return rate than just putting out bold requests also the interest groups and associations it’s a big part of most people’s linkedin because it allows you to organize and other professional networks so why have a professional online persona if you cannot mingle with other online professionals personas so the group’s interests and associations are places you can go mingle and talk and communicate about industry or market specific ideas so you’ll see you know you’ll see listed there dotnet developers adobe software User’s down to the columbus georgia young professionals group so there’s really some great places the coma state university alumni very cool stuff there so i talked a little bit about what i call the living resume i recently was able to help out at a workshop at the CSU career center columbus state university’s career center and i was able to get inside and communicate effectively i had some research done prior and as of 2009 it was the profile export feature from linkedin has now become known as a standard format for resumes so it’s very interesting to know that you don’t really have to you don’t have to support your cover letter a branded a very specific resume / job in most cases it’s nice to just do a cover letter and then hey follow up with me at linkedin linkedin com / my username very common to see this take on the new approach for resume submission and companies are actually in some cases requesting linkedin profile URLs the actual landing page for your resume our for your LinkedIn profile but I call the living resume I’m sorry I call this the living resume because it has the opportunity to continue to grow without little with little manipulation throughout the year and yes I said year year you know if you go out there today and say man so much information i need to put into my linkedin profile you’re going to get you’re going to start writing mush and you’re not going to be good at it my recommendation is to take some time a week sometimes a month a regular schedule of updating information out here are you working on a new project did something change in your life did something that’s professionally apparent go on then I would go out there and make some adjustments to it all the while if you go through and try to export my my living resume my LinkedIn profile it’s a little over 11 pages long so you get into the ideas of well you know I’ve been trained that 12 to resume wonder two-page resumes are the dynamic it’s going to get me hired too much information it’s going to lose attention well it depends on what company you’re going after I know I scan through LinkedIn profiles meticulously so an HR departments will do that too so so here’s an example of what the export looks like so you can see it’s pretty standard there’s I’m just going to kind of fly through some of this stuff so I have a another poll here let’s see what I got going on so here’s a quick poll how complete is your LinkedIn profile are just getting started you almost halfway 100% a little bit over half or where are you falling into this category and it looks like we’re getting great just all over the board answers so about seventy-three percent of you have finished up voting so just 1 12 more seconds here awesome let’s take a look you know looks like we got everybody across the board here you know when when we look at forty-two percent being you know in that good area where not all of its done but that’s good I think that’s wonderful I think looking at this we have some of the people just getting started so I’m glad to see that thank you guys for sharing so let me talk about this for a minute we had I call this a successful linkedin examples a

linkedin recruitment example this is where somebody has searched for my profile whether it be a business owner from another market whether it be somebody that’s looking for somebody in web design or social media or online marketing they found me and said hey you know we know what you’re doing we want to try to recruit you away and I save this one because it’s so cool and I wanted to share it with you when you’re doing these things correctly you get emails like this I’m not kidding you so one of the things you’ll notice is that this recruitment example is actually from wal mart’s career opportunity center it’s for a senior manager community community and content but what you’ll notice why I save this one is because they made no bones about how much the compensation was going to be you know this job was a six-figure salary with thirty percent incentive with 25k and equity so it was like you know I was six months in the standard stretch right so I took it to my wife and showed my wife and she was like all right we’re going to bentonville and I was like no no no no no no we can’t do that we got it we got to do I want to live the stand and stretch thing and and help the small businesses in our area so you got the idea that I’ve gotten several of these from AT&T from her just across the board on on looking at how well my profile is snagging these high-profile recruitment examples so you know at some point I got really happy I was like all right I’m doing something right I got the little guy going a success this is actually a common internet mean this little slow guy is pretty cool but there this is my response not going to spend too much time on harping about this but you know at some point you have to make some decisions about what you want to do with your life and at this point I made the decision to stick it out and and work with standard stretch but you know it comes down to marketing you know optimization of your LinkedIn profile is key there’s some there’s some opportunity here for you to list inbound to your website so that when people go to your LinkedIn profile they follow up to your business which is key if you don’t have your business link to your LinkedIn profile then you’re losing the opportunity of somebody to find you and then learn more about your business which I think in in a small community and let’s just target on Columbus for example this is great for when it comes down to somebody wants to know about Luca Schaefer is and what his companies do i think i’ll talk about that in just a moment here actually yeah include a link to your twitter profiles this is a great in mount opportunity for you to get a growth in your social media networks you’ll see that i’m actually listing my blog my personal website standing stretch I’m able to edit the display names for the website so that’s very important and then also the Twitter handles you’ll see I have a cool couple of Twitter’s that I’d like people to follow and join me so the main business to business strategy that I want to talk about is to connecting with colleagues you know this is where it gets really simple and in some of you are going to say well duh that just makes sense and but this is how important this this connecting with the colleagues part is you know and of course I have a little message from Tommy here thank you for using Facebook to interact with us we I have only used linkedin to connect with colleagues can I also use it to help grow a small business if so how what are some good techniques thank you I appreciate the the question Tommy one of the great things that I was able to do two years ago with LinkedIn was start to connect with other business owner you know my business helps other businesses so my my demographic it’s very small I really can only market myself to other business owners so if we look at Columbus as 250,000 people total I know that’s probably off by 50,000 but you have to look how many of those people are business owners maybe 6,000 I think was the the 2011 was the number of business license renewed and applied for sixty six to seven thousand so really I need to be getting at people who are business owners so i use linkedin and went after him every place i knew and I’ve grown up in Columbus for a while so you know weights linen you know I went you know everywhere every small business i could find business owners searching Columbus Columbus business owner pam pam pam if they were in a marketing department for a company i want to link up with them because I think our marketing tools can help an overall marketing team for another company succeed so I went after this very hard and was able to really disconnect to business owner after business owner and it didn’t become apparent to how successful this was until after several different occasions so let’s just walk through that lat line real quick I

friend a colleague that are sorry I connect with somebody who’s a business owner wonderful they get the hey Lucas wants to connect with you email now they are opening up do you want to view the profile now they’re viewing my profile and because it’s a hundred percent complete because of the keywords that I put in there that are that are centered around my marketing for my company for myself they’re going to find information that they’re going to cling on to very quickly you know Lucas is leading a professionals of people that help small businesses grow that’s all they get from my from my LinkedIn profile they see the picture they go oh well he’s he’s he’s not alarming me by being he doesn’t look expensive because he’s not in a suit of time this guy looks like somebody I went to high school went to college with you know whatever it is there’s that there’s the LinkedIn profile that was set up to be built to be the first impression of somebody that I just tried to connect with that I that was in my marketing demographic and I was going after them so you can see how that is an amazing feat for LinkedIn now one of the greatest things that happened like I mentioned were the occasions of meeting the people later on I remember very very vividly being in midtown business association which is great organization for businesses in midtown we we had the opportunity to pull together sort of a meeting we were getting together talk about a few things and I had somebody come up to me and says hey Lucas it’s nice to meet you and I go hey hey how are you doing you know and so there was an opportunity to think about and hang out sorry this do okay I had a chance to meet someone in the MBA meeting and they killed me said hey Lucas how are you doing I said great hey it’s nice to meet you what’s your name he goes hi I’m so-and-so I’m owner of this business and she said about a year ago you friended me on linkedin and I’ve been following all your status updates on linkedin so you know one of the coolest parts is that we are able to pull together information he basically had my first impression I didn’t have to tell him anything about my business I didn’t have to tell him who I was my linkedin profile had already done the done the work you know he had presented himself to me as a business owner interested in learning more about what I did what I do and what standard stretch can offer so I win during this situation because I allowed linkedin to do my marketing pitch for me so so there are some great techniques and connecting with colleagues and i’m glad i was able to get all that out so cool let’s move on to the next one I you know I’m not a big fan of job hunting on on linkedin basically because you know it’s so expensive to do so and only companies that you can see here big companies Aflac and are able to put out jobs job queries out here but the there’s an idea that you have the opportunity to go out and do some wonderful job hunting usually these job are going to be in the the higher change on management more expertise skills more years are going to be needed to go after these college degrees there’s the idea that it’s very kind of closed off it’s not going to be an opportunity for you to find a part-time job and and you know make ends meet or do whatever that needs to go on but I wanted to touch on it’s great for job hunting keyword searches you can search your relevant position in the United States where you want to grow it depends on all your all your needs so I have another poll real quick just a fast one let’s see here says will you consider spending more time on linkedin after this webinar I hope everybody sees some potential in revisiting their LinkedIn profile in the near future you know it got to talk about what LinkedIn means to your marketing space the slide that I actually have up right now actually represents the one thing that we all are running low on and that is time so let’s take a look here it says ninety-one percent of you guys see the potential that’s great news I really appreciate that there’s some there’s some maybes and let me just say that linkedin is just like every other social media network if you have the time and you have found that it is a successful venture for your sales team your recruitment team your marketing team to make connections with other businesses then then that is an unjust a no brainer you got to be on linkedin but if you’re not in that facility if you’re an agricultural company that’s not making many connections in high tech or you’re not going out there and trying to your sales markers your sales market are consumer-based you might want to stick to other things like Facebook and Twitter so there is an opportunity for

you to know that time constraints might not allow you to be on on linkedin that’s always a good those are always good things to say so here kind of getting into some of the in the end stages for our webinar here pro tips for LinkedIn excuse me give before asking for favors this is important the there’s there’s a goodwill of community through all the people that are part of these sites but it’s particularly important on linkedin I always think that the best way is to give recommendations and then they you could they get the email without having to ask for it so there’s a good moment of feedback of a good feeling that they’ve been recommended recommended for something that they’ve done in the past and they didn’t have to request it so there’s good stuff going on there connect with everyone I don’t see that you know we talked about this as being a spam feature but you’re not a spam company you’re not a company going out there trying to build inbound links by propagating thousands of profiles you are a person and you should be connecting with just about anybody you can when it comes to your professional persona of course you might not want to target people that are outside of your marketing demographic but if your if your business owner and your marketers business owners like ours there’s a there’s a great market for people that are out there that are putting their businesses out there that are putting companies out there there there you know there’s you have the opportunity on linkedin to put your company on linkedin and list all the services so there’s some great this a great opportunity to sort of connect with just about anybody you might find viable in your business as a colleague a friend someone that you can have support questions go to i’m friends with my business consultants at the Small Business Development Center I’m connected to my lawyer my accountant all the great pieces of the puzzle are put together out of my LinkedIn profile and I try to make sure that that I share that love with all my friends that who these people are by talking about them also we get back to making your interactions personal we see a lot of robotic posts my I have a good mix I think it’s like a 50-50 mix some of the things that I post come from blogs that I follow automatically just blogs that I trust and but in some I do take things I know some of us have found this webinar because I posted it on linkedin and we are a part of a connection on linkedin so there’s the opportunity to go all the way robot robotic would you post and I’ll tell you that that’s probably not the best opportunity for you just if you’re looking to create some type of content there there are ways to get content to your LinkedIn profile from things like Facebook and Twitter so you just you can find a good grouping of what what’s going to work for you but every time you send an invitation to connect with somebody there needs to be some kind of personal attachment to it now just to speak back on the you know connecting with everyone you do have a throttle that’s provided to by linkedin most people don’t know this but the only way you actually find out that it that it exists is because you try to friend a thousand people in an afternoon or better yet in like 10 minutes you get a great little question pop up it says are you you’ve tried to friend to many people are you sure you are you sure you want to do this and then it stops you there’s a throttle you can’t go beyond the number of requests that you sent now this is true at Facebook let’s true an Instagram this is true in facebook I’m sorry Twitter and LinkedIn is no different if you try to try to get too many connections within too many times software goes hey you’re doing this too much come back in five hours so so you’re going to be within the realm and if you do stick to those guidelines that are given to you you’re going to stay out of the spam folder and you’re going to be more of a real person connecting to a real person so starting your community is one of the greatest things about LinkedIn when linkedin first started groups were the place that you were you spent your time the newsfeed is tragic on linkedin you you barely see it because you spend all your time on other people’s profiles or in the group’s they’re part of or you’re getting messages from the group’s one of the early stage strategies that were built around linkedin groups was that linkedin every time somebody leaves a comment or does something inside the group it sends a very high-quality email and i say high quality and the fact that it doesn’t go in many spam boxes or get caught by many company filters linkedin just wasn’t at a point where linkedin was a spam generator but as groups continue to grow it started getting a less quality it put on the email but it’s still a wonderful way to create your community about whatever it is it could be social media and Columbus Georgia and have all the people

join it and every time someone leaves a message there is a notification generator which could be toggled on or off that will allow you to send an email to the entire group every time you leave a comment or create a question side of this community so you can see that the built-in discussion forum is just an opportunity for you to send messages to multiple people so starting your own community is a very powerful way for you to use resources to market yourself and we experimented with some of that in the early stages so this is cool Megan had a question I want to know the best ways to get recognized for other jobs through using LinkedIn you know we talked about in the in the profile completeness area that you had the education area where you can go back and say this is my expertise this is my job history this is my education but the one of the things that most people kind of browse over and completely miss our are the pro tips that I have to share with you right here advanced applications promoting your expertise are very cool I have a very nice amazon I think it’s called a book list we’re on my reading list I’m sorry it’s right there reading list by Amazon where I can list all the books that I’ve gone through and recommend them the cool part about this application is actually takes my recommendation and post it to amazon.com so I’m doing killing two birds with one stone i’m i’m allowing people to see on my linkedin profile what my comment was about this what my recommendation was and then and then the opportunity to have this also posted to amazon com you can see you can add twitter one of the cool things down right above where we see megan’s question projects and team spaces so this is really cool because many moon had a software once upon a time and was purchased by linkedin so they have they have some good connections that have this tasking software available so you can actually run your projects box net polls by linkedin you’ll see down at the bottom right I have the stand and stretch blog attached to it so it’s very cool so hopefully that gives you the opportunity to talk about other things that you’re doing recognizing of other jobs through LinkedIn one of the other great answers to your question Megan is the opportunity for pro tips for students this could also be applying to something that you were trying to ask or asking a question about for students you know they don’t have professional history they don’t have five years here five years there two years there six months there but what LinkedIn now offers is the opportunity for you to add experience to their profile that wasn’t related to any kind of necessarily job description so you can see here where somebody’s putting into the organization’s area that they were part of the Alpha Kappa side at the USC another down there is is a student prize for honor awards if you look at that column you can actually see it has certifications courses languages projects you have any patents you know so you can really get diverse in and on all these opportunities list I don’t know how vain it is to list usat or your lsat sore whatever you have out there that’s going on a GPA I put that out there any courses you’re currently on and really that kind of rounds out the webinar trying to get you guys thinking about a few things just sort of a follow-up looks like we might finish early so that’s really cool i don’t think we’ve had a we’ve actually gone over most of them i kind of flew through this material but what you’ll see here is now our mobile technology today how to optimize your use of smartphones and tablets is now live on our youtube page it’s in full length the audio is better as the audio and this webinar is a little better than our first one but you can also go and subscribe and i would recommend this highly to go out there and subscribe to our stand and stretch youtube page and you’ll get a notification immediately when our webinars are published to the public the really cool part is you’ll notice that these these webinars are extended their you know they’re about an hour along this one’s going to roughly be about 45 50 minutes and the idea there is you know it might not have enough time so you just go visit these are YouTube page and watch it and add it to your queue and come back and get pieces of it as you might see fit so I think that’s really cool and for everybody still sticking around I got one more poll and this is kind of just something we’re trying to get out of you guys what is the best time to do a sit and learn webinar so we were kind of experimenting I think our attendance is great during the lunch hour but I’ve already had some people come back to me and say Lucas you know I can’t do lunch I can’t ever do lunch akin I can never do lunch so should we be experimenting should we try to look for things that are after hours you know right before

the end of the work day because maybe you have to go tell your boss that you know I don’t want to do it during lunch but hey can I do some professional experience learning before or after the work day so so we got here so it looks like everybody is kind of cool with lunch time which is really interesting so there’s a few of us maybe we start experimenting with some sometimes mid-afternoon and first thing in the morning I know first thing in the morning is probably going to be me hopped up on coffee so that might do well we might get the webinar done in 15 minutes but the mid-afternoon and after hours those are some good perspective so so again we are you can find our information at sit and learn dot biz we have the opportunity to present these almost every other week this is our third one so it’s going pretty quickly our next webinar can be found at sit and learn da biz we’re going to be discussing search engine optimization I think the title was the search has just begun it’s geared at getting information to anybody who owns a website if you have a business and you have a website you need to attend the SEO webinar we’re going to have I think in a week or two it’s going to be geared around understanding how Google and the mighty mighty search engines look at your website what are you doing to make them better how are you going to be organizing content strategy we’re going to be talking about a lot of things that go into getting your site found on search engines so again thank you for everybody attending I really appreciate the attendance I see there’s some follow-up questions i got some great follow-up questions and i’m going to talk to some people about personally and get and get together with you but overall thanks for visiting and I appreciate it and you guys have a great afternoon thanks bye you


Digital Marketing Q&A – Hump Day Hangouts – Episode 192

Adam: We are live on Wednesday, Wednesday, Wednesday Welcome to Hump Day Hangouts This is episode 192 I’m Adam I am not drunk or on drugs, I’m just really excited to be here Yeah, we got that on our way Chris: Liar You’re a liar, Adam Adam: No Because now I’m on the West Coast, so my schedules are all out of whack So right after we get done here, I head out the door, beat the traffic, and go for a run out in the hills and then come back Bradley: Yeah That’s his running in the woods that he always talks about Adam: Running Bradley: Right Adam: I’m so tired Anyways, enough about me Let’s find out about everyone else So, on my screen, Chris, you’re first How’s it going, man? Chris: Doing good Good to be here Adam: Where are you located in the world today? Chris: I’m still in Austria, soon heading to Portugal, then Barcelona We’ll see after that Adam: Nice, nice Hernan, how about you? Are you surviving winter? Hernan: Yeah I am for now and I’m planning to do so for our coming live event So I’m super excited about that I’m super happy to be here Chris: You’re not making Spain this year? Hernan: I don’t know if we know I mean, I don’t think so because we have a date with a lot of people, or potentially a lot of people in Washington, DC, so I’ll get to that Chris: So you leave it to destiny? Hernan: Yeah Adam: Wait Is Tony Robbins coming? Hernan: No Adam: Marco, how are you doing? Marco: What’s up, dude? I’m trying to make some last minute changes Adam: Gotcha, gotcha All right We’ll come back to you Marco’s got some good stuff he’s gonna share I don’t know, I see an eagle in the mountains Who is this mysterious person? Rob: Hey, what’s going on, man? Adam: Hey, everybody This is Rob Beale If you don’t know him, you probably see him around the group, if you’re new to us Rob, how is it going? Rob: I’m doing good I’ll switch to my camera for a second, but I’m on my cell phone Bradley: Oh, yeah That’s safe driving and hosting a webinar Rob: Yeah There you go So I’ll talk to you guys after that later, right? Bradley: That’s multitasking right there, buddy Adam: Sounds good Yeah Be safe Yeah Keep your eye on the road Bradley, last but not least, how are you doing? Bradley: I don’t know, but I wonder what kind of citation, the cops issue for that Adam: Not a good one Rob: That’s why they make headphones, man Adam: There you go Bradley: No, I’m good I’m excited I’m super excited Guys, I’ve just got to make a quick tease for the MasterMIND again because I just posted in the MasterMIND today I started testing another method for ranking in a 3-Pack and I actually created a … Or went to go register a GMB listing about nine days ago and I just went and picked up the postcard for verification last night I woke up this morning and before I went to the gym, because I coach CrossFit classes in the morning, and so for a little bit this morning I went and I verified the listing by entering the pin and all that and then I went to the gym When I came back I checked, it’s number one in the 3-Pack It’s the number one in the 3-Pack for … I’ve only tested two of my primary five keywords, but those two keywords are number one in the 3-Pack Bradley: I just talked about how I did that in the MasterMIND We talked about it two weeks ago on Thursday what my plan was and it worked I saw I posted in MasterMIND Facebook Group about it today and tomorrow’s the next MasterMIND webinar and I already got several people that are asking me to go over it in much greater detail as to how I did it Now I don’t know if it’s repeatable yet It looks very, very promising, but I’m going to try to replicate that same results with another listing within the next two weeks If I can get it to happen two for two, then we’re on to something Bradley: Again, if you guys are interested in that, now would be a really good time to join the MasterMIND I know I say that every week but there’s a reason for it Bradley: Anyways, with that said, Adam what other announcements do we have? Marco: Well, just to add to what you’re saying, there’s actually other uses for that tool that I’d be willing to share in the next MasterMIND and when you discuss this There’s actually other ways You can use it for what you used it for, but it’s also a great client prospecting tool Bradley: It’s awesome Adam: That’s right Well, we had the Launch Local GMB Pro and Bradley can talk about results Marco, Rob, everyone can talk about results I’m gonna drop the link on the page If you haven’t yet checked it out, you can see the results other people are getting This isn’t something we came up with and then said, “Look, we got good results.” People immediately started having results with this So I’m not gonna really harp on that too much You can go check it out for yourselves and read about it, see if that’s something you think you could plug into your business and start making a lot of money with Adam: But we do have some cool services that were requested We started hearing back from people, “Hey, I want to arbitrage this I want you guys to do it for me What can you do so that I could provide the high value to my client but I don’t have to do the nitty gritty work?”

Adam: Rob, Marco, do you wanna kind of explain what’s going on with that? Marco: Yeah Before Rob jumps in, what I want to add to what you said is, we have a Facebook group, but our Facebook groups, you don’t see people asking questions on, well how do I get results? We do get some of those, of course, because if there are new people who are not familiar with anything But what we’re seeing a lot is we get, I’m getting these results This is what I’m doing and I’m getting, these many costs We see that time after time after time Marco: It’s not a Facebook group on what am I supposed to do It’s a Facebook group where people are sharing their results, people are sharing their different ideas, the different things that they’re doing, we’re conducting webinars I mean, everything that we told you was going to happen is happening Marco: For some people, it’s just incredible, the results that they’ve been getting That they’ve been getting 200 plus calls a month in the demo How freaking good is that? One guy, “Please no more calls.” Why? The client complaining “I’m getting too many calls I can’t handle it.” That’s the type of results we’re talking about Don’t let me tell you about it Go in the Facebook group and see for yourself Bradley: I had one of my roofing clients call me and literally asked if there’s any way I could throttle the calls down because he’s overwhelmed with work I’m not kidding He had me put one notification bar or banner plug-in on his WordPress site that says “We are no longer accepting new calls.” I’m not kidding Because he’s got such a backup of roofing leads right now and it’s because of what we’ve been applying with the GMB Pro method and all that, it’s insane Bradley: I’m also adding image to the page right now, guys, from one of our MasterMIND members A lot of you will know him from also Syndication Academy Bo, I hope you’re all right with me posting just your comment It doesn’t reveal any written information, but it says pretty much the same thing that happened with the last two GMB Pro listings he made within 24 hours of verifying the listing, he was in the 3-Pack Bradley: Anyways, we’ve kind of found a secret backdoor guys to just kicking ass and taking names and it’s pretty freakin’ amazing Adam: What would you guys say to somebody who maybe hasn’t gotten the experience of dealing with, you know, maybe a client who’s got a Local GMB listing? Do you think that someone who hasn’t done this could see results from getting involved in the Local GMB Pro course? Bradley: Absolutely It varies per industry Probably level of competition makes a difference too, but we’ve seen results in as little as days, almost overnight I’ve got a couple of tree service lead gen sites that we started to apply the GMB Pro method to and, I mean, literally within 48 hours, like sites that had not been optimized, hadn’t built any citations yet, they were just basically abandoned lead gen sites that I never got around to doing anything with, and we just started applying the GMB Pro method to and within 48 hours they started generating phone calls and leads, which is freaking insane Bradley: Others take a little bit longer, like the cab service or the taxi company that I’m doing for the case study It’s taking a little bit longer, but it’s really starting to gain traction within the last couple of weeks The calls started to pick up, a lot more clicks through to the website So the more activity the more volume of activity it generates, if that makes sense It really just varies, but yeah, pretty much any business or any local business Bradley: Again, I haven’t applied any of this to national stuff, but for local business stuff, which is what we’re talking about, Local Google My Business stuff, I mean, it’s almost instant results once you start applying what we’re teaching Adam: Good deal Well, I don’t- Marco: Hang on a sec Yeah, as far as national, I don’t want to mention any names, but one of the big guys, who has been with us often and whom we love, he has a national campaign that he wants to do So what I’m going to do is we’re going to treat it as a case study We’re going to get him into Local GMB Pro and we will have results, I guarantee you In the next month or two, we will let you know how this can be applied nationally Bradley: Awesome Adam: All right, guys We’ve got to wrap this up pretty quick and then hop into questions But we definitely wanna let everyone know and, Rob, maybe you can hop in now and talk a little bit, just take a minute or two, about what’s going on with the Done-For-You services Rob: Okay We’re putting a team together, we’re getting the site up Again, if someone else can drop the link to the site that’s coming up on the page, that’d be awesome because I’m driving We’re getting the team together so the services are coming along

The other thing I wanna mention is the auto poster is live and ready to start being used We’re getting some crazy results with it It has lots of features that you’re not going to find anywhere else The poster creates an RSS feed Rob: For those of you that follow us enough, you know with an RSS feed, there’s a lot of extras you can add on the end of even the Local GMB Pro that we haven’t even added to bolster the results that everyone’s talking about now You can start adding all those things, syndicating your GMB post across your network, and all the other fun stuff you can do with RSS feeds I won’t go into that, it’s too offbeat I could take forever Rob: The other thing that is super cool with this auto poster that we have is, for those that are already doing syndication and doing blog content for their clients, we have a plug-in that we’re going to give away for free You use that along with our auto poster and you can connect your blog and create, just based on your blog, it’ll post to your GMB Rob: Marco, I dropped a link in chat to you If you could post that, that is an example post from a blog that was posted that went through syndication and ended up on the GMB site So that’s what it looks like using the WordPress plug-in and the auto poster that we have that’s now live and ready to go There’s all kinds of other things that we can get into, but that’s I just wanna let everybody know that it is live and it’s ready to go Go sign up and start killing it Adam: Great Looks like I’m getting a call in the middle of, there we go, Hump Day Hangouts Awesome Marco: I dropped the link in there Guys, you can grab your actual websites RSS feed You can feed your posts, and then from your post you can grab another RSS feed and go crazy I mean, this is how insane this is We’re talking about amplifying the message, right? Syndicating is all about that, it’s amplifying it But it’s going to have proper attribution, which is the most important thing right now so that you don’t get People are getting hit with or their tummy is getting hit with penalties But I guarantee you, you don’t have proper attribution We have proper attribution Everything is taken care of, guys This is so you can just blow up and get insane leads for your clients Marco: I’m gonna also, besides that link, so that you guys can look at it and just see how good the posts look … Remember, that’s an RSS feed going into Google My Business All right? That’s how great it looks Let me also share our marketplace because we have an MGYB, if you’ve been with us long enough you know what that stands for, marketplace It’s free to join Guys, right now, what we’re offering is video carpet bomb It’s a service where you can go and just literally find out where you can rank a video in a short period of time We have a great VA, he’s trained Marco: Go join the auto poster, it will be available through MGYB.co, and we will be adding other services and products as we go along It’s in the beginning but we wanted to get this out right away because these are the two easiest methods to go and find out where to rank, as far as videos, and how to get leads and push content, because you do need content for Google My Business system So the easiest way to do it is to schedule it and auto post How cool is that? I mean, it’s like I said, you train the VA, you don’t have to do shit except go sell it to a client and collect the money, guys That’s it It’s that simple You guys, “No, it can’t be this easy.” Well, yes, it really is We’ve really made it simple for you guys to go and make money Adam: All right, guys Yeah Let’s get into questions and then before we wrap it up I’m gonna drop a link in I wanted to remind everybody we got the live event coming up in October We still got seats open We’re gonna cap that at 25 It’s gonna be the weekend of October and October 21st in Washington DC, including our beautiful faces along with some guest speakers, including Jeffrey Smith So if you’re interested, again, that link will be on there and we’ll touch on that again towards the end But let’s go ahead and dive into the questions

Bradley: Yeah Just quickly I wanna mention anybody that goes to checks out the MGYB marketplace, which is Make Google Your BITCH, just in case nobody knows what that meant The video carpet bomb offer, that’s actually I got the idea from a colleague of ours, Randy James, and we kind of refined the process together and I trained the VA how to do this really well The offer that’s in there right now, we should have two offers actually, I just pinged Marco in chat and Slack, but we’ll get the other offer in there Bradley: But essentially the two ways that I’m using that is: one, if you’re doing lead gen, it’s fantastic because what we do is take a particular location and then we gather all of the locations like townships, boroughs, all that stuff within a 20-mile radius and then we create a list of … You can have up to three keywords appended or and in the locations appended to those three keywords Bradley: Let’s say that you end up on a 20-mile radius with 60 locations and you got three keywords, so that’s 180 keywords that you would be targeting All you need to provide is the three keywords and the central location and then the video file and a thumbnail, if you want a custom thumbnail, and then the call-to-action, which will be placed in the video description, which is typically going to be an NAP, if you’re doing local stuff, which is what we we suggest Bradley: No, I didn’t, Marco But anyways, I don’t remember saying that anyways We’ll cover that later We’ll get that set up for next week Bradley: Anyways, it’s really good because, I mean, out of like 180 videos that we’ll upload, we can’t guarantee any certain number of them, but I typically get anywhere between 30 to 50 videos ranked on page one for that Now it’s great for lead gen because you can start to generate leads right away You can also find low-hanging fruit So it’s like poking keywords as well, right? You can find keyword opportunities that you can go ranked some more long-term assets for, webpages, social media, web 2.0, anything like press releases, anything like those whatsoever Bradley: But then there’s also an alternate method that I’m using that for that works really freaking well It’s for prospecting purposes, guys, and for closing sales or closing clients One of the best things that you can do is, once a conversation has been initiated with a prospect, so a potential client, when you go to make your proposal or your pitch for whatever services that you are offering, we have a lesser version of it that, again, will get this added in within the next week, it’s for a 10-mile radius in one keyword Bradley: Essentially, what we’ll do is, let’s say, with three keywords in a 20-mile radius, like I said, maybe return 60 locations or 60 place names, right? With the 10-mile radius, it might be 30 or 25 place names and you get one keyword So it will create the same campaign, one keyword appended with the 25 or 30 locations, and it will upload it Out of that you might get five to 10-ish videos ranked and it’s gonna be inexpensive, 20 or 25 bucks is what we’re gonna charge for that So that when you’re pitching the client, when you’re giving them a proposal, you can also send them the results with their video that you branded for them, with their brand name, with their contact information, their NAP in the description You can use that as a deal sweetener for your proposal Bradley: That works really, really, really well I’ve used that method over and over and over again for impressing potential clients so that when I go to … Because, think about that, how many companies show results when they present the proposal? Very few, right? Because he wants to do any work But I trained a VA to do it, right? My VA, for me, the cost is a few dollars I can have a campaign, a video carpet-bomb campaign that I can submit with the proposal and say, “Look, just to show you that I know what I’m talking about and I can get you results quickly, I did this for you at no cost and I included it with the proposal and there’ll be a spreadsheet with the links and the keywords that it’s ranked for.” Bradley: So they can go verify it themselves, and it’s their brand name their call to action, their contact information, and NAP on the video, so it’s like branded for them I’ve gotten a lot of prospects and clients that have come back and said, “Wow, that’s really great Thank you for doing that Nobody’s ever done that before.” So it works really, really well Besides doing lead gen stuff or providing that as a reselling service for your clients, which you could absolutely do, it’s also a great way to land clients and impress them So definitely check that out We’ll get the prospecting plan for that put into the marketplace within the next week or so Bradley: Okay All right Let’s get into some questions That went a little bit longer, but we had a lot of news to share All right Let’s get this back up Oh, yeah, I love that gif, by the way

All right Bradley: The first question, Richard, that was already answered by Chris Chris reposted one from Support, it looks like “Is syndication still relevant?” This is from Renee Ward “I have your course from 2015 There have been so many SEO changes since then, seven to eight this year, and I was wondering if it’s still worth the trouble to syndicate Also, are there any negative repercussions since Google is so picky nowadays.” Bradley: No Renee, it’s absolutely still valid Again, it’s still the very foundation of everything that we do Other than some of the newer stuff that we’re doing with GMB, we’re able to get results without using syndication networks We still recommend that you use them for many, many reasons Number one, syndication networks help to validate the entity Right? That’s incredibly important, especially now, more so than it was in 2015 when we first launched the course Right? That really wasn’t even much of a concern back then Now, it is So, validating the entities, number one Bradley: Number two, you’re amplifying your content Go do a Google search for content amplification and you’ll see there’s a ton of different services out there and the definitions are all pretty much the same That’s basically getting your content that you publish on your blog or your website everywhere that you can That’s what content amplification is So all we’re doing is automating it using IFTTT and our Syndication Academy methods Right? Bradley: Think about it, all of the major news and media sites and the major blogs, the author’s will syndicate their own content that they’ve published on those sites to their own social media profiles, their own professional profiles and such So why is that any different than what we’re doing? It’s not Guys, it’s not This whole myth that, you know, it constantly comes up, and I’m not picking on you, Renee, by the way, but we get the question that comes up often Bradley: By the way, just a quick aside, Renee, that a lot of these questions, especially this one, is also answered in our knowledge-base, which you can find at [email protected] We have frequently asked questions there categorized by product If you go to the Syndication Academy Frequently Asked Questions at [email protected], you’ll see a lot of these questions are already answered Bradley: But for the benefit of everybody here today, I’ll go through it again That is, we get a lot of people say, “Well, what about duplicate content?” Guys, duplicate content only exists when it’s on the same domain If you have 10 pages on your domain or posts and they’re all the same freaking content, that’s duplicate content It’s not duplicate content when it’s republished on other domains Bradley: If that were the case, press releases wouldn’t work I can tell you beyond a shadow of a doubt, and so can the vast majority of our members that are using press releases, we launched an entire product specifically on how to use press releases to rank especially local stuff, and those are all duplicate content Right? It gets published at one place first, whatever the originating press cable services that you’re using Then from there, it goes out to the press wires and just gets picked up by any other syndication partners that are part of that press cable service Right? Bradley: It’s the same freaking press release, not a single word has been changed on it across all the places it’s published to, which are typically 200-plus other sites, some cases 400, 500 sites Right? It gives an absolute quick boost for ranking, especially for local stuff If duplicate content was an issue, then press releases wouldn’t work But they work and they work incredibly well Bradley: My point is no Guys, you’re sharing your own content to your own branded properties, which is natural, It’s normal In fact, it’s kind of expected nowadays Right? So, no, there is no negative repercussions Where the negative repercussions come in is when you start to try to gain the system and add a whole bunch of persona-based networks and secondary syndication networks and you don’t take steps to mask or reduce your footprint Bradley: There is no footprint when we’re syndicating to branded properties In fact, we are claiming our footprint We’re literally posting a flag up and saying, “Hey, come check us out This is our content on all of our sites.” Right? We’re actually, literally, broadcasting our footprint to our own branded sites But when you start to syndicate content, the same content to other networks that have nothing but your branded content on them and their persona-based networks, now that’s clearly to manipulate search rankings And that can cause problems Bradley: However, we teach in Syndication Academy also how to reduce that footprint and still have effective secondary syndication networks I don’t typically recommend that, it depends on how many sites you’re managing If you’re just managing one site, it’s a great strategy If you’re managing a dozen sites, it’s not, because it’s a lot of work and it’s a lot to maintain Bradley: Again, we cover all that stuff since 2015

There have been many, many changes, in fact, that’s why Syndication Academy 2.0, which is what we’re in currently now, which was launched, shit, I think a year and a half ago now I think we’re on update webinar 22 or 23, so it’s almost two years now We update it every month Again, there has been changes but we stay on top of it Bradley: In fact, our guest that’s on today, Rob, he’s actually going to be taking over the Syndication Academy Update webinars here soon In the near future, he’s gonna be taking over handling and hosting the Syndication Academy Update webinars Anyways- Rob: I promise not to do those from my car too How about that? Bradley: Yeah, I hope so Anyways, Renee, I would encourage you to come check out Syndication Academy 2.0 You could still take the training from 2015 and adapt it to today’s current standards There’s no question you might have to do a lot of trial and error to figure it all out, or you can come join Syndication Academy 2.0 and it’s all laid out for you Okay? Or better yet, another alternative would be for you to just buy Done-For-You networks so you don’t even have to bother with it Just use the networks to your advantage Bradley: Okay. Paul’s up He says, “Hey, guys I would like to know what is going on with Blogger? For weeks now when you go into IFTTT to connect to Blogger, Blogger won’t connect If and when Blogger does connect, the recipes won’t work.” Well, Paul, first of all, I rarely ever go into IFTTT and connect stuff anymore because, again, we have a ton of virtual assistants that do all that stuff for me So I can’t confirm, I’m not saying that what you’re saying isn’t true, Paul, but I haven’t experienced that problem myself I haven’t heard anything like that coming from the build team either Bradley: Not that I’m plugged into the build team all the time, but typically it goes through the support channels and ends up in my lap when it comes to Syndication Academy stuff or syndication network stuff and I have not heard that I don’t know if it’s a specific issue with you, Paul, or your Blogger account or whatever I don’t know First of all, I would question, I would ask you, have you tested other Blogger accounts instead of the one that you’re talking about here Yeah, because it might be an isolated issue Bradley: If it’s not an isolated issue, in other words, if this issue is across more than one Blogger profile, then I would reach out to IFTTT support and ask them what the problem is Because again, I don’t work for IFTTT, I just learned how to use the shit out of it for my own benefit and then taught you guys how to do it But again, I would contact IFTTT support and ask them specifically because they would be much better and give you much quicker reply than I would Okay? Bradley: However, that said, I have put that already on my list because I saw your post earlier today, Paul I put that on my list for the next Syndication Academy Update webinar to test and see if there’s an issue; and if so, try to find a workaround Right? That’s typically what we do, guys Remember, I do not build networks anymore really I very rarely ever do that because, again, I’ve trained so many damn VAs to do it, I don’t have to So I don’t get to experience these issues until it’s brought to my attention Bradley: But then when you guys bring it to my attention, or if one of our network builders brings something to my attention, then I put it on the list for Syndication Academy Update webinar, and then I go in and I test Right? I go in and I try to find a workaround, see, first, confirm if it’s true, then try to find a workaround If I do, I let you guys know; and if I don’t, I let you know Either way I let you know That’s part of the Syndication Academy Updates Bradley: Rob, just so you know, it’s probably gonna get dumped in your lap There you go Rob: I figured Bradley: Put it on your list, Rob Play with Blogger But just for that, let’s just check one thing I don’t know if it’s existing Let’s see if existing sites are having the same problem or existing networks, probably not This one seems to still be working I’m still looking at some of my … That one was just posted on July 6, so that was five days ago Bradley: Yeah I don’t know, it looks like, because I’ve got a ton of syndication networks The one that I just picked up looks like it’s syndicated just five days ago, which was I think the last time I have a VA that does the videos for my clients That was one of the videos that was done, one of the rep videos, it’s David Sprague’s product It looks like that one was fine Bradley: Again, Paul, I’d say it’s probably an isolated issue But if it’s not, just contact IFTTT support We’ll look into it though, it’s on the list Okay Bradley: “Also, when you go into settings under Post and Share, you can’t turn on the auto share to G Plus page Are you guys having the same issues?” Bradley: Don’t worry about it, Paul Google Plus is dying They’ve already dug the grave and it’s halfway in the grave

It’s about three feet underground at this point I’m not kidding you Google Plus is dying That’s why any of you guys are probably within the last couple weeks, many of you have probably received notifications from Google Plus saying that they were going to delete your page because it hasn’t been posted to in a while, if you have any pages that haven’t been posted to in a while That’s just more evidence that Google is absolutely removing Google Plus from the Google ecosystem Bradley: Which I never thought would happen, I honestly didn’t I mean, I remember years … People have been saying, “Google Plus is dead for five, six years,” and five or six years ago, I used to think, no, there’s no way Because remember, they integrated Google Plus Google did They forced everybody that used Google products to be on Google Plus and it was so much a part of the semantic web, what Google’s version of the semantic web was The reason why is because it was identity validator Not an entity validator, but an identity validator Does that make sense? Bradley: Because in order for you to be on Google Plus, you had to have a Google account, a verified Google account, like a profile You couldn’t get on Google Plus as just a page or a business You had to have a profile that was intimately attached to a specific person, right? Google Plus was an identity validator, which was used at the early onset of the semantic web engine for Google Google’s version of the semantic web, right? But I guess they figured out other ways through all the stuff that Marco looks into like AI and machine learning and all that shit to validate entities without Google Plus That’s why they’re slowly removing it from all of the Google products I think in the near future it actually finally will be a dead product Bradley: Anybody wanna comment on that? I’ll take silence as a no All right I’m gonna move on then Is everybody still here? Because it’s rare to get radio silence like that We should have crickets- Adam: Yeah First, we need to have like a real production studio It would be fun to have some good sound effects Bradley: Yes, some crickets That would have been funny Okay Armand is up What’s up, Armand? He says, “I thought this was pretty interesting I was listening to Josh Bachynski YouTube channel, good SEO channel, by the way, and they were talking about Google Sites giving a boost, which, of course, you guys know all about Yes, sir, we do What I thought was an interesting statement, is, he claims he could have it shut down tomorrow by emailing John Mueller of Google and telling him about it You can see it here.” He dropped a link “What do you guys think about this? I’m really mostly looking forward to the F-bombs we’ll hear from Marco.” Bradley: Honestly, I don’t know why Josh would say something like that He could have it shut down by emailing John Mueller, maybe he could, maybe couldn’t Why would he be flexing his muscles like that? I mean, whatever, why would you want to kill something that works for SEOs when you’re an SEO yourself? I don’t understand that That would be like, why would you shit where you eat? You know what I’m saying? Bradley: Essentially, that’s what he’d be doing at that point I’m not saying anything bad about Josh Honestly, I don’t really follow his channel or any of that stuff because, as far as I know from years ago, it was a lot of white hat stuff and discussions between white hat versus black hat and all that I don’t buy an any that shit SEO is SEO As far as I know, there are no hats Right? Adam: Yeah The other thing I think is really interesting about this, and I can’t weigh in on the technical aspect of it, but I think that, yeah, Google’s messed around their own properties before, but they like this This is getting their stuff more of their own stuff to show Bradley: [crosstalk 00:33:42] Adam: Yeah Maybe they turn back or something happens in the future, but it’s not like they’re gonna suddenly realize, “Oh goodness, Google My Business pages are taking up more real estate We better do something about it.” That’s not gonna happen Bradley: Yeah Marco, I know you’re anxious to say something Marco: All right Let me start with this Do you guys think Google is stupid enough not to know that their G sites are powerful? Do you think that they don’t already have enough fucking stupid telling them that it works this way and that it’s pushing a lot of juice and that it’s pushing their properties Do you think it’s not already happening? I don’t want to mention names, but snitches get stitches If he wants to go that way, he’s a fuckin’ retard because he’s done a whole bunch of dirty shit I mean, Josh goes back to days when, I mean, the crap that was being done, he was at the forefront of that shit So I don’t know what the fuck he’s talking about All of a sudden he turned, he’s an angel and he doesn’t do shit Well, fuck you and fuck John Mueller Rob: Hey, Remember, this is Hump Day Hangouts Marco: I don’t give a fuck, man These fucking people, they pissed me off

Fuck him, fuck John Muller, fuck them all We’re gonna keep doing it We’ll do it as long as we can and if they take that away, we’ll just find another way like we always do, man So fuck that, fuck you, and that’s what I have to say about it Bradley: Wow Armand Can we send Armand a T-shirt for firing up Marco? Adam: Yeah Armand, hit us up in Support Also, I was gonna say hashtag POFU Bradley: Wow Okay Armand, since you fired up Marco for the day, you won yourself a T-shirt or a hat or something So contact [email protected] and we’ll send you something Adam: John just wrote on the page He said, “How do you really feel, Marco?” Bradley: Yeah, right I was gonna say, guys, we’re not setting a precedent here Please don’t intentionally try to piss Marco off just so you can get free stuff Hump Day Hangouts will begin a downward spiral really quickly that way Bradley: Jim Wells is up next He says, “Howdy, SM Gang Thanks for the recommendation on Google PVA’s last week.” You’re welcome So that’s Metro biz Yeah, he’s great Jim, I guess you contacted him right after Hump Day Hangouts or shortly thereafter because he came pinged me on Skype and said thank you for the recommendation again Absolutely, he’s a good guy Bradley: Anyways, number one, he says, “Do you have any recommendations for planning and tracking web 2.0, syndication networks? For planning and tracking I use mind mapping software for general plans We’ll, we have a service monitor, Serpspace.com, Jim A few aren’t aware of that I don’t know if it has a visual editor like a visual tracker Adam, can you comment on that? Adam: No If it continues to grow we might build something out, but yeah, you just copy-paste your info in and it does this thing and monitors and then backgrounds, you don’t have to Bradley: Yeah So as far as for planning them, no, but it does monitor them What’s great about it is if you order Done-For-You networks from Serp Space they can automatically be imported into the network monitor, which will notify you if properties go down, or if they’re not posting, or if RSS feeds stops posting, like it stops detecting new items in RSS feeds It does various things It lets you know So it’s a great way when you have multiple networks or dozens or hundreds of networks It’s a great way to monitor all that stuff because otherwise a lot of times you just don’t know when stuff starts to break down Right? Unless you’re manually checking yourself Bradley: But as far as planning them, yeah, mind mapping know software is typically what I would I use Lucidcharts I like that a lot That’s pretty much, in my opinion, the best mind mapping I’ve used about a dozen of them and that was the one that I found to be, in my opinion, the easiest to use It’s Lucidcharts Bradley: Anyways, “But I was looking for a better solution to tracking which sites, networks, rings were linked and what content is feeding to them I’ve been working on a Google Sheets solution, but it’s incredibly cumbersome.” Yeah That was my issue because that’s what I was I mean, I still manage probably 90% of my business through Google Drive, period, and I still use spreadsheets for everything too, but that’s part of the reason that we built the network monitor in Serp Space, was specifically so that you could see tier 1 networks on tier 2 networks and how content is feeding from one to the other and that kind of stuff You are able to do that inside of Serp Space The actual visual planning, we don’t have that yet That might be something that we could do at some later time though Bradley: Okay All right Number two is, “What’s your opinion on the number of Google sites to use for each account? Is there a limit to how many you place on each one? I think Peter Drew mentioned using eight before moving on.” Yeah I typically don’t have more than a couple to up to eight If I’m using Peter Drew’s Google sites generator software, then that specifically, yes, I’ll use eight Google sites or I’ll use the Google site with eight pages, which is what he recommends It’s his software, he’s tested the shit out of it, and so is all his beta testers and all of his members now So if that’s what Peter Drew suggests for using that, then I think that’s a good suggestion I trust his judgment because he does a lot of testing Bradley: But as far as the methods like for RYS methods, I’ll leave that one to Marco But typically, for my RYS Drive stacks that contain a Google site, which all of them do I think it should be standard operating procedure, when you buy a drive stack you buy the add-on the Google site, G site Right? Because, to me, it’s really an incomplete I mean, the way I look at it is that … I use the Google site as like the linchpin for the drive stack That’s the main point that I drive all the relevancy from the drive files to the Google site and then I use the Google site to push relevancy to wherever I want Right?

Bradley: Again, I think those should be the same As far as that, typically, I’ll only have the Google site in that drive stack account But typically, like I said, I usually don’t have more than eight I usually only have between two to four really in any one account Marco, what are your thoughts? Marco: I don’t know anything about Peter Drew to comment I can only comment on what I do Bradley: Okay Marco: It’s one main stack with the script, plus G site I mean, you’re killing half the power or more if you don’t push the all of that power to the G site and then that power to wherever it needs to go It defeats the purpose of everything that we do if there’s no companion G site Now the way that we do it is, if you need additional folders and files, well, those stacks in and of themselves that’s what a stack really is It’s a folder packed with files the Semantic Mastery way The way that we do it The way that we interlink everything Right? Marco: The way that it’s done is really time consuming and that’s why you’ll see that most other people will not go the lengths that we go to to interlink everything and to give everything the power that it needs The only thing is that the script takes up a lot of resources If you install the script in more than one folder, Google is going to kill your G site immediately I mean, no question We see a time after time after time after time One G site but multiple stacks as long as you’re only running one script in one of the stacks and that should be your main stack That’s my opinion on that Bradley: Yup He says, “Also, for Stacks, do you place anything else on those accounts? Seems like it might be a risk.” I’ve used some of my drive stack accounts the Google accounts for like creating Blogger accounts It’s like another syndication point and things like that I mean, typically, I don’t see, there is a bit of a risk But I mean, I don’t think I’ve ever had, I don’t think I’ve ever had a drive stack terminated, like the index were terminated from Google I don’t think I’ve ever lost a Google account that was specific for just drive stack What Marco says is true about the script and I’ve had that occur, but not when I’m just doing what Marco said, which is Bradley: In fact, a lot of the Google sites that I end up with the drive stacks, I sometimes use the scripts on them It’s just everything is static once it’s built out Again, I haven’t had any issues with that whatsoever The only time I’ve ever had a drive stack account terminated is when, like Marco said, I’ve had … When the script overburdened the servers and then they terminated that, they killed it But other than that I have … I mean, I’ve got drive stacks, especially the early ones that I did that are … Because I built a few myself originally that were a bit like spammy and they’re still alive today So I really haven’t had any issues What do you say, Marco? Marco: Again, yeah The only time that we’ve had issues that we’ve had stuff killed off is when we overburden Google Google doesn’t like leeches using their resources for free If you pay them now, you can get away with all a whole lot of stuff If you go through their API, you can get away with a whole lot of stuff If you go through G suite you can get away with a whole lot of stuff But if you’re starting off free, don’t overburden Google You could do other stuff in there that there’s no reason why Marco: As a matter of fact, it helps to validate, again, you mentioned identity, but not only the identity, the entity The entity is alive and well and it’s a living organism within this, the Gmail ecosystem, let’s call it Right? Bradley: Yeah Marco: So yeah, that’s what I would say Bradley: Okay, great Great question, Jim As always, man He’s always posting a really question Rob: I was going to throw something in there also Bradley: I’m sorry? Rob: I was going to throw something in there also I think people lose sight of just the fact that Google, they develop drives in the Google site and all that stuff to be used by just standard everyday people We’re just using it in a different manner, but we forget that driving a huge of ton at all universities, and high schools, and all over the country, at least in the state I mean, my kid has Google drive stack for the classes they do They look more spammy sometimes in some of my drive stack I mean, they’re sharing and copying documents and moving along all over the place and you’ve got an entire high school and college classes running through Google and Google drive and sharing and replicating documents, and copying and pasting, and multiple duplicates of the same document Rob: Just stuff that you’re doing, I mean, just think of it like what were the regular college kid do or a high school kid If you’re just making a bunch of documents and folders and sharing them and stuff like that, I mean, you’re basically hide in plain sight

Bradley: Yeah Rob: Like you said, burden in their script and you’re using their computing power to automate a bunch of building and stuff, that’s when they take notice Bradley: Awesome Thanks, Rob Kay Dee says, “Hey guys, what’s the best way to use crowdsearch.me for local right now? I bought it through a link Hernan sent to your future SEO click-throughs page but then saw your post here a couple weeks ago where you will not be implementing apps like that for GMB or money sites as they’ve been flagged.” Bradley: Yeah, that’s true Now don’t get me wrong, guys It still can be used I just think it’s been deprecated quite a bit I know it has because I used to use the shit out of it I promoted crowdsearch.me for a solid two years because I used about 50,000 credits per month, I’m not kidding, because it worked really, really well But as everything that we do in SEO, it became saturated and other products and services, PandaBot and a bunch of other ones popped up that started providing the … Serpify is one Another one, I think … I don’t know, there’s a ton of them Bradley: I actually did a case study test on those two, by the way We tested four of them Another one is John [inaudible 00:46:13] Rainmaker I don’t know, there’s a bunch of services like that and I’ve done case study tests on many of them and found that … I didn’t even start the case studies until after I’ve realized that they weren’t working as well Right? I started to see less and less results from using them Okay? Bradley: But I’m not saying that there’s not still a place for it I just don’t bother with it because it has become so ineffective that it’s not worth the trouble or the expense I can get much better results by setting up other campaigns or using like YouTube, for example I’ve talked many, many times about how to drive cheap traffic from YouTube, which is verified real people Right? You can accomplish a lot of the same thing using traffic from YouTube You can also hire Microtasks workers and although that’s not as effective as it used to be either for reasons of their search history and stuff like that, like essentially Bradley: Remember guys, Google keeps a profile of everybody Right? They built a profile of Google users So anytime you’re using Google and you’re logged into an account, they’re tracking what you do, they’re compiling history of your browsing history, and the types of content that you look at, the types of searches that you do, the types of websites that you click on and interact with and engage with Bradley: Google creates a profile for each user So even now when you hire Microtasks workers and you tell them to go to Google.com in the US and search for a particular keyword and then go find your listing on page one or page two, or whatever, all the way up to page 10 if you want, whatever page it is, then click on it Then find the third word in the fourth paragraph and copy it and paste it into the answer box for the Microtasks dashboard Right? So that way you know that they did Bradley: Why do you do all these things with Microtasks workers? Think about You tell them to do a search and a click That’s what we call CT spam or click-through spam, right? That’s a signal to Google that somebody searched for keyword then found your listing Then you ask them to find a particular word or a phrase or a sentence or something like that on a page that’s buried somewhere in the middle of page So they have to spend some time searching for it, that’s time on site, or you can tell them to click through to another page, which is engagement time on site and also another click-through Right? Bradley: So there’s a lot of different things that you could do to tell Microtasks workers But the problem occurs where and why it’s becoming less and less effective is exactly what I just mentioned, because, if a Microtask worker is doing multiple searches per day for random shit all the time, then Google is going to build up a profile for them of, it’s likely that there Microtasks worker is doing CT spam Bradley: I mean, think about it Google, they’re not an idiot and either are their AI Their AI systems aren’t stupid either My point is, it’s not as an effective click It’s not weighted as much as it would be if it was coming from somebody that has a relevant search history or has an interest or topical relevancy or some something in their recent search history that would make that click so much more valid or more appropriate, which means it’s heavier weighted click, which means it produces better results and a much higher level engagement signal Bradley: So that’s where I’m talking about crowdsearch.me You’ve got to think about that guys Those are bots Those are bots where they spoof the user agents, they spoof the IPs and all that, but even the IP ranges that these bots use are within specific ranges that have been flagged Right? Bradley: So what I’m saying, to answer your question, Kay Dee, would be not to use it direct to money site What I recommend using it for is referral traffic It still works well for that It also works well if you want to send traffic to press releases to help them to stick longer

in the search results, because we all know that press releases rank really well quickly Well, typically, rank really well quickly, but they don’t last for long, unless they get a high level of traffic Bradley: But for that you can buy Fiverr gigs and I’d recommend Fiverr gigs There’s several of them that I’ve recommended on many occasions publicly Right? You can buy a $10 or a $15 Fiverr gig and boost the press release for a month, which I don’t know what you’re paying for crowd search, but me, I was buying 50,000 credits a month so it was rather expensive Right? Bradley: Again, referral traffic and, by the way, if you want to learn how to do referral traffic, let me just see if I can pull this up for him real quick, or Kay, excuse me Let’s go to- Marco: While you’re pulling that up, I’d like to mention that the MGYB.co marketplace, we have real YouTube views Bradley: That’s right Marco: You could add a call to action where you send people to your website You can’t get anything better than a real person watching a YouTube video clicking through to your website I mean, that’s absolutely the best thing that can happen for your website because the referral is YouTube That’s what it is Bradley: Yep I just wanna see, here’s another one I’m gonna drop each one of these links Because I’ve done extensive training on that as well, so stand by for just one minute This is the … Okay, yeah This is the one that I wanted to share Okay I did this Look when was this published September 26 2015, guys, is when this was published and it’s still valid It’s still relevant, this video This is how to set up … and I did it with Jason Johnson of the Syndwire Black Facebook group Bradley: Anyways, again, this is almost three years ago and this is still valid for a good way to use crowd search for referral traffic Then there’s also probably a Hump Day Hangouts clip here too that I could post Look at, it’s awesome That’s from Fist Fight Wayne Clayton, that’s awesome That was a funny ass movie, by the way I thought that movie was hilarious Rob: Referral traffic Marco: It should say “Snitches get stitches, bitches.” Bradley: That’s Ice Cube It’s a funny ass movie Anyways, we got to keep moving Yeah I’m sorry about going so long on crowd search thing, guys But that’s a great question though, Kay Dee Yeah, I don’t recommend using it so much anymore unless you’re using it for very specific purposes because there are alternate better ways to get traffic and real traffic too Bradley: Okay Peter from Poland, “Can you define PageRank and its importance? Is it as important as domain authority?” Honestly, I’m not gonna take the time to define PageRank because it’s a metric that we don’t have access to and we haven’t for years So it’s really no sense of me even trying to … I mean, honestly, Peter, your question is still a valid question But, is it as important as domain authority? No, because I don’t care about any of those metrics anymore I stopped caring about proprietary third-party metrics several years ago, at least two years ago Bradley: I honestly don’t care about trust flow, topical trust flow, domain authority, page authority, domain rank I don’t give a shit about any of those Honestly, I don’t care because we were able to get results whether the metrics say they should have results or not We focus on relevancy, traffic and authority Right? ART, which is what Marco always talks about Bradley: Marco, what does ART stand for again? Marco: Activity, relevance, trust and authority Activity on the link, the relevance on the link, both destination, and the origin, and then the trust and authority both of the summation and the origin of the link There you go, boom But we don’t- Bradley: But to be clear, we’re not talking about domain authority When we say “authority,” we’re not saying domain authority Marco: No Bradley: Right Marco: It’s whether it’s authoritative to Google Bradley: That’s right Marco: That’s all we care about That refers back to pay track and again, yeah, I’m not gonna get into that I will say it’s alive and well It’s part of the rankings core algorithm First, it gives you a PageRank, then you get an overall ranking score That’s what that’s about It’s alive and well We don’t give a shit because we trigger those the Semantic Mastery way Bradley: That’s right Guys, again, when you rely on third-party metrics, they’re not always accurate, guys They’re a really good educated guess, but they’re not accurate because none of those, Majestic AH reps, Moz, none of them worked for Google Right? I just I stopped relying on metrics Years ago, we used to be able to manipulate domain authority and just ranked by manipulating domain authority Well, Google killed that It’s no longer … Unless you’re like above 80 or 85 domain authority, it’s really difficult to manipulate domain authority for ranking purposes anymore

Again, we just stop worrying about it Bradley: Good question, Peter, but I would say focus on a RT instead of working on third-party metrics Okay Matias We’re gonna be running out of time and I was worried that we weren’t gonna have enough questions today You guys jumped in and posted a whole bunch So anyways, all right Matias … I don’t know if I’m saying that correct or not Forgive me if I butchered it He says, “Hi guys, thanks for all the content you put out on the channel for free It’s a great reference.” You’re welcome We enjoy this Bradley: By the way, what is this, episode 192 So we’re getting close to 200, which we’re gonna do a celebration episode then Then at 208, it would be our anniversary We’re gonna have a really big celebration for that says He says, “I got two short questions I have a verified GMB listing and when setting up the Facebook profile, the city name displays differently Facebook only allows to pick from a display menu Will this cause any NAP consistency with my GMB profile, which I prefer not to touch?” Bradley: No I wouldn’t worry about it, Matias I would not worry about that I mean, thing is if you’ve got a Facebook profile and you’re setting it up as a place of Facebook place or whatever and it’s gonna force you to select a city name instead of whatever you have listed, then just use it I wouldn’t worry about it you know too much Again, sometimes that kind of stuff is gonna happen and you have no choice So I really wouldn’t worry about it Bradley: All right, let’s see “Or should I hide the address in Facebook?” I would If it’s a storefront and you want people, because remember, there is a lot of people that use Facebook for finding local businesses and stuff like that So if you’ve got a point of sale, a storefront where people come to the business location, then absolutely I would want to have that listed because otherwise you may lose customers Bradley: You may lose customers for an SEO benefit Does that make sense? and I don’t think that’s right You should be focusing on generating customers, not just SEO, if that makes sense I know they go hand they kind of work hand in hand, but various traffic on Facebook, there’s no question So I would rather have that displayed if It’s a service area business then yeah you can absolutely hide it right Bradley: “By the way, I am displaying the address in GMB and wanna keep it that way.” Well, just remember, in Google My business, it’s a service area business where you serve the customers at the customer location and the customers do not come to the business location Then as per Google’s Terms of Service, Google My Business Terms of Service, you should check to hide the address Okay You should only be showing the address if customers come to your business location, period All right? So just keep that in mind Bradley: All right Number two, “For the same listing I have a TLD, top-level domain website, but I’ve also created the internal GMB website Is there any way to index the business in that site without setting it as the main website in my listing? Marco? Marco: Yeah I’m gonna to tell him to come to Facebook group and I will answer this question directly I won’t answer it here because there’s something really special about that Google business site that I won’t get to in here It’s information only for those people who paid for the course Sorry Bradley: Yeah, that makes sense Sorry, but that makes sense That’s one of the insider secrets of that course Bradley: Anthony, “MasterMIND versus RYS I believe I need to learn more about where to sell this stuff I have a pretty good product but no community to learn more about how and where to implement Makes sense?” All right I’m going to give you my opinion, which would be the MasterMIND Only because RYS is specifically about RYS in its methods where MasterMIND is all encompassing digital marketing training and education as well is business building, mindset, all kinds of stuff, motivation There’s small group MasterMINDs, MasterMIND, it encompasses so much more than just a specific method Bradley: I’m not saying anything bad about RYS RYS is freaking awesome, guys It kicks ass But it’s about a particular method MasterMIND is more about building your business, period I mean, that’s not just marketing, it’s everything included So that’s my take on, anybody want to say otherwise? Marco: No I’m the co-creator of RYS Academy Reloaded and I totally agree with you, MasterMIND first You’ll get a discount for RYS Academy, but I would also tell you to pick up Local GMB Pro- Bradley: If he’s doing local Marco: Yeah Even if it isn’t because that’s gonna help him with his entity and brand and brand plus keyword recognition As I said, I’m starting a national campaign that I’m gonna be working on and I’m gonna show how this shit works nationally even though you might have a local address

Bradley: Okay I’m gonna stay for about five more minutes guys, if anybody needs to bounce please feel free, but I wanna try to get a couple more of these John, it looks like you and Anthony got the same memo today, apparently Unless John posting the same question twice or Anthony posting the same question twice with two different profiles, one way or the other Bradley: Anyways, “MasterMIND versus RYS, I believe right now I need more of a community than another tool.” Well, neither one is a tool Both MasterMIND and RYS are communities RYS is also a particular method, but it’s not a tool Right? “I need to see how others are working and where they’re going I love the special offer case study That’s the kind of insight community I feel to get a breakthrough Makes sense?” Bradley: Yeah, it absolutely does, John That’s what the MasterMIND is all about Again, don’t get me wrong, RYS also has a community because we have a Facebook group for that Marco and Rob are very active in there, I’m not, because that’s their baby Right? But MasterMIND, again, either one is good They’re great really, but MasterMIND again is all-encompassing It covers so much more than just digital marketing or just SEO Right? It covers a broad spectrum of topics and business related topics Rob: I would say from hearing the question, I would mimic what both you guys said, MasterMIND first Go out make some money, and then you get a discount on RYS, back it up and it just helps to take your business to the next level But overall, MasterMIND Bradley: Thank you, Rob Guys, don’t forget, when you join the MasterMIND all of our other products you get either if they’re under 300 bucks you get them for free, if they’re over 300 bucks you get a 30% discount You get first access to all of our new products or new done-for-you services You get first crack at then, we bring beta testers in for all kinds of new stuff all the time Guys, MasterMIND is my baby All of our baby is Semantic Mastery, but what I’m saying is like that’s that’s where my heart lies, is with MasterMIND, there’s no doubt Rob: Yeah, for sure If you come and immerse yourself you will change your business Bradley: That’s it Rob: Period Bradley: Wayne was picking on you, Rob Rob: That’s good I got thick skin, Indiana boy Bradley: John says, “Why bother with the short URL? Seems like a lot of work for something no one will see unless getting stats from someplace like Bitly, which has its own problems?” Not sure what you mean for that John, unless you’re talking about the short URLs from the GMB post from this That’s what Google gives us as a short URL now for the post, the share URL That’s what they look like That’s what you’re talking about Bradley: If you’re talking about like Bitly links in a GMB post, I know some services auto add bit link shorteners for any links For example Sendible which turned out to be shit, by the way I know I talked about it because I had good We’ve got our own GMB poster now so I don’t recommend using Sendible anymore anyways But before our poster was ready, I was using Sendible for GMB post automation and scheduling and I trained a VA to do it for our client work and stuff Essentially after 100 GMB posts, you can’t use Sendible any more clients and they say it’s an API issue with Google Google won’t allow them to add any more than 100 images to any one particular GMB profile through the API, through the Sendible’s API connected to Bradley: I don’t know why because our auto poster, we can do as many as we want Well, Marco was tried to break it and he’s not being able to replicate the error that Sendible has I contacted Sendible support and they literally said it’s a Google API issue and our hands are tied, we can’t do anything I said, “Okay Well, you’ve just lost my $200 a month I was paying them $200 a month I said, “Well, you just lost my $200 a month because this is an absolutely useless service.” So anyways, that’s how I feel about Sendible now It’s garbage Marco: If I may, ours starts at 37 a month Bradley: Yep Marco: So there you go Bradley: Yeah I know and, again, they should put that shit on their sales page API limitation notice, you can only do 100 posts before it breaks I mean, think about it why would somebody sign up, take the time to learn how to use a particular platform, integrate processes into their business, which is what I did I created process docs and all that shit for my VAs, spend all this time developing this out and then within two weeks or three weeks we hit the API limits It’s like, are you kidding me? That’s just a complete waste of time Anyways- Bradley: Well, there’s add hours too I drop this into, if you want to go sign up and try it out, you can get like five free posts just to try it After that, you got to move on but you get in there, see what’s up, what’s available, and try it Just sign up, get your email and you get five free posts to try it out I highly suggest you try it out because the power is there in the RS feed in and out

RSS feed out even has, I mean, it’s we’ve it’s been a tricked out Semantic Mastery style We’ve created our links back to 301, not the standard 302s that you typically get from the API Marco: Yeah We push power around I’d like to just give a shout out to our programmer who has just been kicking ass He’s the one, Rob tells them, “We need this,” and the guy just gets it done Once you get hooked into a really good programmer you know all limits are off Bradley: That’s right Marco: The sky’s the limit with what what we’re going to do with this Right now, it’s at that price So jump in, get in where you fit in as I usually say Bradley: Yep I love the comments here guys We’re done with questions so we’re gonna wrap up But I just wanna give a shout out to each and every one of you First of all, I loved the comments about Marco’s rant That’s great Armand, like I said, hit us up on support We’ll send you a T-shirt or a hat or something There it was, Armand right there Bradley: Dominic’s awesome We just talked about MasterMIND and we have small group MasterMINDs where Adam set up a survey form and MasterMIND members go in and fill out the survey form Then Adam pairs people up or matches a small group of people that have like or similar interests up for small group meetings where they’ll, like accountability groups, which is how we got started at Symantec Mastery This is how my partners and I got started was because of an accountability group that I founded and they all joined That’s exactly how we got started and here we are five or six years later Right? Bradley: Dominic was in my small group The first small groups that Dominic was in mine Great guy, sold a brick-and-mortar business to go into lead generation and SEO for his brother’s remodeling business, which is fabulous like, you know, sold his own brick-and-mortar business to be able to get into full-time digital marketing, which is amazing, I think So Dominic shout out to you That’s awesome Jim Wells, again thanks for your questions and please come join a MasterMIND as well, and John looks like you’re about to join the MasterMIND That’s fantastic Bradley: I see you bought some of the other products You could have gotten a significant discount Sorry about that, buddy But come join us now because it won’t be the last product we relaunch either Okay? Marco: John, just hit me up in the Facebook group for our Local GMB and we’ll work out on how to make it all work for you so that you can start making money and start buying more of our shit Our shit works, man There’s no question It works Bradley: All right Thanks everybody for being here I wanna bounce, it’s just the true diehard still here It’s Marco, Rob and me All right, guys We’re gonna wrap up Rob: We got a problem Bradley: Yeah Marco: Might I add before we go, that I actually bit my tongue with what I really had to say Anyway, I bit my tongue, guys Rob: That’s Hump Day Hangouts on a three second delay Bradley: Yeah, that was a rant earlier from Marco That was a restrained Marco rant Marco: It was Bradley: A restrained rant All right, guys Thanks for everybody being here on our MasterMIND webinar Tomorrow, we’re gonna be going over that fabulous GMB method that is just crashing it right now, guys MasterMIND is a good time to join, if you haven’t already We’ll see you guys next week Thanks everybody Thanks, Rob Thanks, Marco Marco: Bye, everyone


Installing and Running WordPress on a Shared Hosted Server

the most common and most inexpensive way to host a wordpress site on the web is through shared hosting getting web space on a shared hosting server is a little like renting a hotel room or an apartment it’s cheap and flexible but you may run into trouble with the neighbors and price often reflects service and location when you get a shared hosting plan you’re allotted a predefined volume of hard drive space on the server in addition you’re allowed to use a certain amount of RAM processing power and in and out traffic on that server the space Ram processing power and traffic is shared among the different people and companies who rent space on this server that means if you’re lucky and you’re placed in a good part of town with polite neighbors you won’t have any trouble with your site on the other hand if you’re placed in a bad part of town where the neighbors or more precisely their web sites are large poorly maintained or are extremely popular their bad management or hogging of resources will negatively impact the performance of your site don’t let this dissuade you from using shared hosting though for most sites a mid to high level shared hosting account with any of the more reputable shared hosting providers will be more than enough and if you run into trouble along the way you can either ask the host to move you to a new server or upgrade to a better plan to install and run WordPress on a shared host you need a couple of key components first off you need a shared hosting account and access to that account most large web hosts sell shared hosting accounts on a monthly or yearly basis and once you set that account up you will get full access to the management area of your account you also need a domain name pointing to the shared hosting account normally when you set up a shared hosting account you will get one free domain name with it and that domain name will automatically point to the right place but if you have an existing domain name with a different host you can also point that domain name in to your host if you need help with that contact your domain name provider and your shared hosting provider you also need WordPress itself and later in this course we’ll look at how to download WordPress and then how to upload it to your host you’ll need an FTP client application so that you can do the transfer of WordPress from your computer to your host and finally you’ll need a text editor so you can edit some of the key files inside WordPress WordPress is a free open source application that you can download from the web you can also find free open-source FTP client applications for your system as well as free open source text editors for your system on the web with all these components in place and a solid internet connection you are ready to get started a WordPress site consists of two main elements the files that constitute WordPress and the database that serves up the content the first step in setting up a wordpress site is to create a database for wordpress to interact with the database is created using an automated tool on your web host admin panel but before I set up the database I’ve created this file here on my desktop that has an entry for database name database host name username and password I’m gonna save this information in this text file so that later when we configure WordPress it’ll be able to talk to the database depending on what shared web host you are using the experience of logging in will be dramatically different here you see the login area for dot easy and here you see the login area for one and one as you can see completely different experiences but hidden within these experiences you will find the same type of information in this case what we want to do is create a new my sequel database and if you scroll down here you’ll see on one on one you have something called my sequel administration under dot ez you instead have something called site admin panel or cPanel and this is a very common thing to find on web hosts I’m gonna use not easy for this demo so I’m gonna follow the link to the site admin panel and also close down one on one and here I land on cPanel a cPanel is a very common tool used by web hosts for management of websites here you’ll find management of things like your email your files and also your databases the appearance of cPanel will vary greatly depending on the host you’re using and the functions available in cPanel will also vary greatly so depending on what host you’re using the experience might be different but the key components will always be there in particular my sequel management so when I scrolled down here you see under databases we have my sequel databases

which shows me all my databases and I also have my sequel database wizard and that’s what I’m going to be using now the only step in creating a database is to give the database a name so here I’m gonna give this database the name test WP and you also notice that in the case of this host any database name is prefixed with my username so here I have a username I have to copy that and paste it in and then also copy out the name I gave it and paste that in and then I click next step now the wizard has created a new database for me called pink and why underscore test WP and the next step is for me to create a database user the database user will become WordPress so that WordPress can access the database and put it in flow into the database and also extract information out of the database so here I’m gonna give the user the same name as the database itself because that makes it easy to remember and then I can go back to my text file here and copy out the name and paste it in under username and then I have to give it a password now this is not a regular password like the ones you would set up on your own site that you have to remember this is a password that will be remembered by WordPress and it’s also a password that Amy hacker would want to hack so it’s important to create a very strong password so instead of typing in your own password I recommend using the password generator this will generate an extremely strong password for you like this one then you can now copy out paste them down here then check I have copied this password in a safe place and click use password now you have a very strong password and a username that are associated with the new database and you can click create user now that the username with the password has been connected to the database you created you need to give this user privileges this means what the user can do on the database and because the user is WordPress you need to give it all privileges when everything is checked you click next step and the user and the database have now been created WordPress is a free open-source web publishing application meaning you can download it for free as many times as you want and use it whenever you want in any way you like WordPress the application can be downloaded from wordpress.org when you set up a new WordPress site it is always my recommendation to download a fresh new and untouched version of WordPress that way you get the latest version and you know it has not been edited in any way to get WordPress you go to wordpress.org and click either the download button up here in the right-hand corner or follow the download link down here in the front page this takes you to the download page for WordPress and from here you can either download the current version of WordPress or you can go to the release archive and download older versions of WordPress if you want to do backwards compatibility testing but if you’re setting up a new site you should always click download the latest version of WordPress and once you click it it gets downloaded onto your computer now that WordPress has been downloaded onto my computer I can open the zipped archive that came on to my computer and in the zipped archive you will find a single folder called WordPress so I’m gonna place that folder on my desktop and once it’s extracted onto my desktop I can open the application this is what WordPress looks like out of the box and this is also what WordPress will look like when it’s installed on your computer you have three folders called WP admin WP content and WP includes and then a series of other PHP files that are usually prefixed with WP if you see this you know you’re working with WordPress now that we have WordPress download it and extract it on to our computer the next step is to upload it to the server and that’s next to get WordPress from your computer onto the web host you need to connect and upload all the files this can be done in several different ways but the easiest method is through FTP FTP or File Transfer Protocol is an old and simple way of transferring files over the web it is not the mole secure way and for this reason many shared hosting providers now make you use SFTP which is a more secure and encrypted method both FTP and SFTP work the same way for you as a user when you signed up for your hosting account you would have gotten an email from your web host with your FTP account information if you can’t find that you can log into your management panel and find the FTP information there through cPanel or

through your FTP management or you can contact your web host directly to get the FTP information once you have the FTP domain username and password you can connect to your domain using an FTP client I like to use a client called FileZilla you can get FileZilla both for Windows computers and for Mac and it works the same way for both applications now I need to log in to my domain now I’m gonna show you what happens when you log into the root of your domain first so I’m gonna type in my domain and then my username and my password and click quick connect now you see I am logged in it’s all green up here in the status area and the status is currently directory listing successful and here you see the root of my hosting account and this can be really confusing for people who log in for the first time after all what is all this dot cPanel dot no HTP add all this weird stuff here well this is all the stuff that the hosting provider put into your web hosting space to make your web hosting work the only thing that matters to you is this folder called public underscore HTML so if you see all these folders when you log in you want to go directly to public underscore HTML because this is where all the live content on your site is going to appear now because I have a web host with a lot of content in it already you see lots of folders here and that can be a little bit confusing for you so instead I’m gonna log in as a separate user and go straight to the folder I want to use I’m going to break my connection and then I’m gonna change the username to different FTP account I created to point specifically to a specific folder within my hosting provider now if you’re just setting up the first site you’ve ever set up on your hosting provider going to public underscore HTML is good if you are setting up WordPress under a separate folder like I am you need to log in to that specific folder once you’re logged in to the correct folder you’re ready to upload WordPress into your hosting account now that we have an FTP connection to the web host it’s time to upload WordPress to the server here you have to think about where you want WordPress to appear like I said in the previous movie if this is the first time you’re setting up a site on your new hosting account simply go to public underscore HTML and place WordPress there however if like me you have multiple domains pointing into your account and you want each of these domains to have their own folder you create a set of folders under your FTP account and then you point your domains to those folders and then you host WordPress within those folders so in my case what I’ve done is I’ve set up a separate folder under public underscore HTML and I’ve called it theme weekend and I point to the theme weekend domain to that folder so now when I log in using this username and password I line directly inside that folder and this is where I’m gonna place WordPress now all I have to do is open my wordpress folder that i download it on to my computer and grab all the folders and files within the wordpress folder and pull them over into the FTP application now each of the files and folders are uploaded into my hosting account and once the upload is complete I’ll be able to activate WordPress once the transfer of the files and folders is complete I need to check fail the transfers to make sure that all the files were transferred correctly if I have any files listed here I need to grab those files and re-upload them in so I know that all the files and folders were transferred correctly and then I’m ready to start running WordPress on my server now that I’ve successfully uploaded WordPress into the correct folder on my web host it’s time to visit WordPress for the first time I’ll open my browser and go to the correct domain name and if everything worked correctly I should land on this page where it says there doesn’t seem to be a wp-config.php file I need this before we can get started this is the configuration file WordPress needs to talk to the database this happens because WordPress currently has no way of knowing what database it’s supposed to be talking to because we haven’t created a configuration file yet but we don’t have to create that configuration file WordPress can do it for us to make that happen simply click on create a configuration file here you land on the first page for WordPress and it tells you what you need you need your database name your database username and password and also the database host and a table prefix and you’ll remember previously in the course we collected most of this information your database name your user name and password and we can make an educated guess about the

database host name and you’ll see that in a second I know I have all the information I need so I’m gonna click on let’s go and get started here I get a form where I need to enter the information I’ve collected previously so here I need my database name so I’ll copy that and paste it and you’ll remember I created a database user with the same name so I’ll paste that too then I need my complicated password so I’ll go back copy out the password paste it in and then for almost every host the database host name will simply be localhost if it’s not you’ll likely be told by your hosting provider or if you can’t find that information you can contact the hosting provider and ask them what the database host is finally you need to set a table prefix now this is the prefix that will be appended to all the database tables that WordPress is going to use by default it’s set to WP underscore but it’s a good idea to change this because if a hacker were to get into the database they would look for tables that start with WP underscore so simply changing it to something else will make it much hard to hack the site so I’m gonna change this to Morton underscore and click Submit now one of two things will happen either you get this message all right Sparky you made it through this part of the installation WordPress can now communicate with your database if you’re ready time now to run the install that means everything worked properly if so you’re ready to move on to the next movie if you don’t get this message and you get a message saying something is wrong you should first go back and try to re-enter the information and see if you just got something wrong and if that doesn’t happen you can go to the movie in this course called connecting WordPress and the server manually and do a manual connection between WordPress and the server once the connection has been made between WordPress and the database you’ll land on this page and from here you can run the install this is what’s called the famous 5-minute install from WordPress and here you set up all the information about your WordPress installation here you give your site the title you set up a username and password for yourself and you also provide an email address so that WordPress can send you emails and remind you of the password the first thing I’m gonna do here is set up a site title and this is gonna be a demo site so I’ll just call a demo site it doesn’t really matter what you put here because you can change it once you get into WordPress itself the next option is to set a username and the suggested username here is admin admin is not a username you ever want to use and WordPress because anyone who wants to hack your site the first username they’re gonna use is admin so change this to something else it can be anything except admin I’m simply gonna change it to my name and that will be more than good enough then you have to set a password and this is gonna be a password you need to remember so that you can log in later and you have to set it twice and then you have to set your email and here it’s important that you use an email address that actually works because this is the email that will be used by WordPress to send you your password if you forget it the final option here under privacy allows you to choose whether or not you want search engines to index your site now if this is a new site that you’re just setting up and you’re gonna be experimenting with it I highly recommend turning this option off otherwise Google and Bing will start indexing the content on your site before your site is ready so it’s better to turn the privacy option off and then turn it back on again once you have all your content ready and your site is ready to be viewed by the public once you have all the information set up click install WordPress the installation runs and now you can log into your site by clicking login here you have to enter your username and your password and click login and here you have WordPress if you see this it means that everything worked the way it was supposed to if you don’t see this and you see either a blank page or an error page it means that something went wrong in your installation in that case the easiest thing to do is simply delete WordPress completely from your server upload it again and follow the same procedure one more time if you’ve been following this course from the beginning you’ve followed every step and everything worked correctly you will now find yourself on the dashboard of your new live WordPress site on your shared hosting account but this doesn’t really look like a website this looks more like an administration area and that’s exactly what it is when you logged in after doing the five-minute install you logged into the back-end or dashboard of your WordPress site to see what your WordPress site looks like for the public you need to go to the top left hand corner find the site name for your site and click on it this will take you to the front-end of your website so

this is what the web using public will see when they visit your site now if you log yourself out I’ll show you how to get back into the back end of your site so I’m gonna lock myself out go back to my site and this is what I see if I visit the domain but I’m not logged in now you may notice there’s no login button here so how do I get to the back end of my site together well all I have to do is go to the address bar find the URL for my site and then type in slash WP dash admin this takes me to the login panel for WordPress and from here I type in my username and my password and click login and I get back to the wordpress dashboard this is where you’ll do all your work with WordPress and this is where the real fun begins in most cases WordPress is able to create a configuration file for you and you’re able to connect to the database simply by using the web tool that comes with WordPress but in some cases when you create a new configuration file you either get an error message saying err establishing a database connection in this case it means that your information is incorrect so either your database name your username your password or your database host information is incorrect in that case you need to check this information again with your host to make sure it’s correct and try to submit the form again in some other cases though WordPress will tell you that it can’t create a new configuration file that might be because WordPress doesn’t have ax to that functionality or if your database host is preventing WordPress from doing so if that’s the case you need to create that configuration file yourself it’s actually very easy so let me walk you through that process first you need to make sure you have all your components you have the latest version of WordPress they downloaded from wordpress.org you also have a connection directly to your web host and you have this information that you collected when you created your database so your database name your username and your password now you need to go to WordPress the version you downloaded and find the file called WP – config sample and open this file in your text editor so I’m gonna open it in notepad plus plus this is a configuration file that WordPress was trying to create and all you have to do here is enter the information that WordPress was not able to enter for you so if you scroll down on this page you find the information you need to enter right here database name database user database password and database host so here I can simply go and find that information here’s my database name so I’ll paste that in that’s database name I’ll also paste in the user name cuz it’s the same one I’ll paste in my password and I already know that localhost is the correct hosting name for this site there’s one more thing you need to do if you scroll a little further down you’ll find this area authentication unique keys and salts here you can put in authentication keys to make sure that no one is able to do nefarious things with your site now of course you can go in and put your unique phrases here but it’s kind of tedious so instead WordPress actually comes with a link that will help you do that automatically so copy out that link go to your browser and open the link and here you get an automated set of highly encrypted salt keys so I’m gonna highlight them all copy them and go in and just replace the empty ones with the ones that were generated now I have extremely complicated encryption keys and I have all the database information I need to connect to my database so now I need to save this file so I’ll go to save as and save this file as WP – config click Save then I need to go back to my WordPress installation which now has the new file and then to my FTP application find where WordPress is installed and drag and drop WP config into the root of my site now WordPress has the configuration file it needs to connect so now I can go back to the root domain and visit the site and if everything worked properly I should either land back here on the installation page or if I’ve already setup the database and the connection just broke I should land right back on the main web site


WisPQC 12 4 15

good morning everybody I guess it’s not morning it’s noon time we can begin so the people who will be talking today are myself and Conway cynthy Anderson while maybe joining us by phone however she is at O’Hare on a layover and don’t know if she’ll be able to connect Lisa lockin from wheaton franciscan st. Joe’s is here as well as Kyle mounts the purpose of our call this today is to can you go to the next slide thanks is to talk about a little bit about the perinatal quality collaborative some of the background information and then to go into the specifics of the beta project and all of you have been part of the regional forum series so you’ve had you’ve heard the information before some of the information that we have now is more detailed but we’ll review some of the regional forum materials and then go on to how you can participate in the beta project so just as background to wis pick it began 15 months ago it’s hard to believe and it was only in the last six months that wa pc received funding from DHS to actually create a structure our first group of members were calling founding partners and we have a list of those that we’re going to show you and we want to make sure that you Kyle can I advance the slides um no I have control of that okay sorry that’s okay you can see that these are the founding partners and you will see that there are health systems as well as organizations if we could go to the next slide and then the next slide and we want to issue an open invitation to organizations members of the perinatal quality collaborative our organizations not individuals so if you’re from an institution a system an organization and you think your organization would want to be a member please contact me and we have our emails email contacts at the end of the presentation the first project that the group of seventeen founding partners selected was hypertension and we’re calling this the beta project it’s the project that we’re learning from before we begin the next project which is the funded project from the grant that we received you know that the Regional Forum was the educational intervention and the way we recruited for people to be part of the beta project the Regional Forum series was a very detailed description of what the change package is what the change from a cog is and how we want to create a data system that we can measure some change in getting to the goal or the objective of improving care for women and infants affected by hypertension during and after pregnancy so this is the first in a series of three calls the next call is December 16th and then there’s another one on january sixth they will both be at noon and I hope you’ll be able to participate in them the purpose of these three calls is to meet with the people who said they wanted to be part of the beta project to give them some background to let them know what that means and then after today there will be some homework for you to think about which part of the project are parts of the project you want to participate in and we can have more of a discussion on December 16th about that so I don’t see that cynthy has joined so I would like to turn it over to Lisa Lakhan to talk about the definition of hypertension what makes things different now than it

was in the past and then to talk about the change package the educational materials and then finally Kyle will talk about the actual measures themselves so Lisa thanks and I think the main thing with with acog with their statements on blood pressure is that emphasis on the or 140 / / or 90 and you know 160 or 1050 as well as the other tightening up of the definitions for chronic hypertension mild and severe preeclampsia and that type of a thing so when we’re talking about hypertension we’re getting much more specific about what we’re talking about and how it’s being managed along those lines while we don’t have it specifically in here that is one of the things that from a process improvement standpoint you’ll want to look at what’s in your organization is how close are we getting with being able to correctly describe the blood pressures we also have the great good fortune recently to move to icd-10 which probably can help capture some of that better but in your organization you may want to do some looking and checking in to how well does the coding in your organization match up with what the physicians and other providers are writing in that type of a thing so again paying attention to what the actual definitions are what is everyone documenting and then is the coding matching up to that can be useful to you I think then Kyle if you can move on to the next slides I think the next piece is I’m going to briefly review a few of the tools and pieces of Education that are available these I believe are should all be on a WA pc website under the with pics section as we go through this again it’s a reminder of many of the things that you had at the regional forum and to again start thinking about which one of these ones of these i should say best pertain to what will help drive our organization along maybe part of these what we already do that so we’ll move on to something else and for other people might be you i haven’t even started that that’s where we want to work so we’ll review a few of these again WPC does have levels of care self-assessment survey and relatively recently the OB side surveys came out you may have done this in the past for your on the neonatal side for sure and you may have even done this in the past for obstetrics but it has changed now to a four level system rather than the three level that it had been so your organization may want to look at being able to self-assess as to which level of care you are at this becomes important particularly when you start thinking about blood pressure and is the patient being taken care of in the appropriate setting so keep that in mind as you’re thinking about that then if we move on to another piece here the wisconsin collaborative for healthcare quality has developed a whole toolkit for hypertension and this is the all across all categories not just perinatal of course but again it has in their information on standardized methods for taking the blood pressure standard protocols for treatment and then some patient ed and self-management certainly standardizing taking the blood pressure as we mentioned in the regional forums is essential really in being able to best diagnose that you even have a problem much less what’s it doing now so that also may be something if you interface with various clinics or even within the hospital setting our your providers consistently measuring the blood pressure the same way next please again another thing that we hit there are several different types of pictures like this but this is that Kurt that preeclampsia early recognition tool another good piece that you may want to see where all it would be useful for you may want to see is if something in our

ed that could benefit cut our own labor and delivery or perinatal unit benefit from this do we have a triage area the more places around wherever a patient could interface is what would be helpful to have so you might want to do some strategizing around how are we going to get this out to people and make them aware of it okay the next one please this also is another thing I think this probably came out of district 2 ACOG this is another checklist that can be helpful particularly again maybe in mono b units but maybe also in the OB units that gives a quick look at what I be doing if there is some severe hypertension this one is not just for the preeclampsia but for when we’re talking about these really elevated blood pressures and it’s got the mag on the left side there and then the other anticonvulsant meds over there on to their right so back again you may would look at where would we have this and where would we want to have people get education on it next slide please the maternal early warning criteria are amused this can probably be posted up places other people may decide that you know what we would like to put this into our documentation system somewhere or whatever but again it gives information that people can tune into not unlike the things that happen for sepsis and other warning criteria that various organizations use but this type of a thing can start to tune people into man do I have a problem going on here from a maternal standpoint again as with all of these finding where where and who would be the best places for this to be would be helpful next one another thing that can be useful for management especially in areas that maybe don’t deal with this as much is uh this is kind of a nice quick way to get at if you’re not sure if someone does have preeclampsia or not going through this little algorithm can be very helpful to people particularly again depending maybe I met a level one facility and if she’s got a lot of things going on where she’s lower gestation and pretty sick you might be transferring her out to a different facility or that type of a thing and it also gives good information on you know can we go ahead and continue to manage conservatively or do we need to get her delivered now or not so that can be a very useful tool and then next please ich lamp SIA algorithm again mercifully we don’t have a lot of problem with eclampsia probably in most settings but this can be a very useful tool than four places especially where because it doesn’t happen all that often a quick way for people have at a glance rather than have to dig it dig around somewhere else maybe they’re laminated somewhere maybe it’s right with a emergency kit that you have that type of a thing so as you’re looking around at it what processes do I have in place how could I fine tune it in that type of a thing a posting like this might be helpful and then finally the last one for staff in particular would be a postpartum preeclampsia checklist this happens me for an emergency department but it could be for other areas as well and again it kind of reminds people that you know what do we have going on post partly one of the things i think we’ve maybe talked about in our organization is dewey DS in those type of areas routinely ask something like have you been pregnant in the last couple of months or so on as they’re kind of doing their differential diagnosis for what’s going on for them so this type of a checklist and what to do who to call can be a helpful type of a thing for staff and then if we move on we’ve got a couple of other pieces that was staff education there are a couple of pieces out there again for patient education again we had emphasized the need for patients to understand and to be able to self-advocate so WPC now does have planning for pregnancy in women with hypertension a very basic thing

about if you do have hypertension what to watch for what to ask for how can you stay healthy and that type of a thing and then finally one of the useful tools that we had suggested is the preeclampsia foundation does have this well tested a little handout sheet that has good graphics as well as I believe the reading levels at about a fifth grade level that can be handed out to women both during the pregnancy and or afterward as we get into the measures that we’re going to be looking at one of the things we are going to be measuring is did all women not just women who’ve already had preeclampsia elevated blood pressure get information about preeclampsia but did all women get information on this since it could develop in the postpartum period so this is a useful tool that is out there I was looking at the pricing and it’s quite reasonably priced as well so that’s just again a brief overview and review of some of the tools that are out there doesn’t mean you have to use all of them but it gives you a flavor for some of the things that are out there so that as you go and look within your own organizations and groups you can begin to see where do I want to fine tune in and what types of materials are available to us that will help us out and with that I think I’ll turn this over to Kyle mounts to disturb to discuss the particulars about this project okay before I start into that unless the audience the participants do any of you have any questions about any of the tools Lisa covered so far as she mentioned they are available on the wa pc website and i also notice that dr Anderson was able to join us so I’ll ask her do you have any comments or anything you would like to add about the definition changes or the materials lisa has covered so far if you do have questions if you want to just raise your hand I will be able to unmute you from my part of this and you can ask it directly otherwise you could type it into the chat box and I will keep an eye on that also so any other questions or comments at this point Kyle like that I found another question and somebody asked if there is a cost to joining Wis pic and there is no cost at this time the only thing that we asked is that you sign a commitment form to participate in that you let us use your logo so we can demonstrate that you are part of the organization the first thing that’s probably important to consider is where you are with things and one of the things that we have found helpful in pest initiatives is to ask people to consider a SWOT analysis very briefly a SWOT analysis allows an organization or group of people to take a look at their strengths weaknesses opportunities and threats that may support or hinder their ability to implement changes along the way and so if you haven’t already done so it might be helpful to consider doing a SWOT analysis so that then you can evaluate your own situation and see which of these things may be beneficial the measures themselves there are four of them as you can see here the first is the maternal length of stay after delivery the second is implementation of appropriate provider information the third is implementation of education for women of early warning signs and then NICU admissions for those of you who attended the regional forums you may have seen this diagram but it puts everything into a perspective that we think helps understand where we are with these things as an mentioned at the very beginning the intervention for the beta project is hyper to the regional forum series hypertension and the perinatal period improving quality of care preventing crisis now the aim of that intervention is to increase provider use of evidence-based protocols and you can see that that’s divided up into the four areas that are specific to the measures that we’re going to be using for to in relation to the first measure is the maternal length of stay in this slide summarizes the ACOG recommendation now you note that it does say that if they can’t be monitored in the hospital it’s

also okay to use the equivalent outpatient services to be performed at least 72 hours and again seven to ten days after delivery what many people have told us though is that it’s difficult to duplicate what’s in the hospital in the home setting and so that’s why we’re looking at the maternal length of stay after delivery and this diagram is probably familiar from the slides also see that there are a couple ways that this could be measured when it’s using a peri data dotnet standard report in the other Emmanuel collection tool and Lisa since you’ve worked with Perry data a lot do you have any comments that you’d like to make about that make sure that if it says records with all delivery information are filled in the keys to this will be such things as all the hypertension fields whether it’s chronic or gestational the there so I think of field on help and there’s a field on a clamp SIA all those have to be filled in also one of the measures for the mum is about the length of stay so not only do you need to discharge date with the discharge time on there in order for it to be able to calculate so please go ahead and make sure that that filled up on the baby side one of the key things that often gets missed is transfer out to an external place because that’s going to be counted in the measure and there’s two parts to that where they transferred out within 24 hours or after 24 hours both of those need to be filled in an order for the measure to be able to be calculated in addition to the actual summary information here there will be the patient level information similar to the early elective delivery things for those of you who use it so it should look very similar to you in that way and you can go dig through there to find out if if you are missing a certain field I think that’s about it at okay thank you now for hospitals that aren’t part of Perry data we did develop a paper form for data collection looking at the maternal length of sleigh stay this particular slide goes over the definitions of the numerator and denominator and things like that the people may want to know to see what it except what exactly they’re measuring now that’s a lot of verbiage to make it easier to actually understand what’s happening this is the thing that we will ask people to actually complete as they do it now you can see as you look at this it lays out specifically the things were interested in in the first part here we look at did the woman give birth at greater than or equal to 20 weeks gestation yes or no and you can see that the answer is yes then you go to the next question if it’s no stop they don’t meet the criteria for it and the next part of that is that the woman have a diagnosis of gestational hypertension preeclampsia eclampsia and/or hellp syndrome if the answer is yes they are part of the denominator if no stuff they don’t meet the criteria the next four questions then allow somebody to determine how much time in hours after the delivery of the baby the mother was discharged so the first to relate to the infant’s birth date and time in the second date and time of the woman’s discharge from that you can calculate the number of hours and then question eight was the woman discharged a greater than or equal to 72 hours after the infant’s birth if yes they’re part of the numerator if no they are not and then the final question we wanted to ask was was the infant delivered vaginally yes or no and so by completing just those nine questions we can get the information that we need for this particular measure as we were looking at these as you can imagine there were hundreds of other questions we would have liked to have asked that we would have liked to have known but it comes down to these particular things for this particular initiative now the second measure relates to implementing provider education and there are two parts of that versus whether or not the mother received care in an appropriate facility and then the second has to do with management of many of the issues related to maternal status and from the regional forums who may have remembered this part of the the slide set and it talks about provider education and many of the things Lisa talked about all the tools the

algorithms for medication and diagnosis and what we did was developed a process measurement tool that looks like this the first part again the definition of the numerator and denominator and the suggested data source as you can see now for this this is broken up into it’s a longer section and all this is on one page but the first thing we want to know is the level of care because that gets into the issue of what’s care delivered at a facility that’s capable of providing that level of care so the first part looks at them obstetric services and because at this point we have people hospitals that have completed the self-assessment survey using the 2004 criteria you see those there then as Lisa mentioned the recent 2014 criteria for maternal or subject levels of services the second one has to do with the neonatal services and for those of you who completed the self-assessment survey before 2012 you would have used the 2004 criteria that you see there 1 2 A to B and the 3a through seas versus the 2012 criteria we just want to know where that is as far as the levels of care that are provided then the next have to do with the specific tools written protocols for one to refer a pregnant or postpartum women to a higher level of care yes or no written standards for taking blood pressures yes or no and as you can see there’s an example of the WC HQ materials in these will all be hyperlinked so that people will be able to access those materials directly to see if they’re using those or something similar to them you see down below here in this part if you can see my cursor do you use management algorithms procedures guidelines or order sets for preeclampsia and eclampsia and some of those are suggested below but that’s not an exhaustive list so if you are using other ones you can include those in there and then we can get an idea of what’s going on because what we want to see over time is an increase in the tools that I use we think that that’s going to be helpful for standardizing the care and for making sure that we’re using evidence-based practices and the management of women with hypertension now for the NICU admissions there are a number of things within the ACOG recommendations that relate to neonates our question is and we consider this a balancing measure we don’t know what the effect of this is going to be it’s possible that if obstetric care providers are monitoring women more carefully if they’re doing c-sections earlier that the number of NICU admissions could increase it’s possible though that may be that number is going to decrease and because of that we don’t know what the effect is we don’t know what to expect it’s called the balancing measure this part of the overall diagram talks about some of the things that are available for the care the first two things and the last one no the first two things have to do with how do we monitor those things and we do have a paper form of that available to the things on the right care of the late preterm infant level of care self-assessment are some of the tools it can be used for that Lisa talked a little bit about the peri data aspect of this do you have any other comments Lee so that you’d like to add I just as a note eventually in Perry data we want to get much more robust in terms of defining the hypertension so I guess the other thing will point out if it’s in the summary statement the maternal one does not include women with chronic hypertension because that’s not the group that you’re needing to have stay for 72 hours but for the babies because any kind of hypertension could potentially affect them the chronic hypertension is in there so just take a note of of that okay and for the paper version as Lisa mentioned this talks about the measure itself and you can see that there’s the addition of the diagnosis of pre-existing hypertension here in addition to the other things there’s also the definition of the numerator and denominator in possible data sources Perry data net is one of them facilities that use Vermont Oxford network could potentially pull that information from there and the other thing that we will add to this particular sheet is this

form right here and this is for the infants and it see that it covers the essentials in the diagnosis was the infant delivered at greater than or equal to 20 weeks gestation yes or no if yes go on do the mothers the infant’s mother have a diagnosis of pre-existing hypertension as Lisa said and then the things that are on the maternal length of stay gestational hypertension preeclampsia eclampsia and our help syndrome yes or no and that will determine if there in the denominator then finally was the infant admitted to the NICU or transfer to a facility to receive a higher level of care and those are the babies that would be included in the numerator and then this will give a percentage that we will be able to track over time so then moving on the final part of this is the consumer education and you can see the ACOG recommendation and the question is what’s happening with that you can see that their material else available communication the preeclampsia foundation materials a wa PC material and we needed to develop the specific measure that will allow us to track that and see if there’s a change in the percent of women who receive that information as you can see from this there’s information out there what we’re interested in is the numerator and denominator definitions that you see there and the suggested data source which would be a manual abstraction from the medical record on the form provided by the project this is that form and you can see in the middle that I’ve cut it off to allow space for 20 patients there so it goes from 2 down to 18 but the first part of that after the name and facility location are the total number of women who meet the criteria gave birth at greater than or equal to 20 weeks and were discharged during the given month and that’s a matter of just adding that number however your facility keeps track of those records would be sufficient for that and then down below we’re asking people consider checking the data on up to 20 patients per month and so there are 20 spaces there for each of the months there and you just add up the number of yeses total number sampled so say your facility only has a teen births during a given month you wouldn’t put 20 there the total sample would be 18 and then you’d have the number of yeses and then in number five determine the percent with documentation of Education divided result line three by the result in line for now the question sometimes comes up how do you sample I mean if if we left it open to say one person who is very diligent about their consumer education their education to moms going home it’s it’s not necessarily going to be an unbiased sample so there are a couple of sampling methods that can be used one is to find one of the random number generators that are available on the internet just have to google random number generator and it will give you one way you could put in a number of numbers that you want like say you have hundred thirty-seven patients and you want to use rambling rambling a random number generator for that it will randomize that sample of numbers and then you could just pull those charts to look at it the other way is this the example that’s below it the systematic random sampling and if you’re interested we can certainly look at this more but it essentially divides the total sample into a smaller group from which you then take an individual from each group and that will allow you to determine the number of patients which charts you’re going to take a look at four for information you could certainly look at this is an example and you can look at that at your own time if you want to we can go over that more detail but you see that that there’s a way to randomly generate a sample size so that you know that you’re having unbiased sample now at this point we can open it up to questions and if you have questions now you can feel free to ask those and if you have questions later as you’re looking at this as you’re looking at the measures please feel free to email either an or myself at the email addresses that you see before you or you can go to the wa pc website and under the contact us it has the same information so with that I will open it up to comments questions or anything like that in the meantime this is Lisa two things number one I’m pretty sure I

misspoke at the beginning about the diastolic for the severe hypertension it’s 110 that 105 so I’m probably not defragging properly myself and then in case anyone wants to know I just pulled up the statewide data from the first half of 2015 if people care to know where the state fits as he go and run your own numbers are you talking about vaginal delivery pardon me are you talking about you pulled numbers from Perry data correct ok ok so the lipstick report that you’re going to pull up is only going to show your facility or facilities but for the vaginal delivery month length of stay 72 hours or more the state is sitting at about eleven percent for all comers which would be our sections and that too is that about thirty-nine percent and ICU admissions hypertension exposed babies that’s about twenty four percent of the NICU admissions have babies so almost a quarter of all babies coming into the NICU have had some kind of exposure to hypertension compared to the total number of babies coming into the NICU is about ten percent of all babies go in but of those going in twenty-four percent about have been exposed to hypertension so that’s what we had for the first half of the year within Wisconsin as a whole so that might give you a frame of reference as you start looking at your numbers and where it’s what you’re contributing to that raise your hand if you have a question and what I want to know is do you have a clear idea of what we would like you to be doing between now and December 16th and what how you’re going to arrive at a decision as to what part of the beta project or parts of the beta project will you participate in can you also help me look for hands yes hi I have mice my panels back so i can see that also ok ok it looks like jen Conrad whoops Stacy Carson I’m going to unmute you Stacy ok ok see you should be able to talk if everything’s working for mics or phones did you hear me yes yeah I’m sister Sarah actually Sarah problem okay okay guess I am unclear as to what we are supposed to decide by the 16th or be working on so if you could maybe just swallowed it out for me I guys have lot of information but i am still unclear as one were supposed to be doing okay well one of the and lisa you chime in as well but one of the things that i would suggest doing is looking at your own internal data and you can do this with the perry data report and then identify where you may have opportunities to accelerate improvement and from the data i would go to the SWOT analysis and identify what you’re doing well where you could be improving and what are the opportunities so for instance if if there is a protocol but only certain providers in your organization are following the protocol is there an opportunity for professional education to get everybody on the same page to use the same protocol are you consistently providing discharge information to all women about the possibility of postpartum hypertension is there an opportunity to distribute the information sheet from another one or the one from the preeclampsia foundation and then to to document of the who gave birth how many actually got the piece of information how many got some

education to go along with it those are some neck that I can think of right off the top of my hat can you think of any others Lisa you’ve looked at the data and I think the first thing is using this time to get your head around what this stuff is and where do I want to go looking and digging for it again we’ve got four places that we’re going to be sending in information on but you’re not going to have everything figured out nor would we expect you to buy the 16th but I think it’s to start to take a look at how readily can we get at some of this information where do we think we have low hanging fruit to do something on and that type of thing so that you can start to get a handle on what’s what there will be stuff that will require hands collecting I think that’s a question that came up is what time kind of time commitment might there be in participating the time commitment from the standpoint of how long would we be trying to collect data is approximately four months january through april if i’m not mistaken and you’re trying to see month over a month what type of improvement you have as far as how much time would it take to gather data part of it depends on whether you are using perry data so you can get that very readily versus to a half the hand collect we’d all be hand collecting on the postpartum discharge teaching unless you have some kind of reports within your organization that already collect that so that’s probably a long way of saying now is the time to start really diving into where are our processes at right now what’s our baseline so that you can even start to begin to think where am I going to be able to best get changed and get it rather quickly since this first things only four months okay and so to get back at that there is also a question here about will there be reports available in Perry data for all the measures or just the maternal length of stay and NICU admission with the Perry data will only be able to provide directly the maternal length of stay and then ICU admission the other two will have to be manual for people who do not have Perry data they can do all four of them manually and again the length of time like Lisa said depend on what things you might have in place for that we tried to keep the questions as simple as possible for that it looks like Nancy Sarah I will mute you and then it looks like Nancy patrick has a question and I’ve unmuted you Nancy one thing that you want each institution to do consistently do you want or is it going to be individual because I’ve heard you say look at what your own institution is doing but is there anything across the board that you want to consistently see I think consistently we would ideally we would like to see people collect information on all four measures the NICU and the maternal length of stay can be done with a Perry data report and we will put that with pics summary report in the slide set so you have that the other two are professional education and consumer education the thing that’s variable in my mind is how you so for instance professional education might be different groups of people who aren’t on board with the eight new ACOG definitions so you might want it in just because we only have four months right for the data collection you might wanted to look at just a simple I’m not a simple but a single group of people as opposed to every provider in your organization so there’s variability in how you would do professional and consumer education we just instituted um and a specific quarter set for hypertension based on the ACOG guidelines and that was one month ago so we’re doing education with our providers around that is that something you’re saying would be a good thing to look at for this it sounds very appropriate mm-hmm was it an order set that was developed by a multidisciplinary group

of providers or how did you develop that um I did it along with one of our nurses initially she did it as an emerging leaders project and then we did take to the multi-disciplinary groups and share that with them based on the ACOG guidelines that we had input from everybody okay are you having any have you noticed any problems with people following um what we’re doing is we’re tracking that time from when a person was admitted and I the preeclampsia is diagnosed two when the treatment begins so we’re doing some of our own data collection on that and we’re retrospectively looking at how long it took prior to these order sets to see if the standardization is helping the time does that make um mm-hmm well that’s part of it I just didn’t know how that adapted to the with pack you know if we could somehow combine that along with it I’m sure you can I just can’t tell you exactly right now Lisa do you have any suggestions I think what’s going to be helpful moving along is some of this group sharing for well what did you do and how how is it working for you and so on that’s what’s going to get the flywheel going on some of this and what makes part of the collaborative helpful I think if we start with some of this baseline stuff and then also get where people are getting other information that’s what’s going to keep it going but again for the beta part we had to start somewhere which is why it’s very rudimentary okay thank you i will meet you Nancy and it looks like jen Conrad has a question Jen I’ve on muted you hi this is this is chris o’neill financially i’m sitting in for John Hannigan is unable to attend so I apologize for it and she’s been sitting in for most of these which I’m jumping in and I guess I’m just trying to get an understanding of the goal ultimate goal of the project it seems in four months are we just trying to gather data or we hope to see in these four months improvements that on our efforts are we trying to you know change as much as we can in the hospital in that short amount of time and then see any improvement at the end of the four months or is it really like hey think about what you’re doing in your hospitals see where you can make improvements but now we’re just gathering data if you can improve a few things great but there’s going to be another time when we say okay you then you’ve done your improvements now let’s look at the data to see how that’s changed it that’s a good question and I think that our expectation is that if more providers are following the ACOG guidelines that they’re going to be bigger improvements and things and the measures that we’re looking at will specifically look at some of those things now some of the things that may be coming up in the future are going to be things like somebody wanting to look at readmission rates if if providers follow women in the hospital for the 72 hours that a cog recommends then that could potentially decrease the number of readmissions they would see so it’s more than just the collecting data but there’s also the component that we expect these things are going to change that they’re going to be improvements in care and outcomes now some of the things that people may be concerned about like strokes that women may have happen much less frequently so it may be over the course of several years that we as a state see changes in those kind of numbers but immediately we expect to see improvements in the care m and outcomes that we’re measuring okay and that makes sense I just didn’t know if we were kind of rushing in to see how many things we can change and implement all at once and the goal was really to be done with all that implementation within the four months or is it just slowly let’s keep working at this keep working at this in which I think we’re going to see better results but just continually monitoring that data Rick right and the kind of things that that we’re talking about four measures right now like the provider education consumer education in the forums we had a video where a woman talked about her experience with postpartum preeclampsia and she said if she had known about this before it would have changed how she handled that so she didn’t go into the hospital until she was sicker and had worse outcome than what it would have been hit she recognized the signs early on so these

all play a role in the overall picture of it but when we look at hypertensive disorders during pregnancy in the perinatal period it’s such a broad area and there are so many things that were that we would love to be able to look at what these we think will have immediate impacts and they’re the kind of things that facilities can do hopefully fairly easily and is it realistic to saying hey look at where your rooms for improvement are and start making changes with five things or hey take your top two and really work hard at those two um that’s a good question and I don’t know that I have the answer to that right now I think that there are some places that may take a look at it and say we want to focus on these two things because when we’ve looked at our outcomes we know that this is a big problem others may say you know let’s introduce these five because we have reasonably that the we have those are areas of improvement and so I think a lot depends on the facility and where you see yourself going like some of the places that have already instituted order sets and things like that like there’s a comment here from someone that they have an order set already for severe hypertension for some time they may not see the improvements that other places do that haven’t done those things because they’ve already gotten ahead of the curve with that and that’s okay okay then I guess that’s what I wanted to know it’s okay that we’re going to be different and we’re going to be attacking this issue after a shooting yes okay thank you so much okay thank you and again this is least I think that’s part of the beauty of what we try to achieve with a collaborative is that we do achieve things that differ different routes different ways but then being able to share our best learning so that others don’t have to reinvent the wheel where where it would work well for them as well okay the overall goal is that we can do better in taking care of identifying diagnosing and treating women with hypertension so however your organization can meet that goal is what we want you to do if we had one a formula that if we wanted everyone to do it wouldn’t necessarily be appropriate nor would it bring about better care in your institution if you’re already doing something look for something that you’re not doing where there’s an opportunity for improvement Cathy freaky has her hand up so Cathy I’m unmuting you whoops it looks like you may be off audio so I don’t know if we can get to you right now but there are two other questions that came in here one is considering how to access current state of discharge teaching do you recommend auditing all patient charts are a select percent what we’re hoping for is approximately 20 per month so if you have a facility that has fewer than 20 discharges per month if you could look at all of those that would be great now if you have considerably more than that that gets into the idea of a percentage of those charts so that we’re hopefully getting information on 20 if that didn’t answer your question let us know the other question that came up is how will the data regarding out patient monitoring of patients who are not in the hospital for 72 hours be obtained and reported we haven’t built that into it yet because we don’t necessarily have access to that out patient data that would be important but that would be a consideration and we would encourage facilities to take a look at that can they replicate the kind of care that would be received in a hospital in the outpatient setting so if you can do that let us know how on earth that’s happening thank you there might be some systems that would be able to to gather that information so that would advance our learning and then just a quick thing back up on the one about the 20 a month I think Kyle had alluded to it but just to wreak lera Phi if you can do something random that’s great or if you’re even doing something on the floor sort of at the time of discharge or whatever one of the things we just don’t want it to have happen is that it’s always like on first of the month or the last of the month or something like that you probably want to have it a little bit varied around the month so that you can get a better sampling of what

practice is I have one after one o’clock and we were scheduled to talk for an hour if there are no other pressing questions right now Kyle can you tell if anybody else has their hand up there’s there’s one other question it has regards those with a high number of deliveries per month are you recommending a percent we should audit verses 20 when we talk about this we looked at 20 because we think that at the size change that we potentially could see with it that would identify a significant change in the percentage that are doing it if you wanted to do more if you had a way of doing that quickly and easily that would be great but 20 a month is we think will demonstrate a significant change ok I just wanted to remind you that the next call in the next webinar is December 16 from noon to one if you have any questions in the meantime please send them to either Kyle at mounted perinatal web or to myself and Conway at Conway at perinatal web and we will do our best to answer them if you want to talk please feel free to call us at the number at wa pc thank you for participating today we’re very excited about having you be part of this project and look forward to your questions into the next call in December 16 thanks everybody


How To Promote A Book – Kindle Select Free Book Promo

hello and welcome this is a video that will help you to generate more sales online and we’re going to talk specifically about how you can generate more sales of your books that are made available through the Amazon KDP program and we’re gonna dive deeper into that program and we’re gonna look specifically at Kindle select hey it’s Brian G Johnson and welcome to this informational video this video again will help you to generate more sales this is for a self-published authors that are selling through the Amazon program and the video is specifically targeting a blog post I made days ago in early January of 2013 where I highlighted some of the strategies that I’ve been using with Kindle select to generate more interest for my books and that interest has led to more sales I’m going to break it down for you specifically and we’re going to talk about all kinds of great stuff now you can read that blog post and you can gain a lot of information about Kindle search engine optimization and more at marketing easy street comm and what we’re going to go through truly is a case study we’re gonna look at one particular book that I launched on the 15th of September in 2012 I’m going to show you the book I’m gonna show you the results that is generated I’m going to talk about a lot of these factors to help you truly understand how to get the most out of Kindle select to generate more revenue as a self publisher so here you can see I’ve taken a screenshot of Amazon the KDP program Kindle direct publishing and here you can see we’ve got this little blurb you know why enroll and KDP select and that’s what we’re going to talk about next so the Kindle select program and KDP specifically offers a number of things that you only get if you join the select and one of the things that’s really really powerful is that you’re able right here’s what I’m looking for the promotion manager tool will allow you to directly schedule and control the promotion of free books so when you enroll in KDP select or Kindle select you’re able to offer your books for free on Amazon now as we dive deeper into this case study video I’m going to share with you one of the books that I’ve got in the Kindle library and it is going great guns in fact this book has been as high as in the top 1% of all books that are sold on the Amazon Kindle platform now it was only at that level for a short time but I can tell you that this book generates hundreds of dollars every month and is increasing as the book it’s stronger and stronger and you can see here I’ve got this little arrow here you can again see that it was published on the 15th of September 2012 and I’m going to show you some of the things that I did in order to generate sales interest to get people to click buy to download and a lot more now I mentioned KDP select you have the option to enroll and give your book away for five free days over a 90 day period so that is an incredibly powerful tool when it is you utilized to the fullest so again in this video I want to kind of go through and break down exactly what I do how I manage those five three days over the 90 day period and how I maximize my exposure to generate more revenue over the long term now I was as I was creating this video I thought to myself you know people are gonna say are you crazy you know Brian why would I ever want to offer my book for free it’s such a loss leader all that lost revenue and I think as you watch this video and see the potential and just see how much revenue can be generated as a result of those three days you will change your mind and I mentioned the blog post at the beginning of this video and sure enough someone actually made a comment when I was creating this video today and I believe the woman’s name was Karen and she mentioned you know I’ve done the numbers this is so sad why would you ever want to do this you’re looking at a loss of $10,000 and as we get through

towards the end of the video I’ve got a screen capture of that question I’m going to go through exactly why you want to do this and I think you’ll already agree with me by the time we get there you see the reason we give the books away especially when we’re launching a new book is to gain momentum nobody knows about your book if you’re working like me you’re probably an unknown author or you might not have any books out already you might not have a huge sales machine that you’re able to pump out you don’t want to spend hundreds of dollars on advertising so somehow you’ve got to generate momentum to gain interest on Amazon and what I’m going to show you will allow you to do just that by using those five free days over the 90 day period number one is the algorithm on amazon.com amazon.com is the world’s leading buyer search engine and quite frankly to rank in Amazon for given products if you know what you’re doing is pretty easy you can see here I’ve searched for smoothie recipes for weight loss that is actually a search term that I identified before I wrote the book and I named my book based on that search term and you can see now I’m ranking number one and what happens is as more and more people download your book for free your rankings improve over time so we can look at a search term like smoothie recipes on Amazon which is incredibly incredibly come native and I believe right now I’m number three or four out of close to 300 bucks because I’m leveraging all the tools that are available to me here once again you can see another search term and again these are all search terms that people are using on Amazon and I named my book based on these terms and also by having the book downloaded for free my rankings improve you see the search engine algorithm is based on relevancy and the free downloads again help to kind of jazz and show interest the algorithm takes notice and your rankings improve and again just one more search term smoothie cleanse you can see I’m ranking number three out of 20 and this happens across the board for all my books because I’m naming my books based on the kind of keywords people are searching for for products or books that I’m creating and I’ve got those free downloads working for me now next we’re going to talk about the Amazon recommendation engine and Friends this is where it gets site exciting and I’m guessing a lot of you really don’t know and understand the power of how this works and I’m gonna break it down for you now if you want to get some more research just google this Amazon recommendation engine there’s a lot of good articles online but I’m gonna give you the information you need to know right now in this video you see Amazon is in the business of making money and it’s got a huge algorithm and search engine and it watches exactly what over 900 million buyers do on Amazon and you can see things like this all over Amazon frequently bought together customers who bought this item also bought and here you can see this screen capture is four of my book you can see right here smoothie recipes for weight loss and what’s really really interesting is that here we have that recommendation engine right here right this little real estate on the page and we’ve got other people’s books now that’s not what we want at all when we come out with our book a brand new book will never be featured here because nobody’s bought it however over time and if you can work smart and you understand how the recommendation engine works you can get featured all over the place in multiple places because of the free download days now you can see here customers who bought this ice item also bought and the first one listed is this smoothie book here ok now what we’re going to do is we’re going to look at the page the sales page for this particular product so here you can see this particular book and I can’t see when it was released but I’m gonna guess it was released more recently and this is the sales page and if we scroll down you can see guess whose book is featured number one so notice there are actually 20 pages and each page contains 1 2 3 4 5 items so we’re looking at approximately what is that a hundred or so featured products and on this

particular page my product is featured number one so if someone comes in these this book by Elena Maxwell they’re gonna see my smoothie book that’s the recommendation engine in action and what’s really powerful is when someone downloads my book all the other books they bought are tagged and that’s how you start ending up in this section because a lot of people are downloading your book and you’re basically feeding the recommendation engine information and you’re kind of giving yourself an opportunity to be found more throughout Amazon now this is where it gets really really exciting you can see this is another really popular book on smoothies you know I just don’t write any book on a whim I’m here to make money to stay self-employed to stay at the ritz-carlton to enjoy the good life to go skiing in vail and to really live life on my terms and in order to do that I’ve got to come up and I need to understand what people are interested in and then I need to move forward and books and market books in the best way possible when I was doing my research I identified that this was a very popular book it was sold incredibly well and it still does you can see here number one there’s over 95 customer reviews now customer reviews is a pretty good indication as to how well a products doing if if you see a book with one or two reviews you know it’s it’s probably floundering 95 reviews means that the book is being purchased and downloaded and reviewed quite often and all the time that’s a really powerful thing and you can see here again we’re still on the greens smoothie magic book you can see that kind of up here in this area and there is my book again being featured because of the free downloads in other words customers that had purchased or downloaded this book for free have also downloaded mine and that gives me exposure now on this book as well very very very powerful because I’m taking advantage again of the KDP select program now it gets even better you know I’ve heard a lot of a lot of internet marketers and they’ve understood the power of email advertising but they don’t want to risk the expense and the technology headaches of setting up their own mailing list so they want to know you know what’s the best way to get one for cheap or inexpensive well the best way is to work smart and Amazon will email their customers on your behalf now you can see here just days ago I bought a book by a guy Kowalski it’s called ape and guess what it’s about it’s about being an author a publisher and an entrepreneur and I got this email saying you know you might want to check out this book and I’m sure there are a lot of people that are getting books right now that feature you know smoothie or emails right now that are featuring my smoothie book because I understand the recommendation engine because I put my book out there multiple times and now Amazon is working for me on my behalf so let’s review a little bit so at this point we’re getting more visibility were found all over amazon.com in multiple places because more and more people are downloading our book and over time you can expect Amazon to actually send out emails on your behalf when you create a quality book that matters one of the things I want to stress right now is take care to provide visitors and buyers with quality information and you will be rewarded you’ll get better reviews people will buy more of your books in the future and it’s just plain easier and that’s what we want to do now another thing that’s really exciting is that as more people download we’re being featured more on Amazon on different pages and that means more links to our page right and with more page that’s going to pass more PageRank after all PageRank flows from page to page and if there are more pages on Amazon linking to my smoothie book well my page is going to enjoy more PageRank and that’s going to help me to guess what rank well on Google now here you can see this is a search term right up here in this area I’ve searched for smoothie recipes for weight loss and my book is featured my book page I should say is featured on Amazon and I’m ranking number six for that search term and to let you know that that is a search term that generates tens of thousands of searches a month really powerful that’s more free traffic and by having the book

downloaded all these good things come of it so don’t think for a minute that it’s not a smart thing to take advantage of the free downloads because it really can help to boost your visibility over time and you’re not just looking to make a few bucks for a week or a month you’re looking to sell your book over and over that’s the residual income that you’re interested in and the free downloads will help to get you there now let’s let me show you what happens when I add the word book on to my title you can see here I’ve added the search term book under the search term and I name the book smoothie recipes for weight loss the daily diet cleanse and green smoothie book okay and because I added the word book to my book title when people search for this phrase and they add the word book which people actually do search for that that is a suggestion by Google I’m number one and these are the kind of things you want to do so this is kind of going off into another area of optimization and working smart and being aware of search terms but all of these things come into play it’s about understanding how to gain visibility and the book promotions can really help and being smart with how you named your books can also be very beneficial now I want to talk a little bit about what happens when you release a new book to give you an idea the very first thing I want to do is I want to make sure I publish my book about a Tuesday or on Wednesday and I do that because it usually takes Amazon about 12 to 24 hours to prove my book which means the book will be available probably about Wednesday Thursday ish and I can schedule a free promotion that weekend when people are at home they’re looking for stuff to do and with a new book I’m usually looking for anywhere between 200 and 300 downloads free downloads with the free promotion and I want to schedule that almost immediately and the reason for that is because Amazon another thing that they offer and really publicize is newly released books they have a section called hot new releases here you can see I’ve got an arrow more to explore and quick and easy and under that as hot new releases and during the launch my smoothie book I was actually able to get in one of these coveted positions here number one number two or number three and again it’s just more exposure more places where your book is found and the book got off to an amazing start and within the first month that book paid for itself made me hundreds of dollars and I was off to create the next book and so on so if you’ve got a brand new book make sure you schedule a promotion almost immediately because you want to jazz the search algorithm of Amazon you want to show the recommendation engine on Amazon some activity and you will be rewarded now here again you can see I’m looking through the categories on Amazon and this is another way people search some people search some people browse and in this case I’m under quick and easy and right now I’m featured number two not to bad for the smoothie book now I actually had a free day just days ago and I actually had over 3,000 downloads because what happens is more and more people download your book is featured more and more across Amazon more emails are sent out and the strong gets stronger now even today another free download data I’ve had about another 1,000 downloads and my book is featured predominantly at the very top of the free category for a quick and easy and this is what I was talking about earlier it’s a fact exactly what happens on Amazon is that the products that sell well get more exposure because it’s an Amazon’s best interest to push those products out to more people so the strong products get stronger and if you have a book and you don’t do the research and you don’t create a book that’s on a subject that’s in demand and you don’t do these things and you don’t use free promotional days you’re gonna have a hard time getting off the ground in your books gonna flounder one of the things you want to think of is not just being a self-publisher but about understanding some very basic marking marketing strategies that can help propel yourselves and what I can tell you as Amazon is about as easy as I’ve seen it in 10 years I actually went

full time in internet marketing back in 2003 and Amazon is about as easy as a Google SEO back in the day so I mentioned this a bit throughout this video it’s not just about free promotional days it’s not just about creating great books there are a number of things that you need to pay attention to understand how people search on Amazon understand how people browse the various categories on Amazon make sure there is a demand for the book you’re about to create before you go take the time energy or expense to have a book created only define there’s very little demand know there’s a demand before you move forward write a good book forget about creating low quality books banging them out I tell you you’re gonna make far more money if you create a 4 or 5 great books under one author name you’ll link them together and you really offer something that matters you will be rewarded handsomely and reviews I hear a lot of people talk about the importance of a book cover it’s true you want to have a good cover I hear a lot of people talk about the importance of you know doing the research and what not well reviews are really important in what you want to do is get real reviews from real customers you don’t want to game the system you don’t want to pay a people at micro outsourcing sites to generate reviews that really don’t say much you want people that have bought the book and here you can see Amazon verified purchase that’s what you want people that download the book and read it oftentimes they’ll come back and leave a review now you can see here January 3rd 2012 January 2nd 2012 I’m getting a lot of exposure that helps me get more reviews and when people land on my book page in the future and see all the reviews that helps the belief system that this is a good book and I and I’m gonna move forward and I’m gonna trust that I’m gonna like this book and people buy if you have zero reviews you’re not going to have the same kind of sales because people are unsure these types of reviews help to provide a trust factor that can really benefit you let’s talk about some of the things you need to do before you publish a book before you write a book before you move forward number one demand okay I did my research it was very clear to me that smoothies would be a good topic I’m also going to be doing some revisions of this book I’m gonna go into different cat I’ve got a lot of viability and flexibility to move forward and have even more success success in the future I mention reviews make sure you get reviews make sure they’re real reviews have your spouse your boyfriend your girlfriend your parent your aunt or uncle someone at school or whatnot to help you with a review and after you get a few of those let the reviews come in naturally like I’m doing like I showed you on the previous slide where people are downloading the book because it’s free and they’re returning and leaving a review that will really help you and at that point those are a hundred percent white hat reviews that’s what you want things like this I’ve got 14 likes on Amazon I’ve got some tags down below I’ve got a good book description and I also mentioned in my description that it was a best-seller when it launched that helps people understand that my book is popular that people like it people want to buy stuff that other people like these are all important factors in success I mentioned the title the title is hugely important make sure you do your research into again how people are searching even if you’re writing fiction don’t call your book about paranormal activity paranormal activity understand that more people are looking for ghost stories or vampire stories and incorporate those into your title title and you will do better so here’s the comment on the blog post I mentioned it’s from Kathy and she says the idea of 3,000 downloads is very exciting but when I run the numbers of the amount of money that was given away it does not make good money money sense based on royalties of 35 percent and the cost of $9.99 per book as a ballpark figure it turns out that you have given away $10,000 plus and that kind of loss takes all the excitement out of it

well Kathy here’s the thing I never had $10,000 I didn’t have those reviews and I wasn’t featured all over those other pages because I’m a small indie publisher and what will happen is over time I’m gonna raise my price right now from $2.99 right to maybe 399 because why well I’ve got the reviews and I’ve got the product and I’ve got the exposure and I’ve got Amazon sending out emails and I’ll continue to use the free promotion because it helps to juice Amazon and then Amazon will put the book in front of more people in the future so sure I might give my book away to 3000 people but the market might be a hundred thousand and over time I’m able to generate a very comfortable residual income that comes in month after month and it’s growing at a very nice clip so I hope that helps out Kathy that’s my take that’s my two cents and I hope it makes sense to you too so hey thanks so much for watching this video whether you’re on Amazon or maybe you’re on the warrior forum nothing really for sale here I’m just excited to share some information with you that can help you move forward with your internet marketing and have that success that you so very much want in 2013 so let’s make it a great year let’s work together as marketers let’s support one another let’s forget the word guru that’s actually on a list of words that are kind of passe words in 2013 and let’s move forward and kick some internet marketing but I’m Brian G Johnson and I’ll talk to you soon


Environmental Regulations of Businesses in Your Community — Ohio EPA

Good morning everyone and welcome to today’s webinar my name is mike kelly and i’m with the division of environmental and financial assistance here at ohio epa and we’ll be moderating today’s session this morning’s webinar ohio epa regulations in the community is part of ohio epa’s in your community webinar series it’s focused on environmental issues at the local level these webinars occur throughout the year and cover a wide range of topics from how ohio epa regulates pollution sources two ways on improving the environment in your local area additional information about these webinars is on our in your community webpage before we get started i’d like to go over a few items to help you to participate in today’s event on this slide here you will see a screenshot of an example of the attendee interface see something that looks like this on your computer desktop in the upper right hand corner for this webinar you are listening in using your computer speaker system you’re having sound issues click on the microphone button to switch your audio settings please feel free to submit questions presenters by typing your questions into the question on the control you may send your questions in at any time during the presentation we will collect these and address them during the qa q a session at the end of the day’s presentation if we do not have time to answer your questions presenters will reach out to you by email and assist with the question today’s webinar is being recorded and a presentation is available in the handout section of your attendee interface once the webinar is edited you will receive a link to the recording in a follow-up email along with the session survey session survey will also appear once the session is over we would greatly appreciate it if you could fill that out to let us know how we’re doing and to let us know if there’s anything we can do to further assist you a certificate of attendance will also be included in that email about a day or so after decision continuing education units are also available for this webinar for the american institute of certified planets planners and the registered sanitarian sanitarium and training this webinar has been pre-approved for one hour of registered sanitarian sanitarian and training credit please make sure you provide us with your rs slash sit number through the q a feature it did not do that when you’re ready and with that i’m going to turn it over to our presenters today we have camera girard and manny adams who provide environmental assistance in our northeast and southwest district offices defa’s office of compliance assistance and pollution prevention has environmental specialists in each of our hive district offices across the clouds such as maddie and tamra they help hundreds of businesses communities and other organizations here where we get to them we’re going to do our first polling room and that question is what are you most interested in learning about today options are how ohio epa is organized how regulatory programs may affect businesses in your community how to achieve compliance reduce weights and money all of the above are none of the above so i’m going to go ahead and i see that that people are voting already good um so please select your appropriate response and click submit and we’ll take a minute or two to see um what kind of responses that we get so it looks like we’ve got about two percent of the attendees want to know how ohiopa is organized about 30 on how regulatory programs may affect businesses in your community 18 on how to achieve compliance reduce weights and save money and 51 percent say all of the above that’s great thank you everybody with that i’m going to turn it over to our first presenter tamara girard from our northeast district office office of compliance assistance and religion prevention hi good morning everybody um thank you so much for joining us this morning and thank you for participating in the poll um it gives us a good idea of the things that you want to discuss this morning and it’s good that it seems like most of you want to talk about jesus what does ohio epa do and how can those regulations affect businesses and facilities in my community because that’s exactly what we’re going to cover today um we’re going to start with a real brief lay of the land what ohio epa does and how we’re organized but spend most of the time on what you guys want to learn about which is what are ohio e-pays regulations and how do they impact businesses and facilities in your community and equally as important as understanding how facilities and businesses are regulated is understanding what resources and help is available to help facilities and communities understand the requirements how to comply uh reduce resources and save money so that’s what we’re going to be discussing this morning

we’re going to start like i said real briefly with a little bit of who we are now as an agency ohio epa was created in 1972 with a mission to protect public health and the environment by ensuring compliance with environmental laws and regulations but also as acting as a stored and demonstrating environmental stewardship our central office is in columbus but within the community you’ll most likely interact with ohio epa on in one of our five district offices you see throughout the state now how ohio epa is a regulatory agency so it makes sense that there are regulatory divisions that set standards and enforce standards across different environmental media such as air water and waste management now the regulatory divisions may differ somewha but they all share some core functions and responsibilities all the regulatory divisions review and issue permits under their regulatory program requirements they also respond to complaints and investig investigate those complaints obviously the regulatory programs are tasked with ensuring that their program environmental standards and rules are met the regulatory divisions also provide technical assistance and take enforcement action when that is necessary now a lot of people don’t realize that not all of ohio epa is regulatory there’s actually many non-regulatory divisions offices and groups within the agency that perform a variety of important functions including in providing environmental education programs for businesses and the public overseeing site cleanup and spill response providing financial assistance to communities and businesses for things such as infrastructure projects recycling litter cleanup market development so forth our non-regulatory divisions and offices also provide technical assistance to help businesses and communities understand and comply with ohio epa’s regulatory rules and requirements and there’s also non-regulatory divisions offices and groups within the agency that perform lab analysis and conduct criminal investigations when that’s necessary okay so let’s dive into what everybody wants to you know hear about today is what ohio epa’s regulations are and how they impact businesses and facilities and in the community on the community level and let’s start with the air regulation program now in ohio it’s the division of air pollution control that’s responsible for regulating air quality throughout the state of ohio and ensuring compliance with the federal clean air act and also the community right to know act so a co to accomplish their mission um the division of air pollution control has a variety of responsibilities and functions like the other regulatory divisions they review and issue air permits to anybody that wants to install or operate a source of air pollution and we’ll talk a little bit more about that the division responds to and investigates air pollution complaints the division of air pollution control regulates the regulates open burning and the open burning rules in the state um they also regulate emissions from asbestos and handling associated with demolition and renovation projects in the community and the division of air pollution control oversees a wide ambient air quality sampling program now one of the ways that ohio epa’s air pollution regulations can affect businesses and facilities in your community is through the air permitting program now if if your community has businesses or operations that create air pollution air permits may be needed and there’s not one definitive list of things that need air air permits from ohio epa or a local air agency basically if there’s something that’s creating air pollution it needs a permit unless you can demonstrate why it does not and ohio’s air rules do have uh various extent exemptions and um exclusions to them again there’s not one list of things that need air permits but some of the common operations and businesses that you may have in your community that may need air permits include painting operations and this can include spray or paint booths and a automotive collision or body repair shop as well as paint booths that might be in an industry or business that’s painting or coating parts it can also include dry cleaning facilities in your

community particularly those that use perchlor ethylene or perc as a dry cleaning solvent and it can also include some printing operations that you may have in your community these are all sources that commonly need air permits in addition some other common things that you may have in your community that may require air permits include aggregate processing things such as sand and gravel operations grinding operations things and crushing things that you might find let’s say at landscape companies or material recycling facilities they can often need air permits as well another common source of air permits is large boilers things you might find in schools large factories large office buildings things of that nature those kind of things typically need air permits as well but again there are some exemptions under the rules so you may recognize a lot of things in your community just based on the short list that we provided me thinking well does everything need an air permit the quick answer to that is not necessarily but any business or facility that has an air pollution source has to evaluate it and determine whether it’s something that needs an air permit or not again there’s not one set list and there’s not one set way to go about this evaluation but there are some rules of thumb that can be helpful particularly if a business or an operation has something that has a stack of vent or dust collector or any other air pollution equipment that’s something that should be evaluated to figure out whether it needs an air permit operations or activities that use solvents paints inks or adhesives are another common source that may need air permits and need to be evaluated something that burns fuel large boilers industrial ovens things of that nature may need air permits and should be evaluated and things that cause smoke dust and odors are other common sources that should be evaluated again doesn’t necessarily mean that everything will need an air permit but it’s things that a facility or business should be evaluating to determine whether or not it’s something that is subject to air permitting from either the division of air pollution control or a local air agency and again in the rules there are things that are exempt and there are some exclusions okay in addition to air permitting demolition and renovation projects in your community may have to notify ohio epa’s division of air pollution control now under the rules demolition at a regulated facility has to notify epa or they are local at least 10 days before that project and some renovation activities at a regulated facility also have the require requirement to notify depending if they disturb more than a certain amount of regulated asbestos containing material now the good thing to remember is these notifications um are in addition to anything that might be required on the local level um and again these rules can be a little bit nuanced and there is a very specific definition of what a regulated facility is so if you have one of these projects in your community it’s uh strongly recommended that you reach out to either our group to discuss or the regulatory division to kind of help you sift through that but in general under the rules a regulated facility that would be subject to these notification rules would be a commercial uh building an industrial building an institutional building or a public structure and it can also include residential buildings if they have more than four units or even if it’s a single family residence if it’s part of a larger renovation project or demolition project such as a land bank or a local revitalization project where there’s going to be a series of residences that are going to be demolished these are the kind of things that typically require notification and approval from ohio epa prior to the project occurring but again if you have these in your community it’s best to reach out to ohio pa beforehand to make sure you’re in compliance open burning is also regulated by ohio epa’s division of air pollution control and again these rules can also be a little bit nuanced um and what you can and can’t burn without notification depends on the material that’s being burned and also where you’re located whether you’re in a restricted area or an unrestricted area generally if you’re within municipal boundary in a certain area outside that boundary or if you are not under the rules there’s certain things that can never be open burn

such as trash scrap tires and things of that nature um there are also things under the rules that can be burning that can be conducted without notification an example of that is small bonfires and campfires if they meet certain qualifications under the open burning rules of ohio epa there are also some activities that always require notification and approval before they occur good examples of those are fire department training burns you know which happen quite often if the fire department has an abandoned structure or you know a structure that they want to use for a controlled burn for training purposes those require notification from ohio epa as well as horticulture and silviculture management burns so again if these you know you have these projects that you know are upcoming in your community it’s best to reach out to the program to discuss beforehand because open burning complaints um are in violations are very very common so this is a this is an area where a lot of businesses and communities get tripped up a little bit so it’s always best to reach out to the regulatory folks before your project occurs another program that’s regulated and managed under the division of air pollution control is some of the federal epra right to know and toxic release or tri inventory reporting now there’s a lot of businesses and facilities that are subject to this just based on the types and the amounts of chemicals that they use and store at their facility now under this program there’s different types of reports that a facility may be subject to and that reporting typically goes to the state local emergency planning uh response commission typically the local planning committees and also the local fire departments and again there could be one or more reports that a facility or business near community could be subject to based on the types and amounts of chemicals that are stored and also on the particular activities that occur at that facility so again like everything else if you’re unsure it’s best to reach out to either our group uh compliance assistants or the regulatory folks to discuss your particular project and what your reporting requirements may be so this is just a quick overview of some of the main regulatory requirements and programs that the division of air pollution control has that probably affect businesses in your community you see it’s it’s varied it’s vast and there could be some nuances to those regulations and a lot of times it’s hard for businesses particularly small businesses to understand what am i subject to what are my requirements what do i have to do but there are resources out there that can help our division the office of compliance assistance and pollution prevention that’s what we’re here for we’re here to talk to with the businesses and the communities to help you navigate the regulatory requirements there’s also resources on all the regulatory programs that i talked about on the division of air pollution web page and another good resource that i wanted to point out is our permit wizard which is a free confidential uh software that you can go through answer a series of questions and based on that it can give you an idea of what your regulatory requirements are and what your permitting requirements are not just for air permitting but across all of ohio epa’s regulatory programs so these rules and requirements can be complex it can be difficult to know what to do but the important thing to know is there are resources out there to help okay now let’s talk a little bit about some of the water discharge regulations in the community now the division of surface water is responsible for ensuring compliance with the federal clean water act and they also work to protect and enhance the quality of ohio surface waters so again similar to the other regulatory divisions some of the ways they do this is they review and issue permits for water discharges they respond and investigate complaints and they also conduct sampling of ohio’s surface waters now one of the main areas the division of surface water that can affect facilities or community has to do with waste water permitting and this is because most facilities produce wastewater whether it’s treated waste water from a municipal wastewater treatment plant whether it’s treated waste water from a small discharging septic system located at a small office building body shop or other business or whether it’s industrial process water such as spent plating waters equipment

wash waters and even uh you know process waters from some home-based businesses like salons and commercial pressure washing can also be regulated under ohio epa’s wastewater permitting rules and under those rules if a facility or business wants to discharge wastewater from their facility into waters of the state which it can include streams lakes creeks and so forth they need to do that under a permit specifically under the npdes permit program that’s managed by the division of service water now this can include discharges of wastewater that go directly into those streams creeks or lakes and even those that go indirectly an example of that could be a wastewater discharge that goes into a storm sore or a ditch that leads to waters of the state those are all regulated and all the types of discharges that may need permits under the npdes program from the ohio epa division of surface water now it’s also important to note uh that under that program any facility or business that wants to install or modify a wastewater treatment structure also needs permits from the division of surface water under the permit to install or pti program now examples of this could be somebody that wants to install a holding tank to hold and manage their processed wastewater before it’s either trucked out or discharged or somebody that has a discharging septic system and they need to upgrade make changes and modifications these are common examples of things that may need permit to install permits and approvals from ohio epa division of surface water the ohio epa also regulates storm water through the npdes permit program in a couple different scenarios permits are needed for stormwater at certain industrial facilities where those industrial activities are considered exposed to storm water and again there’s a wide variety there’s a facilities that can be subject to this industrial stormwater permitting and the main driver under that program is the facility’s standard industrial classification or sic code that’s what’s either going to pull you under that program or exclude you from that industrial stormwater permit program ohio epa’s stormwater permit program also requires permits for stormwater managing stormwater at construction activities and the requirements there or if there’s a project where there’s more than an acre of land that will be disturbed that’s something that would require a construction stormwater permit from ohio epa now the construction storm water permits can even be required on projects that are less than one acre but that are part of a larger project that will be more than an acre a good example of that is um a residential subdivision where maybe the individual lots are small quarter acre lots but they’re going to develop 20 or 30 lots so the whole project might be 30 acres something like that is an example of something that will need a construction storm water permit from ohio epa and ohio epa’s stormwater program also regulates on the municipal level where municipalities discharge stormwater through a separate storm source system also known as ms4 okay the division of surface water also regulates certain wetland projects and again very these rules can be nuanced and it’s always recommended if you think you have a project whether it’s going to be disturbance or filling on near or within the city of a wetland or a stream or shoreline project it’s best to reach out to the district 401 wetland person at the beginning of the project because the the regulations and requirements are very project specific and it can involve interaction with not only ohio epa but also the army corps of engineers may be involved so again it’s best for these projects if you think that something is going to be subject to wetland or 401 permitting for stream disturbance or wetland wetland disturbance are filling to reach out to the regulatory agencies early in the process again just a broad overview of how ohio epa surface water programs may affect businesses in the community again you might recognize a lot of facilities operations and businesses in your community that are subject to that and it may be a little bit complex and overwhelming but again there’s resources here to help we’re always here to help as well as there’s uh

resources and guidance on the individual division of surface water programs that i discussed on the web pages cited here and i just want to talk briefly about the drinking water regulations and how they can affect businesses in your community now the ohio epa division of drinking and groundwaters is responsible for ensuring compliance with the federal safe drinking water act and they also work to evaluate threats and sources of contamination to drinking water to accomplish this they have several missions and goals um and responsibilities the division of drinking and groundwater regulates more than 5000 public drinking water systems they also coordinate with other state agencies on groundwater protection programs and they conduct groundwater quality monitoring as well now within your community you might see the division of drinking and groundwater regulations in a lot of different ways the division is responsible for enforcing the requirements for public water systems which can include large municipal water systems as well as small drinking water systems that you might find and facilities such as schools churches mobile home parks small office buildings and so forth the division also sets certification training and reporting requirements for drinking water system operators and obviously they’re there to ensure that the public drinking water systems have the technical and financial capabilities to operate consistently and consistently provide a safe source of drinking water and the division is also involved with several financial assistance programs including programs that give money to certain public water systems for purchasing backup generators as well as drinking the drinking water assistance fund okay now maddie’s going to discuss some of the other regulatory programs at ohio epa starting with the solid waste regulations and how they affect your community all right so our solid waste regulations are managed through the division of materials and waste management and this can include things like household solid wastes infectious waste construction demolition debris and composting and all these types of materials are going to be regulated by ohio epa usually through permitting or licensing we also have 66 local health districts in ohio that have been approved to administer and enforce ohio solid waste regulations so just depending on where you are you might be working both with ohio epa and a local group transfer stations are one of the most common uh solid waste facilities that you’ll find and these are places where municipal solid waste is taken and consolidated for transport to the landfill these types of stations usually have a tipping floor where waste is dumped prior to loading but it can also include bailing stations or other areas where waste is reloaded onto other trucks so all of these types of facilities are going to need a permit to install for the initial setup and any modifications and then they’ll also need an annual license and that will come through ohio epa if you’re looking to set up one of these facilities it’s always good to initially start working with the division of materials and waste management because there are a lot of ins and outs to the permit to install and sometimes you can meet exemptions second type of solid waste is compost so there are three types of composting facilities and the type of material you’re composting will determine the type of permit that you need sometimes you might need both a registration and a license to compost class 2 facilities involve food scraps so more and more we’re seeing these types of compost facilities pop up in communities as people become more aware of um improving the longevity of our landfills so we try to take organic materials out of the waste stream and deal with those separately from the actual solid waste so if you’re going to be composting food scraps for your business or on a large scale you would need both a registration and an operating license and it’s important again to work with the program up front

because there are stringent siting requirements there’ll be odor control regulations you’ll probably have to do some sort of sampling of your compost and then you’ll also need to incorporate leachate control so anytime you spray your compost piles or if it rains or snows on them any time water hits that compost and trickles out it becomes a wastewater so it can’t be allowed to just percolate into the ground or go into a sewer system or go into a surface water body it actually has to be collected and managed as a waste water it’s also good to talk with the solid waste program if you’re putting one of these facilities in because there are some exemptions to needing that license and registration any type of composting or activity that’s happening at a residence is not regulated by ohio epa so usually ohio epa does not regulate residential work that’s usually going to come through your local health department or the ohio department of health and if you’re composting food scraps at a non-residential location like a school or if you have a facility that has a cafeteria you can be exempt from the regulations if your entire composting operation is less than 500 square feet so again it’s good to work with the program from the get-go so you can see if you meet any of those exemptions and also that you’re going to meet the siding requirements scrap tires uh this is another type of solid waste that ohio epa regulates and we do this in a number of ways um we regulate scrap tires by the amount of tires that you can store so ohio epa is not concerned unless you’re storing over 100 scrap tires and this can be at your business or at your residence so once you hit 100 scrap tires then you’re going to need a permit from ohio epa specifically now before that you might have zoning regulations or other local regulations but as far as ohio epa is concerned you don’t need a permit until you hit 100 scrap tires uh scrap tires are a little bit different from some of the other types of wastes and that we regulate both businesses and residents for this so we also regulate how many tires you can transport without a license so anyone this would be a business or a residence that’s transporting tires can transport only 10 at a time without a license so if you’re a resident and you’re caught transporting you know uh over 10 tires and you don’t have a license you could actually face a criminal penalty a felony charge we also regulate how tires are disposed of or recycled so the biggest one there is that scrap tires cannot be burnt ever and open dumping of scrap tires again can carry that felony charge we do regulate the types of facilities that legally dispose and recycle tires and we do that by requiring a permit so those were some solid wastes let’s look at the hazardous waste program the hazardous waste program is housed under the division of environmental response and revitalization it used to be under materials and waste management but i don’t know maybe like five years ago or so they moved it to what we call der the division of environmental response or revitalization so highway pa regulates hazardous wastes by requiring proper storage transportation and disposal i have a link there to ohio epa’s rules all of our regulations are under the ohio administrative code 3745 and then it’s broken down further by chapter so hazardous waste regulations are under 37 45 chapters 50 through 60 we regulate generators of hazardous waste by requiring them to get an id generator ids are issued by u.s epa but in ohio you can apply for an id through ohio epa so if you click the link there under generator ids it’ll take you to ohio epa’s webpage where you can go on to uscpa’s website or you could fill out a paper

form and submit it to ohio epa right now because we’re not in the office due to covid it’s best to do this online but small quantity generators large quantity generators transporters of hazardous waste and treatment storage and disposal facilities all need a generator id but it is free to get treatment storage and disposal facilities need both an id and a permit and again if you’re going to put in one of these facilities it’s important to work with the hazardous waste program before you even buy the property because there are very stringent siding requirements to getting this permit and sometimes you might not meet them so we’re talking about hazardous wastes usually a good chance that it’s going to get away from you in some way so that leads us to our remediation programs this is the other side of the division of environmental response and revitalization ohio epa has a number of cleanup programs that assist in both voluntary actions and enforcement so three ohio specific programs we have the voluntary action program and this is for anyone who wants to be a volunteer to clean up a blighted property now you have to have access to the property um and the resources and the know-how to do a site investigation and a cleanup but the voluntary action program is specific to ohio epa and it’s open to anyone who wants to be a volunteer for those who don’t want to volunteer but have contamination we do have a state enforcement program that’s modeled after the federal super fund program or circle and then we also have a hazardous waste closure or cleanup program sometimes we’ll work with us epa if the site is large enough or if there are current exposure pathways complete exposure pathways sometimes we will reach out to u.s epa and work with them and federal facilities are for military sites within ohio one of the most common questions that i get on remedial sites is funding does ohio epa have any funds for a site assessment or for cleanup and i’ll just start by saying that ohio epa does not have money for residential cleanup or for private businesses we do have some funds for local government groups but if you’re a homeowner and you’ve bought a property that had a fuel oil tank and it leaked and now you got to pull that and clean it up we don’t have funds for something like that the first one on this list though the jobs ohio revitalization fund jobs ohio is a completely separate group from ohio epa but they do have some grants for private businesses and government groups to do site assessment and clean up so if you’re in the market for something like that you’d want to work directly with jobs ohio it’s not in any way associated with ohio epa ohio epa does have two grant programs so we have the targeted brownfield assistance program or the tva and technical assistant grants for the voluntary action program again these are only for local government groups or for volunteers within the vap the last one there the abandoned gas station cleanup assistance this is another fund that is not managed through ohio epa it’s actually through the ohio development services but ohio epa is involved in that if you get a grant for doing something like this you’re going to be following ohio’s epa and buster’s guidance and regulations for the site assessment and the cleanup to determine how clean is clean but if you click that link it’ll take you to the ohio development services website which is separate from ohio epa so that’s the regulatory side of the agency let’s turn quickly to talk a little bit about what tamara and i’s group does so we are in the office of compliance assistance and pollution prevention we’re not regulators

but we offer free and confidential assistance to business the confidential side of that is by law so by law ocap cannot share information about our customers with the regulating side of the agency but we help people to understand the rules and regulations we can help you determine if you need a permit from any of the divisions in ohio epa if you need a permit we can help you apply for it or determine if you meet exemptions we can help you with your record keeping we also do um electronic reporting so sometimes the websites that you have to use for your electronic reporting are not the easiest to navigate through so we can sit down with you and help walk you through that and then we also do site visits for compliance assistance and pollution prevention now right now our site visits our virtual because of covid but hopefully um you know sometime in the future we’ll be able to get back out into the field and actually physically walk through your business with you but right now it has to be virtual we also do pollution prevention or help to identify pollution prevention measures so if you have a waste stream at your facility or within your community something that you have to pay to get rid of or if you have a lot of regulations that surround that waste stream we can help you to brainstorm ways to maybe change the chemicals you’re using or to find a recycling avenue for that material we have local contacts so you can see from the picture there um like tamara said at the start there are five different um district offices within ohio and we covered the different counties so you’ll have a local contact um for your county and you can contact us by phone or by email but we also have a toll-free hotline that we staff monday through friday eight to five and just within this past year we’ve added a chat feature so if you don’t want to talk to someone on the phone you can click on that link there and chat with us and again monday through friday eight to five you would get that ocat person who’s gonna give you that free and confidential assistance again on the pollution prevention side of things we do have some recycling and litter prevention grants we have four different types of grants for community groups or local governments we have one specifically for businesses uh so you can get your infrastructure up and running if you want to recycle the waste stream we have a grant specifically to help create a market for um recycled scrap tires so if you have an idea how to take in scrap tires and make them into something else you could get a grant fund for that and then we also have one specific for academics for schools the application cycle runs october to february so it’s starting to come up and while we do have usually have a good amount of money for these grants they are very competitive so you have a link there to the grant webpage take a look at it and if it’s something that you’re interested in i do urge you to reach out to one of the three contacts listed because these are very competitive grants and it’s good to work directly with the program to know what they’re asking for and they can also review your application before you submit it again in encouraging recycling and pollution prevention ohio epa has a website specifically for ohio businesses where you can post your wanted and unwanted materials that can be recycled rather than go to a landfill this is called the ohio materials marketplace it’s a free platform so you can sign up for free and it’s run by ocap staff so it’s not like there’s regulators on there that are looking at you know what you’re posting and what you’re doing but the whole idea is that if you have a material that you could be recycled or something that you’re paying a lot of money to get rid of that instead could be recycled um you can post that there and people from throughout the state can see that and because we want people to do this sort of work we want you to consider pollution prevention to recycle we want you to be in compliance with our regulations we have an awards program called the encouraging environmental excellence program where businesses communities or schools can nominate themselves for an award so there’s four different

levels of recognition and if you get the platinum level the highest level you would get a visit from the director of ohio epa and you also get a flag to fly at your establishment our moderator mike mike kelly he is the main contact for this program so if this is something that you think you might be interested in and nominating yourself uh give mike a call thanks maddie thanks tamara um again and thanks every um one because we’re now going to go through some of the questions that were submitted during today’s presentation um as a reminder you can still submit questions the questions pane in your attendee control panel um and i’m going to go through some of the questions that we’ve received okay the first question was what is considered a disturbance for a stream i don’t know if tamara maddie would like to respond to that yeah i can take that um like i said those rules are very nuanced so when i get questions about the 401 or the wetlands program i go directly to those that 401 or that wetlands technical contact and that would be my my recommendation to you um because the rules are very specific and again it can involve involvement and approvals from ohio epa as well as army corps so that’s a very technical question that’s probably best best answered by working with the 401 staff and if somebody wants uh there is the contact information on our website but i’m happy to post out the 401 contacts throughout the state as well thank you um our next question is is do livestock containment facilities need an air permit for odors i don’t think that they do um that is regulated through um the department of agriculture so any sort of like capo or um really anything agriculture related is is not through ohio epa you’d want to talk directly to the department of ag they might have their own regulations for odor control but it would not be coming from our division of air pollution control yeah and some of the nuisance odor complaints can get a little bit tricky because oftentimes they’re in a very gray area so you can also reach out to our division of air pollution control and there was um a previous in your community webinar series where that was just dealing with open burning and odor and nuisance complaints i think jim cavalloc provided him and he talked about how if if ohio epa is involved how we may be involved in responding to nuisance odor complaints but they’re often very tricky and it’s a very gray area great thank you um the next question is and evaluating whether or not you need an air permit it’s kind of a rule of thumb for evaluating that um it was if the source was causing smoke dust or odors does this include odor from restaurants no i would say typically it does not and again those are just rules of thumb some guidelines something like a restaurant odor may come more come into play in the nuisance odor category again which could be mostly handled on the local level when we talk about you know we’re talking about dust and things like that that’s more on the realm of ohio epa’s air permits but restaurant owners i would think would be more in the nuisance order handled on the local level thank you um the next question when a permittee received their permit and required sampling analysis what is it ohio epa’s process for assisting the individuals with finding a laboratory it really depends on the program and ohio epa does not have an endorsed list or an approved list i know some of the programs do maintain lists uh they’re certified lists under the drinking and groundwater program again it’s it’s not a recommendation or uh you know of any particular lab but i knew do know that some of the programs do have those lists available um you know so at least it’s a place to start yeah um another question was um during this

covid period when it is difficult if not impossible to come to an ohio epa office to view public records how do you handle public record requests so if um we have gone electronic with a lot of our records so if you can’t find it online then you could still submit the foia but each district office has their own um public records person that you would be submitting that form to yeah and it would it would be my recommendation to to add to what maddie said is that in those situations because during covid the way we do things is a lot different now um it might be good to to start by reaching out to that public records specialist in in the in your district office and ask that question specifically i’m looking for information on this how is the agency responding to those questions at this time thank you um the next question is can you clarify a bit more on the need for ohio epa involvement and demolition project is a residential building or a commercial building or a building of a certain size does that determine whether or not the agency needs to be involved when it comes to the demolition again that’s under ohio epa’s asbestos program it comes down to is demolition being done at what the rules will consider a regulated facility there might be requirements on the local level but in terms of ohio epa most demolition projects would involve involvement from ohio epa’s division of air pollution the exception is typically a single family residential structure is typically exempt but again those rules can be nuanced so it’s always recommended to reach out to the regulatory division but typically it goes down to what is considered a regulated facility under that program and for demolition like we talked about a regulated facility is typically commercial industrial institutional or public structure and also a multi-um unit residential structure such an apartment building um anything larger than a triplex it would be considered most likely fall under the definition of the facility and in terms of renovation at a facility it’s just it’s any renovation work that will disturb more than a certain amount of regulated asbestos containing material so there’s additional um information on the division of air pollution controls asbestos web page as well as uh contact information uh there’s the asbestos program also man’s a hotline that’s available on our web page so those questions are best sent to the regulatory division sounds good um the next question is does ohio fda handle complaints on oil and gas well odors um air issues debris and dust from fracking or would we refer resident com residents complaints to odnr the ohio department of natural resources um that’s a bit of a tricky question but generally the thousand foot level most of the uh oil and gas well and fracking regulations and response is handled by odnr good that sounds great well that’s all the questions that we’ve received today i did get a few questions about um registered sanitarian um numbers if you’ve sent that in through the you know through the question panel we have that information we’ll make sure that we get that to the sanitarian board so you can get credit for this you’ll also be getting a certificate of attendance after this is over um thank you again tamara and maddie and thank everyone for attending today’s webinar have any other questions please feel free to contact mattie tamara tamara or any of the rest of us here in ocap um you know you can contact us at 1-800-329-7518 um once you leave today’s webinar you’ll receive a survey on the presentation we’d really appreciate it if you could complete that and provide your feedback you will also receive a follow-up email within about a day or two um with the link to view a recording of today’s webinar a certificate of attendance and another link to the survey if you did not get a chance to complete that um and and lastly thank you again for joining us today we hope you’re able to participate future in your community webinars um these will be listed on our in your community webpage and with that thanks for attending and have a great day


English Google Webmaster Central office-hours hangout

JOHN MUELLER: Welcome, everyone, to today’s Google Webmaster Central Office Hours Hangouts My name is John Mueller I am a Webmaster Trends Analyst here at Google in Switzerland And part of what we do is meet with webmasters, like the ones here in the Hangout, and discuss questions that they might have or questions that came up and were posted on the thread ahead of time As always, if there are new people here, if you want to go ahead and ask the first question, feel free to jump on in SPEAKER 1: I have a question [INAUDIBLE] JOHN MUELLER: OK, go for it SPEAKER 1: So we’re migrating to HTTPS, but also changing URL structure to consolidate some subdomains And I was curious about if there’s a better approach between these two, whether it’s serving a 301 with a no cache header or a 302 and then waiting a few days to make sure we don’t have to rollback and then serving a 301 Is there a better– more risk with either of those approaches? JOHN MUELLER: Either way would probably work SPEAKER 1: It would be OK? JOHN MUELLER: Yeah It’s not that we would lose anything with a 302 It’s essentially just at the first moment, we look at the 302 and say, oh, you want the redirecting URL to remain indexed And if you’re just testing things for HTTPS, then maybe a 302 is better because on the client side, it wouldn’t be cached But once you’re committed to moving to HTTPS, I’d switch that out for a 301 SPEAKER 1: For a 301 OK And at a high level, is there any approach that mitigates risk? Because we’re not only migrating to secure, but also, again, changing the URL structure Is that a complicating factor there? JOHN MUELLER: Yeah, definitely So basically, we have to re-understand your website in a case like that So that’s something I wouldn’t do frequently Sometimes you have to do it, just because you need to clean– SPEAKER 1: Yeah, it’s a one-time thing JOHN MUELLER: And for that, maybe pick a time where you’re not too dependent on the search traffic so that if there are fluctuations for a couple of weeks, then that doesn’t make a big difference, or at least so that you know ahead of time, OK, I shouldn’t expect Search to be showing everything as it was before during this kind of fluctuating time SPEAKER 1: OK, thanks JOHN MUELLER: But that should settle down just the same as any other kind of site move SPEAKER 1: OK SPEAKER 2: I have one, too, about site structure [INAUDIBLE] about internal URLs JOHN MUELLER: OK SPEAKER 2: Long time ago, I knew it was wise to have keywords in a URL in the domain name if a page name [INAUDIBLE] Everything changed And the Google not only didn’t like that, but stopped analyzing if it was too much of it or you fail to add, it’s abusing My question now is what sort of command is the way to go for the page name? So [INAUDIBLE] the domain name Domain name, it’s what it is It contains or it doesn’t contain In my case, it contains one keyword, but not exact key phrase or anything like that What about pages for themselves? Should I make them keyword rich? Should I go with just for a natural title, which includes keywords, and have them fail? Or John, should I just remove the keywords from the title? It’s just not the factor I can use simple page [INAUDIBLE] one, two, three JOHN MUELLER: I would focus on other things before– SPEAKER 2: Of course But anything, because it’s a settings [INAUDIBLE] JOHN MUELLER: Yeah But from the search point of view, at least for us, it’s such a small factor that it’s not worth worrying about from the search side So I’d think about how your users react to that, how they link to these pages And for the most part, I assume for users, having something with some text in it is easier to remember and easier to link to than a random URL number, for example So personally, I’d go for something that has some text in there But I wouldn’t put that text there for Search engine, so I wouldn’t try to stuff as many as the keywords in there as possible SPEAKER 2: Of course No, no, no, I’m not talking about– JOHN MUELLER: –kind of reasonable that works for users SPEAKER 2: OK So basically use for title which I have [INAUDIBLE] would be a good option?

And keep having the date in case I go with Google News And new site what is also having news And I know there you must have a format of five different numbers I don’t remember exactly now I have it noted JOHN MUELLER: Oh, yeah I have a vague memory that something changed with Google News there I don’t know for sure I believe [INAUDIBLE] SPEAKER 3: If you have a site map file, you do not need the digits in the URL anymore, I believe SPEAKER 2: Oh, so then I could just go with a title, and everything would be fine JOHN MUELLER: Sure SPEAKER 2: OK, thank you, John JOHN MUELLER: I can’t authoritatively speak for Google News, but Barry definitely has experience SPEAKER 2: [INAUDIBLE] that’s what I like him It’s not only that you are very kind and explain [INAUDIBLE] much everything, but a lot of [INAUDIBLE] people John and help when you need it JOHN MUELLER: That’s why I go on vacations SPEAKER 2: No No vacation for you JOHN MUELLER: Let me jump through some of the questions that were submitted And if you have comments along the way to these questions, feel free to jump on in And I’ll leave some time towards the end as well for anything else that you might have We use filters and categories and subcategories And in our e-shop, we have over 30 million products And based on that, we have to change almost every day, most of them We have two different questions We don’t want to lead Googlebot to thin pages So when category filter reaches less than 15 products, we set a meta tag to robots, noindex, nofollow Is this OK? That sounds pretty good to me Let’s see how that goes And then a question about the crawl rate of noindex, nofollow URLs So Googlebot will probably be crawling a lot of these pages We’ll find that noindex, nofollow And that’s fine for us So usually what happens is we have enough capacity to crawl your website anyway So we can dig through a lot of these pages and just ignore them if they’re noindex You can also guide us a little bit if you know ahead of time which links lead to noindex pages, and maybe put in rel nofollow on those links So depending on the way you have your site structure set up, that might be an option If crawling these noindex pages is a critical burden on your server that causes problems for normal users, then I would consider using a robot’s text file And really, blocking crawling of those pages completely– it doesn’t prevent them from being indexed completely, because we don’t know if there’s a noindex there or not But at least the content isn’t there And usually they don’t rank for any of the content that might be on that page But that’s something I’d really only do if it’s really critically hard to actually crawl all of those pages If your server is overloaded and really can’t handle that load The second part here is we have some brand temporarily without products Can we redirect users using a 302 to a category with the same products, or almost the same products, or do we need show a 404 page? If you essentially have a replacement page for the existing page that’s currently not existent, then a redirect might be an option there I think a 302 helps users, because that’s not something that gets cached on their side So what would generally happen is they would go to that URL again And if you suddenly do have content there, then that would be visible Otherwise, they would follow that redirect to the other page So that would be fine in that regard Next question here– you said that Panda was granular Can you explain it a bit in layman terms as we have Panda issues So we’re going through category by category, making content specific and adding value where we can Are we correct in thinking that Panda will gradually get lifted as it sees these investments throughout the site? Or do we have to wait for a Panda update? That’s correct This is something that happens over time automatically It’s not necessarily from one day to the next But it does happen automatically as we reprocess those URLs and reprocess all of the signals associated with those pages and understand that these pages are essentially a lot better So I double checked to try to figure out what your site was, to see if there is something more specific I could say there I noticed you have a post in the Help Forum And one of the things I noticed there is you

have a lot of local information, a lot of local offices that you’re essentially providing there But in looking through the Maps listings, I noticed that there were always other offices at the same location So I’m not really sure if this is a case of you running multiple websites for the same business, or if these are essentially multiple businesses that are running under the same name, which might be kind of confusing So what I would generally recommend in a situation like this is to fold those pages together and focus on having one website that’s really fantastic that leads users to that local store that you have and to have one Maps listing that’s associated with your website so that you don’t have the situation of users coming to your business and not really sure which business they’re going to and which business they should recommend if they get fantastic service from your business So really trying to concentrate everything into one clean listing per location so that it’s a lot easier for us to understand, this is the page we should show in the Search results for that specific query We have an affiliate site that rents generators We’re thinking about adding a special calculator that helps people work out which generator they need for a specific task that they need to use it for Our competitors don’t have such a calculator on their site My question is, will Google recognize this as something adding value? Will we get any SEO benefit from it? So this is something where on the one hand, Google will probably recognize that this is something unique that is ascribed on your page that we can rank your page for So if someone is specifically searching for a generator calculator or whatever variation that you provide there, then that’s something that would be something that we could show in the Search results However, that’s something of a different query of ranking for general rent a generator, for example, queries So for general queries, that’s something that would probably collect itself over time in the sense that users would recognize that there is added value on this site They would maybe recommend the link to your calculator, your other added value that you have there And over time, we would use that to better understand, OK, for this type of query, actually this site is pretty good as well So on the one hand, adding a tool like that provides more direct traffic to that tool for people looking explicitly for that tool, assuming there are people who are doing that On the other hand, over time, this is something that will build value for the rest of your site as well I have a question on structured data and decimal places Does Google support the use of up to four or more decimal places per unit pricing on structured data? For example, on schema.org and Google structure data support pages lack the depth, and Webmaster forums have no confirmed examples I need to double check with the team on that So if you have an example that I can send to the team to look at, that might be something to do Another option might be to bundle the pricing into groups that make sense for your users So for example, if you’re selling nails, then you don’t want to price each individual nail You’ll have a pound of nails or something like that And you’ll have that unit as the unit that you’re selling Depending on what else you’re selling, maybe you’ll have, I don’t know, a 12 pack or 100 pack And that’s something that you would be selling there And that would decide the price for that unit that you’re providing in the Search results But if there’s something that doesn’t quite fit into that, then feel free to send me a note with some examples so that I can take a look at that with the team here and we can figure out what we need to change on our side or what we could recommend for your specific use case Next question here is, my question is in regards to Google’s recent announcement on the mobile first index Currently we’ve been told to implement annotation for separate mobile and desktop sites as best practice But would the mobile canonical tag pointing to the desktop version confuse indexation once mobile only index begins in a few months? Would the canonical tag from the mobile site

be transferring the link equity to the desktop pages? What’s the best recommendation? So in general, we haven’t made an announcement on this yet Gary has been talking about it occasionally at conferences for quite a while now that this is something that we need to figure out Most of our users are using mobile devices when they’re accessing our Search results And so we need to make sure that the Search results that they see reflect what they would see on their devices So I would hold tight there And once we get closer to having something more concrete, we’ll definitely inform you through the blog or the normal other channels that we have so that you’re not stuck in a situation of not knowing what to do Does it decrease quality of my page if I include throughout my article references to other content on my site in this manner– read more colon name of article, not just below the post, but inside it as well That sounds like a reasonable thing to do If you have cross links like that, that seems pretty reasonable to do With regards to the anchor text itself, if you constantly have read more and name of article in there, I don’t know if that’s the perfect approach Sometimes it makes sense to just link part of a text and link that to a specific article But essentially, that’s totally up to you That’s something that users will value when they read your pages and they realize, oh, there’s actually more detailed information here on this other page within this website And that, indirectly, will definitely help us understand what’s happening here on those sites When adding product price markup in schema.org, is there a limited number of decimal places? Oh, wow, this is kind of the same question as before So if you have 0.0456 pounds for each individual item, but people normally order them in thousands Yeah, this is something where if you have specific examples where you think we need to change our documentation or maybe change our policies, then feel free to send that to me And I can take a look at that with the structure data team to see what the best recommendation there would be From a quality point of view, I want to noindex two popular pages on my site that receive lots of good Google traffic for general queries But there are no users that want to search explicitly for those pages on my site, according to Search Console, and I don’t think these users might become loyal users or visitors of my site Can I go ahead and noindex them, despite the fact that they are ranking? Or will it hurt the rankings of my other pages and site overall? So I guess this is almost more of a marketing type question than an SEO question, because you are getting traffic for these pages, but you don’t want that traffic And in general, there are two approaches there One might be to remove those pages or to noindex them Another might be to move those pages to a site where you do think it makes sense to have traffic Or a third alternative, I guess, is to modify those pages so that you can cover both sides there so that it centrally tweaks the people that are landing on those pages based on how that edited content will rank so that you do get some amount of people who are worth converting into customers or normal users But in general, if you just want to go ahead and noindex pages that you don’t want to have shown in Search, then that’s up to you That’s definitely something you can do I had a question with regards to impressions in Search Console, Search Analytics Report How are organic search impressions actually calculated with respect to browser settings? If a Chrome user enables 100 results to display, she or he is essentially seeing 10 pages of default search engine results pages For example, if a query triggers example.com on position 78 to user A with the default 10 results per page, then we know they have to click seven times to actually see that page, whereas other users might see that on the first page My concern is that this isn’t accounted for within the calculations CTR becomes less relevant indicator of visit quality So we look into the position that’s

actually shown to the user in the Search Results page So if a result is ranking number 78 on a Search Results page with 100 results there, then that would be essentially equivalent to the appropriate ranking if they were clicking through next page, next page, next page So it’s not so much that we focus on pages for Search Analytics, but we focus on the actual position There’s some discussion, as always, with regards to what the optimal information is for webmasters in that regard Should we be showing page number? Or should we be showing the position? If we show position, how can we make it clear that this is actually maybe position number two, but it’s pretty far below the fold because of all of this other stuff that’s on top? Or maybe this is position three and actually it’s pretty high on top, because there’s nothing on top of that at all How do we display that to webmasters? And at the moment, we’re sticking with the ranking position There is more information in the Help Center with regards to how we actually calculate the position– so with regards to the individual blocks of content For example, if you have a local result and it’s within one of those multi-pack local results on top, how is the ranking counted there? How is the ranking counted if your site is right below that block? All of these things are detailed fairly clearly in the Help Center So that’s something I would look at if you’re interested in understanding a bit better how we’re actually counting these things And as always, if you have ideas for how we should be doing it differently– how you think it would be more useful for webmasters to actually have this information– then by all means, send that to us That’s something where it’s always a lot more valuable for us to go to a team and say, hey, these external users are saying that they don’t really like the way you have it set up now and they have this proposal, which looks completely different Whereas if we go to the team directly and say, hey, we think actually we know everything better and you should be changing it to something like this but we don’t have anything to back that up, then obviously that doesn’t have that much weight But if you have suggestions, send them our way We can take a look and work with the team on those We use pagination rel next from previous on our e-commerce site We also have a canonical tag pointing to a View All page However, I think it’s not giving the user the best experience because the View All page shows too many products on the page Is it possible that Google may look at the View All page and think this is low quality, and because of this, we are providing a poor experience? What should we do in this instance? Should we know noindex the View All and point the canonical to the first page? This is something where I wouldn’t worry too much about how Google thinks about the quality of those pages, but rather how users actually think about that And this is something you can definitely test where you could do an A/B test and say, OK, for maybe 1% or 10% of my pages, I will switch to canonical to the first page of the search results page Or I will make my View All page limited to maybe the first three pages, rather than the first 100 pages And with that kind of test to see how users interact with those pages, obviously you need to find a metric that you’re tracking to make sure that you’re looking at the right thing But this is something that you can really test on your side and try things out on And once you’ve figured out which approach makes the most sense for your users, then that’s something that I think Google would probably, for the most part, be fine with handling as well People do pagination on e-commerce sites in very different ways And Google has to deal with that And if you do pagination in a really unique way and this works well for your users, then we should be able to handle that as well SPEAKER 4: John, can I ask a question? JOHN MUELLER: Sure SPEAKER 4: With the pagination, I read that you should never have the real canonical pointing back to the first page because the content on your third page isn’t the same as the first page JOHN MUELLER: Technically that’s definitely correct in the sense that, like you mentioned, the content is different on the third and the fourth page There are things that you could do, like just put a noindex on those pages For the most part, I assume we would still pick that up and use that like that, though

SPEAKER 4: OK, thank you JOHN MUELLER: So I guess the one thing to watch out for in a case like this is that if there is content on the third page or the fourth page that’s not found anywhere else on your website So for example, if you have products that are listed on the third and the fourth page that are linked to from those pages and they’re not linked to from anywhere else within your website and you have this canonical set up to the first page or you have a limited View All page, then we might find that link to that content For the most part, with normal e-commerce sites, that’s less of a problem because everything is so interwoven and interconnected in that we can find any specific product page linked to from a bunch of different pages within the website So for the most part, that’s probably not something you really need to worry about I’d still double check to make sure that that assumption is actually true in your case and not that you have one product page, and this is the only place where you list all of these products And from that one long listing page, you only have a small section that’s actually an index of them We used a recognized Google partner company for our third party reviews As well as marking these up with schema.org, we were thinking about adding some of the actual review’s content to the associated pages so customers can easily read what people are saying about us Would you recommend adding a DoFollow link to the associated review next to this content so that Google knows it’s genuine? Also, would this help us with regards to Google identifying these as quality pages? Or would doing this have no bearing whatsoever on that side of things? So I wouldn’t worry so much about DoFollow or NoFollow link there That’s essentially up to you, depending on the situation, how that content is connected to your website I assume, for the most part, linking normally and passing page rank is completely fine in a case like that because these reviews are associated with that specific product Taking some of those reviews and putting them on your page is also perfectly fine One thing I would watch out for, though, is if you’re just marking these pages up with structured data, then pick one of the two versions to actually mark up with the review So don’t markup both pages because that can get a bit confusing for us in that regard But putting some of those reviews on your pages, I think, is perfectly fine It’s essentially a type of testimonial SPEAKER 5: Hey, John Can I jump in with a quick question? JOHN MUELLER: Sure SPEAKER 5: So I was going to ask this later, but I’ll ask it now So I have a site It’s an exact match domain It’s been around for many, many years And the site’s not ranking the way you would expect It ranks for long tail queries, but it doesn’t seem to rank for even close to any head terms It does seem to have some quality issues that could be cleaned out, but nothing that looks that bad to me This is related to an email I sent you before I don’t know if you received that email I can type the– I don’t want to mention publicly– but I can type the URL in the chat if you want to take a quick look at it JOHN MUELLER: I’d probably need to take a look at it afterwards to see what’s actually happening there, because doing that live is always a bit tricky It’s– SPEAKER 5: Sure The computer explodes, and what’s going on? Let me ask you this then So there’s been a lot of people who have come onto your Hangouts before have mentioned that they’ve been having trouble ranking exact match domains, not necessarily for the query that the domain represents, but even generally for queries Can you talk a little bit about– Matt [INAUDIBLE] mentioned it at a conference in 2013 that exact match domains might be a little spammy or considered a little spammy Can you talk a little bit about that? JOHN MUELLER: So I guess for us, it’s not so much a matter that something is an exact match domain, because that sometimes just happens naturally, but rather the combination of exact match domain and low quality content and the very frequent combination there of just essentially doorway sites where you’re taking exact match domains and you’re swapping out individual keywords where you’re swapping out city names or swapping out different attributes of the product So wooden garden furniture, metal garden furniture, winter garden furniture– all of these variations– and quite often, it’s more a matter of these being essentially low quality doorway sites than them being exact match domains,

because sometimes you have a brand And people are searching for that brand And it is a combination of different keywords that you’ve been focusing on for years and years and years And just the fact that it’s an exact match domain doesn’t necessarily mean that it’s bad So it’s really more that combination of exact match domain is a really common attribute of all of these doorways sites And from there, essentially, if you do have a collection of doorway sites and we look at that, then based on them being doorway sites, that’s actually something that we would take action on, either algorithmically or manually SPEAKER 5: Right Would you or would you not say that exact match domains have to make sure they’re squeaky clean and really above board in terms of quality, probably even more than other sites? JOHN MUELLER: Not necessarily more than other sites, I would say I think they just have a bad reputation SPEAKER 5: OK Fantastic Great Thanks, John SPEAKER 2: May I have one about quality, too? JOHN MUELLER: Sure SPEAKER 2: OK I remember I read somewhere– don’t know exactly, but I think [INAUDIBLE] guidelines– that for our kind of site would fall under your money, your life category, something about finances, health, and in my case, nutrition I have decided to pull out the nutritional info I try to cover a lot of products in my native language, I don’t know if it’s kind of missing And I want to know what exactly is different for this kind of sites? It says where it requires a higher level of trust or something like that What can I do as a webmaster to make sure everything is OK? I have to have even better quality than normally I need to have quality from, I don’t know, qualified doctors Or what could I do in order to make sure that I’m more of a good site with these kind of sites? Content is OK It’s definitely not spam It’s quality It’s informative But I’m kind of afraid that there are some extra requirements that I might miss JOHN MUELLER: So I think, first of all, that the Rater’s Guideline, I think, is a fantastic resource to better understand how we look at things But it’s important to keep in mind that the Rater’s Guideline isn’t something where someone is manually going through the Search results and saying, this site should rank well This site should not rank well This site is bad The site is good But rather these are raters who are reviewing algorithm changes that we make SPEAKER 2: So [INAUDIBLE] don’t have this kind of classification on your live sites? JOHN MUELLER: Not necessarily, no, at least not that I’m aware of So perhaps there is something I don’t know But in general, this is mostly for the raters when they’re reviewing algorithm changes So if someone comes up with an idea and says, oh, I want to sort the Search results by the length of the URL, because that’s the most important part of a website And a rater looks at that and sees a bunch of questionable medical sites on top, then that’s something that a rater might want to flag So just to be sure, we’re not going to sort the Search results by the URL But if this were something that we wanted to test, then we might run that by the raters And they would tell us that this is probably a bad idea They would look at two search results next each other– one with the current set up, one with the tweaked set up– and they would say, these are bad These are good So they would use those criteria and that information that we have in that Rater’s Guide to better understand what is a good site that we should be watching out for, what are maybe some attributes of questionable sites that they should be watching out for as well SPEAKER 2: But normal web, there is really no difference between a site and one of this category isn’t on our site Nothing I have to what to do different? JOHN MUELLER: Well, I don’t believe there is anything from our algorithms that explicitly flag these sites or these queries as being critical in that regard But obviously, users are critical So users might look at the site and say, oh, there’s a bunch of medical information here, but there is nothing to really back this up There are a bunch of ads on here I don’t know if someone just took maybe some medical information and ran it through a tech spinner and came up with this page And is it something I can really trust? Is it something I can recommend to other people? And those are factors where users are probably going to be a lot more critical than our algorithms But like I said, I don’t believe it’s

the case that our algorithms are specifically looking out for those kind of sites and applying a higher quality threshold there SPEAKER 6: John, just a quick question– are you aware of any problems with Google Analytics over last week? A few people, including us, have seen that we’re watching our traffic And on a particular day, hourly, and then something refreshed and drops And a few people have been reporting something similar JOHN MUELLER: I don’t know I don’t know about Google Analytics, so not really sure what that could be So I know with Search Console we’ve been having some issues with the hreflang report jumping up and down But I don’t know Google Analytics shouldn’t be reflecting that SPEAKER 6: Just a couple of threads on the Webmaster Community Google forum about people saying that And they took screen shots before and after I don’t think it’s a traffic issue I don’t think it’s people seeing drops in traffic I think it’s a reporting issue But if you’re not aware of it, then I guess that’s– JOHN MUELLER: I have no idea what might be happening This is something that you could probably test if you have a second way of tracking the traffic Either the server logs or maybe another tracking element on those pages– that might be a quick way to double check is it a display issue, or is it actually a change in my traffic? SPEAKER 6: OK Cheers Thanks JOHN MUELLER: Let me grab some more questions from the thread And then we can open things up for more general Q&A How would you describe, in your own words, a site that offers a great user experience? How would you spot one? This is one of those endless questions where you could talk forever My recommendation there would be to take a look at that old blog post from Amit Singhal with the 23 factors of a quality site and see how much of that applies to your site So from my point of view, if you’re specifically just looking about user experience, my general thing I watch out for is that a site lets me do what I’m trying to do as quickly as possible and doesn’t get in the way too much So just from a user experience point of view, if I need to complete some specific task, then help me do that as quickly as possible so that I will return to your site again and complete similar tasks whenever I need them But there’s a lot more with regards to quality content and general site quality that’s available out there that flows into this as well where some of that is definitely in the blog post by Amit Singhal Other things are things that you can do with user studies fairly frequently So this is something that always surprises me in the sense that when you get a bunch of users together and you bring them in a room and you watch them work with your product after you give them a task to complete on your product, that you notice all of these weird small quirks that get in their way that confuse them So having a small user group and seeing how they complete tasks in person can be really enlightening My position in Search Results has been fluctuating a lot I experienced an 80% drop in mid-July to mid-August, followed by a one month recovery when Penguin launched Then I had the same 80% drop And six days later, my site recovered for five days And now it’s been back up for three weeks And I’m just wondering what happened here I did have an incident last November where implementing HTTPS caused some pages on my same IP to get cloned to another domain, but I got rid of that Not sure what can be done I’d probably need to take a look at the site specifically to see what might be happening there If it’s just a matter of HTTP and HTTPS, then that wouldn’t be playing a role here If that happened last November and it was a technical issue, then that wouldn’t be playing a role here either My general gut feeling when I see sites that are fluctuating in and out like that is that our algorithms are just not sure where to place the site, mostly with regards to the quality of the site And they’re just not sure is this something that we should be showing very well in the Search Results because it’s really fantastic content, or is this something that is not so good

and maybe we should be showing other stuff instead So if you’re kind of on that edge, then the one recommendation I have there is really make sure that you’re not on that edge anymore– that Google has a clear understanding of your site And if you want that understanding to be that your site is really, really fantastic, then really try to find a way to take a step forward and really significantly improve the quality of the site overall so that our algorithms, when they look at this, they say, well, this is clearly a fantastic site We should clearly be showing it on top of our Search results, rather than fairly far down Does using only Fetch in Webmaster Tools force a page recrawl? Yes, in the sense that if you’re fetching a page in Search Console, then Googlebot will be recrawling that page We don’t reuse that information for indexing immediately But you can use the Submit to Index feature that lets us recrawl again And then we use that content for indexing In that case, what if I just noindex a page, and now I want Google to notice it quickly? Should I submit to index in order to remove URL from index? You could use the Submit to Index feature to submit a noindex URL for removal But you might just as well use the URL Removal tool which makes things a lot more straightforward in that if your site is verified and you’re the owner of the site, then in Search Console, you can say, this URL or this part of my website or the whole domain, I want to have removed from the index as soon as possible And then usually within less than a day, those pages will be dropped from our index completely So that’s probably a little bit easier than using this roundabout way of using Submit to Index to actually remove from index If I hide my H1 tag for aesthetics reasons on my site, can that result in some kind of a penalty? I hid my H1 using CSS, since they were the same as a title tag and didn’t seem to add much to the page I realize I’m not ranking as well as I expected Could this be the reason? So in general, not ranking as well as I expected is something that is harder to diagnose than just looking at the H1 tag So we use a lot of factors for crawling, indexing, and ranking And the visible content on a page is something that we do take into account But if you’re hiding this content, then from our point of view, we assume that this is not really relevant content for your page If it’s relevant, then obviously you would be showing it So that’s something where if it’s relevant, then let us know about that and be clear with your signals Don’t say, this is a heading, but actually, Google, ignore it But rather make it clear that we can pick it up and see, oh, this is a heading And you show it to users as well as a heading, so therefore, we can assume this is really an important part of your page One technique that people have used in the last decade or more probably is just use H1 tags and style them as normal text and assume that because they’re H1 tags, Google will treat this as the more important content And that’s really not the case So wrapping the whole page in an H1 tag isn’t really going to help your site significantly So I would mark up the headings on your page Use proper HTML markup Let us know about semantic structure of your page so that we can pick that up and actually use that for the Search results MIHAI APERGHIS: John, a quick question about structured data– JOHN MUELLER: Yes MIHAI APERGHIS: If you have multiple language versions of a business of a site, do you need to implement different structured data if, for example, the name differs from Romanian to English? Or it’s just maybe spelled differently Or for example, for a hotel, it’s name hotel, but in Romanian, it’s hotel name So does that need to change in maybe the description of the business, things like that? JOHN MUELLER: Yeah If these are local versions of your pages or translated versions of the page, then I would mark them up appropriately So if that’s the Romanian name, then I would markup that name on the Romanian page using structured data as well

MIHAI APERGHIS: OK But my business account only allows one business page Can I do a business page for Romania and one for the English version? So I want to be sure that it matches whatever is there so the signals don’t get mixed up JOHN MUELLER: I don’t know how Google My Business would handle international sites like that with the different language versions I really don’t know MIHAI APERGHIS: I’ll ask on the forums I know they also have forums for that JOHN MUELLER: I believe in Map Maker at least there were variations where you could provide the local name of a Point of Interest So maybe that would be an option there But I don’t know which page you would link in a case like that Maybe there are also local URLs I don’t know MIHAI APERGHIS: OK I’ll ask in the forum just to be sure JOHN MUELLER: Sure Would really appreciate it if you could talk a bit or point me to a resource about the effect of ads on my site with mention that I’m not talking about sites that obviously abuse them, but about the site that generally wants to cover some of their expenses So would a site with, for example, just a standard top banner ads or ads block be penalized in any way, compared to a site with absolutely no ads? If the answer is no, how much more could one ad and still be on the safe side? So from our point of view, we do look into whether or not ads cover a significant part of the page And I believe that’s an algorithm update that we did a long time ago In the meantime, I recently saw that it’s still being used So this is still something that we’re watching out for in the sense that if a user comes to your page, then we expect the above the fold content to at least contain some significant amount of content that’s matching what they were showing in the Search results So if the above the fold content is all just adds, then obviously from our point of view, this is a confusing page for users to land on And we might not want to rank as highly in the Search results On the other hand, if some of the above the fold content is ads, but the rest of the page is normal, visible content that matches what was shown in the Search results, then that seems like a reasonable thing to do And that’s not something where I would shy away from having any ads at all, because somehow webmasters do have to earn the money to keep the website running So that’s perfectly fine SPEAKER 3: John, is that algorithm– you have to run it manually and it checks the website? Or it’s constant like real time? So when you remove ads that might be causing the algorithm to penalize the website or downgrade the website, if you remove the ads, will it– once Google reprocesses or reindexes the page– will it automatically bump up? Or it has to be run manually? JOHN MUELLER: That’s pretty much automatic in the sense that it’s probably not live, one-to-one We just would recalled this Therefore, we know exactly what it looks like But it is something that’s updated automatically And it is something where when you change those pages, you don’t have to wait for any manual update on our side for that to be taken into account SPEAKER 6: John, is that just on part with the algorithm that deals with that? Because my understanding, from what various people have said, is that, for example, Panda would look at various Android shows and any kind of slightly deceptive or confusing content as well So are there parts might release sites or effect them in different ways that might have different time implications, rather than it just being one part of the algorithm that just happens to look at that? JOHN MUELLER: It’s possible that there is some intermixing with other algorithms when it comes to specifically ads on a page But probably the most significant one is really the above the fold one SPEAKER 6: Thanks SPEAKER 2: As it was my question, I would have a follow-up, too Is there any difference if it is an ad block? Like it shows ad sense, for example What is just a bottom, standard one across the page, 480, 68 Is the banner, then, different than the bad sites? It’s just an image and can’t really be seen as different content, especially if it’s related

Or it’s just one link, one image Is that better instead of an ad size box which have content, text, and failings, for example? Or it is just the same? JOHN MUELLER: We don’t differentiate between the type of ads there So if this is an ad and it’s one ad versus three individual ad pieces, then from our point of view, that’s the same thing SPEAKER 2: What difference if the one doesn’t have any text? So it doesn’t influence general text of a page and the other one is just an image JOHN MUELLER: Ad is ad, from our point of view So also, if it’s from Google or not from Google, it’s not that we would say one or the other is better or worse SPEAKER 2: OK So something one better over top one I don’t know One more at the bottom, below the fault. So above a fault is just on banner And another banner below the fault is [INAUDIBLE] That would be fine? JOHN MUELLER: That sounds OK I don’t know I don’t want to have this written down as Google says– SPEAKER 2: [INAUDIBLE] JOHN MUELLER: But the important part for us is when a user clicks on the link in the Search Results, they’re taking to a page where they feel that they’re getting the content that we promised them in the Search results SPEAKER 2: One [INAUDIBLE] of a page, I don’t know 10% is [INAUDIBLE] 10% is boilerplate And 80% is a [INAUDIBLE] plate is for content If it’s closed down, the percent stays the same 80% main content, 10% boilerplate, 10% else That’s fine JOHN MUELLER: That sounds good Yeah SPEAKER 2: OK, thank you I will note it down If I get penalized, I see you in court JOHN MUELLER: Oh, gosh, no This is something where I wouldn’t fixate too much on the exact numbers But it’s really just important that we actually get this content And for us, it’s such that we feel we’re doing a bad job if we’re promising the user something and they go to that page, but they don’t actually find that content without digging around But it sounds like you’re on the right track SPEAKER 2: OK, thank you SPEAKER 5: That’s an interesting question, John How accurate do you think Google is these days at actually detecting the purpose of a page? Would you say you do it 90% of the time, 95% of the time? JOHN MUELLER: The purpose of a page– SPEAKER 5: I’ve always been amazed at your ability to crawl a page and determine what the purpose of that page was– if it was a sales page– and give the appropriate page the appropriate search query JOHN MUELLER: I don’t really know how we would come up with those metrics But it is something where I know we work really hard to understand the context of these pages And this is something that we’ve been doing for a really long time This is essentially how AdSense works, for example, in the sense that you put this snippet of text on your page and Google goes and looks at that page once and understands, oh, this page is about this topic Therefore, I can show ads that match that topic So that’s something which we’ve been working on a really long time now And we use for Search as well to better understand which pages are about which topics With the Knowledge Graph information, a lot of that comes in there as well So that’s something where I hesitate to give an absolute number But I know we have some really, really smart people that are working on this problem And they’ve been working on this problem for a really long time And it’s really important for us that we get this right And this is even more so the case when it comes to things like voice queries where if you’re on your phone and you ask a question, Google needs to understand, on the one hand, your question On the other hand, they need to understand which pages would actually match the same topic that the person is looking for And that’s sometimes really, really hard in that the words on a page might be different from what people are actually searching for with their voice queries And we still have to understand that they mean this specific entity And this page also talks about that entity, so maybe those two would fit together SPEAKER 5: Fascinating JOHN MUELLER: Yeah, it always surprises me when it works really well I understand that there are probably lots of edge cases that don’t work that well But this is why we keep working on it and keep trying to–

SPEAKER 5: Shouldn’t you have more faith? It shouldn’t surprise you You should more faith in your own company JOHN MUELLER: Well, these are really hard problems And I look at a bunch of forums regularly were Google users post about their experiences And you see them frequently going there and I knew this half quote from this movie And I didn’t know which movie it was from So they just typed it into Google, and Google recognizes that actually the words are different, but it’s like this quote from this movie And it shows a knowledge graph one box for that move, which is amazing And it surprises users And it surprises me And it surprises our engineers from time to time as well when all of this really lines up properly SPEAKER 5: Are there any kind of pages that you can mention that you have a lot of difficulty with that we could fix or change? JOHN MUELLER: The types of pages where we have difficulty with are probably more the pages in different languages other than the most common ones that we’ve been using for Search so far So this is like if you look at India where they have tens of languages, then a lot of those languages are pages that we probably don’t understand the concepts that well SPEAKER 2: Would you ever consider sending such warnings when Google Console about the, hey, on this page, we are not able to determine what it is about Can you try to fix it, add more content, or things like that? Or it will never happen? JOHN MUELLER: It could happen But I– SPEAKER 2: [INAUDIBLE] JOHN MUELLER: I suspect not any time soon That has been a really interesting sidetrack I need to leave this room Someone else is waiting But it’s been great having you all here again And hopefully, I’ll see you again in one of the future Hangouts Thanks again for joining And have a fantastic week Bye, everyone SPEAKER 7: Bye, John


Pacemaker and ICD Infections: Risk Factors and Treatment

all right so I’m gonna be talking about device infections here today and I’m gonna start off with a few cases I hope you all are not eating your breakfast some of these are not the most pleasant looking pictures so this first case here this was a 75 year old male who had a pacemaker plate he’s about five years earlier for intermittent complete heart block and he’s had three weeks of pocket pacemaker pocket pain erythema and drainage and you can see here this is an outline of his pacemaker you can see the hyper vascularity and erythema here you can actually see right here a little bit of the pacemaker generator starting to show itself there’s been some drainage coming out of it this was a piece of gauze that was covering it and you can see the drainage on there and then right down here is another little site where it’s a threatened erosion and about to come out this was a 64 year old woman who had a prior history of ventricular fibrillation had a generator change a couple months earlier what you’re seeing here is a transesophageal echocardiogram it’s a 3d trans to your lako and it’s really cool because right here is a vegetation cool to look at but not for the patient this is our vegetation it’s actually sliding back and forth on the lead that’s actually pretty unusual to see something like that here’s the level of the tricuspid valve this is the right ventricle here and here’s an ICD lead you can see some of the artifact from that and here’s a vegetation and so she presented with fever chills shortness of breath third one is a 64 year old woman who had an ICD place for primary prevention so she never had a ventricular fibrillation event flow was felt to be high-risk she had a low ejection fraction she was on humid Alice’s 4 and stage renal disease and had an episode of staph aureus bacteria was treated with two weeks of anger cardiogram looking for any vegetation and there was none and they felt the dialysis fistula looked okay so got two weeks of vancomycin again and then developed staph bacteria a third time all right please the main take-home message from today no matter what I’m gonna tell you is that pacemakers and ICD is save lives okay we’re gonna be talking about one of the worrisome complications of them but please don’t take don’t think devices are bad devices are good this is just one of the things that can happen with them so let’s talk a little bit about presentation so there’s a couple different types of what you might see when we’re talking about a device infection so the first thing is superficial cellulitis and we don’t consider this a real device infection this is usually something that’s seen in the early post-op period and it’s just the skin and soft tissue but it’s not the deep tissue that we’re talking about really the main types of device infection are either an erosion or a threatened erosion so this is where you’re actually seeing either parts of the plastic or metal from the generator or parts of the lead or you’re about to see it which is what a threatened diversion is or a true pocket infection where you’re seeing more inflammation at the site you have sort of the classics of the warmth tenderness drainage you can have also and then there’s lead associated endocarditis so with this the pocket may or may not look fine but there’s a vegetation on the lead itself or there’s a vegetation on a valve so if you have valvular endocarditis by definition the device is also infected and then you can have unexplained recurrent bloodstream infections so that there the device itself is infected but there’s no obvious vegetation that’s large enough for you to be able to see but recurrent unexplained bloodstream infection you have to think that the device would be infected in that situation I’m not sure actually comes out across pretty well here so I’m some sort of pictures of what a pocket infection may look like so this is someone who presented with some tenderness at the site and just a little bit of duskiness there and and swelling to the site and they ended up having a co AG negative staph infection then it’s a little bit more obvious in some of them so here’s someone where their ICD site which you can see here this was their incision a lot of erythema here here’s an area where it’s actually tact so the skin should be able to freely move on top of device and if it’s tacked down it’s getting you concerned that there’s an infection underlying there especially if there’s erythema at the site this one here it’s a little bit more obvious that’s a lot of swelling there there’s more erythema more signs of inflammation there then you can have something like this which is a little more of a threatened erosion you get the hyper vascularity in this area a lot of thinning of the skin and if you were to wait a couple more days this thing would probably break through the skin and then again here’s an evidence of actual erosion so this is a header block of a pacemaker the leads are actually plugged in underneath the skin here and this is what we use to screw in the leads into the generator of these little white spots here and then you can have different pictures for more chronic looking infections for people who don’t necessarily get their treatment as soon as we would like either because of their fault or because of the cardiologists ring internist not paying attention to their site enough and this was you know this is actually a couple inches thick of tissue in here again with evidence of erosion that we’re seeing here and then you have someone like this who actually

spent about six months with his device outside his body taped to his chest he was not someone who got a lot of medical care very often is what I would say but the good thing is for six months there was actually you know no endocarditis or bacteremia so that’s good and then again you can have leave vegetation so this vegetation is more stuck on the lead whenever I look at this sort of looks like Snoopy to me this picture but here again this is a transesophageal echocardiogram here’s the left atrium here’s the right atrium here’s the tricuspid valve the right ventricle is down here the aortic valve would be in this area here and the lead is sort of floating in through here and here’s a just a large vegetation that’s sitting on the lead and you can’t tell based on this image here if it’s in the right atrial lead right ventricular lead or anything doesn’t really matter it’s a big vegetation and needs to come out one of the other keys and I think this is even four are sort of a critical care staff it’s an important thing to know it’s that up to 50 percent of patients have a device who have a pacer ICD who develop staph aureus bacteremia will develop secondary seating of that device so if you have a patient who’s got a chronic pacemaker they come in with staph aureus for some reason have a high suspicion or a high concern that that device is going to become infected and this rarely happens with non staph aureus organisms occasionally staph epi you’ll see it and very very rarely do you see it with gram-negative bugs but staph aureus this is a pretty common thing and these patients can be very sick you know you have about a one-third chance of dying if you have staph aureus device infection back with bacteremia so we look at what the patients are that we’re seeing here at u-dub and this is over an 11 year time period that i looked at a couple years ago I haven’t updated it since then so these are not infections from our patients these are infections almost exclusively that are referred to us from the outside where a referral center for device infections so don’t go thinking that we’ve had 150 infections of our patients here and just breaking it down so about 40 percent or so had obvious signs of pocket inflammation 30 percent or so had device erosion 26 percent had either endocarditis or an unexplained bloodstream infection couple patients had a sinus tract that was connecting the skin to the device and a couple patients it was an incidental finding at a time of generator change going in into the pocket seeing pus or other sides of inflammation in the pocket at that time one of the main predictors of what type of infection you’re going to have is what the last procedure was so this is data I’m writing up right now that presented at in abstract form a couple years ago if your last procedure was a initial implantation then you’re more likely to have developed device into carditis valve vegetations sepsis if your last procedure was a generator change a new lead something where you’re going into a pocket pacer ICD pocket that’s already been formed you’re more likely to get a localized pocket infection and exact reasons for this we’re not totally sure of one of the things that we do know is that about 40% 50% of the time asymptomatic patients when you go in you do a generator change you culture the pocket you do PCR or the pocket you will find some bug that has colonized that pocket sometimes staff happy sometimes it’s appropriate a bacterium sometimes it’s other bugs that I can’t pronounce but 40 to 50 percent of a time you will find that that pocket is colonized with no active evidence of infection so the thought is that perhaps as you go into the pocket you disrupt that symbiosis that’s there in the pocket and that you then develop a sort of more obvious pocket infection we do not routinely culture the pocket because we don’t act on that information so mark oh well choose one of the residents here did some work with me and one of the things that we looked at was the time since in fact I’m since last perfect procedure and when do they start showing symptoms of infection so these were just pocket infection patients and this is days on the bottom access here a number on the top axis and this is I think is about 180 to 200 patients I can’t remember the exact number and you can see that the predominance happened in the first hundred days since their last procedure but it can go out a long period of time and some of these patients are seeing 10 15 even 20 years since they last had their device touched so that 20 years is people who have really great batteries or who just had abandoned systems because it was felt they didn’t need the system anymore but you can see pocket infections years later and not necessarily in this early pre-op period we talked about that the highest risk is in the six month window after the device is manipulated and we’ll talk about this a little bit more in a bit but I think the issue is there’s no clean time window there’s no time where you can say alright look I’m

not worried about this patient looking at what the bugs are that we’re seeing this is again data that we see saw here at u-dub and the predominance is Co AG negative staff about 40% of the time the bacteria we’re seeing is Co AG negative staff 25% of the time we’re seeing staph aureus with a sort of some mo RSA some a little more MSS a and again this is not the bugs from our institution this is the Western Washington area a little bit of Mycobacterium Candida a little gram-negative some polymicrobial and about 14% of the time we’re gram-negative and this actually culture negative and this is something it’s been repeated from a lot of different centers either people are started on antibiotics ahead of time and so by the time you get in and culture you’re not able to grow anything or for whatever other reason we’re just not able to grow out any organisms for most of those people I’ll tell you we just put them on vancomycin and they seem to do fine so whatever it is either the removal of the device system that we’ll talk about or the antibiotics is getting the job done so what are the rates of device infections Jeanne pool and I did a review article a couple years ago where we both this is one of things we looked at and there’s a wide range it’s somewhere between 0.3 and 8% of the time the devices become infected and it’s it’s tough achill difficult to know exactly what sort of what the exact number is based on these studies because there’s a lot of variability if you include Pacers and ICD so you look at them separately some studies included superficial cellulitis which is not really a device infection length of follow-up is variable where the generator is located if it’s in the belly versus the pectoral area we know the abdomen has a higher rate of device infections versus in the pectoral area we don’t do very many abdominal generators nowadays if it’s transvenous EPPICard or epicardial leads if they’re having cardiac surgery done at the same time so I think there’s we don’t have a good answer based on those studies what we do know is that the device infection rates though are increasing over time so one study here they looked at throughout the 1990s at the bottom line here which barely increases was the rate of endocarditis so valvular endocarditis over this time window which went up a little bit but not very large versus a true device infection which actually increased significantly over that 1990s another study taking a little bit of a similar window but a different data set they were looking at in the blue here the rate of device implantation which went up over time but the rate of device infection was outpacing the rate of device implantation another study here from Arnie Greenspan at Thomas Jefferson they looked at the national hospital discharge survey again the rate of device implantation did go up over time the red line here is the overall number of devices we use this term CIE D cardiovascular implant electronic devices but the total number of devices went up over time paces are a little bit icy DS went up a lot but the device infection rate was for their data set was relatively constant through the 90s and then in around 2004 started to see the sharp increase in device infection rates and what they were able to do was then look at some broad categories of comorbidities renal failure heart failure diabetes respiratory failure so all of these risk factors were coincident with this increase in device infection so the thought is we’re putting devices and sicker patients who are more likely to develop an infection and their significant financial costs associated with this the average length of stay for device infection for any intern has ever been on cards a would know that these patients can sit there for weeks at a time somewhere between 8 to 20 days on average with costs ranging from 25 to $150,000 depends if you include the implantation of a new device or not in that number to sort of get your your numbers here but you can see that the costs have gone up over time so getting into then a study that I did looking at the ICD registry and this I presented a heart rhythm society a couple months ago and I a paper has been under review at a journal for several months now and I’m waiting for them to tell me if it’s accepted or not so I I don’t have a reference for this exactly yet but the point of what the study that I did was trying to figure out in a large Medicare population what is a little bit more accurate rate of ICD infection so this is just an ICD population it’s not a pacer population describing a little bit more about the time to infection and then getting a better sense of the risk factors for infection in a large large data set so this is actually two data sets that we used one of these was the Medicare claims database and the second was the ICD registry now I don’t know if you guys know about the ICD registry this is a national database it was created in response to the CMS CMS mandate back in 2005 but it started enrolling patients in 2006 it’s currently run by the American College of Cardiology all Medicare patients in the United States who get

a primary prevention ICD are enrolled in this database most non-medicare patients are put in most secondary prevention patients are put in so primary prevention is someone who’s never had a ventricular fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia arrest secondary prevention is they’ve had one the primary prevention patients are felt to be high-risk to develop one of these the way we do hear it do it here at our institution putting people to the registry is at the time of implant and the nurses are putting in the information into the database while we’re doing our implantation and it has information about the device it has information about the patient the hospital has EKG information as echo information has lab studies blood pressure probably got 100 or so different characteristics and different factors that are in this database so the way that we did this is ICD infections were defined or identified using the Medicare claims data so we looked in the Medicare data set within six months of hospital discharge after an ICD implantation I would have loved if we had a longer period of follow-up but because of some rules that the registry imposed on us we only had six months follow-up and we looked in the Medicare claims data for a icd-9 code for a diagnosis of ICD infection which is its own code nine six point six one or infective endocarditis so as we said anybody who has an endocarditis and has advice they have a device infection we also followed a pattern or a methodology that had been used by some other investigators we were concerned that their beat some undercoating and people wouldn’t have the right icd-9 code for this so we also used procedural codes for a ICD implant a pacemaker ICD removal or alley removal if they also had during that same hospitalization sepsis bacteremia cellulitis or fever so if someone had bacteremia and a pacemaker removal the thought was that most likely they also had the definite they also had a device infection it just wasn’t coded appropriately so then with this information of the Medicare data set of some patients were able then to link that with the ICD registry data so again from the registry we get some of these patients and other characteristics there’s no direct matching between the two there’s legal requirements that the ACCC has with that if they’d set up with hospitals that there would be no direct linking so no direct identification of patients so this is all indirect matching so they were some of my colleagues at Yale what they were able to do was match by age gender and mission date ICD procedure date and provider number about 70% of the Medicare patients with ICD registry so what this means is about 70% of patients in the registry are Medicare 70% of those have been linked with the ICD registry so we’re talking about a data set that has about 50% of all the I CDs pleased in the United States for this four year time window 2006 to 2009 that we were able to look at so with this we had 200,000 patients that we were examining and our overall infection rate in that first six months was 1.7 percent there are a little bit over 3,000 patients identified with this approach and this fits within the numbers of what we’ve seen and it fits with some other large data sets of studies similar to what what other studies have shown the more leads you put in the increased chance there is that someone will develop an infection so singer tingle chamber devices 1.4% dual chamber devices 1.5 percent v n’j tricular devices someone who has three leads has a higher rate of two percent 2.0 similar to what’s also been seen if it’s an initial ICD implant first time you’re putting a device in the infection rate is lower versus if you’re going in a second time for a generator change or a new lead 1.6 versus 1.9 percent so time to ICD infection and I don’t really like the way that this figure is but this is survival free of a device infection so what you can see is that in the first 45 days or so you have a little bit of a steeper slope and then it settles off about 45 days and you have a less steep slope but by six months it’s not a plateau and it still keeps going and we don’t exactly know what that curve or line looks like going forward but the REA we’re not getting the full rate 1.7 percent is going to be a minimum rate that we’re looking at then using a multi variable analysis and trying to figure out what the predictors are I’m skipping out the univariate analysis here for time and I’m gonna show you about the top 12 or so risk factors or things that increase the odds so adverse event at the time of implant was by far the most are the factor that most increased your risk of developing an infection I’m gonna get into that in

a bit but that’s the only one that had an odds ratio over to about 2.5 or so prior valve surgery was the second most common so these are people who are having you know usually their prosthetic valves so they’re gonna be at an increased risk of developing an infection anyway I don’t think this is a big surprise and the number three was reimplantation so again this concept of if you’re going into a pocket another time there’s an increased rate and what was interesting was that the predominance of this is actually patients who are going for an upgrade so you’re putting in a new lead increased the rate versus generator change we actually the odds ratio here across is the one line so going into a pocket earlier than a battery change seems to increase the rate so dialysis end-stage renal disease patients on dialysis this isn’t surprising they’re getting more vascular access alterations of innate immunity again more leads so CRT cardiac resynchronization therapy or Ivan tricular device it’s going to increase your rate also Hospital capabilities so if a reference group here is a hospital that has availability of both bypass surgery and kern area angiography those who don’t have availability of bypass surgery or bypass surgery or coronary angiography had a higher rate so we don’t have a lot of information about the hospitals but this gives us a little bit of sense about the capability of a hospital other things to race so black non-hispanic sand hispanics have a increased odds lung disease they have an increased odds sodium level so hyponatremia is seen and I can’t I don’t quite know what this is this may be a marker severity of heart failure the severe heart failure you have you can have hyponatremia so maybe a marker of that operator training so if you were a board-certified EP like I am I have a lower odds of infection compared to non board-certified EPS and then cerebral vascular disease and I’ll just note here the C statistic for our models 0.61 so that’s pretty low it’s not a great model even though we had a hundred different factors that we could put into this so adverse events so of people who developed an infection 5.4% had an adverse event at the time of implant and what we’re really talking about here is a human at the pocket or lead dislodgement hematoma is defined in this data set as either needing to go into the pocket to evacuate it so you have a big amount of blood in there and you have some concern for whatever reason and you go in and you evacuate that blood or that you need a blood transfusion and I’d say the need for blood transfusion is likely very low in this the second would be lead dislodgement lead dislodgement being defined as you need to go back into the pocket to reposition a lead hemothorax eebee fistula those were also statistically significant but I think the numbers are so small that I don’t really make much of it I’m just throwing in pneumothorax and pericardial tamponade up there those are two of our more frequent complications that can be seen but they had no influence on this mortality so people who develop a device infection have about twice the mortality people who don’t develop device infection whether that’s due to the infection which plays into it or the comorbidities that patients have we can’t exactly say with this so then we tried to create this risk model we try to come up with a sort of chad’s to school or something that could predict device infection and then you would have someone that you saw in the clinic and you would put in there their characteristics in this model and you would say alright look their risk of device infection is so high that we probably shouldn’t do it because they’re gonna have a complication they’re not gonna benefit from it we purposely left out adverse events at the time of implant because we wanted to be used in the clinic setting and we also left out hospital and operator characteristics because we didn’t think would be used necessarily if we include those so I’m sitting there and or someone else’s let’s say is sitting there in the clinic and they put in their information and they say oh look my risk of infection is 3% but if you go that guy down the road who’s Ichi board-certified its 1% so no one’s really gonna use it if we included that information so it came up with all these complicated points you can see here and then we looked at this and we said all right look if you have a very low points you have a lower risk of infection if you have more point to have a higher risk of infection and we have a derivation cohort in a validation cohort and then we realize this just isn’t very useful the lowest risk group is 1% the highest risk group is about 3% even if someone has a 3% chance of infection I’m still gonna implant their device it’s not something I would ever use clinically so we sort of said oh this is really interesting and then we threw it out and are not really including it for anything so the limitations of this study that we’re doing is we’re using administrative codes to define infection we’re using icd-9 codes we don’t have patient level data there’s been some quality control of the ICD registry where they’ve done some direct looking

at charts and a small number of patients and it looks to be relatively accurate but we understand that there are some limitations involved with that and also this is only six month follow-up these are minimum infection rates we know the number is gonna be higher it’s not going to be 15% not saying something like that but I think you know it’s probably gonna be rate of two two you know two and a half percent somewhere in that range and we only have certain variables in the registry and this is also version 1 of the registry so about 2009 2010 they switched to a second version so in version 1 we have medications like warfarin use which was I should say weakly positive in this inversion – we have INR at the time of implant so we have a little bit more information in the second version the registry that hopefully at some point I’ll be able to look at but we also don’t have things like fever at the time of implant or active infection at the type of implant it’s been a few other studies that have shown in single Center studies if you implanted device and someone who has a fever that there’s a higher risk if they’re gonna get a device infection probably because they have an infection somewhere else and I’ll say we and the EP service can anger a lot of people in the hospital when they say all right can you put the pacemaker in today we say oh they developed a fever last night I’m sorry we and then they’re like come on just put it in and then lastly these are just Medicare patients so it doesn’t imply to younger patients doesn’t apply to patients with commercial insurance so in conclusion with this data set what we can say is you know this is actually the largest data set of ICD infections and 1.7 percent have an infection rate of six months and the infection rates are influenced by far the number one thing is by early reoperation so if you were going in earlier than the time of generator changed that is the thing that it’s going to most increase your risk so either a complication with hematoma or lead dislodgement or an upgrade of putting in new leads prosthetic valves increase your risk by ventricular devices increased at the risk increased comorbidities like hemodialysis and Hospital operator characteristics can influence the risk and I Frank think really the implication of this is we really need to do everything we can as a EP community to be avoiding early reoperation so if someone develops a hematoma we don’t go back in we try and manage it conservatively which is what our practice has been here and during the procedure itself we try and do things to prevent the hematoma from happening so if we can stop clopidogrel which is really our big drug that we hate we’ll try and do that ahead of time we usually can’t stop them in our patient’s because they’ve had recent stents but if we can do something like that clopidogrel is worse than warfarin for bleeding in our patient population things like you know just using good sterile surgical technique it’s a good idea try and be sure our leads don’t dislodge and then really sort of determine the appropriate time if you need to upgrade someone when that is and even if it is the right decision for that patient and I think the other take-home is that the predictors of infection that we have only weakly predict infection and that there are unmeasured clinical and procedural characteristics that can influence risk and we don’t really exactly know what those are or at least we’re not capturing in the data set that we have all right so now getting back into sort of sort of what to do so workup in treatment so it’s you have someone who’s got a suspected device infection what should you do well check at least to blitz-2 blood cultures so even if someone just has an erosion or a localized pocket infection they can’t have bacteremia check blood cultures also don’t aspirate the pocket don’t stick a needle in it if you see someone who’s got a big pocket don’t stick a needle in it number one if it looks red and infected we’re gonna be going in anyway and removing the device and removing the tissue and cleaning things out we’re gonna be getting a much better culture than you are with a needle as you stick in it number two if it’s not infected now you could be introducing infection into it number three is you don’t know what’s in that pocket so if you stick a needle in and there’s a lead there you can damage that lead so let’s say someone has an ICD and you do something like this and you damage that lead now the device may think that they’re in ventricular fibrillation and they may get shocked so that’s bad or if they have a pacer and their patient or dependent they’ve complete heart block the pacer may stop working and they may have asystole so don’t stick a needle in the pocket everybody should get a transthoracic echocardiogram we usually do at EEE if there’s bacteremia or if there’s been antibiotics that are given prior to blood cultures is the recommendations and then we always go in and remove these devices so at that time we’re doing a Gram stain and culture of everything so we do a swab we take out the tissue that’s in there when you take out the leads and we’re culturing those that’s really where we get much more information sometimes people who have a little bit of a questionable diagnosis of advise infection you can use em fdg-pet CT we’ve used this a couple times at our institution and this is just an example from a paper where they here’s a CT you can see the device here’s the part of the lead here’s a lead in the heart you can see that it’s lighting up here on our PET CT indicating that this person is a device

infection this person doesn’t have a device infection so there are guidelines or at least a scientific statement that’s come out from this all patients who have a device infection pocket infection lead endocarditis erosion all these patients should have complete system removal this er means removing the generator removing the leads removing any tissue that you can reach in the pocket all patients with valvular endocarditis should have complete system removal so someone has mitral valve endocarditis they should still have their whole system removed patients with a cult gram-positive bacteria should have complete system removal also in my mind I usually don’t think about this for one episode I usually would like someone to have recurrent episode but if we really have no other source we’ve removed advice in some patients and then persistent occult gram-negative bacteria Mia on the first three are a class 1 recommendation so you should do it the gram-negative bacteria mia it’s a class 2a so it’s reasonable to remove the system so one of the questions is you know well if the guidelines say that you should remove the pacer and ICD and all patients who have even a pocket infection assuming that they’re a reasonable comorbidities you know why do you extract if the infection is only at the pocket it’s only up here why do you have to take out the leads also and the issue is because it’s not just up in the pocket the bacteria and our ID colleagues can say a lot more about this and I can they translocate down the lead so here’s just some electron micrographs of leads that have been infected with just pocket infection and the left here you can see coding of this is a staph aureus patient this is staph epi and so you need to remove the whole system there’s been a lot of cases of patients or people where you just sort of remove stuff up here and leave the leads alone and then they develop either recurrent pocket infection or they develop endocarditis at a later time and I think this is actually a really great study of pushing ten years or so now from out of France and what they did was they had patients who just had pocket infection and all four of these categories are essentially the same thing they shouldn’t have broken them up into columns so patients who have a pocket infection they went up and they removed the generator and they removed the parts of the lead that they could reach from up above and then they went down to the groin area and they put in a sheath a big IV in the femoral vein and put a snare up into the heart and grabbed the leads and remove them by staring them pulling them out through the femoral vein this way the thought was you’re not going to get cross-contamination of pulling a lead out from up above and you can try and get more clean cultures of those leads when you pull it out from the groin area and the sort of upper line here is the parts of the lead that they cultured that were up in the pocket itself you know almost 90 to 100 percent of the time they’re getting positive cultures and the parts of the leads that were just in the bloodstream alone 75 80 percent of the time they were able to culture something so this really shows that what we think of as just pocket infections are not just pocket infections it’s really the entire lead in the entire system that has the infection and this is just three separate studies that looked at what happens when you do complete system removal in terms of the recurrence rate which is zero to one percent versus you do a sort of partial system removal or you leave alone and your recurrence rate is 50 to 100 percent so it’s obvious you really need to remove the whole system and it’s not just sort of recurrence rates of Awesome mortality data just a JAMA paper from last year that was a big data set of endocarditis patients and the mortality is better in those or survival is better I should say and those who have device removal versus not device removal and this is whether there’s a concomitant valve infection or just a lead infection the issue is that leads when they’re put in are not so simple to remove you can’t just pull them out there’s scar tissue so this is from an autopsy specimen obviously of someone who has a pacer system in place we’re looking at the right atrium here the tricuspid valve is down below the SVC is here up above and what you can see with these leads is that there’s scar tissue down here there’s scar tissue down here there’s scar tissue where this lead tip is implanted so you can’t just pull it out the main way that we use this is with an excimer laser system so there’s a laser that goes on tracks over the lead so the lead is going through the laser the laser actually shoots out just a few nanometers essentially to try and vaporize this scar tissue and it works pretty well to get these leads out the issue is that leads are designed to be put in they’re not designed to be removed they’re doing a better job with this nowadays with their lead design this was another sheet that we used to remove this but you can see how this lead here is just completely unraveled as we’ve tried to remove it you’re sort of pulling on wire to try and get it out here’s another example of a patient

there’s all this scar tissue in place that we had to free up to be able to get these leads out one of the questions is the way or one of the issues the way we do this is we do this all percutaneously so we’re doing this all from the device site we have a pretty good success rate 95 percent or higher in terms of removing these leads with a relatively low complication rate about a 1% chance of someone needing an emergent store nanami but there are some patients who we will send primarily for surgery and so this is data I presented earlier this year of a large dataset of about 400 patients who had device infection about 9% ended up going for a surgical extraction some of these are people who had failed percutaneous extraction so we couldn’t get it out but in general these are people who have larger vegetations there’s some vegetation size where we say look this is too big and we’re concerned about a significant pulmonary embolus so if someone has a vegetation that’s 5 millimeters 10 millimeters that vegetation is going to go to the lungs but it’s not going to cause a clinically significant pulmonary embolus but you reach some time some size three centimeters two and a half centimeters three and a half centimeters where you’re worried that it’s gonna stick even in like the pony valve or the RV outflow tract so if you have a really big and globular vegetation we might be concerned about trying to remove that percutaneously it’s more filamentous we might feel more comfortable doing it but the patients who go for surgery typically have larger vegetations are more likely to have endocarditis versus of pocket infection more likely to have had embolic events and are healthier in general they were lower Charlson comorbidity index usually our surgeons would say gosh they’re too sick and you know they’re gonna have a higher risk of perioperative events so they would try and push us to remove the device after extraction what do you do there’s a whole flow chart you can see here but assuming we removed the device in general patients get antibiotics for 10 to 14 days afterwards if it’s just a pocket infection depending if it’s a lead infection or valve infection you’re usually talking about 2 to 6 weeks that will do antibiotics so the question is let’s say you have someone whose pacemaker dependent and you remove their pacemaker what do you do for them because they need a temporary pacemaker and typically in the past what was done was you would put in balloon catheter and put a temporary pacemaker and the patient sits in the ICU for that time period and they can’t get out of bed because you’re worried about the dislodging that pacemaker but what we use is we either call them externalize pacemakers or temporary permanent pacemakers we take a real pacemaker generator and we might take the patient’s actual pacemaker that they had or we have some that we’ve sterilized and reused and put in a new pacemaker lead and then it comes out the right i J and we attach it to a pacemaker generator and this way for a short period of time and we’ve done this up to six weeks for our patients they don’t need to be in the ICU they can be on the floor we’ve hadded the occasional patient even go home with something like this so it provides a lot more freedom and mobility for patients and it really is a nice option that we’re able to offer if you have someone who needs a defibrillator doesn’t need a pacer and they want to get out of the hospital there’s this life vest which some of you may or may not have seen which is a wearable defibrillator so it’s a vest they have a patch on the back that it can shock from there’s another patch here that it can shock from and then this is the sort of battery and brains of the system that they wear on their waist or wear over a strap the thing about this system is you need to actually wear it so if you’re not wearing it it doesn’t do anything and it’s actually really sad we had a patient who had a life vest and didn’t have it on at the time and ended up dying because they weren’t wearing it and had a presumed VF event then you have to put a new device in and so when we put in a new device in we’re usually waiting somewhere from three days to two weeks and even up to six weeks in some patients we always go over to the other side so we’re not gonna put a new device in in a spot that was previously infected some of you may have seen these new subcutaneous ICD so patient needs an ICD this is a new option that we have and especially for infection patients I think this is a great option so the traditional ICD goes into left pectoral or right pectoral area there’s a lead that goes into one of the subclavian veins and then goes into the heart the sub-q ICD stays completely outside the blood stream so with this system the generator goes from the fifth to sixth intercostal space underneath the axilla so it’s not in the armpit it’s below the armpit the lead is tunneled subcutaneously it’s outside the thorax and it goes you can see here sort of along the thorax and then it goes parallel to the sternum the lead you can actually go on the right side also and then it shocks from this coil here right next to the sternum to the generator or from the generator to the coil so this is not in the bloodstream so if you have someone who’s at risk for endocarditis this is gonna be a much better option for them all right so finishing up here getting back to our three cases from the beginning so our 75 year old male who had his pacer place for intermittent heart block with

this ugly looking pocket so he was extracted he was rien playin to three days later on the other side and got two weeks of antibiotics and did well our second patient here who had this veg that was sliding along the lead we were concerned with this person it was a pretty large vegetation we were worried about the risks of a significant pulmonary embolism so this woman actually went to the operating room and you can see here here’s the lead here’s the ICD coil partial portion of it here’s this vegetation that was sliding up and down along the lead I think it’s a great echo pathology correlation that really showing that you can echo it’s just a really good job of showing shapes and things like that so this person ended up getting a getting in a box for a few weeks and actually you’re still trying to put a new sub-q of ice City in her we’ve had some issues and then the third one this 64 year old who had recurrent back staph aureus bacteria sure she was extracted got antibiotics I’m the cultures of the system itself the lead itself actually grew out staph aureus also and the decision was made in this patient not to re-implant and I think that’s actually a really important concept to understand is 25-ish percent of the time that a patient gets a device extracted we don’t reimplantation anymore maybe they had heart block after surgery and their AV node got better and so they don’t need a pacer anymore or they had an ICD placed for primary prevention but their heart failure improved and so they don’t need a device anymore so we don’t necessarily re-implant everybody sorry in conclusion all right pay stickers and ICD save lives it’s the most important thing please take that away but device infection rates are rising and it can either be a pocket infection or endocarditis or call back to me and we’re really trying to still figure out what these risk factors are but we know that early reoperation is bad that’s I think the big thing that we’ve learned if someone has an infection you need to extract all hardware including any leads any leads that are being used any leads that aren’t being used anymore and have been abandoned and then you really have to carefully consider the need for reimplantation at a later date not everyone needs to be implanted so thank you very much


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