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Called to Communion – 10/8/20 – with Dr. David Anders

from becoming a catholic why can’t women become priests why do catholics worship mary why do i need to confess my sins to a priest where is purgatory in the bible i think the pope has too much authority what’s stopping you you are called to communion with dr david anders on the ewtn global catholic radio network hey everybody welcome again to call to communion here on ewtn it’s the program for our non-catholic brothers and sisters and if that’s you and if you’ve got some questions about the catholic faith we’d love to take a crack at those questions on this program here’s our phone number eight three three two eight eight ewtn that’s eight three 833-288-3986 now if you’re listening to us outside of north america please dial the us country code and then 205-271-2985 that’s a phone number just for you just for those of you who are outside of north america now you can also text the letters ewtn to 5500 wait for our response and then text us your first name and your brief question message and data rates may apply and those of you watching us on tv today you can participate as well our email address ctc at ewtn.com ctc.ewtn.com we have the a team in place ready to take your questions we have charles berry as our producer ryan penny is our phone screener and jeff person is on social media so if you want to ask a question via youtube or facebook live we’re streaming there right now just to put that question of yours in the comments section jeff will shoot that over to us here in the studio i’m tom price along with dr david anders tom how are you today very well how are you my friend oh i’m doing pretty well thanks glad to hear that we’re going to lead off with a question here from ben watching us on facebook ben says what is the judaic two gods theology supposedly echoed in the new testament when jesus says my father and yours yeah i appreciate the question so there is a theory in biblical and judaic studies and i stress that this is a theory i mean this is not you can find otherwise if you want to go do the research okay uh associated with a scholar by the name of peter shaffer among others that hold that that second temple judaism was not monotheistic second temple judaism is the period after the second temple was built after the return from babylon um but that there was a theory of two gods a greater god and a lesser god and they he tries to make a case from that for that uh from some of the apocalyptic texts of the babylonian period in the in the hebrew canon the son of man passages and daniel that sort of thing okay um and uh now here here’s here is the uh here’s the takeaway on that um first of all this is clearly not the new testament perspective on the old testament all right now i don’t doubt that there were in second temple judaism a variety of theologies in competition with one another right i mean that’s evident from the text of the new testament jesus confronts uh pharisees sadducees you know the qumran community was running around the desert doing their business and they all had different interpretations of what it meant to be a jew and how to live in the covenant with god and clearly from the prophets themselves it is evident that many of the sort of rank and file of the hebrew people were not monotheists i mean that’s something that the prophets got on their case about all the time so uh so it clearly that much is the case but the way the new testament appropriates the old testament is clearly in favor of the monotheism that is the that is the prophetic doctrine okay well we do appreciate that ben thank you so much for your question here’s one now from sam watching us on youtube sam says what does the catholic church teach on the sacraments of confession and baptism yeah thank you very much so baptism a wonderful sacrament it’s the the first and in some sense most important sacrament because it’s the one that initiates us into the life of christ and baptism has a number of effects in the life of a believer so first of all it and most importantly it washes away the guilt of original sin and brings to us the gift of sanctifying grace and so we die with christ in baptism and are raised again with him to new life that’s what saint paul says romans chapter 6. baptism also makes us priests in the catholic church there are two orders of priesthood in the catholic church there’s the baptismal priesthood of all the faithful and the ministerial priesthood of the ordained clergy but we are a kingdom of priests that’s the teaching of sacred scripture principle job of a priest is to make sacrifice that’s what book of hebrews tells us and the worship of all christians is sacrifice saint paul says offer your bodies as living sacrifices this is your spiritual act of worship and we we express that most fully

as we join with the ministerial priest who effects the sacrifice but the whole church offers the holy sacrifice of the mass and reparation for our sins and to honor god and so forth so we’re priestly people set apart uh by god to be salt and light to the world and to mediate grace uh in our own lives and for others baptism also makes us members of christ’s body the church and remember when jesus appeared to saint paul on the road to damascus he says saul saul why are you persecuting me when paul was persecuting the members of his body that’s how close the identification is between the believer and christ through baptism we are we literally are joined to his body in a mystical way and we do not lose that identification that that baptismal character imprinted on our soul is not a face even by mortal sin and so though a soul can can lose grace and go to hell after baptism does not lose that baptismal character imprinted on the soul and that gives us certain rights and privileges as well as duties in the catholic church one of them is the right to the sacrament of penance and so that takes us into our next question because when we sin after baptism we incur real guilt if it’s grave sin we incur well all sin we incur real guilt but in the case of grave sin it can be guilt so severe that it actually cuts off the flow of the life of grace into our soul and we need to be brought back to that life of grace and for that jesus has instituted the sacrament of penance he said in the gospel of john to the apostles whoever sends you forgive are forgiven whoever sins you retain are retained receive the holy spirit actually got that backwards and uh so through the gift of the holy spirit the church genuinely has the power given to it by christ to absolve sins and to to appropriate that grace uh the penitent needs uh needs contrition he needs actual sorrow for sin david models this for us in psalm 51 when he says against you and you only o lord have i sinned and done what is evil in your sight therefore wash me and i will be clean we bring that we bring that contrition to the sacrament of penance we make confession saint james says confess your sins to one another you’ll be healed uh we receive absolution which is the word from the priest in the name of christ authorized by him that we are in fact forgiven what comfort that brings what encouragement um and then uh the priest assigns a penance and we make satisfaction for the disorder that we have established in our relationship with god in with the church um so it is a magnificent sacrament it also like all the sacraments gives an infusion of sanctifying grace and unites us more closely to christ in his church all right and sam thank you so much for your question via youtube in a moment we’ll get to the phones at 833 288 ewtn we will begin in just a moment here with richard lots more straight ahead on this edition of call to communion here on ewtn to stay with us hello junior home family next time we’ll welcome nathan wigfield to the program nathan was a presbyterian seminarian and we’ll share what led him to the catholic faith share the journey next time on ewtn’s the journey home the journey home with marcus grodi is seen and heard around the world on ewtn join us monday at 8 pm eastern on ewtn radio and television hello family our world has been turned upside down by the coronavirus pandemic concern for our loved ones economic uncertainty and of course social distance it’s easy to understand why there’s such great anxiety and fear in the world i’m convinced that god is using this moment to bring us closer to him and to strip away the distractions of our normal daily lives and that he is calling us to place our trust in him in this difficult moment ewtn is a great spiritual resource that can help you your family and friends make sense of the chaos of course ewtn is where you can turn for mass every day in addition to our television and radio channels you can also find the mass live eucharistic adoration the rosary and other devotions on our web and video on demand platforms and of course ewtn news will continue to provide you with the latest updates on the pandemic as well as other current events around the world from a catholic perspective please know that we’re praying for you and let’s also join together in prayer for our ewtn family around the world thank you and may god it’s called a communion here on ewtn if you’re ready now let’s go to the phones at 833 288 ewtn that’s 833-288-3986 we’re going to begin with richard in walla walla washington listing on khs 100.7 hey richard what’s on your mind today i was reading matthew yesterday in the i think it’s 22 the part we’re talking about

the woman that marries the seven brothers and which one she would be with in heaven and jesus says there is no marriage is in heaven and uh anyway also in that passage somewhere they talked about when you go to heaven you will be like angels so i was wondering what your thought is on how we’re going to be when we’re in heaven are we going to be like like angels or something different yeah thanks so we’re we’re like angels in only one respect well not only one but this the one that’s relevant to this particular text we will be like angels insofar as angels angels do not marry nor do they have sexual relations so that’s what jesus is talking about when we go to heaven we will not have marriage we will not have sexual relations in that respect we’ll be like angels now there are some ways that we are like angels now one of them is that we are rational free beings so humans are not the only rational creatures angels are also rational um and we’re free and uh at least the holy angels are confirmed in sanctifying grace we also can participate in god’s nature in a created manner through sanctifying grace so that’s something that we can have in common with the holy angels we can have in common with the unholy angels that we can send and be separated from that grace so we’re like them in a number of ways but we are a distinct species human being is a distinct species actually each angel individually is a distinct species um and so we’re not going to literally become angels but we will be like them in so far as we do not marry all right richard thank you so much for your call that opens up a line for you right now at 833 288 ewtn that’s 833-288-3986 here on call to communion just got a notice here from patrick watching us on youtube patrick says since the church has the authority given to it by christ to forgive sins are all sins considered forgiven during the penitential rite of the mass and if not why not um yes thank you i appreciate the question um no no now we we in order to uh obtain the forgiveness of gravesend we need one of two things uh we need either to make an act of perfect contrition and that could theoretically happen during the penitential rite of the mass uh and that’s when i’m when i’m genuinely sorry for having offended god because he deserves all of my love if i if i form that resolution and intention that’s an act of perfect contrition and that can bring reconciliation with god even in the absence of the sacrament of penance or i can have imperfect contrition that’s i’m really sorry because i send because i’m going to catch it and i don’t want to catch it uh and that combined with the sacrament of penance is sufficient to forgive grave sin um uh so so you know that here’s what obviously anytime we petition god for the forgiveness of sins whether in the mouse or outside the mass uh i mean there’s a genuine uh possibility and hope that we will achieve that uh if we’re if we’re if we are uh perfectly contrite that can accomplish the forgiveness of graves and if we’re imperfectly contrite it’s sufficient for the forgiveness of venial sin and other things can also bring remission of venial sin and so it’s entirely appropriate when we are in mass to call to mine our sins and ask for god’s forgiveness and seek to deepen our contrition and that will make our participation in mass ever more fruitful now there are some reasons why the church would not include you know a formal absolution as part of the right of the mass there’s good reasons one of them is that this is not the context for the church to to operate as the judge of consciences and that’s part of the function of the church’s jurisdiction over the sacrament of penance is not only to be an expression of god’s mercy but also judgment and to evaluate whether or not the penitent is in fact contrite and so if you go to mount if you go to confession for example and you said you know i did x y and z and the priest says well are you sorry and you said well not particularly i’m you know i got an appointment to do it again next week he’s not going to give you absolution all right and that’s the judicial function the judging function of the priest and that’s not an appropriate you need to get that worked out before you go to mass yeah mass presumes that you’re you’re there to have the right disposition and to fruitfully participate also uh part of the judgmental function of the church is to assign an appropriate penance right and that’s obviously mass is not the place to do that right um and uh and then the the element of confession you know making public confession enumerating my specific sins uh now it used to be in antiquity they did that in a public forum they used to do that in the public forum in fact i remember i just read a story from saint john clemachus in the latter of monks such a great spiritual treatise from the early centuries about a young fellow that wanted to join the monastery and he he comes into the monastery and he’d lived a really scandalous life and the habit of the monastery made him get in front of the brothers and

enumerate all of his sins one by one and he was a mess he was rolling around on the floor he had his hands over his head he was just crying and it was just terrible business and uh and he could have done it another way but babbitt made him do it this way and john clemachus goes to abbott afterwards why’d you do that why’d you give that guy such a hard time make him say that in front of all the brothers and he said well for two reasons number one we get it all out now there are no secrets and you know if the brothers find out next week he did something you know like they already know that so they can’t hold that get it all out get it all forgiven and then he’s good and he’s one of us that’s one that’s appropriate for the monastery the other one is a abbot says i know some of these guys aren’t really making good confessions and then this guy would do it so they used to do that in antiquity all right and uh but fortunately for for most of us that is not an appropriate way to make confession of sin and the church has some sensitivity pastoral concern and says you know what we’re gonna let you do this in a little box there you go patrick thanks for checking us out today on youtube it’s called a communion here on ewtn we have a line or two open for you right now at 833 288 ewtn that’s 833 288 april is checking us out on facebook april says if you have a personality disorder as i do how would that impact your view on who god is personality disorders distort your relationship with self and others so essentially that would distort your relationship with god of who he is and who you are in relation to him so how does the church address this you talked about grace and freedom and that was very interesting to me but mental illness seems to be a perpetual bondage i’m just trying to conceptualize what that means and how to establish a correct view of a relationship with god wonderful questions all of these really love them and first of all my heart goes out to you and i’m sorry for your sufferings and i’m deeply sympathetic to what you’re going through and i would encourage you that this like all burdens that we bear can become for you an occasion of sanctification and redemption and holiness when we take whatever sufferings we have whether they be psychological or psychiatric or physical or economic or emotional relational and we we offer those up along with the sacrifice of crisis to become a great occasion of holiness for us obviously it’s going to require an enormous amount of trust on your part to trust what god says about you namely that you are lovable and that you are loved and that god loves you before the foundation of the world and desires good things for you and wants to be reconciled with you and loves you more than you love yourself a good bit and so you’re going to have to kind of stretch out of yourself a little bit to believe what doesn’t feel natural right you have a personality disorder you may feel real bad about yourself and your virtue of faith is going to be of enormous benefit to you i would also encourage you to explore a little bit uh what the church says about apaphatic theology or the via negativa in the catholic tradition and let me to define my terms okay so scripture and tradition and philosophy can tell us a lot of positive things about god we can make a lot of affirmations about god and and there are parables of the bible and stories of god’s intervention and history and all kinds of things that we can that we can consciously know about god through those positive affirmations signs and symbols and tokens of his presence and yet and yet none of those are god none of those god not the language we use about god is not god the the tokens and signs of his presence in history are not themselves god right god himself is is inaccessible to our senses and vastly outstrips transcends our reason and so all of the conceptions mental images ideas concepts language symbols that we form to help us understand and draw closer to god are woefully inadequate to capture the mystery of god and the fourth lateran council says that that whatever analogy there is between god and creatures and there are there are analogies you know like a flower is beautiful god is beautiful they’re analogous all right but a god is a lot more beautiful than a flower i mean they’re similar but there’s a big difference the the council says whatever the analogy the dis analogy the distance is infinitely greater and so as we as we grow in our relationship with god and we pass through to a certain extent those positive affirmations the via positive of the cataphatic tradition of thinking and knowing and praying about god we we part of growth and holiness is coming to a stage where we begin to realize yeah but that’s not god and that’s not god and that’s not god and and the catechism tells us to continually purify our conception of god and you can purify it down to the point where you’re sort of facing a blank wall and you know that god is there but you know that he’s that he shot it in utter mystery and darkness and and and whatever conceptualization i have of god is being mediated through my own

personal narrative my psychosis my personality disorder and i recognize that these things have a certain distorting effect and and when we when we can get a sort of participatory perspectival experiential knowledge of that truth we can we can uh to borrow a metaphor from plato we can kind of recognize that we’re sort of in a cave of shadows and the light is behind us you know and we don’t see it clearly and and you know i may have a neurotic relationship to this idea this image this comparison this analogy and it may be helpful to realize yeah but that’s just me that’s just me the real god is is it isn’t all good all holy but all mysterious reality behind me i’m just saying the shadows on the wall april thanks for checking us out today on facebook it is called to communion here on ewtn if you have a question for dr david andrews my recommendation is call now while there’s a line available eight three three two eight eight ewtn that’s eight three three two eight eight 288-3986 got any uh got an email here from jacob jacob says in the catechism paragraph 2351 it says quote sexual pleasure is morally disordered when sought for itself is this true of all pleasure is seeking pleasure for its own sake always wrong and if not can you please explain why exactly it’s wrong in the case of sex and how we can know whether it’s wrong to pursue pleasure for its own sake in any given situation trying to understand the underlying moral moral principle at work here thanks jacob okay i appreciate the the question jacob quite a lot let me let me put that teaching from the catechism in context it’s not that pleasure by itself is immoral per se but but to pursue uh sexual pleasure outside of the context of the proper ordered use of sexuality that’s what’s disordered and wrong so it is not wrong for spouses to desire sexual pleasure in one another’s bodies in a lawful act of sexual union so so the sexual act between spouses must be ordered to life must be open to life by nature right and one adopts a lifestyle of openness to life and if one needs to regulate or space births one takes the appropriate and moral uh uh approach to doing that and one can one can delay sexual union and so forth because one needs to and practice you know ascetical discipline and restrain oneself but but when it’s when it’s an appropriate time and this is something that we can we can do it’s perfectly appropriate for spouses to to come together with an openness to life a lifestyle that that that is open to life and yet they they’ve got they’ve got pleasure in one another sort of on the forefront of the brain so to speak i mean that’s that’s permissible and in the same way it’s permissible at table uh for me to turn to tom and say pass the salt like i can do that i can say past the salt now is no reason for me to say pass the salt unless i have a sodium deficiency which is quite rare in this you know culture and day and age yeah all right provided i’m not putting it onto excess and giving myself you know hypertension i can say past the salt for no other reason than that it adds pleasure to my gastronomic experience that’s so that’s a licit thing now pleasure the reason we have the capacity for pleasure is that god has attached pleasure to those things that tend to our bodily integrity i need food the species need sex in order to survive god makes these things pleasurable so that we will do them and and in fact you know i’ve been plenty of times in my life when i stealed myself and i was like dog gun and i’m going to fast i’m not going to eat you know and maybe even do it in a kind of a neurotic anorexic kind of way you know little body image things going on and i’m like all right i give in i’m not gonna last it’s too pleasurable i gotta do it you know god did it that way on purpose because it’s good for us now but but a rightly ordered life is one where pleasure is placed in in a proper hierarchy of goods and it’s ordered toward the integrity of the body of the species of the marriage of society of the common good because our principal aim is an openness to life and openness to goodness to truth and beauty and wisdom and ultimately to god himself jacob thank you so much for your email we appreciate that and if you uh have a question that you would like to submit for a future show here’s the email address ctc at ewtn.com ctc at ewtn.com try to get through two or three of these emails per show and then whenever we tape a mailbag program we do a whole bucket load full of them so uh do uh send us an email if you’d like ctc

ewtn all right we’re going to get to the phones in a moment here my recommendation is call now if you’ve got a question for dr david anders phone lines do tend to fill up quickly as we’re heading toward the second half of our program today it would be a real shame if you didn’t get in because we’re about to go off the air so here’s that phone number eight three three two eight eight ewtn that’s eight three three two eight eight three nine eight six or you could always shoot us a text you can just text the letters ewtn to 5500 and of course if you’re listening to us outside of the us and canada please dial the u.s country code and then 205 nine eight 271-2985 back in the flash with lots more call to communion here on ewtn do stay with us raymond arroyo we need a wtn radio for the reason that mother angelica founded this enterprise she saw this as a holistic approach reaching the whole person bringing them truth and life the leading catholic voices are on ewtn radio unplanned the true story of abby johnson i would be the youngest director in planned parenthood history she believed in a woman’s right to choose i’ve had an abortion myself so i don’t have any problem with another woman making the same decision until the day she saw something that changed everything tiny perfect little baby and then it was just gone now she’s pulling back the curtain on the abortion industry unplanned available at ewtnrc.com and the ewtn app the reason for our hope with father larry richards once someone’s died you remember explicitly what that person said to you now so we go back and we start off with king david now king david is a good man to begin with because king david the word david means beloved of god god says of david he is a man after my own heart but you all know david right he was a murderer and yet god said he was a man after his own heart because david kept getting up and trying getting up and trying repenting we have the beautiful psalms god have mercy on me calming from david so he knew what it was to be a man and so here’s king david and he takes his son solomon the last words of wisdom he gives him 1 kings chapter 2 verse 2 he says i am going the way of all mankind so take courage and be a man hi this is janet williams please join us for women of grace tomorrow at 11 a.m eastern here on ewtn radio now back to call to communion with dr david ann it’s called a communion here on ewtn we have a line open for you right now at 833 288 ewtn that’s 833-288-3986 i just received an interesting question here this is from matthew watching us on youtube matthew says do catholics receive temporal punishment for grave matters we commit unknowingly yeah thanks i appreciate the question so it depends on what you mean by unknowingly right uh if you mean ignorantly then the answer can be yes or no depending on the kind of ignorance um there is ignorance that we are morally responsible for okay there there are occasions when we need to make a we have to have we have to make a moral act uh we know that there is a way to discern the right thing to do and we deliberately avoid seeking out the answer to that question because we don’t want we we know what we want to do in advance and we don’t want our conscience to be troubled by having somebody tell us the contrary we refrain from finding out what we’re supposed to do then we go ahead and do what we want to do and then find out after the fact it was wrong to go oh shucks i guess i’m innocent because i didn’t know sorry you don’t get off the hook that way that’s called invincible like culpable ignorance okay now there is a situation where it is not morally possible for a person to know the right thing to do and they act in good faith seeking to do the good so you can do the will of god and yet they’re badly informed through no fault of their own and they’ve got no way to know better that’s invincible ignorance and that is not culpable and god does not hold us responsible for invincible ignorance saint paul tells us that he acted in ignorance god showed him mercy because he acted in ignorance if that’s what you mean by unknowing now now you know if you were talking about let’s say uh you know you’re a construction worker working on the roof and uh and you you you know you bump a cinder block and it lands on somebody’s

head down below well you’re not guilty of intentional murder even that might kill the guy right i mean that’s a terrible thing and that there be several penalties that attach to that but in terms of your relationship with god i mean you may be acting in charity and seeking to do good and maybe you’re working on a church for crying out loud you know uh no you’re not guilty of a grave sin in that matter although something gravely bad has happened and and it would be appropriate you know out of charity to seek to make amends and make reparation and those sorts of things but you wouldn’t have this you wouldn’t incur the same kind of guilt as if it was an intentional act okay very good as you were saying that it reminded me of the movie ben hur where he was up on the roof and accidentally uh kicked over like like like a cinder block or a piece of pottery or something like that and made a big brouhaha but he wasn’t guilty because he didn’t do it on purpose right right all right all right back to the phones right now here on ewtn’s call to communion let’s go to kristen in bay city michigan listening on the great ave maria radio hey kristen what’s on your mind today hi thank you for taking my call sure i really appreciate your show um i have a niece we are we are a catholic family a catholic household um and my niece just came into the catholic church over the summer but unfortunately she was influenced by wicca by friends and um she’s kind of distanced herself from us but just today she’s reaching back out and wondering if she can come over in to our house and she but she says she she knows who christ is and she knows about christianity but she is saying that he is no longer her god and i know that she has done some tarot cards i believe and uh we we’re going through the struggle of we want to welcome her back into our our lives and open up to her but we’re we’re also scared of what she has opened herself up to and what she could bring in yeah i really appreciate the question so uh the short answer is that i’m i’m not going to be able to tell you definitively how to proceed because i don’t know the girl and i don’t know your relationship but i can give you some principles to guide you first of all you yourself understand very well that magic and sorcery and witchcraft are gravely morally wrong and also profoundly dangerous and uh you know particularly if you have children in your home i think it is it’s exceedingly important that they be kept very remote from that kind of thing and not put in any sort of danger by being around that kind of superstition which is very dangerous for her morally evil and would be dangerous for you and your family um you know i also think that uh that that being charitable towards a person is a mandate i mean jesus commands us to be charitable uh charity means that you are benevolent towards this person you you want their good and you want to be in union with them in that good right you don’t want to be in union with them in any old way you know you’re not going to sit down to the tarot card table with her you don’t want that kind of a union but you want a virtuous friendship uh ordered towards the good um and uh you you there’s also a principle in catholic spiritual theology that we have to be very careful about the kind of friends we keep in the company that we keep so so apart from the question of the witchcraft which you definitely want to keep that out of your home there’s a question about the fruitfulness of the relationship on on the terms on which you’re conducting it right and that really you have to kind of gauge prudently i mean is there a way to cultivate a relationship based upon some common good that’s not witchcraft and uh and is not you know necessarily grounded in in a in a dysfunctional narrative of her own life where you can participate in a in a mutually beneficial and helpful way that would advance your good and hers and the common good that’s something that you’ve really got to discern in the context of that relationship but i but i think that you are right to proceed with extreme caution kristen thank you so much for your call good to hear from you listening on the great ave maria radio it’s called a communion here on ewtn let’s go to phil now in port orchard washington listing on 107.1 kvsg hey phil what’s on your mind today oh yeah good afternoon guys i was wondering when i recite the rosary and i say that he descended into hell and on the third day he rose again fulfillment of the scriptures why is it three days what’s the what’s the deal with the third day okay thanks i appreciate the question well clearly you know god could have made any kind of he could have made 21 days he could have

done two days i mean he could have done anyway uh and so there’s no there’s no sort of absolute necessity in god that he do it this way but i think we can discern and up some reasons we can discern some intelligibility we can make it make sense to us um and uh and i really think it relates primarily to the first day of the week the fact that christ rose on the first day of the week and in christian history uh there’s a there’s a veneration of that day right a recognition that that the world sort of turned on its on its axis so to speak when christ was crucified on the the eve of the jewish sabbath at the time of liturgical prayer in the temple and then rose again on the first day of the week this is why christians celebrate the lord’s resurrection on sunday it’s the lord’s day the day of his resurrection and and therefore the eighth day of the week you know god rested from all his labor in the book of genesis on the seventh day all right and establishes that as a pattern for the people of god um but but in christ he is doing a new thing he is renewing the whole temporal spatial cosmic order and establishing a new creation through the new adam the second adam christ and so there is a symbolic significance to the day of the week on which he rises okay there you go phil thank you so much for your call it is called a communion here on ewtn our phone number eight three three two eight eight ewtn that’s eight three three two eight eight three nine eight six uh very interesting question here that we just received from marie watching on youtube please define the term practicing catholic yes this would be a catholic who who meets their obligations sacramentally so this is a catholic who would go to mass on sundays and holy days of obligation who would confess his or her sins great known grave sins at least once a year who would receive holy communion properly disposed at least once a year who would keep the church’s fasts uh in particular the linton fast and and make acts of reverence appropriate to friday in commemoration of the lord’s crucifixion these kinds of things that’s that’s sort of the bare minimum that we would use to define a practicing catholic and so if you practice basically the most important question is are they going to mass if you know they’re going to massive i mean obviously today is kind of a weird case with coronavirus but you know if possible are they going to mass okay marie thank you so much for checking in with us here today on call to communion let’s go now to tonery tony in pickerington ohio listening on the blowtorch saint gabriel radio a first-time caller hey tony what’s on your mind today hi thank you very much for taking my call sure um i have a actually a question uh via my wife she’s a convert and um the question is if we’re blessed enough to be able to go to heaven she doesn’t understand why people then would ask us or saints for that matter to intercede uh because she thinks that the people that are in heaven would be transfixed on our lord and anything would be a distraction to take us away from just adoring him and worshiping him why would we want to get in the middle of that beauty okay yeah great well precisely because precisely it’s a great question by the way precisely because the saints are transfixed on god that is the the exact reason why we would do this so so first of all the the faith does not tell us the mode or the manner in which the saints uh receive and participate in our prayers it just tells us that they do and so we can speculate about how that might work out in their in their heavenly consciousness and let me give you a possibility and i’m not saying this is the way it works i’m just saying this is a possibility uh it’s possible that the saints who love god and are praying to god in heaven they’re communing with god form the intention god hear the prayers of all those who seek my intercession and boom and that’s all you would need i mean that would be that would be intercession on behalf of all of their devotees and that would work that would get the job done now here’s another possibility we know that in the beatific vision when we see god in his essence as he is and and our in our our capacities for taking and understanding god will be will be will vastly outstrip our present capacities i has not seen ear has not heard what the lord has in store for those who love him we cannot even begin to think or imagine what the consciousness of the blessed in heaven will be like but it will be utterly unlike what it is now and it’ll be vastly vastly expanded

now god is perfectly at rest and immovable and utterly content and happy in himself and does not change has no passing states of emotion and yet is fully able to fully understand and uh in a way appropriate to his to his divinity all of the prayers that people make to him um of course he shares that in a created manner uh with the blessed through the beatific vision and so distraction is something that will be impossible to them um but incorporating the the plenitude of the intentions of the faithful into that into that act of beatific consciousness is something that’s certainly within the divine power tony thank you so much for your call glad that you’re listening to saint gabriel radio one of our very important partners there in central ohio call to communion here on ewtn i want to tell you about a brand new book now available from ewtn publishing we have it right here in the studio with us it’s called a crisis in culture how secularism is becoming a religion by father george rutler this is a very serious book but right now in this year 2020 it’s a very important book father rutler is going to show us how the west’s decades-long cultural assault against christianity is finally reaching its inevitable conclusion the self-destruction of our culture and society and what we can do about it father unpacks the most important virtue for young people today he’ll tell you exactly what that is he talks about what happens when we let the government rather than the church become our mother and also why after so much slow disintegration we’re still waiting for true renewal in the church a very important book do check it out a crisis in culture how secularism is becoming a religion it’s available right now at ewtn rcd by catholicshopcatholicewtnrc.com back to the phones right now here on call to communion margaret is listening in seattle on sacred heart radio hey margaret what’s on your mind today well um dr anders i’ve been listening to your program for a number of years and i really enjoy it i’ve learned a lot and i have great respect for your learning last week um the topic of the um uh death penalty came up and um you you quoted uh john paul ii and and i i think pope francis as well but you know what troubles me is that this seems to be a flat contradiction of what previous popes have said and in fact in 1952 um at the first international interactional congress of histopathology pope pius xii said quote it is reserved then to the public power to deprive the condemned man of the benefits of life in expiation of his faults when already by his crime he has dispossessed himself of the right to life okay and your question to me is and my question my question is what john paul ii has said what pope francis has said seemed to be a flat contradiction of what pope pius xii said yes and so you want me to speak to that issue yes please absolutely so we are going to apply a principle that we learned from saint thomas aquinas when faced with a contradiction draw a distinction okay when faced with a contradiction draw a distinction and otherwise we can’t reconcile these two these two disparate ways of approaching this issue now this is what i did last week tried to do on the on the show and i’ll do it again today you are correct that the overwhelming consensus of magisterial and scholastic thought on this issue for two thousand years is in favor of the intrinsic lessonity of the death penalty that it is not intrinsically immoral it is not always and everywhere intrinsically immoral to execute criminals that it is permissible under certain circumstances and pius the 12th uh delineates some of those circumstances and there are according to traditional catholic moral theology there are at least three ends of punishment three purposes of of judicial punishment one of them is retribution one of them is retribution that that some we we do things that merit a certain response and that to meet out retribution what you deserve for your actions is actually good for the criminal up to and including the maximum penalty of depriving the move of their life because punishment that is just that is willingly received by the criminal can be expiatory in that person’s case a witness the example of saint dismiss on the cross next to christ who said i am getting what my deeds

deserve jesus’s response was today you’ll be with me in paradise so there is a there there can be an expiatory value uh in retributive justice and it is one of the ends of punishment another one of course is to remove the offender uh from civil society so they do not offend again that that can be accomplished by capital punishment but can also be accomplished in other ways um and then the other one is uh it can be curative uh in the in the criminal uh giving them an opportunity to amend their life it can also be a deterrent for others unless they commit the same crime now those are the traditional ends and reasons of punishment and sacred scripture and sacred tradition say that they all are applicable to consideration of the death penalty so it’s not intrinsically immoral always now at least some of those ends of punishment can be met in other ways and uh and the fact that retribution is a legitimate reason to punish does not mean that the state should or must always uh meet out the the maximum allowable punishment that those deeds deserve and there might be mitigating factors or considerations societal cultural and otherwise that would lead to a judgment that it would be the most prudent course of action in the present circumstances not to do that and i believe that is the best way of understanding the teaching of john paul ii and pope francis on this issue is given a consideration of the of the present political cultural criminological situation those popes formed the prudential judgment not not teaching a dogmatic fact but formed the prudential judgment that civil society would not be best served now by by pursuing the maximum penalty in those three ends of punishment in the case of capital cases the situation of capital cases now uh whether or not whether or not they’re correct whether or not this is a prudent course of action uh is is something that can be debated and obviously uh there is an as sort of a i won’t say there’s a consensus but there’s a enormous number of well-placed and important catholic authorities including the u.s bishops conference that believe that this is a prudent course of action and a proper way to for the church to proceed in civil society there are other theologians and philosophers who who don’t think so and they and they and they dissent uh lawfully and i i point that out that pope benedict uh when he was cardinal ratzinger and prefect of the vatican congregation for the doctrine of the faith specifically said that those who don’t follow john paul ii in his judgment about the death penalty are not uh are not in violation of of their fidelity to the magisterium or to the catholic faith and they can suitably receive holy communion in the church that was the judgment of the congregation um another theologian that takes that point of view well actually dissents lawfully and with respect is stephen long of avi maria university and he wrote an article on the subject published in first things a few years back 2018 that you might look up and then of course i think the most prolific response that takes a sort of different point of view would be from edward fesser and his book by man shall his blood be shed gives a defense of the traditional teaching on the death penalty margaret thanks so much for your call we do appreciate hearing from you today it’s called a communion on ewtn let’s go now to uh jeanette in bethpage new york listening on siriusxm channel 130. hey there jeanette what’s on your mind today hi good afternoon i’m so grateful that i have you guys here um it’s a long journey for me as a catholic i’ve been lost for a long time but i’m back and i’ve i don’t know how god has led me here to you it was a freak situation of losing something and finding someone who led me to you so thank you um but my question yeah my question today is i’m trying to help my fiance clean out his home uh his mother’s home and it’s a long story but there’s basically some kind of uh foul play with witchcraft or black magic that’s radiating through the house i’m very i’m very in tune with my spirituality and you can feel there’s eyes all over you in this house well i want to protect us in my home here’s what i would do if i were you and thank you for the call i really appreciate it so i would contact your diocese and uh and and ask if if you can consult with the diocesan exorcist and particularly

if you found evidence of witchcraft you know uh items paraphernalia and so forth that give evidence which craft has been performed there and a request an exorcism of the property and i mean that would be the that would be kind of the nuclear option and i would go there uh you can also ask your parish priest to come bless the house and tell them that you’ve got this problem so the church is there for you to deal with these kinds of issues and they know what to do they know what to do they’re the professionals all right jeanette thank you so much for your call got a very interesting question from jeff watching us on youtube right now jeff says why is it that catholics are not to eat one hour before receiving communion yeah thank you appreciate the question so um you know granted this is not much of a fast no it’s uh it’s pretty easy to make it an hour it used to be used to be all night used to be much longer fast right um uh but uh but we do this out of reverence for whom it is that we are to receive right and and one of the ways that from antiquity uh from from even you know the early chapters of genesis that the faithful have shown their reverence to god is to deprive themselves of of temporal goods and pleasures um in in token or recognition of the fact that god is the transcendent and infinite good and that we need to really orient ourselves towards him rather than those temporal goods and it’s a very small sacrifice to make um and you know i mean from my own personal experience i know that if i’ve just you know had a great big meal and a lot of thanksgiving turkey and stuff myself with pecan pie it’s a little bit hard to keep your mind on the things of god you know you want to go lie down on the couch and you know flip on the movie the football game or whatever there you go thanks so much for your question jeff one quick one here as we’re heading out the door this is from mike in denver are miracles already known by god or does a prayer etc grab his attention so to say and then he answers them okay god does not have changes of state that’s crucially important to understand god doesn’t have passing emotions uh god god is not responsive in that way there is a way in which we can think of god being responsive but god is not sort of you know sitting around drumming his fingers so to speak waiting for the prayers to come up and going oh there’s a need down there in topeka kansas no it doesn’t work that way okay because god sees all of time in a single permanent instant and he does not experience uh you know passage of time or sequence or or even of internal states and so what he does instead is god eternally plans the the temporal unfolding of human history including his use of human prayer as an instrumental cause of his intervention in space time okay that makes an awful lot of sense uh mike thank you for checking us out uh today and we got your email glad that we could answer your question here on ewtn radio’s uh call to communion wow dr david anders a fast moving hour we got a bunch of emails in we got a bunch of phone calls in people checking in on youtube facebook texting i think we’ve covered it all thank you so much thank you and uh and and thanks to my friend jeff in alaska who called me privately before the show and said he was praying for us how about that we’ll take those prayers every day thank you so much don’t forget that we do this program monday through friday here on ewtn 2 p.m eastern on the radio with an encore also on radio at 11 pm eastern and then we bring you uh the best of called communion our producer charles picks out what he thinks is the best show of the week sometimes tough tough job there but he does it he pulls it off and that is on saturdays at 2 p.m eastern on the radio side on behalf of our great team i’m tom price along with dr david anders thanks for joining us today see you next time right here on ewtn’s call to communion god bless this is father larry richards do you want to know how to bring people to jesus christ while find out next on open line thursday on ewtn radio morning glory

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Jocko Podcast 238: Shake the World with AWESOMENESS. Ancient Chinese Battle Philosophy. The Wuzi.

this is Jocko podcast number 238 with echo Charles and me Jocko Willing good evening echo good evening sir you may have heard me tell a story in the past about a training tool that we used for young seal officers this special training tool was a stick not to hit him with but to give them to hold in place of their weapon in place of their gun if they couldn’t detach from their instinct to shoot and replace that instinct with an instinct to lead because the leaders job is not to engage the enemy the leaders job is to make tactical decisions to direct the troops find the next move that we’re gonna take the leaders job is to actually lead there is a story another story of an ancient Chinese military leader who on the eve of battle was offered a sword from his subordinate leaders which he did not accept no I don’t want your sword I don’t want that sword because to him banners banners and drums which is how you would signal back in the day this is how you would direct troops during this time period those were the tools of a leader for him and he said to them to command the troops and direct their blades as the role of a commander to wield a single sword is not his role correct this leader was named Wu Chi he lived from 440 to 381 BC a philosopher military philosopher politician and military leader he led troops in combat many battles I want to say the number was like like 60 battles 63 battles or something like that during the period in history called the warring States Period he ended up becoming the prime minister of the state of Chu and there he was he led a lot of reforms he was kind of a he was like a default aggressive leader a little bit radical he would make things happen he would fire incompetent leaders spent bunch of money on the military tried to build it up he eliminated these old hereditary privileges that they had back in the day so you can imagine that’s gonna make some people angry mm-hmm and he did other things that were good for the state but or let’s just say against the norm made things happen on the battlefield and in the bureaucracy and luckily he wrote down some of these military philosophies in something called the Wu Zi W you see I I couldn’t really figure out what that word meant other than what was it room like in Chinese the word Wu Zi means room I know that’s not what that we’re talking about here so and I couldn’t find any other information about it so just called the woozy I’m sure some people will give us some information about that but there’s a lot of there’s a lot of good information in this book once again written in I don’t know sometime before 381 BC which is crazy to think about mm-hmm that’s crazy to think about yeah like a lot of that time even though if you look at old pictures like the end of the old-school black-and-white pictures you’re looking at and it’s like dang that’s like you know you understand what a photograph is it’s a capture of real it’s basically capture of light coming through this thing and a record of it right then but what it says is this right here in this little frame right here this actually happened here this was a actual point in time right here there’s the person there’s the people whatever and yeah you trip out when you find out like how long ago that was yeah it’s weird and now thinking that

somebody this guy woochi wrote the woozi in 381 BC that’s crazy the idea of your very existence was non-existent yeah not even close to being exist I mean can you imagine trying to pull the string on your genealogy you’re going to find out where the ancestors were back then yeah it’s crazy yeah and compared to who kind of you are whatever yeah yeah you can go deep a little rabbit hole let’s go deep in the woozi first section we’re jumping right in the need for strengthening domestic and external issues and this is sort of set up like a story which is kind of weird cuz I don’t know if he wrote it this way or if people captured his words but it’s written not like too much of a story but it says this woochi dressed in Confucian attire had an audience of the Lord when of way to discuss about military issues this is this is one of those situations where I was like oh you know what if this will be good I hadn’t read it no I’d like looked at it there’s there’s I think it’s the seven ancient Chinese war texts this is one of them Sun Tzu is one of them right I’ve glanced through this one but I couldn’t remember enough about it to think oh yeah I gotta do this one here’s the opening so Lord went away said I’m not interested in military affairs woochi replied this is like him saying hey wait a second it might not be a good call my brother he says from the visible facts I can deduce the hidden from the past I can discern the future how can your lordship say this topic does not accord with your thoughts he’s coming off the top roads rope in the Overland this is in the opening from the visible facts I can deduce the hidden from the past I can discern the future how can you not want to know what I’m what I’ve got interestingly you know a shell on front sometimes will get a client as well you know you’re talking a lot about a military stuff this is what I’m gonna tell him from now on I’m gonna say wait a second from visible facts I can deduce the hit so then he continues but this is some of these lines are routinely so then he says this throughout the four seasons you have gathered the skins of wild animals covered them with with lacquer painted them with colors and embellished them with glistening images of rhinoceroses and elephants wearing them and so he’s talking about making these garments these really fancy garments mm-hmm and then he says this wearing them in winter does not keep one warm wearing them in summer does not make one cool so you’ve done all this you make all these fancy things they have no real purpose and he’s kind of setting this up to say moreover the Lord has ordered the making of 24 feet and 12 feet long Hal Birds which is like up you ever seen those Spears that have instead of having up just a point they have like an axe looking thing on it oh yeah so that’s what that is so he’s made he’s he’s ordered to make 24-foot ones and 12-foot once and had leathers to cover the chariots these chariots are not granted at all these chariots are not mobile enough for hunting meaning they’re not beautiful so they’re not made for shell they’re not mobile enough for hunting so they’re they’re made for one thing he says I have no idea what you have what you should have for them if they are to be used for war but your Lord does not seek capable people who are adept in using them such a situation is similar to a nesting hen fighting against a fox or a bitch fighting a tiger yeah this guy’s built up some cool-looking things what do you got he’s a paper tiger right I’ve got nobody that knows how to operate these things although they have great fighting spirit they will still die in the past the lord of chiang saen clan focused on improving the culture and domestic issues but neglected military affairs thereby leading to the extinction of the state the lord of yoo-hoo clan was belligerent thus he focused on military affairs and neglected domestic affairs he too led the state to extinction so he gives two examples one guy focused on domestic and didn’t care about the military they fell apart one was just belligerent and making war all the time but not taking care of the domestic that fell apart the

enlightened ruler would have used such examples to remind him that he should tend to both domestic affairs and military affairs together when the enemy comes and you do not fight them such does not count as righteousness when the enemy comes and you do not fight them such does not count as righteousness so enemies coming at you you gotta fight him when you all this is a good one when you only start grieving the death of your soldiers after they have died such does not count as benevolence man you got to take care of your soldiers before they die hmm and then it says thereupon Lord when personally laid a mat for Wu Chi and his wife and presented with the goblet of wine the Lord later invited Wu Chi to the ancestral temple and appointed him as a commander-in-chief for the defense of the western rivers you know he’s a guy this guy’s got some he got some goods puts him in charge from then on whoo cheers oh I was wrong he knocked out a couple more winning 64 of them decisively the other battles resulted in draw he expanded ways territory in all directions broadening ways border by a thousand by a thousand Lee which is about a third of a mile all of these were wood cheese accomplishments so isn’t it cool that he’s just got a record like an MMA fighter he’s like yeah hey 76 bottles 64 64 wins and whatever the number is draws that’s his record this dude’s got a a combat battle record it’s freakin legit all right now it goes into unity and the people’s support so that’s the opener and and this thing is pretty straightforward pretty straightforward it jumps goes through pretty succinct sections this part’s called a unity and people support Wu Chi said in antiquity the ruler who planned to run his state well would teach the enlight teach and enlighten the people be close to the people and understand their sufferings do I not talk about this all the time like you gotta understand where your people are coming from you know you’ve got to understand their perspective and you know I use that I don’t know if I do you think it’s it’s okay or do you think that I have some kind of a subliminal problem with the word empathy I don’t know I I guess maybe I did because I always say you got to understand other people’s perspective mm-hmm that whole word can be replaced with just that whole sentence can be just be saved empathy yeah that’s yeah I know I know so I guess I have some sort of a natural prejudice against that word yeah you know maybe it’s something where in my mind it sounds a little too soft too soft we’re not doing it yeah like the word like the word moist I don’t know why but that I don’t like that word yeah even when you know some words I don’t like it when I say it but other people can say it really okay that makes sense I don’t care but moist is one that anyone says one way it sounds or just the thoughts it gives you but all of the the whole deal when someone else says it like Oh even like you know I you know I step here in the ground and it was moist I’m like bro don’t say something else man’s a damp I don’t know actually damp damp sounds drier than moist yeah right yeah you see it was kind of wet or I don’t know man just don’t say I’m saying yeah and I’ll refrain from seeing it too it’s kind of that feeling yeah so that’s what we’re dealing with you yes what he’s talking about is empathy what I say is perspective but we’re all saying the same thing you got to understand your people there are four disc harmonies the ruler should take note of if there is disharmony in the state you cannot start a military campaign if there is disharmony disharmony within the army they cannot be allowed to battle if there is disharmony within the formation they cannot be used to lead an attack if there is a lack of cohesion during the conduct of battle you cannot score a victory what does that mean you got to be unified as a group for this reason the eminent ruler before he employs his people he would unite them first before achieving great matters together the ruler this is why when you’re in a team and you’re doing anything that is pulling the team apart you’re not doing a good job as a leader hmm the ruler will not dare rely solely on his own plans but will announce formally at the at the ancestral temple I have when I

was reading this I was like oh this is gonna be decentralized commander but is not really you actually have to announce it at your ancestral temple and then and then sort of get the divine sort of approval from the heavens that’s what it’s talking about which is still cool like I’m not down with that but I was hoping you’d be a little bit more focused on decentralized command than the higher power but then he says people will then know that the ruler value their lives will be sorrowed by their deaths and willing to share weal and woe with them new word w/e al Weill and what it means is well just take the th off yeah use it a couple times you but it’s a great expression yeah you got a little alliteration Ham willing to share weal and woe so good or bad yeah thick doesn’t help where there you go Whelan well I got I think weal and woe might be better yeah officers will then consider death while advancing is glorious and life gained through a treating is disgraceful so all these things what does it mean you got to build a tight team you got to have good relationships up and down the chain of command you kind of suffer with your troops you’ve got to reward them when there’s rewards to be given oh good stuff that’s it that’s on unity and people support next section for virtues of a ruler Wu Chi said the way is actually knowing is actually how things should be done it means it is the means by which one can turn back to foundation and return to beginning righteousness is ethical behavior it is the means by which to achieve great accomplishments strategizing is the means by which to harm distant keep harm distant and gain benefits so you strategize so you keep harm distant and you gain benefits principles are which to preserve duty and keep achievements if one’s behavior does not accord with the way and righteousness but dwells in Magnifico mad emphasis and enjoys power disaster will inevitably befall him you got to keep that ego in check if you dwell in magnificence and you enjoy power you got this Astor coming your way thus the white ruler will run the state according to the way manage the state with righteousness orders that order the people with propriety and rule the people with benevolence cultivating these four virtues and the state will flourish neglecting them would lead to decline well take care of your people and your people will take care of you I wrote that in leadership strategy and tactics that’s the expression in the seal themes was take care of your gear and your gear will take care of you it doesn’t seem like a huge leap to say take care of your people and your people will take care of you but man that’s a good thing to remember and that’s what my boy woochi is saying right here take care of your people and your people are going to take care of you righteousness and doing the right thing is another thing I said do the right things for the right reasons death that’s righteousness next section running the state and victory woochi said in general to govern the state and the army you must instruct them with propriety motivate them with righteousness and instill a sense of shame in them when men have a sense of shame one can to a large degree wage a war or to a lesser degree preserve the state what does that mean it means it reminds me of World War one in England have you ever heard of what we talked around this podcast they used to give the white flour til if you were a military aged male and you weren’t in uniform meaning you weren’t serving and everyone else was going overseas and fighting they would give you all white flour like a real way like a real white flour and it was shame yeah it was shame and you know that that’s one of the things that just drove those men to go and fight in that awful war yeah you know everyone is dying everyone is being wounded everyone is being killed it’s a total nightmare you know what was worse than that my flower shame yeah and that’s what he’s saying Scarlet Letter yeah old-school yeah hey yeah thus it is said that for all strong states those that garner five victories

will meet with disaster so if you win five times you’re gonna meet with disaster four victories you’re gonna decline three victories you’re gonna achieve hegemony which means you’re like kind of in control those with two victories can claim to be kings and those with only one victory will become Emperor’s for this reason those who have conquered through numerous victories are rare while those that perished because of it are many this reminds me of the disease of victory it’s like the more you win the better chance you can have a following next reasons for war and it’s counter strategies Wu Chi said there are five reasons why wars are started and they are to contend for fame to contend for benefits and advantages to seek revenge internal strife and famine the names of wars raised based on these reasons are righteous bully anger plundering contrary the righteous army is raised to save people from chaos relying on strength or power to bully people such as a bully army mobilizing an army out of anger is an anger army an army raised to greedily seek profit without consideration for moral and ethics is called a plundering army while the country is in turmoil and the people are exhausted embarking on military campaigns and mobilizing masses is termed contrary interesting viewpoints a bully army next section managing troops selecting talents strengthening now we go to a little Q&A from the Lord whoo Lord Wu said I would like to hear your thoughts on managing troops selecting talents and strengthening nation Wu Chi said from antiquity enlightened rulers always make every effort to maintain propriety between themselves and their ministers manifest the distinction of rank allow the allow the officials and people to settle into their respective positions that accord with their customs select and recruit talents in order to prepare for the unexpected pretty straightforward he says the ruler of a strong state must evaluate his people first and then he breaks this down a little bit those who have courage and strength should be assembled into a unit those who take pleasure in advancing into battle and exerting their strength so as to manifest their loyalty and courage should be assembled into another unit those who are nimble and fleet should be assembled into another unit officials who have lost their position and are eager to make amends should be assembled into a unit those who have lost in war and want to eradicate their disgrace should be assembled into a unit these five will serve to be the elite troops with 3,000 of such men one can break any encirclement or break into any city those are kind of some cool people to think about right yeah you know we got the people that just love to fight we’ve got people that want to prove their loyalty got people that are quick we got people that have lost their position you know look I think those are the people you got to watch out for yeah right yeah I guess I mean on the surface anyway it seems like you’d have to watch out for some sort of infighting scenario maybe in some of those but otherwise it’s like yeah you send out your little Ely what he saw specialized forces you know these guys they like to do this so listen them in under these circumstances you know it’s interesting it’s like weapons like tools you know you know what it’s interesting to think about from like Oh what you should actually do is understand human nature and know what you’re dealing with right like you’ve got somebody that gets defeated somebody that you know loses a client how do they react to it they might be ready to go boss put me in coach yeah right you might have somebody that gets defeated and gets broken down yeah Gunja gotta pay attention to that stuff next section strengthen offense and defense Lord woo further inquiry I would like to hear your views on making battle formations stable defense impregnable and victory in battle certain that’s kind of a massive question how do you make my defense impregnable and victory in battles certain what’s would she say to that he replied Bucci replied what I am saying is not only for hearing carrying them out would allow you to see immediate effect so he’s saying if you did what I said you could put those men together you’re gonna get immediate effect he’s actually stepping up he’s like oh that’s your question if you have worthy men hold high positions and relatively less worthy men occupy low position than your battle formations are stable if people settle down into the respective positions respect their local authorities than defense is solid when the people support the policies of their government and not concerned about those of other states than in battle you will

already be victorious this is a very interesting concept that picture you have a team this is this this would happen the SEAL Teams sometimes they put together these I kind of super platoons where they would take a bunch of really good guys and put them in there and all of a sudden what you have is a bunch of alphas in the same platoon and do you think that works out well what’s your guess well well the fact that you brought it up because I think no but why because everyone has a rhyme in the simple answer is like everyone’s trying to be the Alpha right kind of thing but yeah it’s like in a team like just like all those guys right there’s like different types of guys for different jobs and a team there’s different jobs typically so it’s interesting that he would say what he’s saying is you know you put your alphas in there you put an alpha in there and then you put some betas in there and then everyone kind of goes into their natural position is gonna be the most positive thing now here’s what I’ll tell you in life you’re not always going to be put in that situation and you might be the Alpha mmm and you get put in with another alpha so now what are you gonna do if you’re smart what you’ll do is subordinate your ego support that other person or you know maybe you’re just enough maybe they do that but what you don’t want to do is fight with that person you’re ruining the team yeah there’s a these things called logical fallacies it’s like a bunch of them or whatever and that’s one of them and they’re there’s actually two of them that are kind of one is one and then the other is this like flipped around and it’s it’s essentially that where it’s like individuals like if an individual is a level five and you get you put three of them in there that makes it a level 15 it’s not the case it’s logically it seems the case but it’s like a fallacy for that reason yeah and then the inverse is right to where it’s like if you have a team worth fifteen if you just break them up you got three fives rolling around performing at five that’s not true either because they can function better together for that exact same reason but it’s like the inverse fallacy yeah I never get what it’s called you can have a leadership team that just completely complements each other and they can be unstoppable then you pull one person out or you pull two people out of that team they fall apart yeah yeah or at the very least level down you know yeah so yeah I mean it makes sense when you think about it but there’s so many it’s weird I was like reading all these files house like can us true that’s a whole thing and it’s because you automatically think these things you know this has a bunch of them but yeah that makes sense importance of seeking talent there once was there was once when Lord woo was planning state affairs none of his ministers could be equal to him after dismissing the court he wore a happy and satisfied look so he there he is he’s running the show he’s like and I’m smarter than everybody this is awesome woochi saw that and said there was once Lord Shang of Chu was planning state affairs with his ministers he discovered that none of his ministers could equal his intelligence after he had dismissed the court he looked very troubled official Shen asked him why does your lordship war such troubled countenance you know that why do you look so bummed out and he said I am NOT talented yet none of my ministers are equal to me our state is in deep trouble and then when when heap when Wu Chi tells the story the guy he’s talking to gets embarrassed because what does that statement say that statement says surround your people with bet Pete surround yourself with people that are better than you smarter than you that’s what that says if you’re smarter than if you’re the smartest person in the room you’re on a losing team you should feel horrible national next section National alertness Lord Wu addressed Wu tree at present kin coerces us on the West Chu encircles us in the South shall collides with me in the north and kee encroaches us from the East Yan cuts off our rear and Han occupies the front these six states around us and we have to defend against them our situation is precarious and it worries me what can be done about this Wu Chi said in general being alert of danger is true measure of good governance ensuring security of the state as you have now recognized the importance of being cautious disaster can be kept away so the guys surround and he’s like what can I do pay attention to it nothing too miraculous there next next section providing opportunity for talent within the army there will be soldiers whose courage is that of a tiger has strengths that he can lift tripods easily and has the fleetness of a barbarian horse I tried to figure out there’s some rude word to tripods it’s like a stool a three-legged desk I couldn’t find that there was some ancient thing that was really heavy so

we’re just going with that we have to use our imaginations on that one to seize enemy’s flag or kill enemies generals you need such men you should select them and put them into one unit honor them and favor them this is because in their hands holds the fate of the whole army those who are experts in weapons strong and quick and capable and motivated to kill enemies they should be given rank and prominence we should also treat the family well encourage them with the rewards and warn them with punishment this is because such people can solidly hold their position for a long time and exterminate enemies if the ruler can discern and evaluate men described you can attack double force your strength Lord Liu exclaimed great people you know you can ask that question a lot you know what do you do when you get the high performers on a team right do you focus on them and clearly the answer here is yes and that’s usually the answer that I give as well you do have to keep a bench right you have to have some other people and you have to continue to work to get your bench to become high performers so you don’t ignore the bench when you get the opportunity to give them some playing time get them some playing time hmm but definitely focus on those ones that are definitely gonna get up there and make things happen enemies you can attack next section Wu Chi said in general when evaluating the enemy there are eight conditions under which one engages battle without doing an assessment you have to think about these these are no-brainers these are go criteria in violent wins and extreme close they arise early and are on the march while barely awake and breaking ice to cross streams these guys are cold they’re miserable and they’re tired you can just attack them next one in the burning heat of summer they arise late and press forward with haste through hunger and thirst concentrating on reaching far-off objectives you see them attack them the Army has been out in the field for an extended period their food supplies are exhausted the people are resentful and angry numerous bail for poor tents arises with the officers unable to squash them you see them attack them the army’s resources have been already been exhausted firewood and hair scarce weather frequently cloudy and rainy and if they even wanted to plunder for supplies there’s nowhere to do it cleared hot attack them the troops that are mobilized are not large the terrain and water not advantageous the men and horses are sick and worn out with no assistance from Rollins attack them the road is far off in the Sun is setting the officers and men have labored long and are fearful they are tired and have not eaten now if you just cast aside their armor attack them the generals are weak the official irresponsible the officers and troops are not solid the whole army is frequently in fear and the troops lack assistance attack of their formations are not yet formed their encampment not yet finished or they are passing through dangerous territory only half their troops are out of it in these eight conditions you can attack without any doubts enemies you cannot attack other end of the spectrum there are six circumstances without performing too much assessment you should avoid conflict the land is broad and vast the people are wealthy and numerous avoid conflict the government loves the people the ruler the rulers goodness extends and flows to all isn’t that an interesting one when you have a ruler that takes care of his people don’t even attack them hmm think about that think about that as a leader how you treat your team we need to treat your team well when you take care of your team the enemy shouldn’t even attack you because they know what’s gonna happen yeah well not to interrupt that what so this you’re reading from a paper right now where did you get that like it obviously it’s a book I got it from the depths of the internet what is it like a PDF situation you know you know I don’t I see I a lot of times in my life when I’m browsing the Internet yeah when I find a good document I just download that document or I copy-paste it and I put it into this file which is called books and PDFs so in this thing books and PDFs sometimes I’ll I’ll go oh yeah see something to remind me of it or I’ll think of it and I’ll just go and and go in there and that’s worse oh I forget where this actually came from because it was just in my personal file that says books and PDFs which is filled with ancient military documents and have field manuals and that’s so that’s where

it came from so yeah I’m sure you could go google it and you can find it on the internet somewhere yeah number three rewards and Punishment system is fair and transparent and is implemented in a timely fashion you shouldn’t even attack somebody that treats their people fairly and transparently think about that number four people are rewarded according to their accomplishment and the talented are unable are employed I’ve got a talented team we’re not going to employ forces are massive and well-equipped I think that is pretty self-evident they have assistants of all their neighbors than the support of a powerful state ok cool so those those were maybe both those sections a little obvious hmm well which makes you wonder why you have to say it and I know the answer to the question that I just asked the reason that you have to say it is cuz people still don’t even execute on things that seem really obvious like hey where the forces are massive and well equipped we we should not attack them but go look at history as obvious as it is people do it all time yeah yeah one of those things where it’s like ok these are you gonna work hard or are you gonna work smart ideally both I get it but you know when people are faced you know in in the mix and it’s like work hard work smart it’s kind of like ok not a lot of people say I mean I don’t wanna say not a lot but I’m just saying there are people let’s say on a normal level quantity wise who are gonna be like hey hard all day mm-hm and turn their back on the smart part you know I guess it seems understandable yeah if you know I mean detached it’s kind of like sure I’m gonna play this the smartest I possibly can I have force for sure but i’ma play this the smartest given how much force I have big small whatever yeah the follow that makes sense but I guess it’s maybe not the most obvious here’s the deal it’s so obvious from the outside right it’s watching a movie it’s watching a lame horror movie where you’re watching the girl you know with hear a noise downstairs in the basement everybody knows she goes down there barefoot like super obvious yeah but happens all the time not just in movies people do dumb stuff yeah a lot people do dumb stuff a lot check if in general if you are no match for the enemy in these areas without a doubt avoid them this is what I meant by see possibility and advance knowing difficulty and withdraw so if you see possibility advance if you see difficulty withdraw pretty straightforward next section detecting the enemy’s situation Lord woo acquired from the external appearance I would love to be able to know their internal situations from their advance I would know their objective from these I am able to predict victory or defeat what is your opinion of this woochi replied if the enemy approaches in large numbers but in disarray their flags and formations are a mess and the troops frequently look about but using by using 1/10 of their strength we can invariably cause them to be helpless so if they’re just looking ragtag no factor if reinforcements if reinforcements has not arrived there is disunity within the troops preparations for defense has not been completed orders and rules have not been announced the morale of the army is shaken they cannot advance or retreat you can defeat the enemy with half of its strength and never lose it all what’s interesting about this perception is when my first deployment to Iraq we were running around and thin-skinned Humvees meaning there was no armor it was just super sketch and one of the things we did we would actually briefed that everyone was responsible for scanning targets look and making our convoy look like a convoy that you don’t want to you don’t want to upset so we called it the porcupine of death because we had we had guys in the back of our Humvees we had these we had articulating weapons so we had weapons mounted crew-served weapons mounted on articulating arms you’ve got one of those on each side you probably had another couple machine gunners in the back anyways they’ve got their weapons pointed out you’ve got everyone has got a weapon pointed out of that vehicle you’ve also got the turret gunner except for the driver the drivers the only one that’s not pointing a weapon so those were some if you were looking at that and you see five Humvees and you see I don’t know there’s six guns on each Humvee and some of them are you know heavy caliber weapons belt-fed machine guns as I’m thinking about it even right

now I’m thinking if I was an insurgent I would probably wait till the next convoy where it’s all buttoned up that you know people are sitting inside there looking straight ahead we’ve turned to their seats on the Humvees because we did have doors we turned the seats to face outwards for two reasons one so that we could see and have a better angle to shoot but also because our chest plates of our body armor would be then facing the enemy as opposed to sitting where they can shoot you in the side but just just imagine you know so we would ride like are facing sideways yeah and our feet are are out of the vehicle and we’re just scanning for targets and so when you see these of these you think you know what yeah it’s not mess with these guys gun barrels pointing at you no matter where yeah no matter where you are we call that that was our posture yeah and we wanted to have an aggressive posture and we most certainly did we also you know and those were the were the Mad Max days so we welded these big crazy you know bumpers on them and we’d put tires on the front so we just get aggressive mmm get aggressive while driving and my point is we didn’t we got ambushed a few times but when you consider the amount of time we were on the road I think there was probably quite a few insurgents or enemy that decided maybe they’d wait till the next convoy Nextup weaknesses you can attack are there circumstances where the enemy can invariably be attacked Lord Wuan quired whoo whoo cheering employing the army you must ascertain the enemy’s strengths and weaknesses if you spot an opportunity to attack attack his weaknesses below are the situations you can attack an enemy when the enemy has just arrived from afar and their battle formations are not yet properly formed and deployed again this is get running through a list of things that seem really kind of obvious if they have just eaten and not less yet establish their encampment they can be attacked if they are on the move and the troops formation is disarray they can be attacked if they have labored hard they can be attacked if they not seized advantages of the terrain they can be attacked when they have not seized any critical the critical timing they can be attacked when their flags and banners move about chaotically they can be attacked when they have traversed a great distance their supplies and reinforcements just arrived and the whole troops have not rested they can be attacked it goes on when River when crossing the river and only half of them across they can be attacked on treacherous terrain on narrow roads they can be attacked when formations trains frequently changed frequently they can be attacked when a general is separated from his soldiers they can be attacked when they are afraid they can be attacked in general in such circumstances select crack troops and make a swift attack on them divide remaining troops and continue the assault repeatedly factors in using troops Lord Wu asked in using troops what is primary Wu Chi replied first you need to be clear about the four principles of lightness the two principles of heaviness and the one principle on integrity Lord Liu asked what are they Wu Chi said these are kind of cool the four principles of lightness means the terrain that the horses the terrain feels that the horses are light the horses will feel that the chariot is light the chariots will feel that the soldiers on it are light and the soldiers feel that the burden of war is light and he breaks it down a little bit more the terrain feels that the horses means that one should choose a suitable terrain that would not hamper the movement of the horses thus the terrain would feel that the horses are light if the horses are properly fed they will be strong and thus when they are pulling chariots they would feel that the chariots are light if the axles of the chariots are well-oiled and sturdy and properly maintained they can move soldiers easily thus the chariots will feel that the soldiers are light if the soldiers have sharp weapons and their armor are sturdy they will feel confident about winning thus the burden of war will be light first so there’s the four lights for the courageous that advance they should be rewarded heavily for those that retreat they should be punished heavily so there’s the two heavies there four lights two heavies and the last one is integrity there are two principles these are the two principles of heaviness as for integrity it refers to the integrity of rewards and Punishment system if the ruler is to take note and implement these principles the troops can achieve victory it all kind of starts with picking good terrain man it was a that so much focus if you’re if you’re in combat arms so much

focus should be on understanding terrain and then as you map that into the civilian sector and jobs and and businesses you need to understand what the terrain is the that what’s the market like what where are people located where your competitors what is their encampment like you can translate this stuff and you can utilize to read that’s the thing terrain on the battlefield is is the best weapon right it’s like positioning in jiu-jitsu that when you get the right terrain it’s like you have a good position in jiu-jitsu mmm when you get good terrain in business you have that kind of massive advantage gaining control of the army Lord we ask what measures will ensure the soldiers will be victorious this guy’s asking these questions this is kind of like those questions that are hey how do you how do you pass the how do you pass the dog right how do you get around the legs you know but Wu Chi has an answer because we choose not playing control is for most Lord Wu asked again is it not a matter of numbers Wu Chi says if the laws and orders are not clear rewards and punishments not met meted out when the sounding of the gongs will not cause him to halt or the beating of the drums will not make them advance even if you have a million men what use are they control is achieved by training and management at any time discipline is strict and during war they move and attack with all their advance and withdraw stride is measured the left and right look out for each other even if we cover move even if broken off from the main order they preserve their formations decentralized command if they scatter they will reform lines the whole army is very United and share weal and woe together when they are employed they do not feel tired no matter where you dispatch them no one can withstand them such armies are called the father-and-son army doesn’t go any more detail about the father-and-son army but that whole thing you know decentralized command discipline when they are employed they do not feel tired think about that right think about that think about that Union your personal life like you can be tired it going into a workout and I mean mentally tired man I’m tired I want to go to sleep when you start working out and you’re actively engaged you’re not tired anymore mm-hmm I never feel tired when I’m actually doing something you know seriously that’s crazy right yes it is crazy I mean I have to stop doing something and then I can get tired takes about 40 minutes yeah actually that makes sense but it does depend on what kind of tired you’re talking about so you know how there’s like the three tires I don’t know about the three tires nothing I know that one is obviously physically tired so when you’re working out and you’re doing your third set of burpees as fast as you can yeah you that’s a different kind of time yeah yeah so you can of this one is that one is that type one tired that’s type two and three tired yes oh and keep in mind I said the three tires like it’s this known thing the the type 3 the 3 types of tired is the three types of tired that I recognize in myself ok so the ancient principles of echo charlie well sleepy tired sleepy times I which is that the doctrinal name for it the sleepy time yes ok so far yes uh that’s the one you’re talking about where you’re a little sleepy tired but you’re not the other two tick kinds of tired you can just warm up a little bit get the blood flowing you know maybe boost some adrenaline in some capacity and you’re you’re rolling you’re good to go you stop you’re gonna go back to sleep you’re tired a little bitter then there’s like then there’s lung is tired meaning like my muscles are working but I’m breathing so hard that I like relief is like you just need you need really from that so you gotta rest whatever long we be tired lungs tired and then we have muscular killer tired like straight up muscles can’t be this bar anymore yeah so in jujitsu like all of those kind of come into play where a sleepy tired yeah so you can be sleepy tired before you get on the mass but once you start rolling it goes away that’s how you recover from sleepy tired in jiu-jitsu jiu-jitsu sleepy tired comes before the role you same thing so now in jiu-jitsu you can have a guy a real fast pace guy and you’ll be lungs tired like you’ll be like discussion but muscular you can still push him but you’re just breathing so hard and he gets you in some kind of claustrophobic situation you’re in big trouble depends on who you are of course but if your muscular fatigue tired you’re not like breathing hard you know like I mean that I guess typically happens if you’re like really not in shape and you go like a few rounds you know or if he or if you just been rolling all day well did well actually where I get muscular tired is like you you either are giving or receiving a singular move for an

extended period of time ie you get my arm and I’m defending for four and a half minutes yeah muscular time yeah you can’t yeah and you’ll be muscular tired too by the way yeah right happens to both of us yeah well you know you know obviously depend on how good a shape certain muscles or muscle groups whatever and it can apply the individual muscles or parts to your body or your whole body like you ever felt like but my body is all getting up is like it’s like your whole body is muscular tired but you’re not breathing hard or nothing you’re just like oh I’m dead you know kind of thing it’s like you know if you roll for like a long time that tends to happen in my experience anyway yeah but yeah that’s three times three types of tired ancient echo Charles doctrine you fully sleepy tired that’s my favorite one about sleepy tired because you know that’s the same word right well you know what the Eskimos have what where they always say yes compose have a hundred words for snow or something like that well the Hawaiians have two words for water so it’s like okay what two words well actually there might be more but there’s water like on a river in this there’s the ocean water because they’re like different things you know in their mind even though they’re made of the same liquid whatever h2o I guess sometimes the salt in one of a but no you see how they can be different from a certain approach you see them saying do they know the two Hawaiian words for water yeah vine Kai which one’s wet why is river water or like lakes or you know like what what with you we’re gonna ask for a drink of water what would y’all see I don’t know that’s that’s another one that could be a whole different thing my chest back with our people yeah figure out what the deal is there oh yeah and that’s why like there’s a lot of like towns and even names or whatever they’ll have Chi in them or vibe of spelled WWE so Chi ka is the ocean water that’s they’re referring to the ocean waters the people named Kai – exactly right hi something you know or it could be part of it you know like you can you can have names like you know I know or you know Kyle on here this and that and Kalani roughly translates to beautiful ocean Lani is like beautiful or you know loving or something you know it’s there’s a bunch of translations for sure we’re not putting you on the spot yeah I’m Dean deep in my head you know Hawaii Hawaii on it right now but nevertheless yes Kai you if you say ma Kai that’s like a let’s like a position / location but I means towards the ocean yeah and say mauka that means towards the mountain the mountainside yeah mountainside exactly but anyway yes three words for tired and two words for water in Hawaiian and you know cool here you go alright we’re gonna go with that I like it next one notes on marching armies Wu Chi said in general the way to command a marching army is not to contra intervene not to contravene the proper timing advancement and stopping not miss the appropriate times for eating and drinking and not completely exhausted strength of men and horses these three are the means by which troops can undertake the orders from their superiors when the orders of the superiors are followed control is achieved if advancing and resting are not a proper timing the drinking and eating are not timely when the horses are tired didn’t men are weary and not allowed to relax an encampment then they will be unable to carry out the commander’s order if they’re unable to carry out the order they’re gonna be defeated up Dave Burke got asked good deal yes asked a question today on EF online and and this one this one guy named Evan was asking you know hey my team right now needs to get after it big-time mm-hmm and we can’t take a break but people are burned out and if we don’t keep going right now we’re not gonna make it and Dave Burke good deal dude yeah he he said well do you really you know what I mean like really and then and he said even the guy said you know it’s like a marathon you know we’re in a marathon and we you know if we stop we won’t finish mm-hmm and Dave’s works like actually you can be in a marathon and you can stop and you can still finish actually right if you take a break and then what did he say max Q oh yeah so there’s three modes of speed in a jet fighter the max Q is working as fast as we possibly can max R is hey our range is we’re gonna go as far as we can mmm we’re trying to you’re going as fast

you can you might not be able to go as far as you’re burning more fuel and then the last one was max II which was I think it’s max efficiency meaning we’re just gonna stay flying as long as we can gotcha yeah and so he said you gotta know when to push and then you gotta back off then you push for a second then you back off and Dave was saying almost never well he would he said all the time they would be constantly going between Max Q max at our Maxie and just going back and forth between these things real quick one more time max Q yeah is how far can we how far and then oh sorry max Q’s is faster we can possibly go and then know if the Navarro’s max yeah is max Q max arc is now it says yep and then the last one was max II so R is as far as you can go straight up whatever speed we’re just trying to get they’re trying to we’re trying to get as far as we can yeah and then Maxie is like basic as far as fast no max II is staying in the air like we want to be able to stay in the air because there’s an optimum time where we might be going slower but we’re saving a lot of fuel okay yeah and if we went faster we could go further but not as long we just want to stay in the air okay I understand yeah okay that make sense it’s kind of like jujitsu right yeah it’s yeah I mean your body of similar energy systems yeah what is it anaerobic anaerobic aerobic and anaerobic yeah anaerobic lactic acid and will be aerobic yeah three systems yeah and they’re a blend it’s not like yeah you know they blend into each other kind of things so it’s not like oh you know next one decisiveness woochi said in general I’m gonna change my voice yeah we gotta go a little heavy on this one in general on the battlefield soon to become a land of corpses if the soldiers are committed to fighting to death they will live whereas if they seek to stay alive they will die gotta be aggressive hmm if you’re scared of dying your chances of dying increase a general a good general act as if they are on a sinking boat or trapped in a burning building there is not enough time for the Wat two for the wise to make plans or the courageous to get angry only thought that one can have is to fight thus it is said that the greatest harm can befall an army is the result of hesitation while the disasters that befall the whole army is a result of too much doubts leading to slowness what did Patton say a good plan executed now is better than an imperfect plan executed in two weeks those are good ones education and training of armies woochi said in war constantly perished from their inabilities and are defeated by unfamiliar thus when deploying troops training should be given the priority one man who has been trained in warfare can instruct ten men ten men can train a hundred men Andhra Bank can train a thousand men a thousand men can train ten thousand men ten thousand men can train a whole army use the advantage of being near to counter enemy that comes from afar use the advantage being well-rested to counter an enemy that’s been laboured use the advantage of being satiated encounter the enemy that is hungry having them from deploying in circular formations and change to square ones have them sit then get up and move and hold have them Holt move left to right right to left he’s talking about how to train these people how have them divided and combine unite them and disperse them when all these changes are familiar provide them with weapons all these mentioned are great I used to do this with I did is all that I would take my seal platoon take take myself task you know go out on the beach we wouldn’t even have we’re just be wearing PT shorts and pairs whatever sneakers and get in our patrol formation and then go contact front contact right contact left center peel peel right peel left and call these random calls and people just have to figure it out and you start going eight you come with me here’s a new call and people start taking ownership and people start making things happen you start to see initiative and you start to see decentralized command and by the time you we would get to let’s say land warfare and we’d thrown all this chaos at all these guys and they got used to making things happen it just seemed easy yeah do you know what seemed like we were cheating yeah do you run into like in the beginning of say that kind of exercise whatever like kind of a chaotic kind of scenario for sure and then what you just sort of what give them guidelines or work through it

like but you coach him up like after little I might but work through it yeah cuz as you work through it you’re getting better and we’ve now we would have a debrief you know maybe go okay eight or ten little mini maneuvers and this is you know the classic one is you you call your first call and everyone knows what to do and then the you let that start to get executed then Rises getting executed you call different calls oh yeah then as that one’s getting so now you got confusion times it one then you call a different thing you get confusion times two now we’re all split up here you know you used to be your fire team being Bill Fred and Joe and all of a sudden you’re not with Bill Fred and Joe and a matter of fact you’re a junior guy and everyone in your fire team that you randomly end up as all junior guys as well no one knows they need to step up and charge finally you look around and say I gotta make a call right now hey fire team it’s on me we’re gonna pound forward ready move and you guys listen to you why because they’re starting to adapt to the situation so they thought we all start off with like pretty clear guidelines super general but pretty clear every seal knows what to do when you say contact front everybody knows what to do yeah and then you say senator peel everybody knows what to do everyone’s done that drill thousands of times but then while they’re doing the center peel you say contact rear and then you so now they’re jumbled up but then you call another call and you say contact rear and then you say the tactical call for we’re going to flank them and now people start to work the flank but they’re with a different group and now as that flank is happening you call contact front or contact rear again or contact left or contact right and now we’ve got to start to orient to this new situation and so you just keep doing all these different calls and it makes people think and like I said it would felt like I was cheating because by the time we would get to land warfare they would throw the the the problems at you mmm the problems would not be problems because we already scrambled our brains over and over again and everyone knows how to look around and figure out who to grab and hey if I’m alone or I’m no one’s in charge cool them to grab three guys we’re a fireteam we’re gonna move wow that’s so interesting that like cuz okay you split football and Brett it’s the exact same thing so what you know you know you heard of all line screams you’re gonna call inaudible right basically all that means is I’m changing the play because of the defense I see or whatever and then there’s little maneuvers you can do you can be like I know we know this team plays this certain defense or whatever so we’re gonna lie up a certain way that means they’re gonna line up a certain way then we’re gonna call the audible on the line and we’re gonna scramble because we already know where we’re gonna shift to and then right when we shift we’re going when we shift they have to shift to but they’re reactive so I think I don’t make all these decisions right there right before the play so you should catch them off guard like that so now imagine if you did that three times in a row four time oh yeah five times in a row yeah and then they’re gonna have real problems yeah yeah sure but that’s crazy how like seal team practice and training or whatever like the parallels with like basically team sport cuz that’s well do the same thing same exact thing they’ll you know it looks different on the field obviously is a different sport but they do the same thing yeah and I think for the takeaway is like to just being a leader in general what you’re putting you’re putting your troops into situations that they’re not familiar with they learn how they learn a protocol they learn how to deal with those situations in which I wrote about in in in the code I wrote about how do you handle a situation when you don’t know what to do what do you do well I’ll just break out right that’s cuz we’re here because it’s a good protocol it’s it’s it’s a very and it’s the it’s the protocol that you have to follow up on the most because it’s the unknown right the other protocols are straightforward you know here’s the problem here’s the solution this is the unknown what do I do when I don’t know what to do something bad happen I don’t even know where to start this is this this is the strategy protocol every scenario cannot be addressed so this is the protocol for what to do when you don’t know what to do one start by taking a step back detach take a breath look around make sure you assess everything that’s happening so that’s what we do you so this is what’s happening when you’re in a seal platoon and there’s three calls just got made and now you’re in the unknown you don’t know what to do take a step back to attach take a breath look around make sure you assess everything that’s happening that’s that’s exactly what you should do hmm next think about where your possibilities are and decisions you could make right now and what could happen so now you look around say okay what could we do could we go to that berm over there could we go to that little ravine over there and here I say write it down because we’re in an administrative situation but then you look at okay what what success look like does that get us where we want to be can I get there can I make that happen and then you work the plan make a call and you want to make small sit make a small step towards what you think is the right decision and that’s what I read about in in leadership

strategy in tactics which is the iterative decision-making process which is making small steps in the direction that you think is correct and yeah and then you assess if that was a good call or not and you saw the ravine you started moving towards the ravine there’s doesn’t seem like you’re taking any further contact from that area so you can keep moving there so you can make another call that continues you pushing in that direction but what happens is everybody on the team starts to realize how to how to do all those little steps so that new guy that when you walked out on the beach for the first time this guy has no idea and what’s cool is this isn’t a drill that you had to run every single day you could run this drill like three or four times and then people would just be good enough where you know you’re like okay we got this and they’re there they are I was gonna say ten times better and then I was gonna say a thousand times better than that sounds it sounds unrealistic but the but the actual number is when you walk out on the beach for the first time as a new guy and you’ve never done this before you’re zero mmm you’re zero you when that first call when the no when the first call gets made you go cool I know what to do when the second call gets made you’re at a zero you have no idea what’s happening so when you’ve done this now for three hours one morning when you’re done with those three hours you’re a whole new man you heard a whole new man your ability to process what’s happening your ability to figure things out your ability to grab two or three other people put them in your fireteam and start making making taking action to support whatever calls being made you’re a totally different human being in three hours which is amazing and by the way the only training that the only equipment that you need is a pair of shorts and a stick and you can say bang bang mmm-hmm next placing individuals in appropriate positions Wu Chi said the basic rule of warfare that should be taught is that men of short stature should carry spears and and spear tip halberd the tall should carry bows and crossbows the strong should carry flags and banners that courageous should carry bells and drums the weak should serve in logistics the wall the wise should be involved in planning people from the same village or district should be grouped together so they can look out for each other I got a kind of a kick out of that one it’s if you think about you know once you’re carrying once you’re carrying guns a lot of the physical differences between humans go away you know you know not that they go away completely I was thinking about the dealer I got a text from one of my seal friends that might you know a guy that I grew up with in the teams and he’s just a incredible beast of a specimen of a human being right and I remember I was watching we were doing a training operation we were down in the jungles of Louisiana and we were doing a raid a live-fire raid so we’re using really real bullets and I was in the base element which is the cover element so we I was not gonna move I was laying there this is generally the place for the radio men generally the first place for the platoon commander that you’re gonna sit next to the team commander and and you usually would be looking at rear security and then you so you put down cover fire and then the assault element moves into position and then assaults through the target and you ship fires they move through anyways the point of all this is that they had this kind of mmm semi cheesy target setup for us there was you know some some couple plywood buildings some barrels and there was a picnic table a random like picnic tables in there and I’m watching the silhouette of this assault happened and I see my buddy and you know he’s like 6 4 and just sort of and just overall general beast of a dude and a great athlete and I see him he’s carrying an m60 machine gun this was before the the modern machine guns that we have novice so this is that big normally it’s a crew serve there used to be a crew-served weapon meaning you have a person to carry the weapon and a person to carry the ammunition and sometimes a person to carry the tripod we had him with bipods we had modifications to them but in the SEAL Teams you carry those weapons by yourself so he’s got this big giant weapon and I’m watching him and he he gets to this picnic table and he’s shooting because they’re shooting it’s a live fire and we have now shifted fire we’ve actually now ceased fire so we’re no longer shooting we’re just watching them move for the target and I see him he’s carrying this giant m60 and it looks like he’s carrying a BB gun because that’s just big and he’s just laying down fire and he steps up on this on this picnic table as if it was as if he was stepping over an anthill and I’m

like like yeah if this dude this dude was born to be doing what he’s doing right there with that pig that pig gun so that’s what I was thinking about when I thought of this section right here that you know you and you know look your point man a lot of times appointment are these small guys hey the Vietnam point man they were legendary those B’s the small seals right hey that guy’s gonna be a point man the big dumb new guys you’re gonna be a 60 gunner right they still kind of carry this stuff out and of course it’s not written in stone and you can definitely be there’s plenty of guys that have been very small and carried and carried a heavy machine gun there’s plenty of big guys that have been point men but we do you know there’s a little bit does it make sense yeah it makes sense when you say Pig what is that what does that mean does that mean the m60 or does that mean just a big gun what that means it used to mean the m60 but now it also means the mark 48 which is the new modern version it’s a big belt-fed machine to put it in clear terms for you it’s the iconic Rambo weapon and commando belt-fed machine gun I don’t know about commander know what kind of weapon he was carrying in their 60s like shooting everybody from the hip carrying the the the bullets right the belt but every other hand fed machine gun yeah yeah Rambo I think kind of did it before come in if I’m not mistaken yeah when he came back you shooting up the office oh yeah so so picture that weapon I mean cuz well now you can picture with with Sly Stallone right yeah well you know how do you now tall Sylvester Stallone is on not exactly but I know that he’s not as tall it’s like a you know your guys yes full exactly and Arnold yeah so you can picture my buddy just laying them down and by the way having that thing shouldered you know like shouldered like a rifle and just laying it down yeah as he’s moving as he’s walking over an obstacle like it’s no factor I know and I’m totally picturing it and yes that’s a that’s a glorious vision for sure right there when I was young we’re watching Rambo and comment’ they’ll see and I was young we were doing assaults by fire in the swamps of Louisiana you were watching ramble yes and death completely different for sure no I think that’s pretty much the same more or less yes and my dad commented on that he said because he saw if I’m not mistaken Arnold Schwarzenegger in commando that’s when we swash together and he had it yeah but shooting from the hip one hand holding the the bullets to the other belt in the other hand and he’s just laying he’s just mowing down everybody right in the little plantation wherever he was and my dad said he’s like man like that’s impressive you see that gun that he’s carrying right there I was like yeah he’s like that gun it would take me you and then he named like our neighbor who’s you know okay it’s like it would take all three of us to pick that gun up the thing that say it because my Arnold’s horn nails one hand so it’s interesting you say that because damn that’s what my dad said back in the yeah I mean you can you can definitely do what I do and it guys would do that too but the pig so yes that heavy machine gun the heavy belt-fed machine gun is generally referred to as the pig yeah and therefore the guy that’s carrying the pig can be no can call it the pig gunner and then if you remember Ryan job and was a pig gunner and usually guys have a nickname for their Pig and as a matter of fact the guy that was stepping over the picnic table he his Pig he had two of them I’m not sure which one of them was called Frankenstein but the other one was called roadblock you know this isn’t the night news man there’s no war going on but let’s face it roadblock is a legit dude yeah what is that Ryan jobs ryan job’s nickname was bagels and his his gun was called bagels so road block is from GI Joe what is the name of a weapon know of a guy good luck or no cops might be cops that’s not a cartoon I don’t know I just know that my buddy had had an m60 that was called roadblock that’s yeah that’s one of the most legit names yeah I’ll tell you what so every different military has their different schools right your different skill sets sniper radio men you know medical they’ll valve their own little schools and we used to share schools we know sometimes our radio MinnKota go to the special forces communication school for a long time with special forces medic school so we share some of those schools sniper school there’s a Marine Corps SMAP but there’s all different schools we are the seals run really really good

schools because you get guys that are way way way into it way into it mmm way into whatever their little thing is but we would run that the machine gunners would go through a course while we would go through land warfare and it was like this is the 60 Gunners course mmm or the pig Gunners course but man they would get some of the instructors in there which everyone was just so into it that and I know I would the other guys like I when I was already 2 min or when I was an officer we would get we and we could use a couple runs cuz you got it but these guys would be out there for you know three days just burning through ammunition and learning to you everything and slap feet and push beating combat feet and you know it just the guys would get so good and you’d see that’s another from another friend of mine I had I was it was almost the exact same situation I think I was behind him we were I was walking on us so we were assaulting through a target and he was out ahead of me so I wasn’t I was like as the radio Menace of I was in Alaska as a radio man you’re doing time on target you get like the nerd roles you know the stereotypical so the stereotypical 60 gunner he’s like a big jack guy right even in every movie right it’s the way it is a stereotypical radio man what does he look like he’s a nerdy guys got glasses on I guess keep cleaning him in the fields and and so like I was I was not I mean I wasn’t small but that’s the job that I had was that nerdy job so when you’re assaulting a target your job would be to keep time on target so you’d call out you one minute and so your while the assaults going down sometimes I would be tracking I’ll kind of be I would be a little bit more heads up I’d be a little bit more detached right I got three machine guns out in front of me plus all the other guys with the pea shooters and they’re all laying it down and I might take a step back to be okay I’m making calms I’m making sure we’re doing good whatever but I was watching one of my other buddies and I just like he was so there’s a there’s a feed tree there’s a bunch of different ways that you can reload your m60 and I just remember him he in the most smooth fashion that you could imagine the particular he was he was slapped feeding it so he opens up the feed tray and he opens up the feed tray and he whips his hand he whips his hand and when he does when he whips his hand is he hits the Lynx so the you know those bullets in the belt they’re held together by links and that when you fire that last round sometimes that link will sit there it won’t make it out of the gun because it just fired and so that link will sit there right in that spot yeah so he opens up the fitra he whips his hand and and he hits that and then that link comes up he opens it up link and while he’s whipping it he he’s like prepping he whips it he switches hand he grabs out his or no he whips it he grabs the belt puts the next belt in there boom slaps the feed cover home Lippe and he starts and I was like man so what I’m saying is when you’ve got people that are into what they’re doing they’re gonna be good they’re gonna be good you want it that’s why if you we should have videoed those two guys do in those two moments if I could capture those two moments and just propagate those two moments to the world people will be a lot less apt to want to mess with America because you think about what kind of humans are doing this what kind of human is figured out how to open the feed tray cover slap that link out reach down again what kind of human is doing that and has made that into a beautiful thing yeah that’s that’s what you’re dealing with you’re not dealing with normal people we’re going distance it’s like you know those guys who you know they they’re into smoking you know so they and I don’t mean like they’re just smoking I’m saying they’re into smoking you know so when they like this cigarette they got the old-school classic gold-plated lighter and they do the little mini micro performance before they light this cigarette buddy you know I’ll flip it like it’s a butterfly knife or something like that kind of like that but yeah as far as a war fighter goes yeah yeah and then you just break down and when I start thinking about all the little details like guys would do every little piece of gear they’re honing it they’re clear prepping it everything is taped everything is quiet everything is just and you’d get to see these guile tell you what I was out on patrol like

towards the end of the Battle of Ramadi so you know we’re like a I don’t know maybe a few weeks or whatever from going home and I run to some corner and I’m holding the corn rest you know whatever were just on patrol and I’m watching as the guys are moving and I’m like good same thing I’m thinking if I was an insurgent I would this there’s no way I would take a shot at these guys right now it looks like a looks like just a machine a machine a machine that’s alive like a cyborg a cybernetic organism that’s that’s conducting operations with one thought process you know that cannot be bargained with and cannot be reasoned with feel pity or remorse or fear yeah absolutely will not stop ever and and as we know you are dead like that’s from a movie yes but that’s real yeah think about that that’s a that’s a movie somebody wrote that for a movie to make that as cool as possible but that’s a real thing yeah there’s really really people like that I know them yeah and there’s groups like that and look the only thing is you can say oh they can’t be killed or whatever is did you say that or they can’t be stopped it can’t be bargained with can’t be bargained reason or reason with cool yeah we’re there yeah so it’s just a good comforting feeling to know that there’s guys out there like that they’re like that yeah I know JP to Nell I known him for a while for surely he’s always come off as like that yeah yeah good times good times well a little fun fact Michael Biehn is the guy who played Kyle Reese who is the character who said that whole thing to Sarah Connor in Terminator 1 and we might call this layers we might call it coincidence we might call it parallels but his most played role is a Navy SEAL interesting the abyss the rock there are others too next section maintenance of horses this is an interesting one I’m trying to remember why I highlighted that I should read that there must be some reason Lord Wu asked how do we take care of our horses Wu Chi replied the stable should be cleaning comfortable all that’s why because it applies to everything the stable should be clean and comfortable the horse should be fed with appropriate grass and water feeding should be until neither too hungry or too full oh yeah so this is like a dichotomy here not too hungry discipline clean right not too hungry and then it the the dichotomies continue in winter they should have warm stables in the summer a cool stables little dichotomy there their main in hair should be kept trimming their Hoos properly cared for yes see these are guys these are like pig Gunners but with horses right they should be trained to be familiar with all sights and sounds so that they aren’t easily startled practicing their gallop and pursuit exercise constraint in VAT and halting the BOM between the horse and men should be so strong before the horses can be employed imagine the bond between a pig gunner and his weapon right it’s like a real thing the equipment such as saddles bridles bits and reins must be strong and durable normally these horses are injured either towards the end of war or at the start similarly they are either injured by hunger or over feeding that’s the same that thing that Dave Burke said about crashes plane crashes they usually happen in the first 20 percent of a pilot’s career or the last 20 percent management of troops would she say don’t airy capabilities and civility can be commander of an army mm-hmm he must be one who is strict and flexible as well you thought I made up the dichotomy of leadership I didn’t been around for apparently thousands of years strict but flexible as well in general when people appraise generalship they usually focus on courage however courage is but one of many required characteristics of a general being only courageous one would Raschi rush into battle without any considerations for gain and loss what do you need to be balanced such action is not acceptable now the affairs to which the general must have managed are five first is control second is preparation third is commitment fourth is caution fifth is regulation control is governing the masses just as one controls a few preparation is during the journey to the battleground always be prepared for enemy ambush commitment means entering combat without any concerns for one’s life caution means that even after conquering one remains

the same control and attitude as if just entering a battle hmm even after you win you maintain control and you maintain the same attitude as if you just entered the battle regulation means laws and orders are to be kept to a minimum and non-abrasive you know what I’ve been saying lately lead with the minimum force required which is exactly what this says right here orders captain minimum non-abrasive to accept command without declining to accept command without declining so when you get put in charge you do it destroy the enemy only afterward destroy the enemy and only afterwards speak about returning is the proper form of behavior for general you look you don’t talk about going home you didn’t even mention going home until you win when the army goes forth his only thought is to die with glory rather than live with shame woochi said oh sorry this is four areas to note in characteristics of good generals over 2,000 years old mmm woochi said in general there are four vital points to note for warfare and they are morale terrain Affairs and strength the control management of Army’s movement lies in the hand of one general that is the vital point for morale when the road is narrow and perilous at the vital point of the mountain route deploying ten men a general can stop an army of thousands that is a vital point of terrain making full use of spies using like cavalry to harass the enemy sowing discord between the ruler and officials and higher ranks and lower ranks were approaching each other is the vital point of affairs when chariots and strong have strong axles and secure pins the boats have been suited with rudders and oars that officers our third leaf familiar with the formations and the horses have trained in pursuits and maneuvers such as the vital point of strength one who knows these four is qualified to be a general moreover his reputation virtues benevolence and courage must be respected by his subordinates and calm the masses it’s interesting that you think of these guys back in the day of these rulers being regional ruling with an iron fist and it’s the caste system and you’re just dominating and he talks about benevolence all the time and righteousness and how that’s he’s saying if you know if you’ve got a you’ve got a group that loves their leader don’t even attack him mm-hmm furthermore he must be able to scare his enemy with his reputation and decisiveness when he issued two orders no one dared a bit disobey him whenever he may be wherever he may be rebels will not dare to oppose him gaining such a person the state will grow strong losing him the state will perish this is what we call a good general characteristics and importance of good communications woochi said now the different drums gongs and bells are means to all the ear flags banners and pennants are meant to all the eye prohibitions orders punishments and fines are meant to all the mind since the air is awestruck by sounds they must be loud and clear since the eye is straw awestruck by colors the colors must be discriminating and bright since the mind is awestruck by penalties it has to be strict and on impartial if these three are not established even though you may have the support of the state you will invariably be defeated by the enemy thus it is said that word whatever the generals manners are the whole troops will go and wherever the general points to everyone will charge forward without concern for their own lives as much as we talk about communication in its under the it’s under the law of combat simple simple clear concise communication if you’re not doing that if you’re not giving clear concise orders things are gonna fall apart whoosh knowing the enemy general knowing the enemy general Wu Chi said in general one essential of Wars to know who the enemy general is and evaluate his talent in a corner of the situation use schemes and achieves new schemes to achieve results without much later labor a commanding general who is stupid and trusting can be deceived and entrapped one who’s greedy and insensitive to honor can be given gifts and bribed one who changed his mind easily and lacks real plans plot to labor and tire him out that’s a good one you got someone that tries all these different things cool let him keep

trying all those different things that’s a little nice little breakdown he just gives about what kind of personality you’re dealing with and then how you attack that personality it’s so good if the upper ranks are wealthy and and arrogant while the lower ranks are poor and resentful so discord amongst them if they’re advancing and withdrawing are often marked by doubt and the troops have no one to rely on they can be frightened off they can get fright be frightened into running off if the officers despise their commanding general and have strong intent to return home block off the easy roads leaving the treacherous ones open then they can be attacked and captured if the terrain over which they advance is easy but the retreat route is difficult wait for them to come forward testing the enemy general Lord Wu asked if two armies are confronting each other and I do not know their general if I would like to know more about them what methods can I employ Wu Chi replied gather some lower ranks men who are courageous and have them lead some light shock troops to test him when the enemy responds to earth to attack they the shock troops should run off and he basically goes through how to do little probe to find out what kind of reaction you if they give an organized defense or not and you can judge from their next one chaos and communications Lord Wu asked if the chariots are sturdy the horses are well bred the generals are courageous and the soldiers are strong but when you sell a suddenly encounter the enemy and the troops are thrown into chaos and formations are broken what can be done so this is exactly what I talked about doing these sand rattle battle drills on the beach Wu Chi replied in general it is a rule of battle that during daylight flags banners and pennants to relay orders while at night gongs drums horns and whistles can be used and said when the flag signal left they move left when the set flags and the right they move right when the drum is beating the advance when the Gong sound they retreat at the first sound of the horn they should advance at the second sound of the horn they should gather if anyone disobeyed the order they should be executed this is where I started to say okay we talked about levelling sand I was on board we talked about taking care of your people and I was on board people disobey your order execution might not be the best thing to do only in this way the army would submit to your awesomeness and the officers and soldiers will not dare disobey orders in combat no enemy will be stronger than you nor will any defenses remain impregnable to your attack when the when outnumbered by the enemy lord Wu what if our troops are outnumbered Wu Chi replied avoid engaging them on flat terrain instead attack in narrow quarters thus it is said for one to ten nothing is better than narrow passage pretend to attack 100 nothing is better than a deep ravine these are pretty straightforward how to attack a strong enemy lord Wu asked if their forces are numerous well-trained and courageous behind them are dangerous high grounds on the right or mountains on the left or river they are well fortified and have crossbows and defending position when they withdraw they are steady as mountains when they attack they’re like torrential rain as their food stocks are plentiful it will difficult to defend against them for very long what should be done this is fun this is asking these totally insane situations right but don’t worry have no fear because Wu Chi replied a very good question such enemy cannot be overcome by force alone but by the wisdom of sage it can prepare one thousand chariots and 10,000 cavalry and support them with foot soldiers divide them into five groups each one traversing a different route now the five groups will move out in different direction simultaneously the enemy will certainly be confused and will not know what we are up to so he basically goes through how to attack from five different directions at the same time and then what he says you basically want to isolate some of the groups which is a smart move and then he goes on to a whole section of when surrounded by the enemy when caught and unfavorable to terrain caught in a valley fighting marine battles wet and dry weather also known as moist dry weather fighting plunders after crawl this is a good one after conquering cities Wu Chi said in general there is a principle to follow when attacking the enemy’s city that is after conquering the city enter their public building control and use the former bureaucrats to take over their supplies relay orders that troops are not supposed to cut down trees destroy houses take the grain slaughter animals or burn people’s supplies this will show the populace that you do not have any fishs intentions excepting those that accept those that surrender and settle them this is very good advice especially that bureaucratic idea you

know we’re gonna take off we’re gonna try and maintain their society we’re not gonna rip it apart it’s gonna be easier to control it’s gonna be more beneficial to you and them mmm it’s a positive thing you know this is the going back to the Iraq war and the disbanding of Saddam’s military which is pretty much now considered that that was a bad bad move we talked about it on we talked about it on the other podcast the new the newly named podcast the podcast formerly known as the thread which is now known as the jockle unraveling podcast which will be up soon next section and just to go back look we don’t have to take this from a war scenario when you acquire a business you’re a business buys their business what do you do say yeah we’re here get on board fire all their leadership no actually utilize their leadership take some of their culture incorporate them into the game you know what makes people not do what I just said because there you go they’re like oh you know what echo we just bought your company you’re fired or even like like you know you can use me work as my you know whatever yeah you I’m gonna take your authority away from you now everybody’s looking you that should be working hard and they’re going out man they’re treating our boss bad yep it’s true you know good examples of that is the movie invasion of the Body Snatchers so there’s old-school movie by the way my dad used to be super into it but I noticed the aliens that come down and they take over your body right now there what’s this movie called invasion of the Body Snatchers so they come down and they take over your body but you’ll still look like you you can’t even act like you but you have an alien agenda see zoom same mmm it’s the exact same thing so as opposed to like exactly because then the alien came invaded your body took over your body your whole thing uh-huh but they didn’t like ruin it they kept your whole in Susa expecting yeah as far as that that philosophy goes as opposed to like men in black everyone’s men in black that one yeah but I can’t really remember to so there’s cockroach alien that came and like took over this farmer guys body and it is jammed it up so when this guy the farmer the alien the cockroach alien was walking down the street as the farmer like his body was so jammed up his skin’s all falling down or whatever everyone was like like he couldn’t function in society seemed saying so this agenda was it was way harder to execute you seemed saying I ended up losing in the end too by the way okay yeah coincidence nope no no they kind of stole that plot line from wuji yeah all right Lord woo asked is making punishment severe and rewards clear adequate for victory woochi replied as to these matters of severity and clarity I do not have all the answers even so they cannot be totally relied on when you issue orders and the people willingly follow them when you raised the army and mobilize the masses that people take pleasure in going to battle when engaging the enemy the people take on pleasure in fighting to the death then these three are what the ruler of men can rely on those are big asks Lord woo inquired further how does one attain such results right so this is little big ass that you’re asking for how do you get there woochi replied you should identify man of accomplishment and honor them with a grand feast also invite those that have not accomplished anything this would stimulate them thereupon Lord woo had sitting on had sitting mats set out in the ancestral temple Hall arranged in three tiers and held held a feast for officers and chief officials those distinguished by great achievements at in the first tier and were feasting in the finest food and cutlery those who ranked in the next accomplishment sat in the middle tier and dine with fine food and less lavish vessels those who had not accomplished anything noteworthy sat in the last tier feasting food in ordinary utensils when the feast was over and they came out Lord Wu also honoured the parents and families of the meritorious outside the temple gate again according to their accomplishments he annually sent emissaries to call on the families of those who had died in service for the country bestowing aid on their parents so doing he showed that they would not be forgotten once again take care of your people and I also like how he set up that little tiered structure of you want to move into the next tier gotta go make some stuff

happen yeah and also interesting to that third tier is actually sounds still pretty solid you know where it’s like dying on the finest food just in some ordinary cut you know kind of thing but then you compare to like the lavish top tier we all want to get there Jack this is the last section from Wu Chi yeah I read a bunch of it didn’t read the whole thing you can go download it yourself for the for the details this is the last section and this tells a little story and now we get to this point the day before the battle Wu Chi spoke to the troops all aides and officers must confront and capture enemies chariots cavalry and infantry’ if the chariots do not make prisoners of the enemies chariots the cavalry do not make prisoners of the enemy’s cavalry the infantry do not make prisoners of the enemy’s infantry then even if we Forge an overwhelming victory no one will be accredited with achievements that was that was his message to the troops on the day of battle although his orders were not onerous meaning he’d give these massive works he just said that right there basically on that day his awesomeness shook the world that is the last line of the Wu Zi written by Wu Chi on that day of battle his awesomeness shook the world and I’m gonna say that that’s probably a pretty positive come and you know look these principles we read them we have some level of understanding of them we see the same advice coming from different people over a spread of thousands of years we keep hearing the same type of advice over and over again what we didn’t do is put that advice to work right put these principles to work not just for yourself but for your family but for your people but for your team but for your employees your bosses your community and the world and then what you do is you go out and you shake the world with awesomeness echo Charles yes sir speaking of shaking the world with awesomeness yes how can you help us do that how can you help us shake the world with awesomeness well you cannot shake the world with awesomeness if you are not yourself providing awesomeness seem seen understeer incapable of providing awesomeness how can you shake anything with that awesomeness you seem sane yeah you’re not shaking anything with a pure lack of awesomeness yourself you can have a hard time what’s interesting is like even back then they say the word awesome so you know okay remember this is the translation all right that’s awesome so my friend Anthony right he he was actually on my house our first episode of the podcast when you came over oh yeah who’s that man so anyway he used to always say the word awesome like just just inappropriate times in my opinion right so that kind of turned me off to the word awesomeness he’d say yeah I met this girl she was just she was just so awesome and it’s like all right you know I don’t know how like a girl she this girl must be really something if you’re in awe of this girl seem same because that’s really what awesome is fate it’s aw so whatever anyway so you’d always use it so it really turned me off I tease him about it so anytime he’s around I’d be overusing the word awesome you know then after a while I just started using it normally you know I you know how that happens right it talked about therefore where you you start using a word just as a joke you know and then it slowly creeps into your normal vocabulary that’s what awesome is so I’m rolling with it okay so apparently whoo cheers were rolling with it as well yeah not really gonna roll with it so all right well we got to keep ourselves in the game you know this game you cannot be awesome and shake any worlds or anything with awesomeness if you’re not in the game to begin to turn down on the path that’s my opinion what’s the level of arrogance when you close out your book by saying you shook the world with awesomeness it kind of detracts from the message a little bit oh well humility look meter is not get yet very high yeah when you’re saying hey you know what I’m gonna do no factor just no big deal I’m over here shaking the world with awesomeness I agree but I’ve never even heard a person make a statement that is this that might be the strongest possible and

what what what what’s stronger than that let like what’s a stronger way of saying this person made a mark on the world right yeah shake the world with awesomeness that shook it yeah yeah oh yeah it does sound like like a Kanye West maybe statement or you know something like this okay that’s something he would say I’m saying okay oh I I will take your word for it anyway be on the path some saying now what are you gonna do okay the path is like it’s full of and I’m kind of quote you on this one it’s full it’s full of obstacles and traps mmm path it’s true so those obstacles challenges or whatever we’ve got something for you got some supplements this is for your physical and mental ability to Sam yeah just ate on the path in the game etc so chaco feel kind of home line for you for any pretty much any ailment pretty much generally speaking it covers at least a little bit of any ailment that mabus be bestowed basically you’re just going up or you’re just carrying the theme forward but because we were shaking the world with awesomeness now we’re just any ailment well I’m do we’re good you got the Jocko fuel whatever’s wrong with you we got you this will hey me ailment this will help this will help so it’s just gonna depend on what you mean by help Hey look we just you know we just right you don’t need to say anything else you just said it you say hey look any ailment that you have any problem you got jockle you’re good that’s it it’ll help end of advertisement ever end of talking we’re good any ailment we’re good well ladies docile fuel well let me specify because some of these ailments we simply don’t have you see them saying like if you don’t need extra produce an example if you don’t need extra point protein in the form of e DS of a desert some people they don’t need that who doesn’t need that well a lot of people don’t need it but of course we all of course we don’t want that as far as protein goes how can it get any well then again steak seem sane steak is not in the form of a dessert but sort of the same desire yeah anyway alright well let me start at the beginning okay joint were afraid that’s for your joints yes if and when or let’s just say if they start to fall are you gonna narrow down that you started you’re gonna now narrow down your attracting your statement that ATM with this is gonna be cured by choco fuel no well technically I didn’t make that statement uh I said this will help but I misread you either thing I totally cheated on that statement because look if you break your arm and I give you a leg massage that’ll help it won’t help your arms specifically but you know can they exalt loosen yeah yeah good to go so there will be benefits and even for truly any ailment so you’re actually speaking factually anyway don’t work for supercro oil this and antioxidants in there by the way it’s called disease anthem it’s called ailment crusher discipline if you want some supplemental discipline boom got you discipline the supplement in cans powder form boom whatever you like did you say crow oil I did super super yeah cuz really what it boils down to it not being on super krill and not being on warfare is not a good idea no you talk about uh the the for something of light right before those are the lights yeah maybe some light you got to keep it like you have to in my past fresh you have to listen to this I think so and that’s what that’s what’s the super krill that’s what the drink we’re fair that’s the discipline too by the way you know it’s all part of the whole circle of I must say I drink the powdered form of discipline go like basically all day long basically we’re talking about all day long you want to you got some you want to prevent some ailments yeah even ailment prevention yes is what we’re talking about vitamin d3 get some of that get some cold war and you can deny these threatening enemy beasts ailments oh yeah better out there just get rid of them before they even show up oh yeah immune system somebody walks up to you’re immune you some some enemy walks up to your immune system they see the d3 and they see the Cold War they’re so like hey that’s not they’re not attacking yep they right next category if don’t attack you’re correct the ancient woochi said if you see a body filled with d3 and a cold war do not attack is a losing battle yes got the RTD cans you want to get some you want to get some Jocko Palmer you do want to get some Jocko Palmer this stuff is ridiculously good it the the stuff is good it’s good for you which is crazy yeah it’s crazy did you see Brian Littlefield it gave me little video on that on the whole deal there well what makes it different and I thought it was gonna be like the differences in the spirit or something you know something kind of esoteric and you can’t really like put your friend

but he Branagh he went down the line there’s like all this stuff you know like okay proprietary but wow this game well yeah he’s talking about the term proprietary blend which is a way of masking what you actually have in there in the quantities that you have in there yeah which means that you can sell people things that for a lot more but even though you didn’t put very much of them in there yeah it’s which is sketch that’s interesting and then when he goes down the line you know of all the stuff that’s in there it’s all transparent like you know all the ingredients are like on there and stuff and you man this is like this that doesn’t that is different than like an energy ultra you know which men I’m died like the energy drink Twitter but man when you when you read this you’re like ah how can I even drink an energy drink now you won’t but here’s the thing we’re making something else we’re making a ginger ale do you like ginger ale yes I do okay well there’s gonna be caffeine free ginger ale coming hmm we don’t think we have a name for it yet well no this one won’t it can or cannot I mean you can have caffeine free coffee you can have caffeine free tea so we’re making ginger ale without caffeine the reason is the real this way I was gonna say this if the reason I said that is because I told I told belittle I was like listen this stuff tastes freaking delicious and I want to drink it all day oh yeah and I don’t want to OD on caffeine there’s ninety five milligrams of caffeine in every can of go so you know you have a can ago maybe have two a day the maximum you’re supposed to do recommend it is like 400 milligrams of caffeine a day that’s gonna turn me into a psychopath yeah you you know yeah I don’t need that but here’s the problem love the taste so well it’s a little discipline test cuz you got to draw the line but also the cool thing is when you when you’re when it’s your company the oh hey you know what I want something without caffeine yeah and so we’re gonna make that I already I already had I told I just probably about the six or seventh iteration of and you still keep it in all the positive stuff all the good nootropics all the healthy things that are in there it’s all still gonna be in there it’s just not gonna have caffeine okay yeah I misinterpreted it like as if to say like normal ginger ale has kind of something but no yeah you’re right like there’s caffeine in the choco Palmer or whatever there’s a little element of caffeine in there or a legitimate limit um but this is not gonna happen honestly that way I can drink this stuff all day long get the other benefits from the product one of those benefits being not taste fully because I know someone that when they go out for dinner yeah they get Coca Cola’s yes sir which are not no sir they’re not no hey it’s the freedom part the last you’re gonna taste like I mentioned before Molk and warrior kid monk by the way so protein in the form of a dessert tastes good no taste great these were great bad often do it and you can get some chocolate white tea in the cans and about 8,000 pound deadlift do it’s just no big deal I know this doesn’t sound like it’s a guaranteed one or something and you can get all these things at origin main comm you can get them at the vitamin shop as well in your local neighborhood there you go also a tour domain is jiu-jitsu stuff when we start jiu-jitsu when we’re in jiu-jitsu we want to get a new key we want to get a geek or rash guard or whatever’s where’d you me not come they got that too all made in America since you can’t unfortunately just where Aggie wherever you go unfortunately I mean you can technically but it’s not recommended yeah you can also get other things they’re like jeans t-shirts boots yes boots you can get boots and all everything that we just talked about everything without compromise made in America American hands up they’re getting after it some kind of thinking of the booth writing and some other stuff I get it but the boots will just say the boots so you know how Wu Zi no Lucci yeah which is it’s talking about like hey you spent a lot of time making that thing beautiful mm-hmm but not folks I’m still trying to figure out they use for it right but these boots are kind of like whoever made them Pete and them was kind of doing both seem saying like when they had the golf or boots yeah they were like going functional with Beauty like hand in hand almost kind of thing where as far as works of art goes downs like I’m not that much into fast like you were but it seems like that’d be like some top-tier artistic there’s there’s a good balance between fashion and function between myself and a guy by

the name of Pete Roberts uh-huh let’s face it pre well let’s face it on a in a in a vacuum environment with just Pete Roberts in there all you have to do is look at rash guards from origin right you can look at those nude see where it’s gonna we and you inject a little Jocko and there all of a sudden things start you know we start going a little bit more towards the form yeah they’re gonna know a little bit more towards the form think Pete can get wild brah like you know likes the way things look more than me yes sir more than me quite a bit more than me yes sir but what’s cool is you get that balance like the jeans band let’s face it there’s some things about the jeans that are a little bit they’re functional like the pockets are slanted in the back right just easier disagrees little things yeah they’re legit yeah and it just so happens let’s face it they look super a little doe bright I went to organ just got back as you know and on the plane this is saying a lot no I’m not trying to like look dope cuz the paparazzi is gonna be at the airport waiting for me when our ayah that it’s not my situation you know so I wear what’s gonna work in the airport scenario environment origin genes all day to and from by the way so you if the paparazzi was waiting for you you’d wear something different no my concern would just lie elsewhere you seem sane I might even wear I might even wear like you know those gold or diamond dreamed sunglasses never wear so funny but not sane if the different pursuit is what I’m saying nonetheless those are the facts also chocolate the stores called Jacko’s store this is where you can get other stuff if you want to represent on this path this is a path that we’re all on the path the game whatever you want to call it the way the way the whoo-whoo-whoo wait right whoo right his way again I tried to find out if woozi meat meant anything and the I couldn’t find that he meant anything that I could comprehend other than a room and I know that this book is not called a room yeah but I saw if I’m not mistaken is called is the way whoo cool I think I could be wrong but I think whoo by itself is Marshall as in martial arts as an e-tank lamb oh okay it’s clear to me now and the last chocolate the source called jungle store like I said and if you want shirts that say discipline equals freedom never seen a youtube comment that says echo in quotes like your middle name nonetheless Charles yes I have seen okay hey man I can I deny it and you know I guess I could technically but you know it would it be less accurate than maybe if I didn’t deny we’ll say that unless like I said back to discipline equals freedom shirts and hoodies and rash guards and hats some women’s stuff on there anyway if you want to represent with merch as it were I don’t like to say the word word merch that much but if you’d like apparel you want to represent your store comm subscribe to this podcast if you want to echo seems to think that’s a big concern in the morning so hey not only is there this podcast we also have the the name the the podcast formerly known as the thread which is now known as the Jocko unraveling podcast that’s we actually recorded a couple more with Daryl yesterday it’ll be back and it’ll be live we’ll put them where to put them on this feed and then eventually we’ll move them off to another feed so we don’t confuse people grounded podcasts we haven’t done one of those in a while that’s probably negligence same with warrior kid podcast but they are there we will work on more also speaking of warrior kids we got that we got that warrior kid so Irish Oaks France calm or you can get it on the taco store and this is made by a warrior kid who’s putting his effort in life to create something so that people in the world can stay clean we have a YouTube channel where Echo Charles makes videos he will put this this will be on there this whole scenario will be on there yeah you can you can see what I look like you can see what EKKO looks like and the echo then also makes these videos where he’ll in a three minute video by the way he’ll put 900 explosions but in a three-hour video he’ll put none dichotomy men people are starting to wonder I think that certain things why

don’t you do this once you start with like today you talked about 14 different eighties movies why don’t you put a little clip in there or put a little something make a terminator robot or something right you just put it in there people will go oh I don’t think they will because I think explosions Terminator robots etc are do have levels of appropriateness given given you have a bro no limit to the appropriateness of explosions and for free giving what kind of video it is so you know we’re gonna I’m gonna I’m gonna err on the side of bro can you at least try to put one effect into a three-hour podcast video you know what the jury’s still out on that one whether or not that’s a good decision but we’re gonna I’m gonna keep checking in and you know maybe maybe not but you know either way we’re gonna we’re gonna move forward nonetheless yes YouTube channel it is there a lot of people a lot of us will play the podcast straight up just play it on our TV our Smart TV you know that’s a thing now mmm-hmm and you know they’ll just play it it’s kind of like boom the conversations going around going on in the room with you you seem saying it does create that environment that’s what I’m saying unless tune into that one on the YouTube that’s the way to do it boom well there’s stuff on there some excerpts on there too if you don’t necessarily want to listen to the whole thing all at once or whatever you know cause I got discipline or whatever but no some people they’ll just catch they’re like the YouTube excerpts and be like oh sure let me just let this one play it’s a good topic spread but it’s just the one topic soon saying that’s good too very beneficial um yeah boom there you go also psychological warfare if you don’t know what that is is an album with tracks jhaqo tracks chocolate telling you helping you really helping you what you don’t want help you don’t need help that’s what you’re saying no that’s not what you’re saying sometimes we all need a little bit of help psychological warfare will help you through those moments of weakness big weakness small weakness whatever you will get help through it hundred-percent hundred-percent I just saw you riff good job because you didn’t repeat this you know you you stepped off your your standard okay oh I don’t want I can’t say script because it’s not a script cuz you’re not reading it it was just the same thing that you you know when I had to ban you from saying that while ago kou yeah I also got flipside campus.com Dakota Meyers company and he makes visual representations to keep you on the path I got a bunch of books the code leadership strategy and tactics way the warrior kid one two and three Mikey in the dragon’s discipline equals freedom Field Manual extremely ownership of the dichotomy leadership if you like what we talked about here we wrote them down we wrote this information down for every level of child of adult of human you can start to get on the right path also have a leadership consultant company it’s called echelon front if you need help with leadership inside your organization go to a salon front calm we have EF online which is where I’ve been investing a ton of time going online interacting we do we right now we’re doing three times a week I’m there you wanna you want ask me a question and you sent me a Twitter thing three months ago and I didn’t respond because there was 19 million of them or you sent me a Facebook message and I didn’t respond look I apologize I it’s not possible for me to look at them all if you want to talk to me go to you farm on calm did you go to your farm on Comm you will be I will be in your living room with you on zoom the zoom call I will be in your living room the you’ll be and you’ll be talking to me we’ll be having a conversation that’s what’s happening go to EF online.com there’s a bunch of other information on there there’s a bunch of other we got we got courses to go through we’ve got a question of the day we’ve got leadership primers get all kinds of stuff so go check it out EF online.com we really ramp that up and we got into the Kovac scenario if you want to come to the muster which is our leadership event the next one is going to be in Arizona September 16th and 17th then Dallas Texas on December 3rd and 4th go to extreme ownership comp for details look it’s probably gonna be a social distance situation which means we’re gonna have less tickets to sell which means gonna sell out faster so extremely cheap calm if you want to come EF overwatch if you are a military individual that is moving into the civilian sector or if you’re a civilian company that needs people that understand the principles we talked about here go to EF over watch.com fill out the appropriate information and we will move you in the right direction both of you America’s mighty warriors dot org this is Mark Lee’s mom mama Lee and she is out on a daily basis making

it her mission to help service members their families the gold star families around the world so if you want to get involved or you just want to donate go to America’s mighty warriors org and if you want some more of my inept interpretations or you would like to hear more of echos prolonged proclamations then you can find us on the interwebs on Twitter on Instagram and on Facebook that goes at echo Charles and I am at Daka we link and to all the folks out there in uniform actually enacting and living these military principles to keep us safe and free thank you to all of you and to police and law enforcement and firefighters and paramedics and EMTs and dispatchers and correctional officers and border patrol and see good service thanks to all of you for holding the line for us here on the home front and everyone else out there listen Moochie said that maybe we should try to shake the world with awesomeness but like he also said stay balanced don’t run with that idea stay on the high road don’t do well in magnificence and power that’s your ego keep that thing in check instead follow the way how things should be done do things with righteousness do things with propriety and that means you hold the standard that means you conform it actually means you conform to doing what is right be benevolent take care of people and if you do those things and you do them humbly well then you can get out there and shake the world with awesomeness not for yourself but for others then that is leadership and until next time this is echo and Jocko out

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Jocko Podcast 181 w/ John Stryker Meyer: On The Ground in Vietnam. Mayem and Bravery.

this is Jocko podcast number 181 with echo Charles and me Jocko Willing good evening echo good evening get him out we were in Cambodia alone with no fixed-wing aircraft Sal’s eyes were as big as saucers I told Bubba to give me a claymore mine with a five-second fuse I gave Bubba and fuck the move quick signal as we move back to the LZ I stayed at the rear of the formation with Sal and hastily with sow hastily covering our tracks we had only gone a short distance when Sal hissed beaucoup VC beaucoup VC I could see the pith helmets in the distance coming from the south i radioed the Green Hornet’s CNC helicopter and told them to the return with their gunships and to pick us up at the primary LZ ASAP CNC said they’d have assets on site in ten minutes or less now even ten minutes seemed like a long time Tuan and I fired our m79 as two high bursts which slowed the NVA down for a few seconds sau opened fire shooting shingle single shots and moving backwards no longer bothering to cover our tracks I yelled to Bubba to move out at double-time the race for life was on sau sau hissed a hip and pointed north damn there were pith helmets and NVA uniforms coming at us from the north – and at a dead run sound I placed a claymore behind a tree pulled the fuse lighter and ran the NVA were now running and shooting wildly we sprinted to catch up to the team as the Claymore exploded the NVA kept on charging South quickly placed his claim more in front of a tree and ran while Tuan and I provided covering fire we sprinted toward our team as the second Claymore detonated we felt the blast on our backs as we ran as fuck and Bubba pushed toward the LZ hip Tuan sau and I fired back using the immediate action drills the entire team had practiced for hours on end Tuan’s m79 rounds were deadly effective those combined with my m79 rounds and the car 15 fire from hip and sau temporarily starred stalled the hard charging NVA troops we reach the LZ quickly in comparison to how cautiously we had exited it as the team set up a hasty perimeter hip replaced another claymore in the path of the NVA that were charging us from the south to the north bubba rigged a claymore with a contact detonator on a tripwire as the tide of pith helmets flowed toward us Bubba and I opened fire with our m79 s and sau and hip opened up on full auto with their car 15s more NVA emerged from the smoke of the m79 high-explosive rounds and tripped Bubba’s claymore that’s when the first Green Hornet gunship arrived I popped a smoke canister and directed a gun run to the west of our perimeter within seconds the gunship roar gunship roared in front of our perimeter shredding the NVA ranks slowing them down for a few seconds the Green Hornet’s firepower was incredible finally the Green Hornet slick that inserted us into the target area arrived on the LZ as close to our position as possible with his left door facing us the nose pointing north or northwest fortunately the air force had made it to us in less than 10 minutes the relentless NVA kept coming after us as Tuan and I each Unleashed one more m79 high-explosive round at the NVA bubba led the team toward the air force Huey we always had an American lead the team’s approach to an American helicopter to avoid any confusion in regard to South Vietnamese team members on st idaho i fired the last claymore as the wave of NVA troops got in front of it the last claymore blast gave me a few precious seconds to make it to the Huey and that right there is another glimpse into the insanity that John striker Meyer known as tilt lived through as a Special Forces soldier in Vietnam a recon team leader for Mack V SOG studies an observation group command and control and if you have not listened to podcast 180 yet then go listen to it tilt was on that podcast and as human as he walked out of the studio I knew that I needed

him to come back as quickly as possible and I asked him and he graciously agreed and here he is once again John Stryker Meyer tilt good evening sir good evening yeah you know you kind of mentioned that that one operation right there when you were out there facing three divisions after you got fat dumb and happy on Thanksgiving Day with a big meal then you guys rolled out into the field right indeed they’ve been and then so how did that how did that operation go now you guys got inserted how did you end up in that situation where you’re running away putting 5 second fused claymores facing the enemy what was how what led up to that well we had a briefing the night before and they were hyper concerned because the three NVA divisions 30,000 men were mi a lily and the CIA dia whoever else is out there had lost contact so that night myself and the CEO and s3 went over the maps Lia’s reports all the Intel reports we were up until after midnight so they they came to you and said hey we’re missing 30,000 men any divisions of NVA the first the third and the CIA loved in we’ve got the DIA we’ve got spy planes and all that stuff we can’t find him so then they come to you yeah okay and you’re like cool we got this oh yeah and at the time I was still a spec for an e4 so and I hadn’t met the CEO yet so the first thing was he looks at me says you’re an e4 89 Billa what WTF I go look sir long story short I said look I’ve run a bunch of missions up north we’re here TDY how can I help you and he settled down we looked then we were up all night looking at those Intel reports and then they also had pictures that were from 70,000 feet we’d never seen anything like them my mom was the piano teacher and one of her students dad worked on lenses for aircraft to shoot from 70,000 feet he talked to me about him as a young kid I go that’s really cool well now I knew what he was working on and why he couldn’t really talk about it much but they that was the first time the sr-71 we used overflights got it I mean and I said where the hell these come from because like this is mind body and used to seeing no little pictures close by people smile but for 70,000 feet we had a good estimate as to where they might be and they said we can’t tell you this Dutch shut up you haven’t seen it and so we put it all together just try this area I mean when in really on the ground sure while maybe an hour or so and then all hell broke loose and did you didn’t you you stumbled upon their camp or like a camp that they had recently left yeah well they have they would have waystations a long way and so we walked into him before we found something but never what fires burning the one still had a pot on it and so and when we got back sound of guys estimated then one division had just left and their point dirt element was what came back at us and the other from the north was just moving into the base camp Oh little sandwich yeah little NVA sandwich there we go we were – we were two below your basic baloney yeah hey did you go into that one real heavy in terms of you is that because I if I remember correctly from the book how common was it that you carried the five second fuses on the claymores we started doing that a month earlier earlier part of November I mean because we had a couple targets where the numbers was just incredible when they came out so I always wanted to have just in case so here we took a few extra fuses you know John had his fuses and Sal and fuck they all knew how to work those and so here I said because we saw how open the area was we were used at Triple Canopy up north so now we’re in Cambodia you could see three or four hundred yards away maybe five hundred yards WTF times two and then you see the fifth almost run match it’s like whoa how does it feel when you see the NVA in an open run towards your position port arms yeah good lord that was it was an experience y’all take it to the grave with me that’s a nightmare you’re worse one how did you did you did you in a situation like that you’re you’re you’ve got I mean thousands of potentially thousands of enemy soldiers some of them are booths blatantly running towards your position what are you thinking in the back your mind are you thinking hey we’re not gonna get out of this or you just I know for me in my experiences which are nothing come close to that but I was always just think about getting my job done like ok this is well this the best thing I could do right now hey we need to put some people

over here let’s get some machine gunners up on the roof I would never get to a point where I was or maybe I didn’t have enough time or I wasn’t smart enough to think about what big consequences were coming but when you see when you see those helmets running towards you at poor garms you got to be thinking this isn’t looking real good for this isn’t looking real good for a boy no I I had my first chocolate moment which was the good news is we found these fuckers the bad news is they’re coming to kill my ass Lily it’s like well I’m glad we did our homework last night this really worked out well maybe a little bit too well yeah and just thank God for the Green Hornet’s math they didn’t get back there it’s just only a question of time and they could you would you would keep them on station Jennifer generally like for like 10 or 15 minutes well this is cambodia everything was different there first we had no no fixed wings all we had was the helicopters but there were two greenhorns Air Force at that state at that point in time November 68 they were they had stated are huge they were the fastest they could carry more loads and their many guns I think they had mounted many cuts that they could handle manually some of the early ones we saw were mounted and so the helicopters would have limited maneuverability but the one the year the Air Force was just really on top of the game well that’s what came in and when they came in with their minigun runs I really bought us a couple of valuable seconds seconds they were coming and you can see him it’s just like and I was looking at some pictures of you yesterday and you guys still had 20 round mags oh yeah which you went which you’d load out to 18 rounds because you don’t want to compress the spring too much and cause a jam right and we would have run over your mother to get one of those 30 mile jobs oh yeah it was it was different so we always had at least 600 plus rounds all in the magazines did a couple extra bandoliers just in case and you guys did make it out that time obviously well yeah and then you know here – when we left the chopper pulls out and as we’re lifting off the NVA come out of the jungle the thin jungle and was muddy had it rained a day before and these guys are coming out there they’re at port arms and they’re trying to stop and the mud comes up from their boots as they’re trying to stop come down to port arms so me and a door gunner just and I forget it force our fuck we’re just getting these guys and they just stopped like a cartoon and they go back this is what happened just blew these guys back in the mud from their boots was going up into the props as they’re trying to stop and they’re hit him and they just go back into the jungle and we got the hell out of there he strikes me as strange because as I keep reading about the NVA well I mean we know that these you know this is an insurgency these guys are looking to not fight when they don’t have to right that’s why it always surprises me in your in your stories how determined they were like those guys hey look ok the Americans they’re getting on the helicopter we’ll let them go whatever we’ll come back next time you know we don’t want to die right today because we don’t have to we can wait we can wait ten years we can wait twenty years you know we go we’re gonna be here forever for them to have that kind of determination where they were just common in common and comments and like you said on the last podcast literally stacking up bodies so they could get to you that would have been just a crown jewel to capture a little little Special Forces team oh yeah I mean I they had to kill American award so if they if they confirmed that they killed one of us or got the body of a dead body they would get their killed an American award and they would get a bonus of some sort maybe world heroes up north for the rest of their lives awesome okay so that book and we talked about on the last pot last podcast and I said it last time and we we touched less than 10% of the book the stories are completely insane and you can get that book on Amazon you won’t but you’ve written that’s not the only book you’ve written you’ve written another one another book is called on the ground and this book again you’re it’s it’s just the same level of insanity you feel strange for me to be sitting here talking to you because every time I read us through one of your stories I’m like how’s this guy making it out of this there’s you kick this one off with an interesting story these guys one of the it’s you’re not with them but it’s a recon team on the ground a guy named Watkins is in charge Pat Watkins and they’re set up on a road and they’re doing a recon and I think they set up an ambush to like an ambush to take out some troops but they end up with this massive NVA convoy and when I say massive I mean massive it takes hours to get by and there’s people and there’s trucks and there’s bulldozers and there’s tanks yeah and again I got to point this out so we’re probably talking you know a thousand enemy

soldiers at least that are patrolling by you for now for three hours they’re walking by you and meanwhile you’ve got a team of six guys eight guys something like it was seven or eight I forget but yeah and they’re under montanus and Pat was familiar with all the Russian tanks so he knew what the Russian tanks word he had it all the Intel together and just one of those another night and saag another night in socks so they’re sitting there waiting and they eventually they go by and and eventually now one of the one of the ended soldiers that was working alongside walkins one of the members of the team was named wrong ro ng and he comes up after this convoy goes by and he comes up and this this is what happens I’m going to the book here wrong said he’d been watching the road traffic just like Watkins and it had been taken taken had been taken as taken with it as he was I mean he was like lost and like oh my god I can’t believe all your stuff while he was staring at all the vehicles passing by a hand had reached out and given his armor shake a Mountain yard soldier one of those the NVA had pressed into unwilling service said it’s your time for guard duty is that close to the enemy or what that’s nuts oh yeah completely nuts the mountain yards which you guys called yards the nuns the South Vietnamese even sometimes former NVA soldiers what was it like who did you mainly work with what were the differences between the different groups they’re different ethnic personalities and I know we didn’t talk about a last time you talked about in the book but those those different ethnicities didn’t always get along well now especially when it came to playing poker apparently oh yeah cuz I first like the first few days at Phu Bai they had a poker game that went awry and and the Cambodian lost he goes to his room gets a frag grenade comes back and dumps it on the Monty yards so we had an instant fire flight into compound and you know you is going through the training turn about the different groups well that case we had the Cambodians Montini Aras nuns and a my team was South Vietnamese which included at least four guys that came south and 54 when there was an 18-month truce where anybody the north could go south when thousands did the Navy had a special operation what has ships going up to Noi and shipping thousands of people south nobody went north nobody wanted to be up with the commies mm-hmm but we had those had for the mom I team they were just outstanding troops and so that was Phu Bai and his team was that Bru which was the lowest of the Amonte our tribes cute they couldn’t throw a hand grenade where the shed but the fearless and they hate they hated the North Vietnamese that’s that’s one of the key points and you talk about in the book is how much you know what what the North Vietnamese had done to the mount yards and how much they fiercely hated them and how fiercely loyal they were to you guys oh yeah mazie troops and they would just fight to the end and as Morden there’s more than one guy who like a-10 who had we called him affectionately our little people mm-hmm the little people said I’ll take a bullet for you that’s how dedicated they were and they proved that over and over again over and over again now some teams had troubles but we never had it like a my team or with the defenseman most majority teams the little people took care of vetting their own so like when Idaho was wiped out Sal and HAP went out and recruited and they were young kids 15 years old we brought on the team but they vetted him and we never worried about him so we didn’t have to worry about the friendly fire or what they call today with a blue fire yeah they call it they call it friendly fire yeah this is this close they have another they have another word for it too I can’t think of what it is because friendly fire is like a mistake right right what we’re talking about is when you know one of your own yeah one of your Taliban forces or one of your your local forces is actually a Taliban person in turns on yours actually a Mahdi militia guy turns on use of those things those things are scary very because he build up trust and all of a sudden a guy turns on you yeah because early on some of our eight camps had trouble with that with their the mantra that turned who had been more loyal to the calmness for some reason but then there’s others had issues because they they like Special Forces but they were pissed off working with the South Vietnamese and they they were just they don’t kill they would have to kill South Vietnamese our allies or to he’s up north and sometimes you had like guys don’t don’t kill our allies if not today please yeah but I’ve never had that my team was all South Vietnamese

man so one of the one of the other crazy parts of of this book that you open with or you start one of the early chapters is this this attack on fo b4 which was just sound completely completely horrible and here’s a quote from the book the entire compound this is after this attack happens the entire compound was now a swirling battleground with dozens of small but ready deadly dire firefights in progress it was difficult to tell the scantily-clad Americans and indigenous personnel from the enemy and there was no command coordination just a lot of individuals struggling against uncertain overwhelming odds the air was filled with enough chaos to overload the senses screams shouts bullets dust smoke the smell of cordite burning wood rubber and fuel and lastly the smell of seared flesh and this this attack resulted in 17 Special Forces soldiers were killed and I I don’t know the number of indigenous forces that were killed but this sounded like just a complete I mean it obviously was a big win for the enemy and what was your perspective on all that where were you when that happened I was safely ensconced in fo b1 because fo before had opened at the end of 67 and event at the base of a mountain and there’s a whole lot of political reasons why they’re at the base of a mountain but anyways they’re there they had a test attack body via Kong grant around Christmas time of 67 and on August 23rd after the dust settled the men who were there like Pat Watkins estimated that that test attack in December was a test to see what could they had minimal defenses up minimum wire the Internal Security Force was riddled with Viacom and they planned this attack for over a year the sapper attack with the NVA purrs as well as Vietcong highly trained sappers and the conventional troops that went in just for an annoying cloth and carrying a weapon or a satchel charge and hand grenades and so I was a food buy they hit after midnight there’s always discussing about what time they hit and since then we’ve had a military intelligence officer came back and one of the people that we said was 17 SS he’s 16 but still the highest number of Green Berets killed in one battle in our Special Forces history and fortunately we had a recon team up on a hill on Marble Mountain and I took out the the mortars could the enemy were just dropping mortars off the mountain into a camp on top of everything else because they don’t care about friendly fire speaking of friendly fire the enemy doesn’t care no they don’t care if they’re dropping mortars on their own people as long as they’re killing some of their enemy as well and some of them had their bandanas and said we came here to die and they did what did that with the repercussions that went through your community after that happened everybody you know you it’s one thing to talk about being hit by an enemy force at night they fight when they want to fight that’s a classic example of them doing it they planned it for over a year they even came in and took over the indigenous mess hall for final briefing in the base that night before they lost the attack and so that’s how well-planned it was so they went in to the indigenous camp the friendly camp and gave their final briefing for the attack inside of the friendly camp yep and they had two of our loyal indigenous troops that saw something suspicious when he went up the NVA killed him right away and left their bodies liner and so it was really well-planned they knew to camp we had a promotion board so all of the at that time there was 6f Obi’s one through six this was fo before in Danang and so all the people up for promotion came in that day most of them stayed that night on top of that we had they had monthly command and control briefings so every CEO as well as his s3 or the XO from each of the fo B’s was all at fo before and then the we had a command and control element that was based at the Danang airbase and they had just moved on to base so had increased population and they knew it and that’s the way they planned and they planned that on a night when there’s no moon got to always respect your enemy always and then we always carried a weapon no matter where we went there’s one thing to be like F would be

one we had a good security there but even then you don’t know because they vehicon would come and we found mortar markers on the roof of the clubhouse and they come in and walked it out there’s part of their vehicon would come in and help do whatever was in base but they were also there marking targets for future mortar attacks on our compound yeah that would happen at my first deployment to Iraq I was in Baghdad and we would they would occasionally roll up guys that had their gps’s you know the little contractors guys that did everything from empty out the porta-potties there was guys that cut hair these were just you know there was civilians Iraqi civilians that worked on the base and occasionally they’d get rolled up they’d look at their phone or look at their what are they carrying they’d have a GPS with them and sure enough they’re out there trying to figure out where you went where is a good place to draw from order I actually like kicked all the contractors out of our compound completely and that’s something that I had heard from the Vietnam vets was like nope you don’t you don’t know who’s who you just don’t let him in yeah so when I showed up we actually moved the porta-potties outside of our content we had to go outside if we want to you they were still in Americans area but they were not inside of our compound so they so there was no locals inside our compound at all zero that’s what we that’s what we did when I showed up and that’s why I did it because I was I had heard hey look there’s gonna be people that will be gathering intelligence on you if they’re in the compound you can’t you can’t vet every single civilian that’s gonna come out there the contractors scary it is yeah I was that that is a the chapter that you actually cover in two chapters because it’s such a horrible incident but that’s incredible read to see what those guys went through oh yeah how many did you just go in review people how did you get all that information well several of our guys mouth will be one were there that night so on the 24th after by noontime everything is settled down they had you know they have failed in their attack we had control to Camp relief for us from F will be one went down led by Colonel bar Lieutenant Colonel bar and they went through and cleaned up any of the left pot last pockets of enemy soldiers and there was a peel W camp right next to us and Knisley there was an effort to free that 500 so POWs that we’re gonna break news to come in to further help overrun our base but a couple of people made the key effort along that line to the north to stop the the pending escape of the NVA there don’t him in a tipping point oh yeah erection there’s a bit as good as a good one to miss so anyways I answer your question we had a lot of things in my mind and then we closed that would be one in January went south so shovel the guys that had performed that night or survived that we’re all there so I talked to him it’s had mental notes and then when I worked on the book we came back and I did a piece for soldier fortunate I usually wrote under a nom de plume and we did a first story written about that back in a day and the soldier fortune print and I have back in the eighties sometime or early 90s so I used that and then build on it and then John Peters the co-author on that book on the ground he was there at night and he was in the hooch he and Doug got Shaw SF were too drunk from that night like many of the people that were there and but the young bill brick charged out of hooch gunned down immediately because they had machine gun positions set up so anybody came out they would gun them down and that one element that was up on top of the mountain there yeah and there was there was one American with multiple is that right there was one of those two Ed Ames was up there he was the one zero and the Larry Trimble was actually the one doing a lot of the operational stuff because Ames was monitoring the radio and there was he Larry and his people that took out the mortars that night or the castor baby would have been much higher and then there ended just said hey we’re going back down the next day the next day Eddings went out the King became and lifted him out they put it in replacement who sprained his ankle or something getting off two helicopters he could not move but he so he worked the rate of Al I was the guy taking care of everything on top and yeah so the indid said they wanted to go down that day and I said well you may run into ambushes going down Marble Mountain because what we didn’t know was underneath Marble Mountain there was layers of of stories they had hospitals down there Vietcong training grounds everything else which we learned about years later right along with the Buddhist monks they were all down there they coexisted peacefully and so yeah they went down and Larry’s for

awhile was by herself up there yeah they got to I agree yeah those guys get a firefight they come back yeah but when they left he’s up there by himself he’s just hey I got this and he’s the Lone Ranger own Ranger gonna defend this thing until he’s dead that was his attitude that was that’s Larry freaking unbelievable tell yeah absolutely you got to get this book and read these these parts they’re they’re epic epic heroism I mean and crazy and incredible lessons learned as well and I know you’re now we’re just talking about lessons learned how easily lessons get forgotten in the military it happens in any organization but in the military for sure you know because guys are going there at a command for two or three years or maybe for years and then they’re somewhere else and then someone else comes in and different experiences and no one agrees and what’s right and what’s wrong and next thing you know you the lessons are gone you forget them so these books aren’t here capture some incredibly important lessons for anyone on the battlefield or even close to it I want to get down to kind of the end of your first tour here and I’m going to the book when I win one April 1969 arrived I was a conflicted man the end of my tour was slated for 27 April so far I had avoided the short-timers attitude because after all it was Vietnam and we were engaged in guerrilla warfare across the fence nonetheless I couldn’t believe I was still alive I looked forward to going back to the world and yet I felt incredibly guilty about leaving sow hep and fuck and the other men at CCN behind which is CCN is what they renamed ff14 I believed in the SF mission but how long could RT Idaho go on without a casualty we hadn’t lost a man to hostile fire since May 1968 when the previous incarnation lost six men in Laos RT Idaho had run a lot of missions been in a lot of firefights it wasn’t a stay behind team that schemed to remain in camp I was alive thanks in large part to the skills and courage of Hsiao hip Tuan and the other Vietnamese team members as well as to the courage and flying skills of the Vietnamese king bee pilots and the American pilots the Marines and Scarface the judge in the executioner as well as tak air pilots who always responded to our calls for help we were alive because the Recon gods had smiled on the reassembled RT Idaho somehow the magic elixir of trust training instinct guts timing and God’s good grace had fallen into place there were other things that were collectively wearing on me toward the end of my first tour of duty by April 1969 both Lin black and I were frustrated with having enemy soldiers shooting us out of so many targets as the helicopters approached LZ s for landing and when we weren’t in the field we found Artie Idaho getting frequently assigned to guard duty atop Marble Mountain because black and I had continually butted heads with the reps to add insult to injury they’re conveniently were never any choppers available to airlift us to the top we had to hump all of our supplies ourselves which was still a dicey business in the light of all the VC activity in the village to the south of the mountain and then in the caves deep inside it we always moved up marble mountain on full alert one on one such trip Sal was training hyung to run point hyung earned his pay that day as he found and deactivated more than a dozen booby traps including a claymore mine that had a pressure released firing device on it so you’re sort of downtime like hey we’re back in camp we’re just gonna pull a little easy Duty here just stand some guard duty oh we got to go up to Marble Mountain oh there’s no one to take us up there so we’re gonna have to patrol up there and you’re going up there and you find on your way up there more than a dozen booby traps oh yeah that’s trying to get to your guard duty yeah I guess that could wear on you a little bit that would that was a significant day we didn’t sleep well that night and so this marble mountain how long was the Patrol to get there from base well it’s close by and we would usually walk around to the south side of the mountain and there were stairs that you go up before you get to the trails because it was so steep to get to the top that there’s only a certain number of ways you could walk up mm-hmm and we you know you always try to alter how you go but there’s only so many times you can alter it and so that data way we went so Sal and hyung really earned their pay I mean he and they fell all these damn things but that’d been me now Linds Lyn was a little bit more

sharp in keen-eyed to me but that’d be me I would have been hamburger meat on our first Claymore and so that stuff I like I said it’s wearing on you obviously would wear on anyone but that’s the end of your tour you get done with that tour and we touched on this a little bit on the last time but I wanted to go a little bit deeper on it you you’re coming back to America after your first tour in Vietnam how old do you say 69 23 23 years old and when you get back again you touched on this a little bit but they assign you they assign you to like a signal a signal company meaning you’re not an operational guy and you’re in with some and you’re just coming out of Vietnam and you’re you’re hearing people are saying like hey what do you you know was it even wasn’t even there’s guys that are of actively avoiding vigo in Vietnam oh yeah this is the 10th Special Forces Group and they’ve been in Germany since 52 and they had they were actively involved in a cold war and those guys earned their pay there in fact one of the first books just came out on dead a which was there in a cold war but this is a special forces unit so companies a through D were active II because of my MOS comma Oh cuz you’re a radio man I’ve to read a man they stuck me there and we had four or five per tuned’s and there are new officers there butter bars like right out of OCS they’re young and they treated everybody like was basic training and my first thing was excuse me this is an SM unit even though it’s signal so we had the signal the officers inside that platoon they’re not they’re not SF guys there are like communications officers you know what I’m not even sure eyes know they’re young and dumb and not respected and then we had the two other for two starts each one was fat and out of shape and had avoided going to Vietnam and was proud of it and made fun of me and a couple of guys from D company because we weren’t smart enough to figure how to get out of going numb I’m going like wait a minute what are you wearing on your head and so we had some difficult moments dealing with those guys and am i and so we had routine training it’s a little company with trucks and all this stuff to go and do these things I said whenever we do one of these little practice runs for a weekend or a mission we will win because we’re gonna get out of here and let everybody else do the KP and stuff and that just pissed everybody off autumn or I pushed our young guys and pushed them hard and bass could we you know they do these training missions you’re out there three or four days all is just calm oh mm-hmm and but the way we did it III can’t even tell you the details now because I just hated it but we won we were the first ones back to the base we had the most signal contact all the criterion we met and we beat the fat ramps now and and so you’re back where where were you stationed at that Fort Devens Massachusetts so then you got it I mean as some people that weren’t ever in the military don’t realize this but even when you’re in the military when you’re back in America you go and interact with normal civilian you know you go to restaurants you go to bars you live a normal life except for your job you know whatever the hours you got to work your job then you’re living how was that transition like now you’re just going out for a pizza on a Thursday night now you’re going out to have some beers on a Friday night or Saturday night how was that transition it was difficult because actually we didn’t transition basically I hung out mostly with the SF guys up there because this Massachusetts didn’t know much about the small towns and I bought a 4-4-2 w-30 had to get a job just to pump gas on the weekends just to get extra cash and hopefully be able to pay for the insurance did you buy a brand-new no used even used oh yeah that thing was expensive huh oh it could go I blew it up on the Turnpike at 130 miles an hour but it was a great car in between and so I’m working and you know what was your what was your side job Oh pumping gas okay they had a local Shell station and one of the little towns outside of Fort Devens and the guy was a he was a world war two vet and he had up a sign I bought gas and there’s a sign help wanna say hey I need cash can I work for you in weekends or if I get a day off he said yeah come on in so I was highly trained I could do oil changes I could grease him up and it was fun and here you were Green Beret Special Forces Vietnam just got done with your first tour and you’re pumping gas on the weekends that had to be a little bit of

a of like a tough thing to swallow it was but you know we swallowed it yeah that’s like I got to survive and at the time I was just I still had a sweet thang down south okay so she was dealing some issues I’m up there this whole things falling apart and Boston Boston was so anti military I mean it was just peace freaks galore I went to town twice and I never went back because it was they could tell that we were in the military because our hair was still shorter than the average hippie in Boston not a good time so we just stayed with our guys dira bars we had a few engagements in the bars but yeah it’s good to get out of there and we ended up getting in trouble for some of those engagements yes we did I’m told that the MPS came by cleared base the day before they got there and I can so I know taking the Fifth Amendment on that one this is the SOG operation that will remain secret indeed so you were a little bit on the lam you’re a little bit on the run yes and so you run to two-year to this woman in DC is that where she was oh yeah at the Pentagon there was a woman in charge of SF orders for Southeast Asia her name is Billie Alexander she’s one of our Saints you know patron saints there was there was a woman that that ran the officers that detailed the officers and the SEAL Teams for a long long time honestly she did it for 40 something years really and yeah I mean is the exact same thing like if you if you knew her and she was always great to me and I mean she was very nice to me and she took great care of me probably because but I was just lucky enough to have some senior people that knew me and you know put in a good word but she was always very nice to me but I saw what happened some guys that maybe she didn’t like so much it was rough so it sounds like you know you showed up with some flowers and a bottle one she liked and you went this is independent in the puzzle palace at the pennant yeah yeah same thing yes I think yeah this know this woman like I said this woman was always super nice but she she willed it a lot of power you know in inside inside the seal officer community Wow cuz if she didn’t like you well she was right in your orders oh yeah and if she liked you then you know it was like you know when if you were neutral then what you know she you’re gonna do what she’s gonna do but yeah it sounded like mrs Billy Alexander was the same type of thing oh yeah I drove down all night got there right in the morning at Pentagon open and walked in this is before any metal detectors mm-hmm walked in ask the guy where she was went down gave it a wine two flowers please give me orders came back at the end of the day drove back all night you’re just going all the way to the Pentagon to try and get orders back to Vietnam not many I’m told not many but there were some their self guys it really felt more comfortable and they wanted to be there and there’s there’s I wish I could line up the stories but they’re like Billy wall and others that have gone to her over the years and gotten her song as they wanted yes she took care of SF yeah that’s all I told the story the other day I was kind of I there’s an there’s these so there’s that woman who’s the civilian that handles the detailing but then there’s a there’s a seal officer that would kind of work with her side-by-side he would get rotated out every couple years well when 9/11 happened I knew that guy and he was he was a guy that I had worked for he’s an officer and he was a great guy and I had a lot of respect for him and we got along very well and as soon as 9/11 happened I called him and said hey you know I was going to college at the time I said sir please get me outta college and be back to go back to the team right now I don’t need to college I’ll finish it online or whatever I said just please get me back to a team and you know he said listen this Wars gonna last long time but I was having a conversation with him a few months ago with him and his wife actually and I was saying oh yeah and remember when I called you and I asked you to please send me and he said he said everyone called and it made me feel like that’s pretty awesome like he doesn’t like you know I guess in my mind I didn’t think I was special but in my mind you know I really wanted to go yeah oh did everybody else every other seal that that that wasn’t in an out of seal team everyone wanted to go when the war happened everyone to go do their part you know yes Bree decor yeah yeah absolutely and he was right the war lasted a lot longer than any of us thought it would so you get your orders back to Vietnam you’re what you do with the car well but I had to get rid of four four two traded and got a little f-85 three-speed on the column it’s a survival vehicle yeah and so so I just parked that and dad took care of it while I was gone and some went back there just went home and said hey I’m going back to Nam I had no leave time cut burned it all up previously and so I went home and broke my mom’s heart and told Dad going back to my sister ran me to the airport the next day and then we’re back to heading back to Vietnam yeah your mom must have

been would you dad think well you know dad was a I’ll support your son mm-hmm and as to his credit he never he never had an opinion never asked a foreign opinion because he had a he had deferment throwing a war family de firma because he had to run the family business and then my uncle flew over to hump so we had family service and but he says good luck if you need anything let us know and I mom was just like she’s a little bit more emotional but tough old farm girl from Central Jersey Dutch farm girl you know any and even even then did they know anything about what your last deployment was like no no we never talked about it just glad you’re home yep glad to be home where they had no idea what kind of what kind of situations you had been in no we really couldn’t talk about it and like I missed that you were not on air but you know many years later my dad came up to me and said you know I finally read across the fence and it says now I know why this guy came by and took our trash so he said yeah so they got there those guys a tall black guy he come by and pick up our trash so he had to be from the FBI because their check my trash to see if I wrote anything that is a violation of the the agreement that we signed in Danang the 20-year agreement you won’t talk about it won’t write about it and they checked you on yours so dad and they this guy picked up the transporter once could dad recognize her he saw him down at the post office once near the FBI office so he figured the FBI guys check it on my Johnny that’s a sidebar yeah no that’s that’s that’s kind of crazy that they’re putting all that effort to do that and and yet you you there you’re out pumping gas well that crazy yeah yeah like baby I gave a great new job though buddy you came and you guys drop agree she needed yes yeah it’s awesome yeah that’s crazy I like Indy that’s uh I guess when I’m older now like you know when I was a kid I worked at fast food restaurants you know what I mean I can and now I think man I would not want to do that right now know what the funny thing was I had a little 25 like a little brownie 25 boys caramel pop this is Boston there’s still some people that were like less than friendly up there I said I hope I get robbed I just want to kill me a robber but no it didn’t happen so what did happen we got you back to Vietnam indeed so you get back to Vietnam going back to the book here the casualty rates for SOG Recon teams were the highest for any unit in Vietnam we all had our close calls and thus each of us was given ample opportunity for the truth of this observation to be incised on his sole none perhaps so more so than the young hard-charging 1-0 of our team Michigan Sergeant Eldon bars well no one who ever met him doubted his professionalism or determination he was not only meticulous when preparing his team for a mission and a fearless leader went on the ground but he also possessed a biting wit and an absolute intolerance when it came to fools and ramps fools and ramps being a redundancy his way of thinking so this was interesting because you you talk about bars well and in the story that you tell he they’re they’re out running up and he finds a vest an ak-47 vest and he wants it and he wants the aka just found him laying around in a bunker or something so he puts on the vest and he gives the a que to one of his one of his ended and then he ends up getting shot in the chest and that that vest actually saved his life because it hit one of the magazines that was in the vest correct crazy story and what was interesting so when I was in I was in Germany in 1998 I was stationed at Naval Special Warfare unit two just outside of Stuttgart and my boss who is the commander of Naval Special Warfare unit 2 he obviously directed to the guy that was in charge of Special Operations Command Europe and my boss who I had a ton of respect for who’s an incredible guy a great guy and taught me a ton he would tell me hey the the the you saw commander this guy he’s awesome his name is bars well he would tell me stories about he just absolutely loved bars well and talked about him with the highest respect possible and and he use it was awesome and I mean I knew about bars well I mean I basically learned about him initially from him less amazing and then later on yeah you know I would read about him small world and what a what a you know a great guy he was and what an epic soldier he was and

what a great example and you know so many people say he’s the like one of the foremost examples of how you’d want to be as a soldier just a great guy and I was lucky enough to have a degree of connection to to have my boss work for him when and he must have been he must have been a two-star at the time I think it was a two-star yelling at the time so there he was and I think he did 40 something years almost 40 yeah couple months shy yeah so that’s pretty awesome to to to read about bar as well oh yeah you get to this point here where you’re talking about how crazy and I often try and explain how in combat unexpected things happen things that you can’t make it up things happen are so crazy and you’ve got a section in here where you’re talking about Lin black who’s your running mate for a while for a long time yeah then when I left he took over the team he ran it and when I came back I went on a team and then he brought me up to speed but Dao had changed in five months yeah and then we took turns and then they said hey you guys got too much experience the Lin went to did some more snooping and pooping and I took over Idaho again and and this is when he’s so low on the ground you’re not there he’s not so low but he’s with his team he’s in Laos and they’re on patrol they’re deep in enemy territory which is just like just the way you guys rolled and he you know the team starts to hear people following them and now they start you know stepping up their pace they’re trying to move they’re trying to do things to disguise their trail and all that and finally they really like okay we’re definitely getting followed if the two days yeah after two days of being followed yeah and so here we go going back to the book however before black could give the word to change course that the noises suddenly returned only now it sounded as though a large number of enemy soldiers was headed straight for them and the troops were not in the least trying to hide their movement this is it fought black the trackers have linked with reinforcements and they’re about to try and overrun us he immediately told the team to head for the ridge form a line and get ready for a fight claymore mines were putting up quickly into place and black dug out the radio handset in intact into anticipation of calling Covey black was totally convinced he would soon be declaring a prairie fire emergency back when black was with RT Alabama he had faced a map he faced massive frontal assault waves by determined NVA so he knew what to expect and he knew what needed to be done having moved the team up on to the ridge line he knew he had the tactical advantage if the enemy wanted a bloody fight and it certainly sounded as though they did the NVA could charge up Hill and arty Idaho would give it to them everyone had placed their weapons on full-automatic and begun and unbending the metal pins on their hand grenades the ends were bent in order to keep the pins from accidentally being pulled so the ring and hang up on a branch or something else high explosive rounds in the m79 were replaced with rounds containing large buckshot capable of blasting a devastating hole in any in the enemy’s ranks with everything in place and ready RT idaho faced the jungle and waited for whatever was coming the frenchman caught sight of something approaching but the vegetation was such that he couldn’t get a clean shot at it he figured it was someone moving in a crouch because it only stood about four feet off the ground he could see other similarily poised figures behind it all moving noisily toward the team in a few more feet they would reach a point where the jungle thinned out and he’d figured he’d have a good shot at them like any recon man Letourneau had fought about such a moment the moment when an outnumbered team was forced to make a stand thus like all the other arty idaho members he was very tense but ready for anything anything that is but what stepped into the clearing he couldn’t believe his eyes he found himself staring not an oriental gentleman in pith helmets armed with ak-47s but long armed hairy reddish orange creatures with the decidedly human features it was a small band of orangutangs probably a family of them they had been tracking the team out of natural curiosity trying to figure out what these hairless apes were up to in their territory yeah that’s probably the happiest monkeys they ever saw oh yeah yeah for sure III was in Sri Lanka and we got to see that they would there you would hear him coming and they would be moving through the trees and it was really cool just just how but there yeah you’d hear all this noise and it would be a bunch of monkeys coming through the trees and when we had that surround war yeah we got online we were ready for the assault in this like we got overrun by monkey all right now we’re getting to

the point where you so that was that was Lin black working on his own and now we’re getting when you return when I returned to CCN at the end of October 1969 I immediately reported to sergeant major John Hobbs and asked if I could rejoin Artie Idaho he said that Letourneau had just completed his torn returned stateside there was an opening for an American and I could fill it but linen black jr. is still the one zero and you two are both experienced one zeroes I reminded him that I’ve been away for five months and needed some time to get back in the flow of things I added I’d be happy to serve as blacks 1/1 for a while because I respected his judgment as I have put now you go and meet with the team as I approached I saw black and Sal leading the team away from the range once they caught sight of me their faces lit up and there was a rush of feelings of greetings as I shook blacks hands hand the team surrounded us dancing about almost like children and the good-natured taunts instantly began flowing hot and heavy the gross insult being one of the most accepted ways a recon man can show affection I was subjected to a whole litany of them aimed at everything from my intelligence to my sexual orientation in the midst of it all black totally cool as usual asked if I was back on the team yes sergeant I replied I’m reporting for duty I am a new one one I know more about the team the AO and the bullshit in camp oh sorry you know more about the team the AO and the bullshit here in camp than I do I want I wanted black to understand I was willingly putting myself under his command and that my goal was not to challenge him but to learn from him a recon man who thinks he knows it all as a recon man headed for trouble and if I could capture those that attitude right there and distill it among every person that’s moving into a leadership position like this the the humility that you show here the willingness to subordinate your own ego is like the best sign of a great leader when you check in situation you go you know what I don’t know everything and by the way if I think I know everything I’m wrong and oh there’s someone that’s been here for a while guess what cool I got no problem working for you I’m here to support I’m here to I’m here to look out for the team I’m here to help the team win not here to look out for my own little agenda so that was awesome and I was livin black he’s just an amazing man and so I totally respect to him and was glad that it worked out thanks to Billy Alexander order cut get over there pretty quick and with Lynn you know he had done a tour duty with the 173rd and his lost a brother there and he still came back because he wanted to get his fair share of NVA dead just to take some personal revenge and you know we had that mission where he came up against a 10,000 and survived Mason’s mother one of our amazing heroes and so yeah I respected them and then later on we began there’s no SOP the sergeant major Xavier asked us to do an SOP yeah that sounds like a that’s something that we need to start doing the SEAL Teams to you there’s another here’s another section in here where you start talking about well it appeared to me and we were actually talking about this before we start recording and that’s when you go to meet the new commander and here we go back to the buff because I hadn’t met the sea cien commander I polished my jump boots de spit-shine hoping they might make a positive impression when I met him later that afternoon the call came down to meet him I put on the last pair of starched fatigues I had in my possession put on my new green beret and the spit-shined boots so there you go you’re getting squared away and again this is one of those things where you’re in your second tour in Vietnam you know you’re an SF guy you’ve been in all kinds of really tough situations but you’re gonna meet the commander okay cool be humble get the squared away uniform on try and make a good impression the commander of CCN made it a point to say that he ordered Recon teams to break contact with enemy forces and continue the mission I knew that several other Recon teams had been unsuccessful in getting the tanker so this guy’s a tanker this guy was a tanker he I don’t know what he want you want to give us a little briefing on what the new commander was like yeah he was sign there and he was a friend of general crate neighbors who was the overall commander Abrams had seceded Westmoreland as the top commanding officer for all of Vietnam and he was one of his buddies and so in order to build up his career back Abrams sent him to an SF unit so he get his build up his medals get the time and at that time in the army if you served as Special Forces much longer than six months as an officer your career was done you would not get to promote as the West pointers and the other guys that would get your career was just finished but if you had

a certain amount of time and he came up there which we learned later was to build his metal portfolio and we had some other stories that go on later on so he never really adjusted nor did he apparently understand SF and the way we worked but tippy on a recon team and the whole thing about break contact and team mission well sir if you’re with me on the ground and you want to say that that’s cool but if you’re up there 5,000 feet and telling me to break contact a team missing with a six-man recon team we got 10,000 guys wanna party know well you can’t quite say it that way yeah to go into extreme PC mode yeah and you know we’re just meeting each other – it’s like I heard he was a it was lacking compared to this previous commander we had there yeah and the idea you know I think it’s Patton said the commander in the field is always right which is a great thing to lean towards from your perspective when you’re up at 5,000 feet or back in its act cooperation Center you kind of assume that your guy in the field is making the right call and try and support them and there’s so many times where I read the stories that you write or the stories of the other guys that you’re writing about the the difference between the team being overrun and killed is a minute it’s two minutes sometimes it’s seconds you know it’s like these of the time when you got when the fire as you’re taking off the fire consumes the area we’re just and that’s followed by the NVA so often these situations as soon as they started to go bad even in the slightest way it’s like okay we got a story start figuring how we’re gonna be out of here because if we try and fight by the time we make the decision so if you try to do this idea of his which is break contact and then continue the mission I mean you is it really possible for you to break so you lose a bunch of your ammo what do you figure a fetter do your mo half of your ammo in a quick gunfight and now you think the enemy is just gonna walk away and the fundamental flaw here is this is a secret mission it’s a clandestine operation if you make contact with the enemy quote you’ve been compromised but somehow that didn’t compute with the tanker yeah yeah so you’re in there you’re talking to him and and here we go back to the book I knew that several other recon team members had been unsuccessful in getting the tanker to change his mind on that topic so I approached it from a different angle I asked him to place himself in the 1 zeros position in the field because most of the one zeros I knew would do anything within their power to successfully complete a mission if the tactical situation was conducive to it but once compromised it was often militarily difficult to do so with a six-man recon team against large numbers of NVA soldiers he promised me to think more on the topic I saluted and returned to the team room leery of the new CEO so you did you even had a even at a young age you had the had the kind of understanding maybe I’m not going to approach things head-on hey you know you’re not trying to stir your dumb that’s a bad idea no it’s like hey you know sir from my perspective as a one zeroes what we see it’s a little bit different I just was impressed with the fact that you were playing the game a little bit to try and build a relationship with this guy trying you know spider parks and Pat walkers that F would be one we a couple officers are there they’re real dickheads in the beginning and when they took over command if they would be making bad decisions and didn’t understand a situation but at least majority of the senior officers meaning a major or a lieutenant-colonel our case majority once they’ve been there saw what we were up against in the field it just took a while little time gap for when they land they want to prove they’re a hard-ass they want to be a good CEO and they got to worry about their career too and between that reality and what we’re dealing with on the ground and usually most of them came around this guy was not one of those that was didn’t have that capability he was just seen it in his his own perspective yeah yeah I had learned from the pros you know Spyder Pat Walker’s John McGovern these are all senior NCOs and I watched them in situations dealing with sergeant majors and s3 particularly on mission stuff before the mission and afterwards how they would talk and I picked up a lot of I like to think I sort some of their PC skills because I had none and there and what would you say the goal was from a leadership perspective as you’re talking to these guys I mean I always say look I’m if I got a boss my goal is to try and form a relationship with me so that he listens to what I’m saying because if I go to iron bud heads out of the gate they’re not gonna listen to me if I tell this boss this tanker hey you don’t know what you’re talking about well he’s not gonna listen to another word I say but if I say hey sir Roger that I want to give you some perspective on this that I’ve said you know whatever you’re just trying to talk to him with respectfully try to build relationship that’s what I try to do yeah and with the CEO they just tried to stay a hell away from Gilda sergeant major because they’d been all been on the ground they had experience and they appreciate what we were doing they knew what we’re doing

day by day our sergeant majors were squared away with a sectional one but most of them was I dealt with and we’re just really lucky so I try to deal with them keep the co site stay away from was the best way officer avoidance sir officer avoidance that’s a good one moving forward a little bit in the late afternoon as black and I went over the final mission preparations Junkins came running into our hoots with bad news our team Maryland has been hit Walton Brown door down jesus H Christ I can’t believe it wall told me they that they told him it was a dry hole give me your PRC 25 someone said they heard Brown on the radio as I screwed the long antenna into the PRC 25 black ass Junkins any word on a bright light team he turned to me with the frown on his face no word yet replied Junkins but I want to go if there is one we all moved outside to get better radio reception on our FM radios the news got worse Junkin said he could hear covey talking to brown all the Americans were down and being overrun Junkin said he heard Covey’s last conversation with brown when a wounded Brown told Covey they were being overrun he said he heard ak-47 firing and then there was radio silence all communications with RT Maryland were lost the weather over the target closed in precluding any bright light missions for 10 days when a bright light finally went in team members found on the American web gear near the last lone location of RT Maryland no further evidence of the team was ever located wolde brown and sergeant Donald Monroe Shu the newly appointed team member were listed as presumptive killed in action the loss of wold brown and Shu was a reminder of just how deadly the AO continued to be in SOG as always the Recon men talked to each other afterward to see if there were any lessons to be learned from their loss while the weather was bad sergeant major John Hobbs suggested to black myself and a few others in recon that perhaps a recon book should be written containing and documenting the team’s standard operating procedures so there you go that’s when you got started on that – close your limbs it’s a phenomenal he is a phenomenal artist and so he would do a lot of sketches and then we worked on every SOP from everything from just getting pre-mission what what you would carry would break it down between Americans in a ditch batteries claymores five-second fuses and then adapting to the AO you’re going in some of the areas and layoffs they had a lot of words that you only carry one tent canteen of water and purification pills and other times it was dry you had to carry more water which is more weight it’s always tried to stay low as possible and that as one of the fluctuation weight factors that we had some control over how much were used the carrion at least 80 to 90 pounds back then and we women it was your body weight ah I think it’s about 170 soaking wet maybe 175 but the most after R&R and you were carrying 80 pounds 90 pounds yeah because I carried the radio plus the 600 plus rounds for the car am sitting iron rails and the frag grenades and you guys no war no body armor oh no no helmet the body armor back then was this clunky stuff yeah and it was just you know and the helmets just made too much noise and his weight and in the jungle would just get caught up with stuff where is that I just wore to crave at all the time and then try to cover my blonde hair again this is uh you know every time I read one of your wanted one of the stories that you write about you know you made it out you know you you you you had that extra Claymore that gave you enough time to get on the bird you laid down that extra fire the the the airships showed up in time to put down cover fire and and here with these guys with Artie Maryland like those seconds didn’t happen those aircraft didn’t show whatever the case may be and that’s what was at stake every single time you guys went out there right and just like we said in across the fence all the Americans were killed the in digital effed alive so they were hit by we assume sappers and with the indigenous it’s a psychological thing on all the troops in camp you have to deal with that again but like over my team we just pulled the team together said hey tell us what you heard we know we don’t have a problem with you guys but what this happens just be advised keep Lynn and I and appraised of anything you hear

that could be negative or troublesome then we’ll squelch it right away or deal with it in this case did the ended the ended make it out so they never heard from again or no two out of three made it out one was killed as they came out of the forest they were near marine compound of some sort and because they were in ditch when he came out armed the marine took him out and the other two were able to surround surrender and make his gestures of some sort that they were able to get picked up came back they took him down to Saigon for the full debrief and everything and did you guys ever get word on that debrief way late were they only thing we heard was from Covey and cobby said that they had the team is set up for his rest overnight spot too early and he thought was a dangerous spot but the one-zero didn’t listen to him and so everybody was surprised that we he did it because Walt had been a10 for a few months he’d been in Marine Corps first came to SF and then he ran a few missions out of F would be one that would be one shutdown he came down to fo before CCN would you guys always know who the Covey was who the Covey rider was going to be no no sometimes it fluctuated particularly after we went down that food before because the Air Force changed their pilots and all the cubby riders we had an F would be one got reassigned somewheres else so none of them carried on it’s cubby riders no Pat walkins came home he D rose down spider parks came to see CMB hit another assignment and I saw a spider very little because I couldn’t tell you what his assignment was he just saw each other so little there because Lynn and I were busy running with the cubby rider do all the mission planning with you know though he the cubby Rider and the pilot would be in for the final briefing at base or at the launch site and we just talked about L Z’s any anti-aircraft because they continued to bring down more anti-aircraft everything from the 37 mic mics to the heavier anti-aircraft artillery that came in later did it did they ever get did the Covey’s ever get shot at and shot down always we have someone went down and there’s a what altitude would they fly at well they would do everything from way up high when they’re just doing a general recon – when the team would be on the ground they would have to spot the team either through smoke or mirror or from a location you have you’d be on a prominent point that they could pick us out well most of the times would be signal mirror mm that we’d flashy up to him they’d lock in on us that way but once they got to doing actual coverage they would come down really low and sometimes Nappanee earth stuff and there would be OH – there’s slow movers and a little push pool yeah you know we lost several coffees it seems like those I mean I can’t imagine being the coffee rider in this one for our team Maryland and you’re you’re there and you’re you’re basically watching your guys get overrun and I mean it is even after you maybe made suggestions that they move somewhere else but you know well they don’t but you’re still supporting them I mean what a helpless feeling that’s got to be rough and most of the covey riders were guys that couldn’t operate for whatever reason no they were well they were former SF so sometimes would be SF men have been in country for eight or nine months and then they would be signed to cubby rise so they had experience on the ground there were short timers so the viewed as as a job that was not quite as dangerous as being on the ground but it had its own hidden dangers yeah yeah and it seems like you you just want like someone that you really knew and trusted oh you’re copywriter right and so like in my case we had a bunch of new ones so this cubby rider was great he just picked everybody up ran as well we had a couple others that we dealt with and some of these guys like spider parks there’s a couple times when there’s no air available so you say what hell load they get they would make a gun round with a car 15 spider would hang out the window fires car 15 at the NVA I don’t even know what to say to that yeah yeah and he wasn’t the only cubby rider did that I mean other guys who drop around for an AM City nine doesn’t really try to do to give us support while we’re waiting for the air force and the other arrow sets to get there you know I was thought so when I went to sere school no they don’t they taught us how to signal with the mirror but then in my mind cuz I’m dumb I would think like I

think like how well this is really gonna work hey I can’t believe every that’s like your primary signal device absolute was the signal mirror yeah every time that we had been on the ground for a period of time had to reconnect everything was all signal through the mirror and we had to get the flash you get the copy on the right side so he could see us giving it you know everything oh yeah big is that mirror so it’s just a regular signal mirror like a maybe 5 by 3 3 by 5 yeah like a cellphone did you have I had this even though I didn’t really believe in signal mirrors I guess I had this like special signal mirror that when you pointed it at the thing it got like a little shade there’s a little circle in the middle that got a little shade on it when you be in the right spot you know what I’m talking about yeah I don’t know I never figured out how that quite work guys want to get the flashy up so they could see it did you like the technique where you’re aiming at your hand and pointing at the thing at the aircraft no I would just make sure we had too flashy and just point it in general I didn’t get that high level training you had sir well thank God I did never have to do it because I probably would have been able to pull it off well triple canopy is a little different than a desert yeah yeah and so in the Triple Canopy that had to be a challenge too oh yeah it has we find a hole in the jungle to get through with the flashing in the first place then you had to get the cubby lined up with your hole and then with the mirror flash you would you would look at us nowadays and think we were we were weak with all the crap that we’ve got we got laser pointers we got little signalling devices transponders on your equipment there’s no question about man not to mention your knob we would have run over both of our mothers photos not oh yeah yeah for sure oh yeah and you guys had some starlight scope did you guys have some starlight think they’re big and heavy we never carried a feeling no we only used them for what couple teams did I couldn’t even tell you which ones I never heard about it much at least with Ethel b1 or our time of CCN but we used it for ambushes and they were so bright then you know they ruined your night vision so one be blown out for them from the green sensors that they use to amplify the light and then your other eye was for night vision okay awesome stuff you after this after Artie Maryland disappears going back to the book next morning Hobbes asked me if I would courier a packet of sensitive information to Mac V SOG headquarters in Saigon you end up going to Saigon you end up doing a little bit of Thailand as a time in Thailand as well she had a little pass it sounds like you had a good time there of which you don’t remember a lot true you get back to Saigon and you’re waiting for a return flight to Danang you’d spent all of your poker money which remind me never to play poker with you and here we go back to look for some reason I couldn’t fall asleep that night in Saigon I lay there on my bed looking at the ceiling watching the ceiling turning still not believing that I had returned to Vietnam and a SOG at some point I remember thinking when I was in Nam during my first tour of duty I dreamed of returning to the States when I finally got home I found myself drawn back to Nam of course there were pressing legal matters at Fort Devens that contributed to my leaving the US of A and as I lay there I found myself asking myself what the hell are you doing here you could die it’s like realization yeah that’s the dental scene from Apocalypse yeah it is it is a Martin Sheen yeah that mental tape replayed many times in my mind that night in many different forms but the essence of the issue was when I was in Nam I wanted to go home when I was home I wanted to go to Nam once again I thought of home where other than my family there was no compelling reason to return I had no job waiting I had no job no career to speak of I imagined going to one of those County employment centers and saying hi I was a 1:0 in a secret war that I can’t talk about I can fire my car 15 from the hip real good and I can hit it target at 400 meters with my sawed-off m79 and I could bring napalm so close that it’ll suck the air out of your lungs thus at the age of 23 I had my midlife crisis there’s a picture that one of my platoon chiefs told me about he had this mentor Vietnam SEAL who was a mailman in Imperial Beach California oho and you know he could come home from Vietnam and become you know what am I

gonna do he became a middle man and he had and my platoon chief said that that guy had a picture on his wall and it was a it was a taken from the behind of a guy in fatigues with his web gear on and his weapon slung and and you’re and he’s looking at a like a corporate guy in the desk and the corporate guy is looking up at him and the caption underneath it says I’m sorry sir we don’t have a job here for pointman exactly which it sounds like how you were feeling this is perfect on point yeah yeah and you’re you’ve got this and this is you know it’s interesting I was just talking to one of my buddies and he was saying look you know sometimes I hear people say oh I loved being in combat and when they say that I kind of get pissed at him and I think you know if you loved it so much are you saying he says I don’t I don’t love it so much you know I had a hard time with you know it was hard and I’ll do I would do it again if I had to but I’m not dreaming about it and so we had this little conversation when I ended up saying to him was I said well when I was on my last deployment to Iraq any others you know we had some guys wounded we had some we had had that one guy killed at this point and there starts to be like you start seeing those negative feelings start to start to grow a little bit you know guys start questioning stuff guys start hey you know what what do we do in this operate whoo-hoo what why are we doing this mission and then you start to feel that and then guys start can be start to become negative and one of my platoon commanders came to me and said you know hey man you know this is gonna be rough and we get home these guys are gonna be you know we might not they’re gonna be mad about this there could be mad about that they can be mad about something else and I said let me tell you what’s gonna happen I said when we get home when you talk to them three days after we get home they will have forgotten 10% of the bad stuff and in a week they’ll forget 30% and in a month they’ll forget 50% I said in a year the only thing they’ll remember about this deployment is the fun cool stuff that’s and that’s kind of what I think makes guys like me say man I I had a is awesome I would love to go back of course because we block out you know some of the hard memories and for me I also always say the absolute best time of my life was being a tasking of commander in the battle Ramadi and the worst time in my life was being a tasking of commander into battle or Mahdi because there’s nothing worse than losing your guys and so it sounds like you that was hitting you sort of mid deployment of hey look oh you wouldn’t you were home when you’re back in America you got you got money problems you got girl problems you got law problems you got what all those problems and they can all go away yes they can all become insignificant as soon as you get on that c-130 and fly back overseas and I thought about hepps I’ll hung that too on and the team I genuinely had that guilt feeling of them there of me not being there with him I felt as as a green beret I should have been there with him all along but we had the tour duty as you know and so I was in a way I was really glad to be back on the team but yes a little bit more mature now and thinking a little bit maybe two months but that night in that hotel and then 20 years later when Apocalypse Now comes out I go like how the hell they get in my head for that scene you obviously–you you you get through that that apocalypse now see of staring at the ceiling and thinking you know every minute that I’m in the bush every minute I’m in this hotel Charlie gets stronger cuz he’s out in the bush you get back and you’re on another mission and I’m jumping into it right now as I snapped out of my snooze you’re asleep in a helicopter I snapped out of my snooze I looked at out the starboard door just as we flew over the to startle a Laotian farmers a woman and two water buffalo the big chopper then hopped over the hedgerow and landed in an adjacent field as Engels and I frantically awakened the rest of our tea Idaho I was mad as hell it wasn’t bad enough they hadn’t bothered to alert us as we approached the target area but now they were compounding that faux pas by flying too close to indigenous farmers and then depositing us in the middle of an open field far from our primary LZ and further yet from the bridge that was the primary objective of our mission that this particular mission was a pretty simple one at least on paper which I take it with a serious grain of salt when you say a mission is a pretty simple one yeah by early 1970 the brass had become aware of something new and rather creative on

the part of the NVA underwater bridges these were being put in in place at strategic spots along the Ho Chi Minh Trail where it ran through Laos from the error would appear as though the trails were interrupted by water in some places several feet deep yet it was apparent that the trucks had himself were crossing these streams with ease a closer review of aerial photographs however had revealed that the ever inventive NVA had come up with an underwater structure that could support heavy trucking while remaining virtually unobservable from the air it was a devilishly clever idea and well executed to boot so that’s pretty they just built these leg weather like maybe like six inches underwater the bridge yeah and we looked at the pictures you couldn’t tell they really done it well and so that was the mission simple going find out what they are take pictures and blow them the hell up simple mission yeah if you’d be more fun to blow them up with a truck on it and you were you guys were asleep in the helicopters head in there no one woke you up and the reason why we launched from Thailand the weather had been socked in in Vietnam so it was a bad weather spell which was February of 1970 and they flew us by black birds which were the clandestine service airlift for us foods to Thailand we land in Thailand which is neutral at the Air Force Base the black truck comes up we get in has curtains they can’t see us we go back to the base and my old commander from fo b1 was the CEO at down launch site which was the 46th Special Forces Group and they were there just to be in-country but they had their site of the sequel war spatzle came out of there they had cubbies out of there and so we launched and the air force at the h2 h3 is the bigger helicopters like the Jolly Green Giant but a scaled-down version without the armor plating so we launched from there and we flew for two or three hours because the long flight from Thailand across western lay offs and we launched as we landed at a fuel dump in the middle of Laos yeah it was run by the agency okay so we manual yes we refuel but you get off you go hey man who are you because I’m not here I go welcome I’m not here either he says have a good day while you’re not here and we get to go in and then the Air Force put us down on that thick canyon and that’s one thing that’s always interesting when you’re using helicopters the helicopter when you’re supposed to insert at one spot for them they they miss that spot by a minute or whatever for them it’s no big deal like they they just flew a minute a little bit long for you on the ground that minute is a long time I mean that can be a kilometer it could be like a really massive amount of space that you just missed oh yeah and this is like the dip between the valley and the peak that we want to go in on so we could run at night a little bit cuz there’s some open areas that we could cover and then get down maybe at the middle of the night to check this thing out in the morning at first light that’s what our plan was just didn’t happen we’re in the valley and it’s like okay we’ve flown out here I so you don’t want to just fly back isn’t everybody off let’s give it a shot we’re here we’re on the ground scope so we had to get out put our gear on first we didn’t even have our routine insert where everybody goes out on full alert we get out put the damn equipment on and then we’re like okay we’re in the valley and the mountain we want to be honest several thousand feet above us and we’re in this valley are you carrying a regular topographic map is that your primary means of navigation yes and they would have the big map and then our target where we plan to go they would cut out a ten by ten cut it out and that’s what I saw we carried so we got caught there would be nothing else besides just that that grid that we were in and did you ever use any imagery as well to to know compliment that nope strictly map the Covey pile if they did it via our visual reconnaissance prior to the mission but here it wasn’t we the cubby had told them here’s the target area for some reason the Air Forces went down to the valley job just there alright continuing on given the rather undistinguished nature of our arrival I’m sorry undisguised nature of our arrival we knew is only a matter of time before hundreds of NVA troops trackers and dogs would be purring down on us on that road looking for us so you know sweet to work with dogs so like I can’t imagine knowing going in that I’m gonna be facing dogs that are coming after us and obviously you guys were cuz you guys carried mace and pepper and all this other stuff to throw them off but what a nightmare that is I still hate dogs you have wife loves him but and the kids love him do you have any dogs yeah we

got a fleabag running around the house his name is Gunny butter weights it’s like we got it from a from a Gunny okay yeah ours was no tourists John furthermore is very unsettling to be moving through this beautiful Valley in broad daylight at what for a recon team past at breakneck speed it was not comfortable way to proceed we took no breaks not wanting to spend a moment longer than necessary in such an exposed position so you’re just hauling ass oh yeah trying to get out of this valley as fast as you can and you end up with going up a hill a big hill and we just put the team to for a while I put the ankles on one side the valley and me on the other it wasn’t that big in terms of width but wide enough that I could see him he could see me just I want divided and then the tail Gunners took care of our foot footprints and what was your reason for that call I just wanted to split the team up to see what was on the other side the valley we couldn’t tell what you decide what was there so I figured we could any enemy we wanted to find out on both sides at once and try to get to a point where we could begin to find a spot to get up the mountain cook we were gonna run out of daylight got it so it was a little bit of a panic now panic move it was it was a hey we’re in a tough situation one of the best ways we can get out of this is we put teams on both sides of valley we’re looking for a way to get it to the top of this thing I knew you talked about this earlier now I used to warn guys all the time about splitting forces oh yeah and it’s like really risky really really risk is the one rule you never do I did it twice okay so I just wanted to confirm that oh yeah no absolutely and the the situation was such that we couldn’t tell what was on either side so I figured we’re gonna have a firefight at least now they’ll be minimal forces are four we went in an eight-man team that I start falling for four and four and John had been on the ground with me previously so he I wasn’t worried about John and so if we’re gonna have a firefight let’s do with minimal forces we could survive and then get the prairie fire and I’m worried about getting out of here otherwise this proceed be and covers much ground because that mission where we set up the ambush we had we had a great success by not stopping because the NVA knew that we would go ten stop ten and so they would anticipate how far we traveled here it’s like we covered maximum ground hauling ass yeah all right now you end up finding a place to go up this hill and here we go back to the book by now we are out of breath the grueling climb with all our combat gear was starting to wear on us and each additional step seemed to bring an increase in the steepness of the incline it was growing painfully clear that those periodic volleyball games we had played back at camp weren’t sufficient physical training did you guys what you guys do for PT back then not enough volleyball get some yeah that was it yeah because we’re so busy yeah between a mission mission prep and then they started thickness in isolation that’s gonna ask you would you would you be tired when you’re going into the field or would you be well-rested because like on this one you fell asleep you guys were all asleep oh yeah I’m gonna tell you right now like when we would go in the field most of the time when I would go in the field especially in Ramadi I would be exhausted by the time I went the field because we’d spend all this time planning and D conflicting and briefing and doing all this stuff by the time we’ll in the field it was like the time for me to go okay hey someone someone stay and watch I’m going to sleep for an hour or two hours you know that happened a lot yeah we usually had a nice rest prior yeah it’s nice oh yeah absolutely very nice going back to the book however any thoughts of letting personal pain slow us down or not so subtly overwritten by noise noises we could hear from the north of us the menacing sounds made us forget our dry throats heaving lungs pain means and knees and aching backs the enemy was out there and the game as they say was on the forces might not yet be joined but the fight was in the offing so he knew it was coming and then you guys go into like a series the sau leads you guys into like a serious of vines thorns undergrowth and we went in and then we went in deeper and he pushed us the third time I was pissed but God tore my fatigues I’m going you know did the dinky dal like you’re crazy you’re pushing it he was right I was wrong I mean when in the third level yeah and and and then you get in so deep eventually settled down and tried to get as comfortable possible on a 40-degree slope around 2200 we heard numerous trucks on the main road in just a few minutes several had driven slowly past our remain overnight position unfortunately the happy times were spoiled when we soon heard the barking of tracking dogs around 0 100 we heard enemy troops moved north on the road while on the east side someone opened fire with a few ak-47 bursts the

distinctive bark of the Russian made weapon jar dust into full alert how long could they keep it up in which direction would they move we sat in the inky darkness a darkness so complete I couldn’t see my hand in front of my face it sounded as though they were making their way north that’s how dark it is and you have no night vision is just pitch black again it didn’t take long before we had enemy troops on both sides of us as dense as our cover was we could see the flickering light from the lamps the NVA carried as the enemy soldiers began probing the bottom tip of the finger we were on vehicle activity on the road picked up noticeably this game is a very uneasy feeling had sound not driven us on the NVA might well have spotted us but as it was we responsed so deep in that god-awful thicket that one that the one enemy soldier who approached our position hesitated and then gave up defeated by the phony vegetation we could almost feel him thinking better of it and deciding to return to his comrades little did he appreciate how close to death he’d come with 5 car 15s and an m79 aimed in his direction slowly the NVA troops tired of their frustrating and uncomfortable search and called it off our tea Idaho could finally release the collective breath it had been holding the danger was not gone not by a longshot but just briefly retired from the field of play so thank God you were deep in that bush oh yeah and I you know I forgave Sal because it’s like this is we don’t need to go that far it’s like look at my fatigues I’m bleeding here he’s right Sal was always right I always listened to him so the night goes by at first light our options were severely limited we couldn’t move north south or east which left us one choice not wanting to spend another day and night tied to trees on the side of a hill we opted for the obvious and moved out in a westerly direction for the rest of the day we climbed the side of the steep mountain did you guys ever move at night or do you guys try pretty much to remain in one position at night try to stay in one position whoo we only particularly in a triple canopy it’s just too much noise in Cambodia when we were on flat territory we could have moved and we thought about it but no not in Laos several times the rock face was so steep we had to tie together six foot strands of rope we used for Swiss seeds to make rope long enough to advance up to the next level of rocks so we’re talking serious terrain Oh Harlan just as last light was fading into darkness we reached the top of the mountain I was physically beat my pants were torn in my hands knees and legs were covered with cuts scrapes and bruises we were a mess we set up our ro Ann quickly and took turns eating rations before settling into the night watch rotations after the previous night nights ro n this Mountain tight mountain top site was paradise we could see enemy trucks moving south but did nothing about it we were almost too tired to think an extremely dangerous condition to be in went on the ground rest was what we needed not confrontation you guys are exhausted beat when we climb to take our web gear off rucksacks oh really we tie into all the squished seats together because we’re going straight up so one guy would go up and then you shift up the backpack then the web gear put it back on go to the next level so we had to take that straight to shuck it several times and just to get up because it was so steep but it was covered but enough vegetation they couldn’t see us in the valley so they weren’t quite sure where we were and we had put out the mace and stuff another little cases was found some of the dogs noses so it’s an all-day climb and with only a couple when we broke for lunch and whatever but yeah that was a nasty nasty climb when morning came we awoke to a beautiful sunrise and found that we were atop an unbelievably gorgeous Laotian mountain range the next few hours were the most spectacular ones I ever had spent on the ground in any AO moving north along the ridge line we began gradually descending often encouraging one beautiful new encountering one beautiful new Vista after another around 1200 we found an area overrun with thousands of wild orchids in full spectacular bloom back home each plant will be worth five to fifty dollars we decided to take a break in the field and soon everyone with the exception of Sal was in the middle of

them and acting like a delighted child picking the flowers and sticking them in their hair teeth and behind their ears or in the buttonholes of their fatigues it was like a spontaneous outburst of happiness and while it was somewhat foolish it was also refreshing I think we all felt better for you to take any pictures and no oh man I’m sure yeah oh yeah you had the camera for the underwater bridge you can get the orchids misawa’s all business Oh always he’s living on the railroad come on whether it was your nickname did they call you tilt as well no these you called me my because the Vietnamese couldn’t handle ours so instead of Meyer it was my got it I could see him looking at you thinking my what are you doing with that damn flower your hair their phrase was buku dinky down very very very stupid very crazy yeah how good your did your Vietnamese get it sucked I had happen and that was why we didn’t have language training because they knew that with SF but for years for 64 to 68 they were interpreters in place mm-hmm and we just lucked out with happy it was his best one East Book good English and he corrected my English he spoke French what was his background that he had all that good language skill his dad is sent to school in Paris so he has some education in France they spoke four languages and now he’s an interpreter Nam yeah going back to the book we came to a narrow strip of land that headed down from the hill I single Dingles and child to set out to scout ahead while the rest of us remained in place Chau was 16 years old he’d been on the team nearly two years so these kids have been on the team since he was 14 years old yeah when the team got wiped out Chau Cal and sown where the three did we’d hired and brought on and we let a couple of those go he’d been on the team nearly two years ever since Spyder parks and help field rebuilt the team in 68 Chau sensitive ears heard the NVA moving up the mountain he warned ingles with hand signals and the two of them abruptly stopped moving with the enemy less than ten meters away ingles quietly broke squelch on his URC ten emergency radio several times alerting me to the danger the rest of us were about fifty meters away the shit was about to hit the fan because we were so far removed from all air support there was no time to waste none at all we needed to jump on we needed all the jump we could get on things so I quickly contacted a nearby ov-10 Bronco and declared a prairie fire emergency setting in motion the string of responses that could save our lives and get us out does everybody did everyone know is that like a pro word prairie fire emergency did everyone know exactly what that meant a Karen knew it right and then we also had the airborne command control but they weren’t always over aria they couldn’t pick up the Fox mic FM mmm-hmm so in this case we lucked out that OB 10 was I think they were one of the Ravens who had they were surprised supporting another CIA operation it was further west into layoffs and he had been up heard the call and came over and I was the first time he worked with ob tens man lucky berry while I was talking to pilot chaozhou and Ingalls to spring a hastily arranged ambush that startled on the startled enemy troops when their point man was less than a meter away tchau hit him with a full automatic burst from his car 15 blowing him backward chow silent ingles then hit the remaining enemy soldiers so hard and fast that they didn’t have time to fire a single return shot Ingalls threw down a hand grenade down the hill to discourage anyone who might be around so this is all son that’s happening a meter away there is really close and he came up the hill he was white because I was the first really real firefight that child been in and because he had trained up and like here the earnest spotted team so this was his mission and that was he was down in with John and he was ahead of John as the fight began to unfold I took stock of the situation there weren’t too many places for us to go within minutes of the broncos arrival the pilot had spotted us he said he could see more enemy activity north of us along the hill angles and Sal were on he made a run on the enemy concentrations firing his rockets into their position then he said somewhat laconically I’ve got two bits of bad news for you first nam is socked in no assets can launch from there to extract you which means

thailand assets which means at least three hours before the birds arrive on station second to yourself that are approximately a dozen troops about 800 meters out and moving towards you I think you better sit tight until we get some help by 1430 a covey aircraft replaced the Bronco and repeated this sit tight suggestion he agreed the eastern and western face of the mountain were too steep to descend he also confirmed the NVA were coming at us from the south and north they were clearly visible as they moved cautiously through the sparse vegetation for the next half hour the enemy troops tried to locate us to discourage them I directed several AE a1 e Skyraider gun runs south of our position so this is another one of these things where I got a like when you get you got the NVA moving to your position and you get told hey the closest extract the earliest we’re gonna be able to get you out of here is three hours from now yeah we’re up on an area where there’s minimal escape routes or a jungle because everything was so steep on several different sides that had little work a little bit of a plateau door had been like a trail that came down and then John and Chou had gone down further another little finger and that’s where they had the firefight they came back up we put a perimeter out and luckily we made radio contact right away so the ov-10 went in with his rockets just to say it was 2.75 and then that’s when he gave us the good news yeah good news that’s gonna be three hours at a minimum before they get you help yes why we carried a lot of bullets yeah a lot of that it could be a long day I don’t know if you can carry enough bullets for a three-hour fired fired that’s a nightmare back to the book of 12.7 millimeter enemy gun in the valley opened up on the a1 ‘yes i was sitting on the east side looking down at the valley floor after making another gun run that a1 e pilot told me he was pissed because the enemy gunner was coming too close to him and his wingman he wanted to nail him ASAP i gave the pilot what I thought was clear what I thought clear verbal directions to where the enemy gunner was located but he couldn’t find them so I told him simply to watch the ground for my and follow my tracers at that I fired a short burst toward a clump of trees in the valley that were maybe 500 metres away the pilot had no trouble seeing where my tracers hit thanks partner he said in a low southern draw and then rolled in for the kill it was the most beautiful napalm dive I’ve ever seen the pilot came out of the sky pointing straight down his engine screaming it reminded me of dive bombers I had seen on the television series of victory at sea I really thought I was watching a World War 2 movie because I was so high up in the mountain I was looking down on the sky Raider when at the absolute last second he released a napalm canister and pulled out of his gutsy dive it was a perfect strike the impact generated a secondary explosion which was probably the Gunners spare ammo going off around him black oily smoke billowed up there was not a whisper of sound from the former gun emplacement for the next three hours I directed air strike after air strike around our position and in the valley at 1730 hours we heard the very welcome sound of the HH 3s coming our way as they approached in the distance the NVA pushed up from the north and hit Sal’s claymore further south of us another machine gun opened up from the valley as I gave Covey the compass heading to its position I caught sight of an enemy soldier climbing a tree about a hundred metres away he had handed his RPG launcher to a nearby comrade while he got into that position it was clear he was looking for arty Idaho or hoping to nail an Air Force chopper I was too far away to shout and alert to the other team members for the first time in my 16 months of running missions I extended the collapsible stock of my car 15 normally it remained compressed to minimize the length of the weapon but now I wanted it extended to help stabilize my aim once I was ready I carefully put the NVA soldier in my gun sight in that fleeting moment I felt like God I had the power of life and death concentrated in my finger tip as I grounded my elbow to steady my arm I found myself silently hoping the NVA troop would be unable to find the team and simply climb back down the tree he didn’t see either me or my car 15 in a troubling way it seemed unfair or unsportsmanlike but war is not designed to be a sporting contest if the situation were reversed I had little doubt what he would opt to do although these reflections took less than a

moment to form they caused deep soul-searching on my part I found myself recalling my third grade Sunday school teacher mrs. Myrtle Richard and her treatment of the ten commandments especially the one that proclaims thou shalt not kill hell if I had met this treed soldier on the streets of Hanoi without guns and beyond the rhetoric of politicians we’d probably be able to find lots of common ground between us and dozens of purely human things to talk about but that could not be not now not at this given moment also in my mind was the knowledge he would receive a medal if he ever managed to kill me or one of my team members as I watched and reflected his comrade reached up and handed him a rocket launcher I could tell it was unloaded what I had what I had come to think of my personnel my personal NVA moved a little farther up the tree craning his neck to find us from the corner of my eye I could see Sun move towards Sal and at that very moment someone passed up around for the RPG I still refused to yield to the inevitable I continued to hold on to the stubborn hope that he would abandon his cause climb down the damn tree and walk away instead he fitted the round into the end of the launcher I still watched still I waited even after he’d put the weapon to his shoulder as he nestled his neck against it and began to take careful aim toward us I leveled my sight on his head I pulled the trigger a single yet timeless he dropped from the tree out of sight but not out of my mind one of those moments hmm how far was he away it was arranged he’s well over maybe a foot football field in half two fields because I was like on a cuspid as’ of the hill and he was around on the side and I could see there was like a tree he climbed up that was above the regular vegetation so I’m not sure how high he went but I could see him the beginning and then I just waited because then when he got that damn RPG mm-hmm yeah then it’s time to do what you got to do oh yeah and once again I’m gonna make this claim I’m not reading this whole book I’m jumping around and you should read this whole book if you’re listening to this because I’m getting 10% of what’s going on in here this part continues on seconds later one of the approaching h/h three pilots broke broke into my reverie by commenting somewhat frantically on the heavy ground fire he was taking from the mountains south of our position there was a moment’s hesitation before he sadly announced I think we have some mechanical problems we’re going home we could see the helicopters and they looked fine to us they were less than two kilometres out when they turned and disappeared into the fading Sun our morale sank as they vanished after cursing our lack of after cursing our lack of look and the pilot I told the team to take a nap there’s gonna be a long night so there goes your ride out in there for freaking ever and you see those guys hey we got some mechanical problems we’re out of here yeah it’s a very unhappy moment so you guys you tell the guys to take a nap you take a little nap yeah and back to the book around 1930 Engels roused me wake up you’re not gonna believe this shit as I came around he was pointing south up the mountainside from about 30 meters from our perimeter and as far as we could see there were dozens and dozens of lanterns bouncing and swinging along each Lantern was carried by an enemy soldier and between each Lantern were many more soldiers the same scene was unfolding to the north of us the NVA were coming up the hill on mass we could see at least a dozen trucks unloading hundreds of NVA troops in the valley also across the valley and up on the plateau to the east there were hundreds of lights moving everywhere like swarming fireflies flitting around in the night in a smaller valley west of us still more lights more NVA more trouble just more more and more of everything we did not want to see I felt the tremendous weight of just how small RT Idaho was how terribly isolated and

alone we were how incredibly vulnerable all of a sudden I found myself praying for reasons only he understands my prayer was answered as a few minutes later the first Spectre c-130 gunship arrived on target with its – 20 millimeter cannons and four 7.62 millimeter mini guns ready for action that had to be the most horrifying thing that you could ever think of you wake up and you see these enemy lights surrounding you hundreds of them and you know that they’re looking those hundreds maybe thousands of enemy personnel are looking for you and your six-man team oh yeah no comment for us and it was just like yeah I’ll never forget when Jon woke me up I mean it’s just one of those moments he’s just like my god fuck me to tears and help me Lord yeah please wake up you’re not mom keep praying right about now if you fit not praying back in New Jersey please start praying now and then what what do you have any idea did you ever find out what where the c-130 came from where the spectre came from it had to be out of Thailand and so it just randomly showed up Oh No then somebody with the cubby that we had talked to earlier who brought the hill and copped us out because the cubby was still trying to work with us for other air SS and when it got dark we lost everything conventional so all to a ones phantom jets were gone and they didn’t have helicopter gunships out Thailand just transport vehicle of aircraft so we had that quiet spell and so they had notified Spectre and they had told me that they’re gonna try to get a Spectre out and had you work with the Spectre before yes we used before but nothing like this night so for anyone that doesn’t know to a c-130 Spectre gunship is it’s a it’s a c-130 which is like a big transport aircraft but they put some big weapon tree in this case – 20 millimeter cannons and four 7.62 minigun which fires six thousand rounds a minute correct or something crazy oh yeah yeah it’s like a little I can lay xur beam when the tracers come out of these things or a dog piss it from the sky yeah or that and so these guys show up and here we go back to the book this was this awesome a way of array of weapon tree could be made to form a magic link with my emergency strobe light once that link was established the gunner could dance the incredible firepower of his four mini guns just twenty four thousand rounds per minute total within five feet of us it was wonderous it was miraculous it could save us on this particular night however we were faced with a highly unusual if not unique problem the pilots circling over us reported he couldn’t pick out the teens strobe light because there were so many other lights surrounding us the myriad of lanterns must have made the dark earth look like a pin cushion illuminated from within no problem I said I’ll turn off mine you get the rest hit the ridgeline west of the valley give me a minute to put my team on the safe side of the mountain the specter commenced to putting on an amazing display of firepower once again we gave thanks for being on the right side of the fight the one that had Uncle Sam’s Air Force and Spectre on its team after ripping up scores of body and carving out large patches of empty darkness on the ridge line The Spectre directed his deadly fire into the valley more lanterns were snuffed out and the darkness spread like a stain as lights and lives were extinguished The Spectre crew finally expended all of its ordnance and the pilot apologized for running out of ammo the next Spectre arrived seconds later see they’ve they were just they knew you were in a bad way and they were common oh yeah we were so happy that the second one showed up because now the lights are out so we could turn the strobe light on and have direct , did they have night vision back then in the spectres oh yeah okay at everything yeah see Air Force yeah yes it is yeah I mean this the Spectre gunship is just the most awesome asset to have overhead for ground support because the capability the visual capability that it has and then the accuracy of fire yeah this is 1970 you think how accurate that was oh this is what they can do now oh yeah yeah the next Spectre arrived seconds later he quickly locked on to our strobe and worked the southern slope with a vengeance marching his guns right up to the trail right up the trail to the top of the ridge beyond our line of sight he

worked then he worked a valley in the southeastern mountain ridge a third Spectre arrived and worked our southern perimeter again systematically walking its fiery lead up the mountain around us there was no longer any light above us no moon no stars the only sound was the roar of the c-130 overhead in the absolute darkness he could not be seen until his guns opened up then tongues of fire seemed to erupt out of nowhere like spontaneously generated bolts of and the outlines of Spector’s fuselage would appear in brief flashes as a pale and ghostly silhouette an airborne Grim Reaper when Spectre moved to other targets we could hear the enemy dragging away his dead at 0-0 forty-five sow said some NVA were in the grass about 20 meters south of us a few minutes later he blew the claymores we all instinctively flinched for some reason claymores always sounded more thunderous at night and caught you by surprise after the dust settled we again heard NVA troops dragging away their bodies they never spoke we heard no cries of pain their silent execution of grim duty was at once eerie and admirable Jesus they were tough they fought hard and died hard so you wouldn’t even need hear these guys getting wounded getting blown up and they wouldn’t even scream they wouldn’t cry we just silence it was amazing today it was mind-boggling think that all those guys were wounded or just dead ok the dead we know but there had to be some wounded of course not a sound but you hear them dragging the bodies and we I don’t know how many we killed that night back to the book shortly before the next Spectre arrived I moved my team away from the edge of the slope and into the high grasses Sal placed one more Claymore down on the northern slope in short order Spector locked on to our strobe light he reported that cloud cover was beginning to roll in the AO when Spectre dropped when Spectre then dropped illumination flares over a Sal’s eyes turned as big as pizza tins NVA troops were then 5 metres of us all of about 15 feet blinded by intense white light they could not immediately make us out as we nestled into the high grass but this was of little real consolation they would spot us soon enough I whispered into the radio asking Spectre just how close he could bring the ordinance to my strobe-light as close as you want it he first replied I want it five feet in front of my southern perimeter I responded well he hesitated I can’t bring it in any closer than 25 meters from your perimeter unless you’re willing to accept responsibility for any casualties we may accidentally inflict we have to record you saying it I wanted to scream you dumb fucking idiot they’re five meters away and you’re going to quote and you’re quoting regulations to me just kill the fuckers before they kill us instead and feeling like a complete fool I whispered that I was fully willing to accept responsibility for any and all casualties that may or may not result from his efforts to save our lives I followed up by saying now bringing it in as tight as you can to the light I’m holding it up now move south from my light I’ll take my chances with you the gun crew finally opened fire in there and the fuselage cracked over our heads the ground in front of us erupted as thousands of rounds ripped into it kicking up stones and dirt and tossing NVA soldiers around like ragdolls against Spectre slowly marched his stuff southward from our strobe light moving up the ridge danger-close oh yeah so the flare goes off and South sees that the enemy are 5 meters from where you’re at yeah I didn’t realize they’re that close they were that quiet I mean they kept coming all night and because it was pitch black and they were just so quiet and they just probably moved during the wind or moved during when rounds were hitting or whatever and they made it to within 5 meters I mean that’s when you’re making this radio call it’s a miracle they couldn’t hear you and they just didn’t start shooting towards your direction when you make the radio call that’s why I was waiting for I was waiting for that next a.k to open up all my voice especially when they’re asking you for the oh yeah oh ho you talk about moments that’s insane

totally I wonder what – I mean that’s I’m actually surprised that they could pull off five meters maybe just for anyone that’s listening that doesn’t understand this this aircraft I don’t know what what altitude were they at do you have any idea there had to be at least three to three thousand feet above us so and I don’t know what the height of the mountain range or that that little plateau that we were on there but several thousand feet above us they locked in neurontin input rounds within five meters of you oh yeah yeah I mean I could see they do it now because now they’ve got computers and they’ve got all these I mean just incredible systems up there I mean I’ve been in the modern ac-130 they’re ridiculous well is that right yeah yeah they’re crazy like they’re the the the capability that they have is just completely ridiculous but I can’t no I mean I mean I know there’s no way they had that same technology back in 1970 it’s impossible you know there’s more technology and in my phone than is in of 1970 bird those Air Force guys were good and you know we just kept a strobe light right pointed at the aircraft so when it’s circled the whoever had the M sitting on I did it for a while then we take turns with it but we always followed the aircraft so it would be directly linked into that strobe light that’s right because you had your you put the strobe into the m79 right yeah so it was only directional right so we go straight up there so anybody in the ground wouldn’t see it so that’s what’s happening as these guys are five meters from you oh yeah this is ridiculous that’s what I thought that night also hey yeah send me a king bee please yeah back to the book between bursa fire he dropped more flares this time the illumination revealed no movement south of us instead ciao gleefully reported that there were beaucoup dead VC with a South quiet Spectre started on the northern flank and marshes fired down the finger of land when I reported hearing more trucks in the valley the gun crews pounded them into silence another Spectre circled us and laid down its deadly Ring of Fire again bringing it to within 5 feet of our strobe light somewhere around 0 400 summer early morning fog and haze moved in as the last Spectre moved out once the spectre was gone the NVA started moving toward us once more from the south only this time with real vengeance Spectre killed a lot of their comrades and they were in no mood to back off but we managed to hold them off by employing what we called our guess whether I’m throwing a grenade or not tactic which had a way of making almost enemy almost any enemy think twice what was that all about I didn’t covered in the book but you wrote about it but what lost another version of hide-and-go-seek with could we only had a limited amount of grenades we had used some already and so we knew that when we threw the grenade when the land that you’d hear them rot that you would hear so we knew were getting low so Sal went out and got stones and chow and had the team went out in Gus stones somehow they came back so we wait until he would tell us somehow he shall could just tell where they were I could I didn’t have that kind of definitive skillset so his signal he would let us know or he would just throw the rock he thought of rocky here and scurry away like rats could they thought the grenade was coming so we throw another rock so it’d be less scurrying so then we wait throw another rock and be less scurrying then we throw it another hang grenade so in then this went on for quite a while you know we always carried at least 10 hand grenades I always carry these 10 our ditch every 10 yourself oh yeah sure I had a couple on a strap and always in the rucksack and that’s why just for that mission yeah apparently little did I realize you needed 30 yeah we abstained from firing our weapons because the muzzle flashes would have marked our position too clearly for the RPG Gunners who had fired several inaccurate rounds at us during the night fortunately they hadn’t come very close we played these deadly games with the enemy until sunrise at one point we broke a major thrust by tossing a white phosphorus grade grenade then one of the most fearsome things I know of we couldn’t see them but we could smell burning flesh at around zero 6:30 we heard an NVA officer or senior NCO calling roll in the distance it appeared few people answered him as the Sun finally burned off the fog we worked tactical air strikes with

phantoms and Skyraiders a couple of machine gun position to open fire and hit one of the a1 E’s a phantom blew one of the gun crews to hell with a 500-pound bomb that a1 e knocked out the second one minutes after it opened fire because there were no more Spectre aircraft to call on I continued to working with a pair of a1 E’s having them make run after run I could talk directly to the lead pilot and he and his wingman executed my every request or Direction flawlessly damn you had to love those a1 e pilots finally we could hear in the distance the sweet sweet sound of approaching helicopters big HH threes churning their way our way it was time to pull out all the stops I used every available support aircraft F Force and a1 ease to raise hell and suppress enemy fire as they roared in with guns blazing we could see the 8h threes tagging along in their wake I told Covey to have the H h3 gun crews focused their fire on our southern prim and we’d handle the northern side I also requested a land as close as possible to the North Slope and not pay any attention to the claymores explosions we’d be setting off I didn’t want to spook these guys off so the the helos land every one of the team once aboard immediately went to the starboard window or faced out the tailgate and began firing on full automatic as the h h threes revved up to full power I was the last to leave and before heading for the LZ I set off the last Claymore we had put on the northern perimeter then I ran like hell bent over like a cripple and cursing the propwash that was trying hard to push me backward as I made my – I remember being surprised and not seeing a single dead body although I passed a slew of blood trails and saw a lot of dark wet stains on the ground the second I was through the door the H h3 lifted off the ground there was nothing but sporadic small arms fire coming at us and in the end the extraction was relatively calm one it seemed as if the enemy was dispirited and just going through the motions I had a feeling they wanted us out of the AO as badly as we wanted to leave nonetheless we all continued firing on full automatic we also launched at least one m79 round as we gained altitude I dropped my last hand grenade into the under bush a little something for someone I hoped then just as suddenly and miraculously all gunfire ceased the only sound was that of the churning sikorsky hh-60 mare force blankets for the long ride when I made contact with him he gave me that quick nod of his and a slight smile we made it again that’s just just this is just an insane mission oh yeah and I’m sure you you know what why don’t you just break contact and continue mission so yeah crazy they need to yeah I know that you’re putting some of these books on audiobook we’re working on in the process of doing that and these are gonna be great when you when you release those I know you talked about in the little in the book you were putting for you you requested one of your guys be putting it for a Silver Star for this operation it John angle and then you got put in for a Silver Star as well and actually you’re the the CEO said he was gonna upgrade that yeah he said he got on an upgrade which I didn’t agree with but not gonna argue either yeah to a Distinguished Service Cross which if you don’t know that what that is that’s the the second highest military award for for valor and so but but at the same time and and again this is I kind of have to just tie this back into the book a little bit but you had been going through this kind of hassle with the commanding officer about carrying the carrying a new encryption device out we didn’t have it for that mission and you didn’t have it for this one correct but you had but then it he started turning up the heat like hey you got to carry this thing and this thing is no joke I mean I was looking at I used even when I got to the SEAL Teams we used a PRC 77 were those around for you yes what we started with okay for that for that encrypted transmissions so there you go so yeah the PRC 77 is an old radio it’s an FM radio and it’s how big would I say it is wasn’t what something is similar to expect 25 yeah but I’m trying to think of something that a civilian would know correct so I can describe it’s like a big it’s like two lunchboxes maybe like yeah maybe like a briefcase that’s a little bit

more square a little bit thicker so it’s like that maybe two shoeboxes something like that’s better something like that that’s what that’s how big a PRC 77 is the KY 38 which is the encryption device is basically the same size as that right it’s like again and it doubles the weight you got to carry double the batteries it cuts down your range because it takes away from the penetration of the of the radio waves coming out and you had to carry the encryption punch so that’s what you’re getting told to carry and you keep coming back and saying hey this isn’t that great hey we’ve been trying and it’s not working you you you keep getting told no carry it carry carry finally you you you say to your boss you say the commanding officer Hey look I’ll carry it but if we get in one of these bad situations I’m gonna destroy this thing if it doesn’t work if it doesn’t work I’m gonna destroy this thing yeah and he kind of says okay whatever you know but you carry it yeah so you go on an operation you you and you actually we’re gonna leave it in the helos you ask the helos to take it you and you ask him to come back and get it because it didn’t work he said helos come back and take this thing because it’s 50 pounds yes the weight and we had I want to try we were the target was the asshole and there was there was something specifically in the asshole they wanted us to confirm so I went in with a four-man team the theory being would go in light we can move quicker because the A Shau Valley didn’t have triple K at least a part that we were looking at so like single or double canopy and a lot of open areas because if there’s so many bombs during an eight camps to have been overrun deserted and I’ve been in the a saw we put the senses in and plus we fly over it every time so generally familiar where we were gone so I said I want to do a four-man team please don’t force me a carry well we’ve had to carry it and that’s when I said if it doesn’t work we went in tried it didn’t work it started a few times yeah and they wouldn’t come back and you’ve been trying it on other operations as well where we tried on one and it’s just a complete failure but I brought it back and so this time you start getting tracked yeah and and you say okay you know I’m not carrying this thing anymore so you put it through my grades you put a thermite grenade on yeah so you put a front of my grenade on it you destroy it and then you again by the skin of your teeth you got you get you and your guys out of there and when you are coming back to you you’re flying back to base and just so you know how close they were at one point I’m looking to the north and I see a young face come through the jungle at me within 2 or 3 feet or so so I can see his outline I could see his a kay is down he sees me and we just stopped a look at each other and it’s all through the jungle the grass he backed out I just kept my car at him but he didn’t open fire mmm and he was young I mean a young kid with a gun he backed up and he went away so I knew that this okay this missus now compromised and we hit the thermite yeah like I said you get this is another mission where you are getting out of there by the skin of your teeth it’s a damn miracle that you you bring all your troops back that you don’t get overrun that no one gets killed it’s crazy and they the CEO was flying in a helicopter close by we asked for a tactical with rods right he goes break contact the team is our favorite word’s so we destroyed the the encryption device Roger that yeah yeah and we’ve had more contact well his he finally ran our fuel went back we’re on the ground for a few more hours we continued to move but we hear more activity particularly yet-to-be thermite it’s the damn radio I thought we’d be getting extracted he didn’t so now they know where we are cuz anybody within 10 miles can tell there’s the thermite grenade and any are as it’s those guys and they’re coming for us mm-hmm but there weren’t a lot but we had a new copywriter came out Dallas Longstreet and we started running a once across because we could hear the enemy to the west and so the a one’s made a couple gun runs and the last gun run the pilot came in and then he flipped his aircraft so like I’m looking at the a1 making a gun run and earlier you could hear when they go by and how the aircraft makes these noises these crack noises when the wings change and the whatever the structures in the plane are so I’d heard him goodbye before this one he came by he want to make sure where we were he came by so close I could tell you he was smoking to Felicia root he looked over he nodded I saluted and he did a couple more gun runs and they brought in this and they they split skull and they dropped the ropes and pulled us out on ropes and of course whenever you go out of ropes to shooting at you it’s like target practice for them you I don’t no

one ever gets shot on the ropes I mean oh no we had a lot of guys never got shot on the ropes not go would just just luck oh sure luck I mean I always felt like they’re just coming through your legs get your balls or mr. happy worse brain damn you so I’m worried about brain death this year so you go through all that and again people need to buy this book so they can read that full story because even what you just said is a portion of it you get back you get taken out on strings which again there’s something we didn’t talk about a lot but a lot of times when helicopters could land they drop down the ropes with the sandbags on the end and you guys were clipping and they dragged you out through the jungle and gets you up the altitude and get you out of there yeah and that’s what happens here finally you get back and here we’re going back to the book when we landed on the helicopter pad at CC and the seals biggest ramp a rude arrogant a rude ignorant sergeant major told me to report the co ASAP with the KY 38 and all attachments for it when I walked into the CEOs office the REM sergeant major ordered me to stand at attention which I did then the CEO asked the $64,000 question where is the KY 38 I explained to him that per our earlier conversation when we had made contact with the NBA since didn’t work I destroyed it he flew into a rage telling me that I had violated a direct order from him not to destroy it under any circumstances I stated once again what I had said prior to the mission because this was a four-man team he simply said he didn’t remember it that way it was just me him and the REM sergeant major who knew that the CEO was of course telling the truth so the the the sergeant-major support and skipper of course oh yeah he’s telling the truth I didn’t like the way this was going so as I had in the past with the CEO I tried to explain my actions from the position of the man on the ground which was different from a man singing a command-and-control helicopter as he had earlier in the day while ordering me to break contact and continue mission then he got really pissed and told me that he was going to write me up from the article 32 criminal allegation under the military military code of conduct for willfully destroying US government property in direct opposition to his order not to destroy the KY 38 under any circumstances the REM sergeant major then whispered something to the co as they whispered back and forth to each other I found myself growing extremely calm unbelievably calm finally the co stepped from behind his desk leaving the REM sergeant major behind it I’m going to ruin your Special Forces career I want you out of CCN at first light tomorrow he went on to tell me to report to 5th Special Forces Group headquarters in NHA trang where he’d have me drummed out of SF within the next month privately I smiled because the co hadn’t done his homework he failed to realize that my service in the Army ended in two weeks due to the fact that I had extended my time and service to return to CCM the co only knew the date when I had arrived at CCN and it had assumed I had a traditional one-year tour of duty that would end in October not April 1970 my SOG days ended right there I knew that when I went to NHA trang I could get any assignment in Vietnam where there was an opening for an experienced SF soldier but as I stood there I believed that God had sent this asshole into my life for a reason granted it wasn’t a reason I didn’t completely understand granted it was a reason I didn’t completely understand at this precise moment in time but it was time for me to get out of Uncle Sam’s army altogether while my body if not my mind was relatively intact who knew what the future held for SF in Vietnam finally he finished and asked me if I had anything to say you’re a disgrace to West Point fuck you sir I turned and exited without saluting the rim sergeant major caught up to me as I exited the door and told me to return and salute the co I bent toward his ear and quietly said fuck you too sergeant major before leaving the CCN headquarters area I stopped by the awards and decorations desk to see if the co had begun paperwork for flying that day east of our team embarrassed that clerk was simply nodded his head in the affirmative meaning that the CEO was in the process of getting himself written up for an award for telling us to break contact and continue the

mission while he was flying out of harm’s way safely in South Vietnam that was him yeah Wow oh yeah just don’t believable but you know it’s just like you knew it I just felt it and plus he had a reputation already by that time and we had talked to the ad people previously about some other things he put himself in for her had somebody put him in for and yes it’s just a total disgrace and it’s just that the luck of the timing was the fact that you knew that you could get out of the army yeah at that point us I was juggling the thought of relisting a friend of mine who was a captain who we had run one mission together he was going to he was in the process of putting me in for a direct Commission to lieutenant and so the paperwork had been placed and I don’t know if it ever got the saikhan or not but I know that he had a separate office the paperwork was done we had completed everything we had letters of recommendation all that stuff and so in fact he and I talked about where we’re going to do is going to stand for a few months to see if the direct Commission even though the reductions in force were coming mm-hmm you know because they had already started the Vietnamization process the maximum manpower we had at Vietnam was at the end of 69 I believe it was we had five hundred forty three thousand Americans in Vietnam so by April 70 when this all happened we had reduced the nevers you could do more more of it was coming even within SF and so that all those things were being juggled so if I got the direct Commission I thought about that two years of college I knew it to get two more years if I was gonna try it for a career and and I didn’t want to go back to Fort Devens so those were the things I was jumping at the time and when this all happened I just like I said I was really comma just thought God gave me an answer here you know going back to the book I continued down to the team room where I gave Sal five hundred dollars to buy food and drink for the biggest party arty Idaho had during my tenure on the team we partied late into the night one by one each team member passed out until it was just hep and me standing outside Artie Idaho’s Vietnamese team room HAP asked me if I needed him for any more interpreting when I said no he passed out in the sand I picked him up dust him off as best I could and carried him into the team room where I gently placed him in bed before I turned the lights out I stood in the doorway for a moment longer reflecting on my 18 months with these men with a special affection and admiration for Sal HAP Faulk clang and hung then the guilt pangs washed over me what did the future hold for them and that had to be the hardest part of this departure brutal really was and these guys we’re just doing this continually for years they didn’t rotate out no that was their job well HAP had rotated up to headquarters he asked for permission to go there for a better paying job and at the three-and-a-half years running recon says sure and we had a the guy was interpreter of Virginia came over not as good as HAP but he was a good interpreter and by that time we had worked on two other South Vietnamese hyung and a Chow were speaking good enough English where if I got shot they could pick up the radio take over because we cross train them on radio procedures SOPs how to run everything so help knew how to do it then hung and then Chow later and they must from their perspective this must have seemed completely insane oh yeah absolutely and they’re like really but they knew the way but this is 70 so SF had been there in force for six years by then and they knew enough and talking to each other plus being in a secret war how things were operated and that you know we all report it to a commander somewhere and it was still one of the points that it’s a sticking point with like oh god I’m alive thanks to you and now I’m leaving you guys here and so this is April 70 without everything about what April 30th 1975 would be like the day of Saigon film just horrible so you you finished with that you know you you pack up you report it to NHA trang during during the

next two weeks the most traumatic event was having the ice cream stand severely damaged by a enemy mortar fire that was serious that’s really messing with your head too destroyed the ice cream stand the reps had to go got they got PTSD from that one oh yeah daddy go downtown for the ice cream on April 25th that was April 1st so now it’s April 25th yeah I mustered out of the army at Fort Lewis Washington again with mixed emotions I flew to Denver Colorado to spend a few days with my sister Linda and to enjoy some spring skiing in the Rockies at the end of April she got a rental car for me to return to New York City I drove from Denver to Sutherland Ohio to visit my cousin dunk Conrad and his wife Sandra before heading home to Trenton the drive was about 1,300 miles including pit stops and a long wait in Ohio for food and few phone calls I made it home in less than 15 hours see you’re averaging over a hundred miles an hour basis that’s all I could do though it’s just a rental when I arrived at 20 West Paul I have that’s your house where you grew up it was around 3:00 a.m. times had changed in my absence my parents now locked the front and back doors of the house so wearing my jump boots in class a uniform I went around to the back of the house where I climbed up to the window grab the metal roof of the shed and stepped on the metal clothesline hook to push myself up to the red metal roof dampened by the morning moisture after I climbed through the back window I went over to my little brother David and gave him a big hug hell he was taller than me then I went down to my parents bedroom moving first to my mother’s side of the bed I touched her face but didn’t say a word groggy Shemer she murmured David is that you then she reached up to my face and felt my beard John she said as she stirred from her sleep John is that you John you’re home Henry it’s John he’s home she reached around my neck with the urgency and pain only mother’s know and said Johnny’s home Johnny’s home oh yeah so you made it home hey buddy grace God and what came next what I mean what did you do after that well went to went back to school because it took me two years to flunk out so that summer I took classes and then my dad got me a job right away driving school buses and so to like within the first two or three days of me getting a driver’s license this is Trenton New Jersey there’s still some race riots that were gone on so things were they had curfews which there’s like this is like mind-boggling in Trenton of all places and so they said we got a run for you you’re gonna go to Chambersburg which was the Italian section of Trenton and they were just starting new integration program so I picked up a busload of young black kids that were mostly elementary school pick him up take him into Chambersburg on the way in there’s protests and I’m getting rocked and stoned and I don’t have my car 15 because those Italians are whoever they were they were hitting us with those rocks it was really making me very unhappy but here it was like this is Trenton I go for one more zone to this and they’re doing this integration stuff so the curfew so we had all that going on and within a couple weeks the church softball team was reactivated softball season was there that did that school did some driving and actually got involved in the school newspaper became editor we had a period of time where the student government voted his self out of office we had the SDS on campus that Kondos were in there doing her thing behind the scenes they burnt down a couple buildings just for good luck played Domino’s in a library knocked over all the books there stupid stuff there her and then was it you you had to just be thinking yourself are you serious yeah and this is what I just you know assault my friends get killed took risk my own life saw what the Vietnamese people were actually fighting for what they wanted yeah and you had these people back here in America do it acting like this and this to you know we knew

the SDS was or backed with the calmness and they had their auteur propaganda but it was never reported they were just like well here’s like another group protesting in the streets without any kind of active definition as to who these people really were what they really hated America and so you know we’re involved with school trying to get going and you know during this time we got very active with the paper that has editor for two years I worked on a paper for every day for two straight years and we had our moments you know they had the first faculty strike in the state so before that I was really excited could me and two other SF buddies were going to shut the campus down because the the faculty there and the teacher unions told us we will support you students and we’re gonna get things for you and they made other promises which okay I’m all for it and there would be the first strike in history in New Jersey and so me and a guys put together a plan because there’s basically three major entrances and one couple clandestine routes so we had everything planned we’re gonna overturn an empty fuel tanker at one gate the other gate we were to just close it down with cars and things so would take them at least a day or two to clean it up and clear it out we shut that school down so we’re putting our plans together right so now here comes mr. editor I get a copy of the state I go to the State Department of Higher Education and the Chancellor gives me what the state is proposing says look at this read this it says have the Union give you their proposal but they wouldn’t give it to me nor would the chance he felt was a violation of their fiduciary whatever the hell was that they’re dealing with these union people so the union guy had his Volkswagen in the parking lot long story short I borrowed his contract I got it photocopied it when I’m photo cop and get downstairs at the administration building he walked by I salute say I continue to photocopy his is a negotiating paper which at many pages longer her I went back in printing side by side there’s two mentions that what the union was going to do it over twenty or thirty pages of documents one was to give them more time off and the other was for a class size that’s all they had in those pages we printed it dead in editorial and said screw the Union and opposed it and then we went to war with the Union editorially another fair and they went on strike but they didn’t close the campus down I pull I pulled our true eyes brokenhearted because I really wanted to get some some feel of real warfare here Trenton state college you know but they lied to us where were you studying at the time well you know I was a member as a freshman is 64 and I finally graduated in 74 with a political science degree with a minor in English the English was still my foreign language at the time and did you did you I know you were working at the paper that’s what you ended up doing for your career your young career must of my amazement because at the signal that was our school paper I did everything photography editorials news stories and went down to the Trenton Times the local paper they were owned by the Washington Post dick Harwood was the editor and during the Watergate stuff he was the voice that was skeptical of Woodward and Bernstein but he was my editor it’s not good down and I went in for an interview I said I had my hairs on my shoulders now I hadn’t had a haircut for a couple years blue jean jacket t-shirt jungle boots old blue jeans going for the first interview he’s interested just come back for a second I went back for a second interview had a clean t-shirt at this time stepped it up yes I haven’t thought about polishing the jungle boots less than that so I got hired went to work the trend times I was there for 10 years and then went to San Diego for 10 10 years with the San Diego Union which is about eight years moved out to California 1985 what made you decided to move out to California The Washington Post sold the Trenton Times and it the quality of the newspaper just diminished incredibly I was fighting more with the editors to get stories into the paper I covered the courts and I was doing investigative stuff we did a story about that we broke the story about the FBI investigating Philadelphia Police Department corruption that went to the top why it interviewed a marine who was a Vietnam vet who was the undercover guy working with the fan belt inspectors for 18 months I see this guy at nights we did this today we did this he made fun of the FBI and so he told me when they were

getting ready to go out get the search warrants and do the raid so I called up the fan belt inspectors and said hey heard you got a little case going on I don’t want to jeopardize your investigation but I’m gonna write about it before you guys do it let’s talk turns out the chief FBI guy was a as a Specter pilot oh geez he had flown in layoffs now we couldn’t determine if he was my Savior that night on February a 1970 or not but we had an interesting exchange so I gave him two days and they put all the paper together and they put up wiretaps on the key suspects and the Philadelphia Police Department Monday morning I broke the story scooped the Philadelphia Inquirer every major paper in the world does it before the Communists News Network and and Fox News and all this stuff did the story and it was amazing and they and they did the whole thing when the follows my one of my major coos we had the other story about the Philadelphia Phillies that were under investigation and so we had law enforcement with my was my main source that did the courts and in between we do these investigative pieces were fun Kane of San Diego was there for eight year doing law enforcement covered our beloved border patrol and then from there I went to North County and I I always lived in North San Diego County and they had a paper called the the OSA side blade citizen so I went to work there the editors job paid $10 a week more than a reporter’s job so I was like became an editor’s assistant city editor up in Oceanside which eventually became the North County Times and so I went to work there in October met my future bride in December she had two boys I had two girls ten months later were married and so we’ll be celebrating our 25th anniversary this this October and we went for the tiebreaker so the tiebreaker she’s 22 now and I worked at the paper until 2008 that I’ve worked at a couple of nonprofits helping veterans over the last 11 years in between a couple books for good luck yeah well no awesome books it seems like and this is something I always did like obviously you know you you went through some just completely insane intense stuff you come back it seems like you got back into society fairly well fairly quickly being you and and what I always say guys is like you need a new mission like because what happens when I think guys fall apart is when they come back from wherever they’re deployed to and they don’t want to come back they don’t know what to do they don’t they don’t they don’t go on to the next mission whereas you’re like okay I’m gonna go to college I’m gonna work at the newspaper or I’m gonna organize these you know we’re gonna fight this fight and it seems like you got focused on what your next mission was where I think that’s when a lot of guys don’t do well and I was wondering if you saw anything with your friends other Vietnam guys that you served with the guys that seemed to get back on track and carry on with her life as well those the guys that don’t yeah majority of our guys I like to think came back and they just that one way or the other we had a couple tragic cases that didn’t I mean when I went back from my second tour I went back with Jeffery Junkins who was going back for his fifth tour of duty second or third with SF and so we held on the plane going across when back wheel and in the camera on Bay and instead of going through the process we got our duffel bag went out stole Jeep drove to the Trang but didn’t go to headquarters went downtown and partied for a little bit then reported to the track and then went up to CCN there because we were both be turning so there’s no in-country training not as tough and and my order specifically said si si si n and I got back to the team right away which you covered earlier here and the other sidebar which really helped was at trench State College I point I was a point man for the Pele wmia concern center they came out with the bracelets and the whole thing went there was that effort they had American citizens that were and the family members it’s the first time American family members petitioned an enemy to treat our prisoners better and so our prison swarm related released until February of 1973 way at two years that I worked at the PIO WMI a concern center we had a POWs Air Force POWs from Trenton we supported him his well his family wrote letters everything we could do for now in our spare time between classes putting on newspapers and things like that so it was like a really a Subrosa mission and when the prisoners came home that was just a great moment mm-hmm and so but it really was helpful like they said another mission that we went into the newspaper going into it and there’s a period of time the student government voted herself out of office

so the paper was the only student voice so we took one zero what does that mean the student government voted themselves out of office was that even me hey this is 1971 we had people that were just too busy they didn’t think the student government was was a good address issues that were apropos to to needs and students or whatever the hell that meant and I forget the real reasons but they just disbanded themselves so the signal was the only voice on campus and so we became much more active and of course we had affirmative action that was starting then and the teachers strike we had a outbreak of meningitis which killed three students had to cover that and of course deep in my mind I wanted them to strike I wanted to go out stop the campus down but it didn’t work out how about the you know how was it the treatment you know you know as a modern day veteran myself like we get treated just unbelievably ridiculously good whereas the benefit from Vietnam we weren’t treated well but today our citizen tree treats our soldiers sailors appropriately regardless of the politics they thank you for the service mostly yeah we had we had cases I mean I wore my fatigue jacket for years just to say fuck you I’m wearing if you don’t like it talk to me about it and we had a few parties with the newspaper and so everybody almost everybody except for one or two people were very liberal of course this is the college 1971 too and we had this one freak he’s like six three had his long hair and he came up to me said you know you guys I know about you Green Berets your fucking baby killers you know he’s gone on the whole party comes to a stop so it’s mean is creep and so he said a few more things than fine says aren’t you really a baby killer and I said look the only time he killed babies when we ran out of rations he was never saved and every boss was kinda like laughs and realized how ridiculous this asshole was yeah so it’s like why get your hands dirty yeah yeah so yeah we had someone that I’m in black when he came back he was trying to get out a year poor quick and took a took the door got outside and wound up in a long corridor well three or four guys came up to him I say hey man you’re back you got cast we’re gonna believe you that burden so then pulled out was 25 caliber browning the little ones you know you your palm yeah the mingoes no you’re not I’m not giving it to you and the guy I recognized a cigarette lighter when I see one limb put her round between his legs right there at the airport they they left but again there’s no respect you know Lynne just didn’t want to get his uniform where was that where I was live see up in Seattle yeah yeah and then how did you start getting reans group that you’re with now I got a phone call first but well just – I got a phone call from Spyder parks in 1983 I lived in Trenton my first wife first order and he said we got this group special operations association it’s our guy so it was formed by Green Berets that ran recon and we had some hatchet force guys that were the platoon company size operations like Mad Dog Jerry Shriver and they had formed up a few years earlier so I signed up probably to Trenton and their reunions were at different places so I’d never I didn’t bother to go for several years but spire and I talked paid my dues and finally went to they started having them in Vegas me and Jeff Junkers we drive go to Vegas get into the hotel went to the security guard left and sneak into the reunion hang out with the guys for a day pick one of our guys crashed in their room for the night and then drive home next day but we get to see the guys and no money we get to free food free drinks a little gas right so we did that for a couple years there’s a lot of fun and then when I finally met Anna my current wife and my sweetheart forever that kind of came to a close I took out on one time and the first time was not a really completely good experience some of our guys are still pretty wild and then the hotel wasn’t that cool but now that’s more of a our guys are slowing down a little bit we’ve lost some along the way so we happen to be you know it’ll be our 43rd reunion that I’m also involved the Special Forces Association chapter 38 up an orange and I went to the restroom two years ago at Christmastime I came back I was president rapido my second year duty with those gentlemen and what’s the what’s the

nonprofit group that you have we have the veterans veterans affordable housing program that’s out of orange and then we have a separate nonprofit called the American veterans assistance group where we work with programs within our communities we have 45 communities in the five western states that are owned by our company and by our nonprofit and so we encourage to help veterans that have fixed income to get them into affordable housing you know the manufacturer homes are less expensive the stick houses and then we have programs but through our the evac program we have programs for meals meetings have been a guest speakers and things like that and we’re doing at about nine of our two communities now so that’s what my other job is to do the newsletter busy always always busy can’t like Clint Eastwood say can’t let the old man in well I’ll tell you what we just hit three hours or something close to that so I know I need to let you get out of here obviously anything else any other closing thoughts no just as I said the first time is I could have done any of the books without my sweetheart my dear bride you know we had you know four teenagers and a relatively new born in the house they go right and the god bless her without her I couldn’t have done it so and their family today we just learned we got to to grow two or three girls are pregnant so we’re getting excited about being a grandparent or practicing her and we’re still working with our nonprofits so moving forward anything can people donate to that nonprofit do you have that kind of thing is there a website or anything like that or is you guys just run it locally no they I’ll have to check the website but they could I’ve got my email my website saw Chronicles calm and they could punch a near my emails there and I’ll plan to Ford and the we’re going through some changes with our website where I sign you know let’s SOG Chronicles is how people can talk to you reach out to you through that gladly and yeah come on in and we’ll say hi and take it from there awesome awesome well well thank you for this opportunity and your books me love thank me at all Lewis’s this is the honors 100% and completely all mine to hear the stories which are completely insane to learn from your experiences obviously or maybe it’s not obvious anytime you want to come on the podcast you shoot me a text you let me know and we’ll just open the door you come in I don’t need to say anything you can just talk that’s fine with me I’ll just listen like a bad dream I’ll be back I look forward through every second of it likewise and you know so thanks for coming on and and you know more important and of course thank you for what you and what your teammates did for the service of our great country likewise sir thank you we’re always indebted to you and men like you so thank you for what you’ve done appreciate it airborne all the way until next time and a once again John Stryker mire tilt tilt has left the building what an incredible human being and it’s a complete honor and just lucky to be able to sit here and talk to him and hear his stories and hear and reflect on stuff and it’s been a while it’s been three hours so anyways if you liked this conversation this podcast that we just did mm-hmm if you got something out of it which I know I did if you want to support the podcast while you actually support your own self yes I think Eko can give you some help in making that happen yep yes so it’s going to it gg2 obviously I’m doing jujitsu if you’re not doing jujitsu I I would say chuckle and I strongly recommend I thought you said we were disappointed no see yeah maybe maybe part but not really at the end of the day there is some understanding to be exercised here because not ever okay you were rolled well you’re different but sometimes people roll into jiu-jitsu gym or see it on TV or I mean think about it two people wrestling a hard or whatever some people just don’t automatically want to go do that you know just automatically on its surface you might think oh well that’s not really for me I don’t really want to gravel grapple with some other dude oh yeah what you don’t see is what’s beneath the surface yeah because what’s beneath the surface is fitness flexibility mobility mental stamina yeah physical stamina yeah

cardiovascular improvement strength improvement on top of all that you guess what you get a legitimate skill that you can actually choke another person that’s bigger than you that is stronger than you yeah you can take them yes so and you know if I speak for myself the reason I started and continued with jujitsu is because it’s the skill that you’re talking about you that you learn that skill is this if someone if someone insists on fighting you mmm you can win the fight yeah you won the fight and before you learn how to fight and I’m speaking generally speaking um before you learn to fight you think ah you know um I’ll just do this oh yeah you know I’m stronger than that guy or I’m bigger than that guy whatever yeah you know and you don’t realize how how untrue how you know how I’ve said we lie to ourselves yes like we lie to ourselves this is a whole nother category of lying to yourself yeah because one category is like we lie to ourselves like oh it’s just one donut it’s not that’s just a lie you lying to yourself or well I don’t like can’t make it to the gym today cuz you know my you know it’s getting a little late that’s a lie you know it’s a lie but an even bigger lie is I’m more capable I’m capable you know in certain situations and you’re not and you’re thinking and you still talk to people like this you’re like oh you know we’ll feel really came down to it yeah yeah you know and I lift – yeah and I got strong cardio who’s gonna be able to take me I’ll tell you a most fourteen-year-old girl yeah that knows how to you know choke you yeah that’s who yeah just like in pool right you play pool billiards billiards snooker sure and it’s like yeah I know I see what’s going on I just hit this ball to hit that ball and go on the thing yeah that’s no problem with money on me I’m pretty smart I’m pretty coordinated yeah you know I’m just like that’s just something I’m not how hard can it be exactly right and you go play against a guy who really who knows how to play pool you’d be like brow how do you even do that like how did you even let you figure it out but they know they just know it’s not like it’s this magic thing they just sort of know same thing with jiu-jitsu it’s like been in fact it’s such a mystery when you actually do it how easily they beat you it’s such a weird magic mystery that they you don’t even comprehend it yeah at first you’re like oh oh I just slipped nobody you did slip people either but yeah yeah yes and you think oh well next time I’ll just stop him from putting his arm there yeah 1 billion other things that’s gonna do yeah exactly you don’t know nothing about same thing with basketball by the way yeah something with all sport basketball right oh yeah yeah it’s it goes deep anyway when you do jiu-jitsu when you did you get to because you’re doing that we’re doing it and you’re gonna do it you should get Aggie because you don’t you want to gain okey so the pedigree that you get is an origin G best ski in the world factually and made in America which is a huge deal by the way also origin the brand that makes these keys they make jeans American denim you didn’t get yours yet did you no I did I thought to be little all the time yes sure these little just got his yeah we sure do you know why we take care of the customer first well you’re not really because the mine were T&E you know what that is research and develop test and evaluation yes to devalue care yes and I just got another test evaluation for the next phase yeah because I’m making another face we lie to ourselves as a wise man once said anyway no I don’t have genes but I from what I imagine from what I see and gather you know from the field they’re good genes see now this is this is a good psychological good flanking maneuver you just did right now Pete Ryan here that’s Nell be like Oh echo doesn’t even have genes no no I will get 100% better get them – did you did you text them and say hey can I get a pair of jeans size or whatever me and Brian share text and pain by the way how like oh we’re the last were the only ones that we literally know that don’t have even worse story a lot of genes and you know me I’m over here well then again I wear the the the shark fins sure you know what are you sure that they maybe that’s all I wear so whatever representing everything in big time but they happen and be the best sure you wear jeans very often me know maybe that’s right not not while you’re too vocal about it yeah me but you would be if you had them on if I knew like yeah maybe I’m just sour grapes like I don’t even want any cool all right that’s what I do have them how are you good they are totally good to go there the next level squared away awesome yep you can get

genes you can get t-shirts you can get supplements we have supplements we got we got joint warfare which you should take we got krill oil we have discipline to discipline go this one go is like get your cognitive wheels spinning turning moving quickly sharp so can we have discipline go in a can of coming out I think he’s actually out right now yeah the little yeah yeah those are the same formula the one the test one that they yes okay good yeah that sounds good yeah here’s the thing about all of these right so you have joint where for krill oil right the combo that’s the best way to go fleet joints and then you know discipline and then the mole can in everything okay consider this right as you get older and you still want to fight because man I got it I gotta be honest with you I’m you know you know you catch the wave of just consistency I know you’re consistent person and I’ve been on that wave okay it’s a tsunami right so you go you’re the poster child of one although I do have that I do have the ding knee right now yes which is we’re almost there yes but you know how okay you know how some people can catch various levels of politics a flourishing flourishes of activity you know where they’ll catch the wave of consistency meaning like everything they’re doing in their life is like I’m being disciplined and I’m in the zone where it’s like just second nature now boom boom boom everything right so if you take all of these supplements that’s gonna keep you on there yeah especially as you get older oh I don’t know about the older part cuz I’m just kind of the same as I was just as how for you but take it from someone who’s getting older actually getting older oh these I think I as far as my workouts like they’re hard they’re harder than most of the workouts I did when I was young and I’m just maintaining big-time as far as like staying in the game yes thank you anyway you get the consistent combo that’s that’s in my opinion how you do it also I mentioned Moke additional protein in the form of a dessert delicious drink that’s just so tasty you know telling me like the they were saying oh it was Dave good deal yeah yeah good deal day was was saying he’s at a point now where he’s drinking strawberry milk he goes listen it’s one thing to be okay it’s time for dessert or hey I’m a little bit hungry it’s another thing to just be sitting around or walk with you’re off some beauties just think for no reason other than I want to taste the goodness yeah I’m just gonna go have a strawberry mocha yeah strawberry Slayer right now and you know why I understand because I’ve done that before and this is what I thought the thing is you there’s no guilt in that but here’s the thing the concept kind of made me feel a little bit guilty when I was doing that because you know how the kind were you just like at home bored and you see the cookies and you’re like it was an easy path and you took it it was a desire that you should come to yes so that’s my hand be a bad pattern to go down yes so you got to be careful don’t get don’t allow the goodness of milk to start to train your brain to accept things that you just want yes with it you can make an exception with milk you can be like hey I really want this right now just for what just for the sake of wanting it yes you don’t lay our mind but I think hey donut yeah there’s a slippery slope bro it is very good beware the mind said essentially there’s other flavors too if you don’t like strawberry which some people don’t who is it Jason Gardner like Jason Garvey since they don’t like strawberry good job Jason he’s over there but he takes that little hitter with his coffee in the morning he’s got a little he’s got his little ritual scenario he’s got going on that makes sense though strawberry and coffee I guess no not like the one Elia there yeah then you got mint peanut butter the peanut butter is also all folks so is the mint that’s that’s the og you know did we just say og is we did we did big-time it is and then don’t forget about the warrior kid milk which the word can vote for your kid either that you can give them poison you can give them poison which oh you got a bunch of corn syrup in this drink I’m gonna give it to my child so that so that I give them type-2 diabetes or you can get them something that makes them stronger smarter or faster or better yes or your kid or your kid milk strawberry and chocolate get some also chocolatey mmm certified organic by the way mmmm very good micro I would even call it micro doses of caffeine there’s like mini mini doses yeah yeah there’s 60 milligrams per can yes sort of like a cup of coffee it also has the antioxidants in there it also tastes good refreshing very so there you go and well obviously yeah if you want to deadlift 8,000 pounds obviously yes a

chocolaty that’s thorn also certified also we have a store Jocko has a store I said we have so we all have a store if you want to get your merchandise haven’t said that word mer I don’t really say that word that much just said it and you said it in a real kind of illicit kind of way you know why cuz my daughter watches YouTube videos which I had to block her oh not blocker but you know you know how you got to put the Block on YouTube so only they can only see certain things anyway I had to do that she’s like you’re like okay good the only thing she’s allowed to watch this jujitsu videos chuckle podcast or your kid podcast oh no and she can take it to anyway the reason I did that was because she was following some girl on there who’s really she was just real sassy she wasn’t it wasn’t like the wrong reason she just had a sassy way it was talking maybe 15 maybe 16 years old young man that’s my estimate and my daughter six so this girl is talking about this and then it’s starting to say this stuff which is cute at first on my opinion but after a while you’re like hey you can’t talk like this is not yes not what we’re doing over know what we’re doing exactly right so she anyway so recently we didn’t left past like two days we had to block her anyway one of the things she kept saying was like merch and she’d say it all sassy like I’m not gonna do it again I’m not gonna say it again but that’s how she was saying it and so I just slipped into your head slippery and slipped right out of your mouth about the move that’s why okay so what can you get at yeah Oh a door yes so choco store.com is where you can get discipline equals freedom shirts lightweight hoodies which are really nice man I had it on the other day and it everyone to all flash into it and be like hey this is yeah you know what’s interesting about Jaco store calm what’s that is we sell t-shirts for one thing we sell discipline equals freedom t-shirt we sell good teacher we sell t-shirts there’s also people that come up to me and say ah I just got an awesome t-shirt I got one of your t-shirts and I’m like a sweet man mm-hmm and I just had a guy say to me hey I just got one of your t-shirts I wish I was wearing it right now and I was like cool inglis it’s the don’t talk just get after it shirt oh okay and I go cool man we don’t have that I don’t have that shirt yeah so there are what are we calling knockoff knockoffs yeah what do you call like yeah there’s like a word for it it’s a kind of junk yeah they’re disapproved but they’re kind of worth call unapproved they’re like worse this is why because people will they don’t know the layers you know how like remember the layers shirt and you evade $90 for it and has no language came with no layers no layers man and that’s that that’s really and it’s a piece of crap sure yes so it’s kind of like when you buy something for the kids you have a reason to buy something right and this is generally speaking I know different reasons vary from just person to person but you have a reason you buy something right let’s say there’s two reasons to buy a shirt one of these shirts hmm no let’s say there’s one reason straight up one reason the main reason is the layers you can’t even literally you can spray paint this will equals freedom on your shirt if you’re on display you can have that on yeah you can do that totally can you can have one printed you can go to a website and whatever font you want you can make it look however you want literally so why won’t you do that right because you want more than just that there’s something in whatever that reason is you’re in the game what does that reason is we’ll call it X reason X if you go buy stop talking get after it shirt you literally bought something else you didn’t buy an x check you out st. been thinking about this one you know because I there’s a whole reason about it but but nonetheless here’s the thing no because I saw some should kind of creator you feel like people are kind of know maybe but offending you in this way though because there is it there’s a shirt thing called like it’s T red spring or I don’t know something where basically you can go online take a JPEG of a picture I can get any one picture of you online submit it to this website it’ll make a mock-up of the shirt like that you know the cheap shirts and you know the buy in bulk maybe secondhand whatever shirts make a mock up and be like hey guys buy my shirt right and I saw your face on it like kind of a literally the wrong design right they were trying to copy exactly but there you’ve already seen this yes and I saw it and I was like man you know done in TJ like they’ll knock off like Louis Vuitton purses and stuff at least it looks like the Louis Vuitton

logo you know and you got to look close to seating you know the the the quality the lapsing quality but this one was like flagrantly wrong design you know whoever meanwhile they’re like selling it like their thing yeah it was offensive for sure and it’s offensive on two levels because of offensive kind of to us is like hey that’s not our stuff don’t misrepresent that’s a be the person who doesn’t quite you know they’re just new and fired up they can be like hey there’s one here’s the first one that popped up on Google they’re gonna get the junk one they’re gonna go out try to represent in the wild and that’s just not gonna work then that’s a bummer that is in there’s no support no support and you know I get it you know support isn’t the primary reason when you think of like you got to go out there and someone buys the shirt they there was no but there’s there no but that being said there are some people that they don’t really need another shirt they’re literally just to support yes sir plenty of people just hey we appreciate the time the effort the whatever appreciate it here’s a little thank you little support yeah nothing wrong with that that’s appreciated that’s you know that allows us to that allows us to have echo make all these videos nonetheless the Chuckle story dot bio you knows listening to this right now no one with three hours three hours yeah alright well whatever you’re gonna say you might as well say it that cares but it’s all still true how about that and yes the mid the stuff that you really want to represent the authentic certified there’s no certification process but approved approved is all on Jaco stored calm IWA active dot co dot uk’ that’s if you’re in the UK that’s where you get it yeah so I and here’s the thing I’m gonna say by another URL for that what code uh you at UK still yeah that’s it gotta be like that okay anyway cuz you know cuz shipping in certain parts in like the shipping is crazy from here is what I’m saying so boom you wanna you want to sidestep the shipping a little bit you can do that might take a little bit longer I think maybe I’m not sure I don’t live in the UK but nonetheless some people were asking me about that oh yeah anyway hoodies and stuff all the legitimate approved stuff check it out if you like something get something also or subscribe to the podcast I mean haven’t already on iTunes stitcher or Google Play where every listen to pop tunes or whatever you listen to podcasts that’s what I meant estate and the warrior kid podcast which is not dead it’s not dead you know which is more episodes are brewing the brewing in my mind should I you know I make for the warrior kid podcast I do a blast I don’t know six episodes perhaps I’ve done the story from Uncle Jake yeah that takes not just time because it takes a little bit of time to prep but it also takes the spark of inspiration right okay here’s the deal right and you can’t manufacture inspiron oh no we know yeah so sometimes I’m like well I could just do a QA for the kids which is what it started out as which is fine which I I get it so but sometimes I feel like I’m letting everyone down if I don’t do the story from uncle Jake’s childhood yes because I really like doing the story uncle Jacob childhood so do I now I will like I said well we’re back on it maybe I’ll release some with no story from uncle Jake’s childhood just to because I get so many good questions from young warrior kids around the world and I mean that I think about that the world little warrior kids all over the place getting ready to do some pull-ups so yeah check out the warrior kid podcast and also if you want to support a actual warrior kid Kota Irish Oaks branch comm we’re young Aiden is making soap that allows you to stay clean check yeah also we have a youtube channel chuckle podcast YouTube channel if you’re interested in the video version you see with just what Jon striker Meyer looks like tilt aka tilt or if you want see what Jocko looks like if you don’t already know more if you don’t have a shirt with his face Ari on it and you wanna see what he looks like on you know YouTube and also there’s some excerpts on there you know if you want to listen to or revisit specific ideas or concepts lessons you know individually and share them with your friends you know my higher likelihood of them watching it that’s really the money on our YouTube channel so yeah EKKO thinks his videos are good you can leave a comment on his videos he does read them I read them allegedly everyone likes to say that goes so check that out psychological warfare that’s an album with tracks where if you got a little moment of weakness you might be approaching and you want to get out of bed or you want to get your workout daughter you want to say no to a doughnut doughnut press play psychological warfare iTunes Google Play mp3 don’t forget about the visual

version of psychological warfare warfare from Dakota Meyer flipside canvas Dakota Meyer is making art you know that you can hang on the wall that says all your excuses are lies makes all kinds of cool stuff he’s stepping up his game with that it’s really cool stuff and if you haven’t listened to a podcast 115 with Dakota Meyers check it out and then go get some of his gear from good old flip side canvas dot-com it’s a very good one I was talking with both John Bozak mhm the list aka illustrator up word kid book series and like you know dragons yeah was he saying no word he was talking about yeah I got some good stuff that you know I’m going back and forth with Dakota Meyer so he’s gonna be designing some of those yes so we have some of that later kid posters canvases wall hanging stuff from Mikey and the Dragons you Mike in the Dragons artwork let’s face it this doesn’t look G it you know you you consider yourself kind of an artist right yes I do yes you do no doubt about Pete Roberts are just over there creating color palettes yes you are I see you over there yeah a little palette anyway your point sir your my point is that we have to admit that Mike and the Dragons artwork is awesome well we’re taking it we’re putting on two legit sized canvases and you can hang it up in your kid’s room so your kid learns to overcome his or her fear check agree also on it so on it calm slash Jocko so this is where you can get any kind of fit like additional fitness gear awesome fitness gear including kettlebells which I recommend battle ropes maces clubs so I’ve been talking to some of the guys there he was telling me about the mace or a club in both right yes this one is the one with the longer is mace okay yes Club is shortened yes the mace so I was like yeah no I don’t I don’t really do that workout but I looked into it and that one might be beneficial the mace is that even one official yeah the well the mace and they’re both beneficial the thing that’s beneficial about them they’re awkward yes they’re hard to handle yeah you know but I’ve been doing like a lot of kettlebells like heavier for as many reps it you know it’s like that kind you know there’s different you know you can do like kettlebell for longest anyway the more awkward kind of the thing and you’ve been doing those sandbags to him yeah I was yeah man those awkward thing here’s a good exercise with the sandbag you just take your sandbag just heave it over your head turn around heave it over your head around heave it over your head that’s actually tiring oh and you’re gonna find that to be more tiring than you expect especially because the first one you’re like oh gee aqua said this was gonna be tiring it’s not then you do the number three and you’re like Jacques was not right number five you’re like why am i breathing hard and then you do it like seven times you’re like why might been doing this yeah it’s too painful yes that’s my experience nonetheless okay I’ve been doing it and consistently kind of for the first time in life or a be like wait I try the work cut school for a week or two and say get school work out it’s a good workout I get it but I’ve been doing them for like long time now kettlebells like these awkwardly and in jiu-jitsu I feel this it’s not weird it’s weird because it’s new so it’s this new like lack of tiredness you know how there’s like different tiredness is in jiu-jitsu where you like okay I’m enrolling with you know various people you know yeah not you you Nisa I get it and you know when you come back we can roll or whatever and maybe I can really put mine on tiredness to the test by this like I’m saying you get few different types of tiredness you’re looking really breathing eskimo that has nine like 150 different names for snow you know different styles of tired negative no because there’s Oh think about it there’s the pent airiness where your breathing or hard but you know you can still generate kind of force with your muscles you know your muscles aren’t like noodley and oh yeah so you’re like you’re not a muscle failure yes which is he different it’s different and they already call that type of tired muscle failing lots of fatigue eskimo words for all these different things all your different forms of fatigue anyway or you can be like dang I’m not breathing hard but I just I’m just so weak my back I’m trained with me you know that how much of you train with me I don’t know infinity times what what how do you describe my tired all right here’s the I’m trying to think have you ever seen me get tired I have with me no no I’ve been tired I’ll tell you that there’s a there’s a couple times I totally remember getting tired I was we did he know ghee holiday training here one time we started with no ghee we went to ghee we had six I think it was six 10 minute rounds no it was six six minute rounds nogi six six minute rounds ghee I was tired at the end of that everyone seola everyone does the leg I’ll take a

rest round and then I’m gonna go get choco by nonetheless I did it after doing all these workouts I don’t feel the like body tired you know like a dog don’t feel it it’s like not even nearly as well like I really got to get pushed to feel a bit so anyway anyway the point is yeah go to on it calms last chocolate look at all the cool stuff on there grab something from there that I don’t really help you I’ll keep you in the game big-time books choco what do we got I’ve got a bunch of books will the where there’s a will that’s the latest way the warrior kid book where there’s a will getting some really good reviews from people don’t have you finished it yet no oh you’re still working through it huh anyways if you to help your kids or any kids that you know get on the path these are these are books that everyone tells me and I will tell you I wish I had these books when I was 7 years old 8 years old 9 years old 10 years old 100% way the warrior kid marks mission and where there’s a will check them out they’re in multiple different languages to check that out if you speak a different language or your children speak a different language you can get that I also got Mikey and the Dragons miking the Dragons is the book that should be read to every kid at least once a day from the ages of one until six okay I just read it in a first grade class you went in other words your fresh cream sauce and read it how’d that happen I went in there I got nuts I told all the kids because I know it’s like they’re trying to did their goal of a teachers to keep the kids calm right I come in there no that’s not happening so I’m like good morning children and like they’re like good morning and I’m like what good morning what I can’t hear you what I’m not sure what you’re saying can you please be louder so they’re amped and as I was getting them all amped up I started getting nervous because said wait a second I’m getting these kids completely just jacked up and getting crazy and hyper yeah and then I’m gonna expect them to sit and listen to me read this book which is a 15 maybe an 18 minute read it’s not it’s not short it’s not short and so I was I was like oh I might have overstepped my balance I might add I’m gonna made up long the tactical call so then I crack open the book and this after you know answer a couple questions I crack open the book I read it boom silence and total attention first 18 minutes while I read the book so that book and I was to explaining to the kids that I put I put words and I said listen there’s words in this books that keep when you read them people are saying time that that words too big of a word for a little kid I said these people want to make you stupid I want to make you smart when you see this word and I opened up poised there’s a thing right we use the word poised yeah I rhyme it with noise and I said these people don’t want you know what the word boys this and I read it to him again that little section as if we think that means and you know some little kid little little Billy up front is it mean like he said something really smart he says does it mean you keep your feelings inside and I said yes Billy that’s what it means don’t let the man keep you down they want to I want to give you the dumbest book you can read his books got a couple words you’re gonna you’re gonna have to you have to try and figure out what they mean but you will poise you just figured it out Billy you set an example for everyone in this room yeah salute dancing William I know yeah that’s it man so that’s Mike in the dragons get that for the library this is what you did there whatever was my theory hypothesis you know okay so your your I made you train a little next belt level up yeah we okay we’re gonna say no sorry if with with the kids when you’re getting them all fired up here’s what you did you didn’t necessarily get them you there’s a difference between being loud and fired up and being at attention so you got like the the trouble from what I understand that teachers and babysitters away if you’re looking after the bigger and coaches and stuff like that’s looking after a big group of kids is they don’t they’re they don’t you don’t have their attention yeah or fired up and a lot of the time with kids they’re so fired up that they can’t give you their attention so what you did is you just basically wrangled like a big horse wrangler wrangled all of that fired up in this that these kids actually had anyway but you got their attention so maybe you didn’t have to like go against the grain with them at all all you did was sort of funnel it funnel it towards you so all that fire done was towards you so when it was time they’ll do anything you say now yeah you told me you actually you’ve actually seen weed is this your first hand and the effects lasted like weeks is weird I’m going to show you both videos cuz I said yeah that’s right yeah okay so I’m gonna tell the people if I haven’t already I don’t know I’m gonna set in thinking of okay so we’re Dave Burke’s

house good deal if good deal Burke’s house exactly right and we’re leaving it’s time to leave so it’s like my kids my two kids your kids were not there one of my kids youngest yes your younger youngest was there Dave Burke’s kids Jamie and Flynn Cochran’s kids and well twos anymore it was a lot this is a lot of candidates yes and jock was there so you did these actually did the exact same thing with them as you did with the kids in the class yes which is good by the way so you’re going attached I like it you don’t catch you’re giving your assessment and I have the video to revisit – I have one and my wife has one so my wife’s one she’s videoing you and your it cutscene where you’re going like this you’re going go go go with your hands side to side and the kids are trying to keep up they’re like Oh what are we doing okay and slowly they start doing you’re like and then you start yelling at them yes you’re not doing it loud enough yeah the same thing huka huka and they all start doing they fall in light they’re doing it louder or whatever in your like louder of course they want to be louder huh so they kids so they can and they fall in light and they do it you’re like good and then you give them high-fives right good job give one half I’m your like harder you’ve won hi fight just to whichever random kid so you say harder then they hit you with the harder high-five then you go ah real loud and you mean of course that gets everyone else fired up like they want to do the same thing so you’re like going from kid to kid highfive saying ah I mean it I was trying to do it harder than the last kid or whatever meanwhile when other kids if you notice when other kids are giving you high-five the ones that are not giving you high fives are just watching full attention just waiting waiting for the next thing now the point of this story that made significant to me was because – not even two weeks I let me be like a week later right my son who’s – my daughter who’s six my daughter accidentally and my wife has this on video – because they’re playing and doing little dances or whatever on accident my daughter steps on my son’s wrist just on accident when their pennant you know in the in the Scramble so my son gets up he’s like Eagles ah and hits my daughter right and goes mean what the heck that’s kind of weird you know that was a weird outbursts Oh Michael and then but my wife Clara she kind of remembered something about it right so she revisits the video that she took of you going I mean so it was like a hit and then a point ah yeah right that’s what you did they hit in your version was a high-five sure enough I see my son’s little head watching the whole time just in the corner he didn’t do any ice he was watching the whole thing go revisit my son daughters virgins same exact thing boom incident right steps on the wrist instead of high-five he does a hit to her shoulder or whatever in a high-five fashion it goes mean the exact same tone is you your children are always learning yes so if you want your children to learn properly the right stuff read them like game the dragons yeah but see what you did there with the attention right hailing it’s it’s totally effective that’s a good note man I mean that’s a good little Dannic technique I’m gonna use it you know I’m gonna use it Jack don’t do it before a bit time don’t forget about the discipline equals freedom Field Manual this is the graduation gift right get it for your kids what are they 15 17 19 22 24 getting done with their masters get them to discipline equals freedom field medal they got work to do we all do if you want it on audio it’s on iTunes it’s on Amazon music Google Play and all that then you got extreme ownership and the dichotomy leadership written both by me and my brother Leif Babbitt they are books about leadership and they will give you some principles that you can apply to every single situation you are in in business in life dichotomy leadership and extreme ownership speaking of life we have a leadership consultancy and what we do is solve problems inside organizations and we solve them through leadership because that’s where the problem is so it’s me it’s late fab and JP Danelle Dave Burke Flynn Cochran Mike Cirelli Mike bimah and Jason Gardner if you need help in your organization with leadership go – alone front calm and also we have EF online because leadership training is not an inoculation it’s just like jiu-jitsu you can’t just show up one day now you know jiu-jitsu you can’t just show up read one book and or go to one seminar and now you’re a good leader no you have to continually train and that’s what EF online is interactive leadership training new modules coming out monthly it’s got me and the rest of the echelon from team working with you to give you

pragmatic skills go to EF online for that also the muster Chicago done it was sold out next up Denver it’s gonna sell out Sydney Australia December 4th and 5th the Denver one is September 19th and 20th go to extreme ownership calm if you want to come to these events because they are going to sell out so go there early and EF overwatch where when you’re looking to hire someone don’t think oh I got to find the person that has the specific skills that I want no what you want is to hire the right person with the right kind of character and the most important skill that they can have is leadership skills and then you can teach them the technical skills that they need to know for the job we have people with character and with leadership capability from Special Operations in combat aviation and we can put them into your organization it’s our company EF overwatch its EF overwatch comm if you need leadership in your business or team and if you want to hear more from myself and echo Charles we’re on the interwebs or on Twitter we’re on Instagram and we are on Echo’s Antico Charlson I am at Jocko willing and once again thanks to all the veterans out there men like John Stryker Meyer who fought for the American ideal and who himself represents that ideal true American Hero humbled to sit here and talk to him and to those of you that are out there on the front lines right now thank you for fighting for our ideals as well and also thanks to police law enforcement firefighters paramedics EMTs dispatchers correctional officers Border Patrol Secret Service first responders thanks to you for living a life of service and sacrifice so that we can live our lives in safety and security in to everyone else out there remember John Stryker Myer is written about and told us stories that he lived through and some of them are just hard to believe but also remember that for every story of bravery and heroism that he tells there are an infinite number of stories that never got told stories from the men who did not come home soldiers sailors airmen and Marines who gave away all their stories past present and future they sacrificed all those stories the stories of their lives for us never forget them and until next time this is echo and Jocko out

Uncategorized

Capitalism in Crisis: What Is To Be Done? – Professor Richard D Wolff

is an honor for me in a historic move it began not very far from here and trolls and shows the whole world in the United States in the United States but we do we do and begin to fight against is an economic system he got a system that long ago stopped to deliver the goods for most of the people the most of the people maybe even ninety-nine percent of the people evil and it takes courage and it takes courage and all of us sing or hat for NASA and if there weren’t launched other articles are full to show our appreciation shayzon for having been able the start of movement started movement that millions of Americans and millions of Americans already sympathized with arrays in Akron and in the months to come will join will join because the alternative believe things as they are things as they are is no longer tolerable is no longer tolerable in that spirit that’s it I want to make an appeal the people in this movement other people learn a lesson from the last time an economic collapse descended on the United States so bear with me so bear with me as I take you through I take it a very short very short examination examination of what happened what happened in nineteen thirty in 1930s and the lessons for us today today between 1929 and 1943 1940 American capitalism collapse Apple is a glass in my 33 the official unemployment rate is what twenty-five percent twenty-five percent two and a half times what it is today that depression depression less than over 10 years over 10 years we’re just in year four last year for don’t waste your breath imagining and it’ll all be over soon President Bush promised it would be over soon and President Obama promised it would be over soon as to their truth-telling capacity capacity draw your own conclusion in the Great Depression in the Great Depression the mass of people took about four years four years to get over the shock of an American capitalism that had promised them everything everything that they had believed in they got over the shock and it wasn’t true it wasn’t true by 1933 by 1933 they were ready to act fast and pulling today out just a brief summary should be suffering in four years in four years 1933 the right

30-7 1933 1937 20 million Americans join the most successful successful union organizing Drive in American history we’ve never had anything before four horsemen sources like it right in the 1930s as well two political parties parties became very strong very strong the Socialist Party the socialist party and the communist party together the unions in the socialist socialist and the communist put enormous pressure enormous pressure on the government on the government to do something do something for the suffering unemployed sorry for the people losing their home people losing their homes for the people whose job wages were falling whose job benefits were falling shot is to do for the people what people demand today for one people to his head what the difference was hitter’s wanna say got it a night in the nineteen thirty just a short list in the depth of the depression of aggression when everyone from the President to the big businesses said there was no money the union’s socialist honest we don’t care you don’t care you know you have the money demand program in Andhra and they got them number one number one Social Security Social Security for those of you who don’t know we never had a Social Security system before Social Security system middle of the depression we created social security security number two number two in the middle of the depression we created unemployment insurance program for the first time in American history if you were laid off no fault of your own all the heroes who are entitled you’re entitled to insurance a portion of your salary salary to help you find help you find other work other work and to save your family your family from poverty poverty somehow somehow even though there was no money the government found down all the money all the way but the best I’ve left for last in nineteen thirty-four 34 the president of the United States Delano Roosevelt went on the radio am they’re being sadly he’s having no TV lgd and he said to the American people it’s the private sector private sector cannot or will not hire tens of millions of americans americans spend the federal government the federal government must do it must do it from 1934 1934 1941 1941 the federal government government created and fill 11 million job at today’s population population it would be 25 million jobs that shows you that shows you what can be achieved what it is if people people are determined our service motivated motivated and organized and organized it came to pass and because President Roosevelt Rosa went to the business community

of which he was a part where she wasn’t hard and to the richest American to the register of which he was a part where she was apart and he said to them he said to them I’m going to tax you I want to ask you businesses and rich people is rich people and you’re gonna pay so I can do these programs because if you don’t if you don’t there are a lot of other people Union Socialist Party is socially Communist Party who are going to cut you a lot less advantageous deal advantageous here half of the business community the business community broke from the other half supported Roosevelt’s support eros now and that’s how we have social security so she’s here unemployment insurance tiny and the idea the minds of American eyes Americans that they do not have to accept they do not have to accept of capitalism a tourism that visits disaster on our economy and then pretends to tell us everything else there’s nothing they can do there’s nothing negative if you believe that if you believe that then i will sell you behind them here’s the lesson I would urge you to learn the Union the socialist social has a communist and Kanye’s were so excited so that they could win a grand Social Security unemployment insurance high 11 million job that they accepted accepted that was all they could reasonably hope for baby so they made the decision to allow corporations operation to continue to be organized the way they always at the top a major shareholder major shareholder 15 or 20 people here are 20 people who own the enterprise well the answer just below them just a board of directors another 15 or 20 people selected by the major shareholder Cheryl what to produce watch agrees how to produce where to produce and what to do with the problem and watching you in the profits the vast mass of people the majority in every corporation are excluded from any participation making the decision making the decisions that shape their live a shame what to produce how to produce where the Purdue areas and what to do with the profits that their work a corporation is a fundamentally undemocratic organization democracy democracy corporation our brains are a contradiction in terms yes the decisions decisions not to invest how to invest not to hire millions of American tarnish my corporation I mean I corporations in the interest of the profits of the profits that are collected by the board of directors and the shareholders and shareholders in the 1930s despite winning reform is right way or we left the corporation’s as they were corporation so no surprise no surprise the corporation corporations had every

incentive and every incentive to do the taxes they had to pay regulations they had to follow people they had to hire people they had to hire not only did they have the incentive incentive but because we left them because we have to collecting all the prophets like they all prophets they could use the profits it is a promise to undo all the reform all or that we want everyone in the nineteen thirty in nineteen thirties so we have lost most of the protections and they have reduced here is all their taxes and they’re discussing now they’re discussing now in Washington in Washington reducing is in Social Security Social Security here’s the lesson here’s the lesson this time is time as occupy wall street as Occupy Wall Street breaks all records race already in one month in my mind having become a movement across the country hi we cannot be we cannot be satisfied satisfied with getting a jobs program regulating Wall Street posse because if we don’t if we have change the way corporations are organized change the way corporations are we will be no more successful we will be hell more successful than our parents generation our generation we will see our good work we will see our good work undone undone once again once again by the same corporation is a corporation who did it to us the first time first time we let them be shame on them man if we let them do it again shame on us here’s the solution here’s the solution we need to transform corporate enterprise for us to make corporation a corporation’s justice democratic this is enterprise as we want everything else to be everyone else the people most depend mostly on the decisions of corporation our decisions are corporations are the people who work there and the people who consume what they produce people who consume it is under the rule of democracy the majority should govern the majority are the workers and the consumers corporations have to be changed or is it happening so that the decisions are made democratically democratically by the majority I authority and we should all say you should all say a fond and sincere farewell farewell to the shareholders to the shareholders and the boards of directors and the boards of directors we you badly messed up badly mess up we don’t hold it go home some folks some folks find it hard I need hard to think about a corporation corporation run by its workers and its consumers nice workers so let me briefly give you two reasons let me give you two reasons to get over this holding you back holding you back from the progress of your thinking from the progress of a first first imagine a corporation that worked like this one day to fly a monday to thursday on a thursday going to 59 are you calm you have and you do your particular tax pass friday you come right you don’t do your 10 love you your around with the

other worker sit around the other and with representatives of the consumers and the surrounding community and in a democratic way you discuss and decide discuss and decide what to produce how to produce out where to produce where he has what to do with the profits of your work the profits are welcome to a democratic economic system welcome to democratic announces and say with me and say with me the capitalism we inherited that has now broken down that is now broken down the second time in 75 years second time in 75 years go home oh the second reason to think this way the second reason to take this way and historical parable and sorry comparable once upon a time when I some iodine human beings believe you need the lead at the only way the only way to Governor society was to have a king or an emperor or ever saw and one day okay we got rid of the key even they went home and guess what yes all the diner prediction oh that society would collapse as I didn’t have a kid they have turned out to be nasty I will use a technical term I second power look horrible once upon a time as the by the time it was thought it was odd that when you reach about your puberty or your adolescence and your mind begins to think about those other things finding a mate hey hey it was thought it was hot that the only way to do that is to have your parents and find the right person I you were junior didn’t have enough life experience and your hormones you’re doing things we can’t discuss we can’t discuss guess what but everyone predicted and if you allowed young people and figure this process out on their own narrow and find their part I civilization wouldn’t then world wouldn’t collapse family wouldn’t disappear I got news for you if we get rid of the board of directors or drafted to get rid of the major shareholder the machines will still be there she’s a selfie factory will not move factory workers will have all the skill the workers will have all the skills we will produce just fly is fine and for the first time and for the first time the mass of people as a people ninety-nine percent I work for a living work-related will organize production glory highs production so it’s meaningful so is he oh its shape so is a so it is profitable for sorry profitable cries and not for one percent and I wonder then that is what the people of the world and one of the people of the world one what it is what’s being held back is what he held back by a capitalist system by Avila system I say capitalist I say Patrick’s name is everything and to get beyond it yeah you have to name it we have it but we have the people oh you have the people we have the plan and the obstacle and the obstacle is a tiny minority is that make the prospect a process very good very good what we needed we needed all of us all of us was some core some core of people of people to be the spark to be desire that’s what you are as you are and on behalf of the majority of the

American people thank you

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M4TB – International Sport and Global Development

Here we are then, the final topic of the final module in the course, module four, topic b, international development and global sport So having looked in the previous topic about the relationship between sport and the environment within the global context, now we’re going to look at another aspect of the future And it’s part of the present But arguably, it’s going to be even more an important part of the future And that’s the relationship between sport and international development Now in a lot of the course, we’ve talked quite a bit about elite sport, major spectacles, et cetera, major events, sporting bodies, you name it But here, we’re going to talk about mass participation in sport on a global level and the way that sport can help to involve itself, to contribute to forms of international development And it can benefit general publics or the populations around the world Now there’s a big assumption made that many people have that sport is a power for good And this doesn’t go back to Nelson Mandela in 1995 But he captured the general feeling And this is when he was the president of South Africa And on South African soil, the South African Springboks won the Rugby World Cup And he presented the trophy to their captain, Francois Pienaar And this was viewed as being a form of reconciliation between the previously racially split nation that was coming together through sport And so at this time or on reflecting upon this time, Mandela said, “sport has the power to change the world It has the power to inspire It has the power to unite people.” And I think, generally speaking, we do consider sport to have these other benefits that derive from it, these social benefits that we can gain from being involved in sports Now that’s a big assumption, I would suggest But it’s not an unrealistic or an unreasonable assumption And that’s what a lot of this sport and international developments phenomenon is about And it is quite a significant phenomenon And as I say, what I think it is, it’s grown over the last two decades And it’s likely to grow ever more in the future And we need to know what it is and what the possibilities and the potential problems are with it And it is going to become an ever more significant part, I would argue, of the international sport landscape and perhaps something that some of you one day maybe become involved in Here then is the outline And again, we’ve got the same type of structure And we’re going to go through what international development is, its role with the UN, look at within the contemporary context where it’s come from, look at four models of SDP That’s Sport Development and Peace organizations And then look more closely at some case studies of examples of these programs within the field and also the critiques of the program So let’s start off Let’s talk about international development more generally and its relationship to the UN, the United Nations Now international development is the nurturing or development on a truly global scale, often done by developed nations who focus on what they perceive to be underdeveloped nations that are in need of various forms of development This could be economic, human, social, political, educational, and environmental So it’s that perception by certain stronger nations within the world perhaps of the need to help out, to help the development of other nations, hence, international development And the recipients tend to be, the major recipients of this international development tend to be those countries that we previously referred to as the Global South So you’ve got that developed developing world, the lesser developed as opposed to the developed world And this is characterized by the distinction between the Global North and the Global South, and the reason for this being that majority of the developing nations, the recipients of international development are located in the south Not south of the equator solely, but the majority of them are And of course, you’ve got your anomalies of New Zealand and Australia who are part of this Global North But this is generally the way it looks So what are these characteristics of these Global South nations? Generally poor material standards of living, limited infrastructure, including education, which is key, poor nutrition, and access to clean water, prevalence of diseases Oftentimes, they’ve got unstable political systems with significant levels of discrimination and exclusion

and low levels of trade, investment, and general economic welfare So they’re underdeveloped in all these different ways from economically, socially, politically, health systems, et cetera And that’s why they’re viewed as being in need of assistance Now why? Why are these nations, these developed nations so benevolent? Well, part of the reason is because there’s a recognition in the international community of nations that to have a healthy planet and to have a functioning planet, it’s not good if there’s these great disparities because these great disparities in development cause problems and can lead to issues and wars and conflicts that might affect the developed world So there is a responsibility of the developed world to assist, to raise up, if you like, the development of the whole entire global community So it’s all in our hands We’re all interconnected Hence, the reason that developed world governments do fund, quite significant at times, international development to help, it’s part of their international policy because they realize their well-being is dependent on the globe’s well-being as well So that’s why you’ve got USAID, UKaid, Canadian International Development Agency And as I said, most major nations do this It’s not just these three here But another key player in this is the intergovernment organization known as the United Nations And the United Nations is a big pusher of international development because it’s one of its four key roles And it’s an intergovernment organization established in 1945, took over from the League of Nations And it tries to seek international co-operation and development amongst its member states And there is 193 member states as part of the UN headquartered in New York in that building there And the UN has played a key role in development and all these other things but also in promoting sport for development because it saw the potential of sport for affecting social change on a global level And this goes back a number of years But we can see a couple of key things in terms of the UN’s relationship with sport Number one, in 2001, it appointed this Swiss guy, Adolf Ogi, who was a former president of Switzerland, as the special advisor on sport for development and peace So they needed a special advisor because they recognized, quite a while ago now, the significance of it And then in 2003, there is a UN interagency task force on sport for development and peace And this was a key document that is, in fact, one of your readings, that it concluded the significance and the value and the potential power of sport as a practical and cost effective tool to achieve development and peace objectives So here’s key So the UN isn’t interested in sport per se It’s interested in it because it sees it as a practical, efficient, and cost effective, relatively cheap way of achieving its development and peace objectives So you can see it sees sport as part of a broader agenda of international development But what does the UN mean by sport? And I think this is a really good definition of sport, to be honest And they see it in a very broad sense It’s all forms of physical activity that contribute to physical fitness, mental well-being, and social interaction So it’s not just elite and competitive sport It can be recreation, play, organized, or casual or competitive sports and indigenous sports or games So it’s a very broad sense of what sport is And what they’re interested in is it’s physical fitness, mental well-being, and social interaction components That’s what they’re looking for And the UN also sees sport as a fundamental right And they go back to the 1978 UNESCO declaration that sport and physical education should be a fundamental right for all to be able to participate in it And the UN’s point was that fundamental right for sport and play and physical education has been ignored or disrespected for far too long in many, many places Because while in certain developed nations we provide children especially this fundamental right, in other nations, they don’t, simply aren’t given it They don’t have access and can’t become involved in sports in this way

They can’t participate So as a result, the UN developed a commitment to sport And here, they talk about this in quite detail And I think in this commitment declaration to sport in 2005, we can really see the UN, how it articulates its perception of the values of sport for development Here, it says it’s about participation It’s about inclusion and citizenship It’s about bringing individuals and communities together, highlighting commonalities and bridging differences It teaches core principles, tolerance, cooperation, and respect And with all these positive aspects, they reckon sport is a powerful vehicle that the UN can use to work towards achieving its development goals So it’s asking the world of sport, it says it’s got all these attributes that we can benefit from as a global society And as a result, the UN put its focus, a lot of it, and quite considerable money around sport development and peace So what we’ll see here is SDP But what are these millennium goals that the UN sees that sport can contribute towards? In what way can sport affect significant social change? Well, as I said, these are linked to the UN’s development goals And they have eight Millennium Development Goals, MDGs, that they instituted or adopted at the time of the millennium And they want to realize these goals by 2015 And you’ll see them here from eradicating poverty to achieve universal primary education, gender equality, reduce child mortality, improve maternal health, combat HIV, malaria, and other diseases, ensure environmental sustainability, and develop global partnerships for development Now sport can’t do all of these, clearly But it was linked And it was identified as being linked to a number of them And here they are And these are the ways that the UN said that sport can contribute to realizing its various development goals through health, education, sustainable development, peace, communication, partnerships, and HIV/AIDS education So all these different ways, you can see, sport offers something great for the UN It’s clearly something that can contribute to its goals and its aims and ambitions in multiple different ways So there’s no surprise that sport is such an important part of the UN’s promotion, it’s part of its strategies Such that, in 2005, Kofi Annan, then general secretary of the UN, declared the year the UN’s international year of sport and physical education to bring to everybody’s awareness the potential of sport to effect these type of changes And here, we have a brief discussion of the relationship between sport development and peace and the UN millennium development goals that we just referred to And I think it’s important that you look at those And you can go through them one by one And also remember one of your readings is that 2003 document that goes over these in quite a bit of detail But it is important to stress what this is all about And it’s about mass sport not elite sport, according to the UN It’s sport used to reach out to those most in need and, as they say here, including refugees, child soldiers, victims of conflict, and natural catastrophes, the impoverished, the disabilities, victims of racism, stigmatization, discrimination, persons living with HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases So it’s the most vulnerable and underserved people on the planet that they’re looking to use sport to help And that’s a key thing In 2014, April 6th, to be precise, we had the international day of sport for development and peace And there again, the UN was using this an occasion to publicize this issue and promote these ideas Message one, the power of sport to promote and respect dialogue Message two, the power of sport to enhance life skills of children and youth Message three, the power of sport to include everyone, regardless of abilities And power four– sorry– the power of sport to advance gender equality And lastly, message five, the power sport to improve physical and mental health So you can see this is a broad ranging agenda that they’re continually pushing and have done over the past 15 years And this is expressed here by the UN general secretary now, Ban ki-Moon, when he’s announcing and celebrating the UN international day for sport development and peace And I think it’s interesting to see

He goes all over those various attributes and what he perceives to be the role of sport in assisting international development And it brings it to a quite a nice concentrated focus, precisely what the UN’s interest in sport is However, it’s not just the United Nations And I think we shouldn’t overlook the influence the United Nations has had on promoting the very idea of sport for development and peace However, it’s spread elsewhere It’s been taking up by numerous different organizations, governments, and different levels of the world And what we can see then is this SDP community that has built up is related to changes in this thing called global civil society Now civil society is a key issue in contemporary understanding of culture, I think Now civil society refers to that collection of institutions and organizations that contribute, that come together to contribute to the benefit and the interests of the citizens So it’s the organizations that are looking after citizens, hence, civil society And it’s not necessarily the business aspect of it, which is somehow different It’s those other organizations, governmental and non-governmental, that shape our lives and look after our interests The argument here is that there is now a global civil society that there are combinations of government and non-government organizations that come together to look after the interests of global citizens, hence, global civil society And this is where SDP or Sport for Development and Peace comes from And Giulianotti argues that it’s a reflection of shifts within global society more generally This is where SDP, Sport for Development and Peace, has come from Because if we go through very briefly three phrases that we’ve looked at in this course, phase one of global society is all about colonization and civilization in relation to sport Remember in this period, we looked at the way that sport was a civilizing agent for colonial powers, late 18th to early mid 20th century So that’s global sport and global society 1.0, colonization and civilization Phase two is sport nationalism and post-colonialism and development So from the 1940s to the 1990s, what we had here was these newly emergent post-colonial nations use sport to embody and express their newly found independent status And the example I used, if you remember, in the podcast was Fire in Babylon and the West Indies and the various nations that make up the West Indies, how they used cricket to express their independence having split off from the British empire, having gained it, their independence, from Britain So that’s an example of that period, 1940s to 1990s And we can see it emerging in many nations as well, India, the West Indies, you name it, a number of other, Kenya, a number of previously colonial nations who now had developed their independence and were pushing forward through sport to demonstrate their modern nation status Now if you move that even further forward to now, phase three, this is the key one for us in this topic It’s sport development and peace The mid 1990s to the present is when this whole SDP initiative developed And it developed because many of these post-colonial nations recognized that there was a need for forms of development and not necessarily sporting development But they recognized the need for development And sport became, as we’ve seen, the vehicle through which this has become realized So global society, global civil society has embraced sport and embraced these nations as a way of helping to realize particular goals of international development And here, we see an example of this, football programs throughout the developed world, various sport programs throughout the developing world, I should say And this has become a regular part of global civil society within the contemporary moment Now Giulianotti states that within this moment, you can divide it into two phases Phase one, which was up to the UN commitment to sport in 2005, it was very haphazard So these SDP projects were short-term It wasn’t that they didn’t know what they were doing

But they were going in there trying to do good They didn’t have any long-term planning, sustainability, monitoring And they didn’t transfer knowledge between each other So there were all these lone wolves of programs all around the world trying to effect change through sport and lead to sport for development and peace But with real no cohesion talking to each other and really not a lot of planning ahead to how these programs would last So here, he acknowledges or he recognizes that, phase 3.1, SDP initial expansion And then he says there’s phase 3.2, SDP maturation and development, 2005 onwards From then, onwards from 2005, he says that there was a recognition that this was a significant sector within global civil society And people across the various programs began to talk to each other and organize, so there was knowledge networks that they could transfer understanding and knowledge and develop these programs that they were more structured, had a better sustainability, better longevity And they were likely to be more enduring They were likely to last and hopefully have a better effect And also they brought into some aspects of monitoring what was going on within them Now this is an issue People would argue that this isn’t, in fact, the case But he sees these two different phases And it’s really an organization and a better structuring of this whole sector that has happened since 2005 Well, overall then, you can see why the UN liked it because of its cost effective nature And I’ve said this before It’s not that the UN loves sport It’s the fact that the UN saw it could cost effectively or thinks it can cost effectively help realize its development goals through sport And that’s why it does it But there are– let’s look at some detail here, what the expectations of these programs are Here’s the UN or Ban ki-Moon’s expression of the UN’s expectations for such programs Now I’ve mentioned some of these before But I think it’s important that we go over precisely what the range of expectations are Number one, uniting groups and nations across the divide, across various divides, maybe religious, ethnic, cultural divides But the argument is that sport can help bring people together Promoting good health, obvious, I guess it’s obvious by involving, becoming more active, yes Promoting UN values, equality, mutual respect, and fair play Perhaps that could happen, yes Driving social change, advancing human rights, and eliminating barriers, promoting growth by solidarity Now I don’t know what you think, but that’s a huge agenda and a massive significant impact that they’re saying that the expectations of sport are And we need to think about that and whether these are realistic or not or even appropriate or not Now this is an important site that you might use if you’re doing the topic assignment for this topic because it’s focused on it’s the UN website for sport for development and peace And there’s a lot of interesting information in there, including the annual report, which, not unsurprisingly, comes out every year And the one for ’13 identified these thematic areas that were among– acknowledged these as well, but these were the key areas that they were looking to effect change in regard to sport and child and youth development, sport and gender, sport and peace, sport and persons with disabilities, and sport and health Again, that’s a wide range of influences And just to demonstrate, and I’m trying to make a point here, the further perceived benefits, and this is from the website more generally, this is the way that the UN sees in another forum it’s the perceived benefits of SDP programs And again, these are similar But they demonstrate some new things and just the scale and the expectation that these programs have or people have in these programs Educational development and empowerment, health promotion and disease prevention, promotion of gender equality, promotion of rights and equity for the disabled, social integration and the development of social capital, peacebuilding and conflict prevention And social integration and social capital, I think,

that really is all about social inclusion, making sport an agent for including people and breaking down divides Peacebuilding and conflict prevention or resolution, post-disaster trauma relief and normalization of life, and the economic development, poverty alleviation That’s an interesting one here And we do see the UN going in and doing this one quite a bit actually So when there’s disasters or traumas, oftentimes, programs will go in to provide children and youth with activities that will help normalize their lives against the trauma that they’ve just experienced by playing games and sports that will bring, as I say, a bit of normality back to that traumatic existence Now of course, what we do need to emphasize is the vast, vast majority of these programs sponsored by the UN or endorsed by the UN and other agencies as well the UN might partner with are pretty much focused on children and young people That is the focus of this SDP phenomenon So if we look at it more generally, if we look at the phenomenon as it is and the way that the UN has articulated it, and it’s been taken up elsewhere, clearly, this is something that has significant potential And there are significant expectations on what this type of program, what type of effects and transformations it will have on global society As I said earlier, while the UN is clearly an important factor in the emergence of SDP, it’s not the only thing And what you tend to see is the proliferation on the emergence of multiple different governmental and nongovernmental and community-based organizations that are actually enacting SDP programs, sometimes in conjunction with UN agencies, sometimes on their own So let’s not think it’s just about the UN The UN i just a big push of this movement around the world, but it’s actually being realized by multiple different agencies And to see that, you should go to this website, which is a fascinating website and very, very useful to seeing all the– it’s almost like a list or an inventory of all the different programs around the world related to sport and development So it’s sportanddevelopment.org And I would really get that and look at it and browse the site to see what’s there, very interesting And at that site, you’ll see– and before I get into that, you really need to look at this video because all of them give a real good insight into the lives within these different nations that they’re focused on where the programs are located So Adidas Ginga Social, it’s a cooperation between Adidas Brazil and a nongovernmental organization Gol de Letra And it’s in five cities within Brazil And it’s giving these various different activities, futsal through capoeira, as part of a program that what basically what they’re looking to do is improving the lives of these youth through them being involved in these various forms of physical activity That and, as it says here, will be activities that transfer life skills and social values So clearly, there’s a developmental aspect to it And also, as part of this program, Adidas are going to refurbish and extend, according to local needs, the sports facilities that are needed for such a program So clearly, it’s quite a good corporate social responsibility that’s benefiting individuals or youth in five cities all across Brazil Another one, and I’m less sure about this one is Lululemon, which is, I suppose, the women’s athletic clothing store And here, they have partnered up with this Africa Yoga Project Again, it’s a form of corporate social responsibility that they’re funding three Kenyan yoga teachers to go to Mexico to learn more about yoga teachings that they can bring that back to Kenya and to be more effective, more successful yoga teachers within the Kenyan context And this here is the very nicely put together short film, Stretching Boundaries, which sees their journey and Lululemon’s contribution to this development goal of improving the lives of Kenyans by spreading yoga to them So there are two different Adidas and Lululemon examples of this CSR

And there are many, many others If you look on many corporate websites if you search for them, you’ll find some interesting ones as well So the second one, the second type of SDP program that Giulianotti identified is strategic developmental SDP organizations or programs Now what these are, and these are distinct from the next one or follow, is national and international governmental institutions That’s key So they’re either intergovernmental or national government institutions that actually run these type of programs or support these type of programs in various ways And of course, the key one we’re looking at there is the UN And we’ve talked about the UN quite a bit up to this point And clearly, the UN is a key contributor in this SDP sector But the UN and specifically UNICEF is another offshoot of the UN And UNICEF is the United Children’s Fund And it has its own website and its own focus on sport for development and peace called Team UNICEF And if you go onto that website, you’ll see it here There’s the link Again, it’s got lots of information It’s very interesting what they’re doing at UNICEF And it’s clearly related to the UN And it’s clearly part of the same agenda And here it says, “Team UNICEF is built upon a deep seated understanding that play has the power to transform and improve the lives of children.” And UNICEF advocates for the rights of children and sees sport and play as being a fundamental right that it should help children around the world realize So this is part of Team UNICEF’s goal in various ways And on the website, you’ll find very interesting things, such as this image from Somalia where they’re talking about in a war-torn nation how UNICEF attempts to promote physical activity and play as a way, and partly this is the trauma issue that we’re talking to normalize the lives of children within such war-torn and traumatic experiences But also, in terms of inclusion, I think this is interesting that they would refer to, and this is something relatively new, that issues of disability and international development are coming to the fore and here linked with sport, that they’re bringing sport to the disabled populations of developing nations as well, which, I think, is an important insight and an important development You probably agree And also, here we go In 2004, to demonstrate that the UNICEF, part of their reason for the importance of sport is its inclusive nature It helps to bind societies together But to have an inclusive sport culture, you have to include everybody in it So this is a cartoon And you should look at it featuring a cartoon like Namor, and I think it looks particularly like Namor But there we go As part of the Vamos Jogar, Let’s Play– I hope I didn’t butcher that pronunciation too much– campaign So it’s the let’s play, let’s include everybody when we are playing Inclusive play means everyone’s a winner when no one is left out So this is part of the message as well It’s every children’s right to play But we have to include everyone when we’re doing it for this notion of social cohesion and generating a less divisive society, et cetera And let’s get back to another one of my interests, as you know, cricket And here’s a very interesting one This is the United Nations Population Fund, again, part of the UN but separate like UNICEF, a different agency within the UN And what they’ve done in Afghanistan is they’ve powered with the Afghanistan Cricket Board to develop cricket programs within the nation And it’s cricket programs for girls and boys and, in fact, men and women And what they’re trying to do is to empower youth in Afghanistan through cricket but particularly women in order to provide them opportunities and advocate for keeping girls in school, in sports, for the health of young mothers, and for prevention of child marriage So this is what they’re hoping to do through promoting cricket in Afghanistan for women and then, more generally, to deliver basic life skills training to young male and female cricket players as well So it’s a way, and many of these programs are like this, they use sport as a vehicle to get people into a program

And then once they’re in the program, it’s that sport plus element So they will teach them these various different elements that they’re interested in imparting to that population So for girls, it’s various elements, basic life skills, importance of education, health of young mothers So it’s interesting that sport is the lure because it’s perceived to be popular, and it is popular It’s successful as a lure And then once they’re there, as well as getting them involved in the activity and the health benefits of that, children and young people benefit from these added on elements to it as well So here’s another representation of another quote from it It’s, “cricket here in Afghanistan is used as a comprehensive platform for both social and developmental activities.” Boys and girls, and they’re hoping very much, if it says here that their partnership with ACB will be very effective for their interventions in Afghanistan That’s the UN Population Fund’s interventions And they’re hoping cricket will be very successful in enacting their goals Let’s turn then to the governmental involvement, the national governments’ involvement in SDP programs And here, I want to go back to earlier work that we talked about where referring to soft power And we could argue that part of the reason why governments are interested in SDP programs in developing nations and SDP and international development more generally is because they want to enhance their soft power It’s a way of demonstrating to the world the importance, the significance, and the benevolence of that nation by helping other nations And I think that’s part and parcel of what’s going on Remember we had at the start of this lecture the globe in the hands of the people and demonstrating that the international community of nations cares about what’s going on in other nations Well, they do But also, they want to demonstrate that they do care, so their national brand identity is heightened They get the soft power benefits from it And I think that’s true in a number of cases perhaps And certainly, UK Sport is committed, through its partner development program, to SDP programs all around the world but largely in that Global South And it’s all about this, a form of public diplomacy to try and increase international goodwill towards the US While, and let’s not forget it, while in doing so, they’re increasing and they’re helping out struggling nations, developing nations through the implementation of these programs But it’s not only a benevolent side There is, I think, a political side to it as well And certainly, USAID, one could argue the same thing There is a soft power benefit from the NBA, from Abby Wambach, whoever it might be getting involved in these international development programs And Abby Wambach here certainly wants to endorse them and is a good spokesperson for why they’re important and why USA should be spending its money doing this So again, I say that there is a benevolent side and a political side when governments are involved The third type of SDP organizations or programs identified by Giulianotti are those focused on developmental intervention And remember the last one was strategic development That was the governments and intergovernment organizations Developmental intervention, this is the realm of non-government organizations and community-based organizations So the strategic one is all about those policymakers, the UN through national governments Here, developmental intervention, what we’re talking about is non-government organizations and people and organizations within the community So this is a very diverse group and probably the biggest group And they advocate supporting interventions with the aim of addressing locally identified issues And they can either be sport specific, focusing on football, skateboarding, you name it, cricket, or generalist, being one of numerous interventionist strands So they can be part of a much broader intervention of which sport is one element An example of this, not a great example but one of them, well, I suppose it’s an OK example It’s a well-known example is FIFA’s Football for Hope

And FIFA is a nongovernmental organization And what it does is it partners with community-based organizations or other non-government organizations, and it supports them in then providing these SDP programs around the world So FIFA becomes a source of money for hope, if you like, that’s funding these various projects rather than directly organizing them But it does recognize that it’s a valuable tool that makes a difference to people’s lives in contributing to positive social development on a global scale by addressing the most pressing issues in each community Now actually, you could think of whether this is, in fact, a form of corporate social responsibility because is FIFA a corporation? Or is it a non-government organization? Well, it’s a money making entity It blurs the line there But we’ll call it a non-government organization anyway And its documents and its brochures on Football for Hope are quite interesting And if you got a chance, they are all available from the web You should have a look And it speaks to its role in promoting and supporting these various schemes around the world But this strategic development SDP will largely be, and here’s some examples of it, will be discussed largely in the next section where we’ll be going into some of these in more detail But you can look in on the web and try and find ones that you’re interested in or in places that you’re interested in And you’ll be amazed how many around the world there actually are of this strategic development type It’s quite amazing Then we turn to the last of Giulianotti’s types, and that’s the social justice organizations and programs And I’m not going to talk about these for very long These are protest movements basically And they look and identify the various forms of exploitative elements of global sport industry And they look to intervene in those around the world and in a way that is designed to alleviate the conditions experienced by people in developing nations So they don’t directly go out there and assist and provide programs They’re protesting against various injustices and inequalities that they see in the hope that organizations, corporations change their practices and, therefore, help to develop societies by benefiting the lives of people living there So we can see it’s not quite directly related But there are a number of these, and we did talk about those within a previous in the sporting bodies when we were talking about worker’s bodies within the sport industry Clearly, this is what this is related to But you can see it’s not as directly concerned with SDP programming as the others And so I think it’s a little bit of a strange one for Giulianotti to have identified But we will focus on the other one anyway As I said, we’re going to focus on the strategic developmental type of SDP program, that one that is focused on non-government organizations or community-based initiatives And we’ll have a few case studies of those and some critiques And within these case studies, I’m not going to talk about them I’m just going to point them in your direction And you’re going to have to look at the videos linked to these case studies And you’re going to have to look at them closely to understand what’s going on And then I would suggest follow up by looking at the websites that give some more information There’s simply too much for me to speak over here And I’ll give you the merest basic introduction to each of them But you’ve got to delve into them to see the differences between them So starting off, we have Right to Play And Right to Play with set up by Johann Koss, who is a very successful Norwegian speed skater And it’s an international organization, works all around the world involving– I’ll get to here It shows the various sites of its involvement In order to try, as it says, build life skills and better futures while driving lasting social change Now you can see that’s quite considerable, as many of these things are, ambitions that this particular organization has And I think if you look at the video, you’ll see some quite remarkable things that are going on and the way they’re trying to effect change literally all around the world So that’s Right to Play Secondly, The Magic Bus, and I will also point out, here’s the website should you– well, I

suppose, I suggest you get to that website to have a look And you can also find a link to these sites on the web page for this topic, just to let you know there’s a direct link Second one we’re going to look at is The Magic Bus Again, this is quite a broad ranging approach in which physical activity is part of a broader development initiative But this one is focused exclusively on India So it’s the Indian context we’re looking at here And The Magic Bus has been going quite a while and has been very successful and has been recognized as such within the Indian context And as it says here, “changing the course of children’s lives one game at a time Magic bus steers children towards a better life with better awareness, better life skills, and better opportunities in the journey from childhood to livelihood.” So clearly, it’s very interesting It’s specific to the Indian context And it’s a very broad ranging and ambitious project Thirdly, one called Moving the Goalposts And this is in the community Kilifi in Kenya And again, look at this video It’s made by them And you see the insights to what’s going on and how the program runs and what its ambitions are This is specifically focused on girls And the idea of the organization is to try and provide girls with life skills and forms of empowerment through soccer that are going to help them in their future lives And so I think it’s interesting that this one is specifically focused on females as opposed to the others which were more broadly males and females And there’s particular reasons why, in the Kenyan context, this would have this specific focus, which you may want to look into Fourth one, Football 4 Peace International, this is organized and run by a university in England, the University of Brighton And it uses football as the mechanism to try and encourage cohesiveness and try and bring communities together around the world And as it says here, it’s been operating since 2001 in Jordan, Palestine, South Africa, Germany, Ireland, Northern Ireland, and England And it’s most well-known for its work that it’s done in Jordan and Palestine However, I think if you look at the video, you’ll see some interesting approaches and ways of thinking about SDP programs more generally And it’s a good example And again, the website has some interesting information as well But again, it’s more overtly focused on peace Even that’s not its only outcome or goal that it’s trying to realize But that’s what it’s focused around And the last one, the last example I’ll give you is Skateistan, which is in Afghanistan And as it says here, it’s a non-profit organization connecting youth to education through skateboarding, which it just shows you can use any type of activity And it’s, although girls are, I think, 51% or something like that of the those involved in the program, it’s not solely focused on girls But clearly, girls are an important part of the mission of Skateistan And again, there’s a website that’s very informative And you can see what they’re doing And it says here, “we use skateboarding as a tool for empowering youth to create new opportunities and the potential for change.” So if you look at each of those four, it’s opportunities It’s empowerment It’s change It’s education It’s cohesiveness It’s looking to alleviate conflict in various different ways And I think you can see various trends But there are also differences as well So it would be useful for you to tease out those similarities and differences And that’s effectively what I’m asking you to do within the topic assignment for this topic, should you choose to do it So that’s some examples of these NGO, community-based strategic development SDP programs But there are critiques Let’s not be naive about this And maybe you can see some of the critiques that are building up in your head as we’ve gone along here We have to be critical of what’s going on in order to make sure that these SDP programs, I think, are as effective as they can be And here, we have the critiques Despite the best of intentions, numerous academics have criticized these SDP programs And I don’t think they’re just criticizing for the sake of it I do think there’s some value to some of the points that they raise And should you be interested in these critiques,

it’s here where you can find them, Simon Darnell’s book, Sport for Development and Peace, Fred Coalter’s Sport for Development And then these two here, this one is particularly critical This has critical elements of it, Levermore and Beacom, Sport and International Development and Global Sport-for-Development Critical Perspectives by Schulenkorf and Daryl Adair Now interestingly, I think these are all available in the library This one here, the Darnell, is available as an e-book through research port So you might want to check that out and have a look at it electronically to see what’s in there It could be useful, as I say, if you do this topic assignment So let me condense some of the criticisms that have been leveled at SDP programs in general And there are a number of points And I’ll go over them one by one Firstly, they have inflated claims of sport for development and peace’s impact Basically, the argument or the criticism is that these programs say that they’re going to change and transform the world within their statements of purpose or their missions And they claim to have huge and significant impacts on the world through the programs And they’re overinflated They’re exaggerated They couldn’t possibly have that type of level of change It would be impossible This is the argument And as a result, the argument is they lack humility They’re not humble in their approach And they’re not realistic They lack realism because they make these overinflated claims that they can’t possibly realize And that’s a big criticism And the argument should be you should be more circumspect You should have attainable goals that you can realize and then work towards those rather than having these overinflated, exaggerated aims and objectives Secondly, many of these lack clear definitions and parameters What this means is there is not a common agreement about what SDP is, how you should do it, how it can be realized, and how you can measure SDP goals And this quote from Tannenwald says it all “Gauging the impact of sport and development is challenging, in part because it’s difficult to pin down what it is.” There’s no real definition, let alone what it means and how many people it is helping So we don’t really know about it It’s out there poorly defined, lacks parameters, and lacks the ability to measure whether it’s successful or not The third criticism is this There’s often a failure to demonstrate the small, incremental steps that could lead to broader community or societal change So there’s no pathway if we do this, then this could lead to this If we teach girls through skating to become better educated, what developmental steps will that lead to improving community and society? Or another example could be if we use football as a source of cohesion and peace developing within a community, how do we get from the football field to ensuring that that peace is communicated throughout the community? These links aren’t often made That’s the argument And this is important because they have these ambitions They have these stated goals that they want to realize of transforming society But what we tend to see is that the focus is on the green, downstream transformations at the individual level Now they’re focused on changing individual lives, which is great But even that’s difficult But the assumption is that there’s a trickle up effect, that these individuals will become part of the community and part of the society And so downstream goes midstream to upstream transformations And I really don’t see– I mean, this may happen But there’s no concerted, there’s no structured way that this could be realized So that’s a criticism that’s leveled And as we know, individual transformations are hard Community would be harder And societal level would be even hardest So SDP programs perhaps need to have a more coherent strategy as how their individual level focus is going to benefit community and society more generally And maybe or they should be more realistic and say, what we’re focusing is on the individual and to try and change one life at a time to, therefore, change the community and society incrementally That would be a better strategy perhaps, rather than saying, through changing lives, we’re going to transform society and not show a lockstep developmental way of doing that

Fourthly, and the next one, I should say, is a sporting Band-Aid, and this is how SDP programs are criticized for covering up the more pressing problems affecting people’s lives in these societies, like poverty, violence, poor education, and gender inequality It’s as if they’re going to be– they draw attention away This is the argument of the sporting Band-Aid They draw attention away from these problems by providing people with what are enjoyable and probably beneficial experiences within sport and development programs, but they don’t actually address these bigger problems So it’s a sporting Band-Aid that temporarily covers up these much bigger issues but doesn’t actually do anything to address these huge issues So that’s another criticism that’s leveled at it that rather than spending time on that, people should focus more directly on these type of problems Fifth, benefits for girls and women are questioned The argument being here that what you’re doing is imposing a male dominated world onto females The male dominated world being sports And largely, it’s male dominated sports that are being communicated, cricket, football, you name it So women are put in a disadvantaged position or females are put in a disadvantaged position because of that And that’s an argument that is made Sixth, questioning corporate social responsibility, numerous people have questioned whether the celebrity or corporate-based projects, because many of them are famous athletes adopts a particular community or program and fund it for a particular time And many corporations actually fund or partner with local community-based organizations for a period of time But they wonder how– people have questioned and criticized whether there’s a sincere and enduring relationship, or if it’s just a fly by night thing And are they really benefiting the population or are what they’re doing is trying to make their brand identity increase their corporate social responsibility value and demonstrate how socially and globally aware they are rather than really bringing long, tangible, and enduring benefits to those communities? So that’s another question that’s leveled And also, last one, reinforcing global hierarchies, this is an argument that numerous people make, Darnell included, that what we’re doing here is we’re seeing not the alleviation of these hierarchies between the Global North and the Global South or the developed and the developing world but the reproduction of them Because what happens here is they’re saying that SDP programs are, oftentimes, they bring leaders and they bring sports from the developed world and impose them on local populations They, oftentimes, this is the argument, don’t get the right type of feedback or information or knowledge from the local population to see what they want or need They simply bring their Western views and developed views and values down and impose them on these local populations therefore reinforcing that hierarchy between the empowered Global North and the disempowered Global South So that’s an important critique that is leveled by some people, rejected by others, I would say, but certainly put forward by some In summary then, that is it Sport for development and peace, clearly, they’re an important part of the contemporary global landscape They are an important part and will continue to be of the way that sport engages populations in the developing world, into government organizations, national governments, non-governments, community-based organizations, corporate interests, and well-known athletes and celebrities are all, many of whom involved in this sector And clearly, SDP programs have a potential, I would argue, to make a positive impact on global society I don’t think we can dismiss them out of hand, those seven criticisms, some of which may be valid Doesn’t mean that the SDP programs aren’t potentially a hugely valuable contribution to the future of the society and the global society in which we live However, clearly, they need to be devised, organized, and delivered in a considered and an informed way So they can’t be haphazard like they used to be

They have to be thought through and done for the right reasons and in the right ways and engage local communities who are being in the organization, as well as the delivery of them And I think this is beginning to change And this is becoming more a part of the SDP way of doing things But as Tannenwald says as well, another thing is SDP, the power of sport, and sport and develop movement more generally needs to soften its rallying cry So those huge expectations, those exaggerated hyperinflated claims that this, how sport can transform the world, needs to be softened They need to be downplayed And he argues we need to be more humble and realistic in terms of what these programs can do because even small incremental change is positive change This is the argument So don’t overblow it Don’t over exaggerate it and make unrealistic claims Just make realistic claims that these programs can enact and transform societies in these small ways And I think Sugden maybe said it best that, “if projects such as this are locally ground, carefully thought out, and professionally managed, they can make a modest contribution to wider efforts.” So he says it’s fine to make a modest contribution If that’s the aim and you can realize it, that’s a fantastic goal But you can only do that if there locally ground, carefully thought out, and professionally managed, and part of a broader approach to development And if you do that, then you can make and realize successfully that modest contribution So I think there’s hope in sport international development, sport for development and peace And I think it’s something that maybe some of you will be interested in furthering maybe even in your careers as you move forward because I know many, many people are, around the world, looking into this And it is becoming an even bigger sector than it is at the moment All right, that’s it Now you need to move on to those and to get this finished And that’s the end of the course I hope you’ve enjoyed it I hope you’ve learned something And maybe I’ll see you again sometime All the best

Uncategorized

Science 10 Section 7.2 Half-life

so this is section 7.2 and this people have said last classes get tougher this seemed to be where my kids struggled a bit more so that’s my way of saying you know turn your brains on halflife turns out Radio isotopes decay and because aside from gamma rays when it’s beta particles or alpha particles the procedure changed the number of protons Allisyn you are always forming new elements carbon-14 turned into nitrogen for example it turns out different isotopes decay at different rates some very quickly some phenomenally quickly like in trillion widths of a second and some incredibly incredibly incredibly incredibly slowly in fact one we didn’t realize was decaying we thought it was stable and it’s only been in about the past twenty years or so that we went holy smokes it decays just decays in a time that’s longer than the age of the universe that’s far so what we do the way we measure how long it takes for them to decay we determine here is your word have like mister do it this isn’t Facebook half-life of each does anybody know what the word half-life means if I say something has a half-life of 12 hours what does that mean no nope has nothing to do with 6 or 24 something has a half-life of 12 hours what you’re saying is if you started out with 100 grams in 12 hours 50 grams would be left that’s how long it takes for half of it to decay or if you started out with 80 grams in 12 hours 40 would be left and another 12 hours 20 would be left and another 12 hours 10 would be left another 12 hours 5 remember I said you’re gonna be dividing by 2 an awful lot over and over and over and over and over and over half-life says how long does it take for half of the substance to decay 1/2 of the parent isotope to turn into the daughter isotope it’s the time it takes for 1/2 1 over 2 what is that as a percentage 50% of the atoms decay to decay and if you have a faster decay that means you have a shorter half-life I think it’s francium which is on your periodic table in the first row at the bottom it has a half-life in the I think trillions of seconds it decays really really really fast you get it it’s gone let me let’s talk about a few c4 oh I’m not gonna say c14 how would I pronounce that what’s the C stand for what okay carbon-14 is the radioactive isotope of carbon all of you have some radioactive carbon-14 in you and as long as you’re alive you keep replenishing it so that the percentage giulia of you that’s carbon-14 stays roughly the same but as soon as you die that carbon-14 starts to decay which gives us a way to measure how long it’s been since you died this is how we date objects that are 15,000 years living objects that were once living that are 15,000 years old or 20,000 years old this now for example we’ve dated some of the mummies in the Egyptian tombs it’s how we know how old some of those Pharaoh mummies are we use carbon-14 dating so while alive while alive organisms take in and lose carbon what this means Ryland is all of you have roughly the same ratio of stable carbon-12 to radioactive carbon-14 and we can measure that but when an organism dies it’s no longer taking in new carbon it’s just decaying the carbon-14 continues to decay so the longer an object has been dead the less carbon-14 there is so this can be used to measure how old something is like King Tut but

it can only be used to measure objects that were once living this doesn’t help you figure out how old the pyramids are oh but if you found a bunch of objects that were once living inside a room you might say maybe this room was built around the same time as all the objects that we found in it maybe there’s a weakness in that argument maybe was already an old ancient room and they were just using this to store stuff carbon-14 decays into nitrogen in fact that’s an isotope pair there are some common isotope pairs the isotope that you start out with is the parent while the stable product is called the what isotope I’ve used the word but we haven’t written it huh yeah daughter isotope for example uranium-235 which is the parent decays into lead 207 I think that’s on your formula on your purple sheet yeah there’s a bunch of there’s I think five parent daughter pairs with half-lives so do you need to memorize them no do you need to know that they’re there some of that when I ask you about them you don’t say I don’t know it’s on your sheet yeah is it five or four this says lead-206 on the purple sheet is it loo green ‘i’m 235 uranium-235 decays there but the uranium doesn’t remember that was the graph actually showing you a couple of classes ago that had 13 steps it uranium goes through a lot but this is the daughter that the problem is led 207 is not completely stable either it’s going to continue to decay into some well I think phalion or something I have to look it up I haven’t memorized these didn’t need to they’re my purple sheet so this is going to be a written question on your test somebody asked me about the test this would be a great question something like this suppose you have 12 grams of a radioactive substance substance X and you know it’s half-life is 8 years so in Year Zero how many half-lives have you elapsed that’s meant to be really obvious zero you’re starting with 12 the fraction remaining is one out of one percent remaining is a hundred after one half-life how many years is that eight how many grams would be remaining six as a fraction how much is remaining one-half as a percent how much is remaining what about after two half-lives how many years would that be from when we started 16 now the nice thing is 2 is a times table most you are pretty good at but I’m not going to try and make up nice numbers all the time in fact the ones on your sheet on the purple sheet have actual half-lives and they’re not convenient to do math with in your head so you can use a calculator but this one here with 8 years is pretty easy to do what will be remaining after 16 years that’s how much of the parent how much of the daughter would there be if there’s 3 grams left of the parent how much of it 9 grams because I was another quite good say how much of the daughter would there be what fraction is remaining 1/2 of 1/2 1/4 what percentage keep going what if we go with three half-lives how many years is that 24 how much is left sorry we already got three grams half of that which is 1.5 yes fraction remaining percent remaining oh by the way the fraction right right one-eighth right multiply the bottom by two twenty five percent divided by 12.5 by the way so 1/8 is the parent what fraction is the

daughter if 1/8 is the parent what fraction left is the daughter 7/8 7/8 in fact we could even say this the ratio would be one to one eight would be the parent 7/8 would be the daughter the race show if you were doing the research Allison you would find a 1 to 7 ratio of substance X to its daughter stable substance and then you could use that to work your way backwards this chart is clear too much writing so I’m gonna try and sage shorten this but we’re gonna use this notion of skipping along anyways some questions we can answer so after 8 years how many grams do you have left what we say after 16 years how many grams do you have left after 16 years what fraction of the parent isotope is left could you figure out a way to get there without the chart if you knew it was two half-lives it’s 2 times 2 it’s 1/4 we’ll talk about that after 16 years what percent of the parent isotope is left 25 who after 24 years how much of the parent isotope material is there 1.5 grams after 24 years how much of the daughter isotope material must there now be then do the math or use your calculator sorry ten point five right if we had 12 grams of stuff we still have 12 grams of stuff if 1.5 of it is the original stuff 10.5 grams must be the daughter isotope yes I did this format brain ium is the mysterious radioactive substance has a half-life of seven minutes similar to your attention span right suppose we start with 60 grams of brain ‘i’m alright look at the questions what’s the biggest number of minutes the questions talks about 35 what’s one half-life how many minutes so how many half-lives to get to 35 I’m gonna try rather than do a big chart I’m gonna try and go like this are you ready there’s gonna be one two three four five half-lives I’m gonna use a little bouncy arrows don’t freak out tire it’ll become clear in a second I just don’t want is a big chart do much work what are we starting with how many grams Tyra how many grams 60 after one half-life how many left thirty after two half-lives how many left keep going 7.5 3.75 now you need told you guys need your calculator so they’ve got a calculator divide three point seven five by two one point one point eight seven five yeah you know what I probably won’t go more than three decimal places okay fact if you said one point eight eight I promise guests will sulk I’ll carry it okay there’s my chart let’s see if just that alone is enough for me to answer any of the questions what’s a asked after how many minutes you know what how many minutes is this 60 at trick quest no it’s not set how many zero then how many seven then 14 then 21 then 28 and you can see I’m trying to keep stuff lined up I’m trying Allisyn to sort of replicate that chart but what this little writing is possible 35 so after 14 minutes how many grams of

parent isotope are left you’re right say it loud and proud 15 after 28 minutes how many grams of parent isotope are left 3.75 ooh after 28 minutes same amount of time how much of it is the daughter isotope how will I figure that out how will I figure that out Oh what do we start with grand total 60 how much of the parent is left after 28 minutes so how can I figure out how much is the daughter so 60 minus 3.75 I can do that in my head 60 take away 3 is 57 minus 0.75 50 6.25 double-check me yeah I can do math in my head what’s D asking me to find not how many grams what what fraction after how many minutes 35 okay well it goes like this 1 over 1 1 over 2 1 over 4 1 over 8 spot the pattern what’s gonna be next just the only issue Julia Julie start counting from zero start counting from 1 over 1 start counting from a hundred percent that’s at time zero what’s the next one you know what 1 over 32 that’s what’s left 31 out of 32 that’s the daughter oh and I just answered that I didn’t see e 31 out of 32 I think that’s less work than doing the chart and it’s not that much writing but it’s nice and organized where can you make mistakes Conlon I strongly encourage you keep everything nice and lined up okay and don’t be scared to number things it’s an easy way to keep track of stuff and you’ll notice by looking at the numbers ahead of time I was able to figure out how many of these I needed to go I didn’t need to do the loops ahead of time Tyra I could have just started and stopped when I got to 35 minutes as well oh yeah to the page suppose a half a substance has a half-life of four hours these are good test questions oh I like this question I like this question I like this question I like this question I like this question I like this question I like this question I like this question why do I say that did you hear me say it was gonna be on the test or use kind of student tends to notice these aliens good for you okay suppose a substance has a half-life of four hours what percent will be left after one day okay this one wants me to go with percents okay what percent do I start with nope there’s one half-life how many hours is that for you know what instead of putting one half-life I’ll put a 4h right there cuz that’s less writing what’s left after four hours have we got – one day yet how many hours is one day gonna be well let’s keep going how many hours is this now not 4:8 what’s left I can see where we’re going with this how many hours twelve what’s left after twelve twelve point five yump 16 what was 12.5 / to 6.25 what’s after 1618 hours what’s left I don’t think it’s 20 out oh it is 20 hours I can’t do math mr. doback 20 hours Thank You Dylan candy for you pause the video mr. duet to give Miss candy because you always forget 6.2 5/2 3.125 yeah and here it is there’s your 24-hour day what percent

will be left 1 point 5 6 – is that right 5 6 – 5 6 – 5 so I would take 1/2 mark off 4 5 6 – because in science we’re gonna round off properly I think it’ll be 5 6 3 because if there’s a 5 next to the – you round up % how could I show that’s my final answer with all these numbers there that’s about minimum work for maximum bang for buck that ok sage is it so I use instead of it I start out with the chart and then I just use little loops and I either label them with the number of half-lives like Ryland I did up here especially because I noticed the question was asking me a bunch of stuff further down or if it’s just one question I labeled it with number of times and it turns out also how many half-lives count with me 1 2 for our half-life 24-hour day could you figure out a way ahead of time that you knew it was 6 half-lives yeah so there’s shorter ways to get there but not shorter enough that I’m gonna take the risk of making them a strake Rachel it’s too easy to be off by one half-life I like example 4 I like example for like example for example 4 is a nice question suppose you’re analyzing some rock and you find that the parent to daughter isotope in a rock sample is one to seven now here’s what that really means it means that one-eighth of the rock is parent 7/8 of the rock is daughter and that’s why the ratio is one to seven because it’s one eight two seven eight a lot of students when they see that one to seven they’ll say oh it’s out of seventh actually out of eight if you read it as a fraction if the half-life of the parent isotope is 550 million years how old is the rock so now we’re actually doing radioactive dating by the way from the purple sheet which one is 550 million years what element are we talking about here there is one on there that’s 550 million years isn’t there oh I thought there was my bed seven hundred okay never mind this is a made-up one you’re right I changed that okay so you’re doing research and you’re analyzing a particular element you know it’s radioactive you know it’s got a half-life of 550 million years how old is this rock what we really need to do here Allison is go backwards is go backwards did I say go backwards well let’s go backwards let’s go backwards what would the previous fraction have been what would the previous fraction have been well the previous fraction have been starting ding ding ding ding ding ding ding ding ding how many half-lives not for three count the loops how many half-lives three how many half-lives three see it so what’s one half-life how many million years you know what it’s one two three can you come up with a good abbreviation for half-lives I’m going to go capital H capital L three half-lives times 550 million years is what dude not one in your head fine it’s gonna be 1516 it’s gonna be is that right no am i right or not 550 times 3 is 1650 is it not yes now we would never say that we would actually say 1.65 billion years but I would take both answers if this was written because I’m not testing your math skill I’m testing your science skill but what you’ve just done is you have dated a rock some music wow I’ve dated a rock before and believe me no I mean we’re talking about actually the geology like talking to a brick wall okay fine right strong like a brick smart like a tractor or something like that that’s what that that’s how we estimate Ages of geology illogical

formations and lo and behold about 80 years ago we did this with the earth and this is how we’ve come at our four point five ish billion years you can also get this information Jaden in some ways easier in some ways trickier using what we call a decay curve so here is mystery element on the y-axis we have percentages on the x-axis we have time in billions of years hey looking at this graph by the way this is a question they love to throw on the provincial because it’s easy to do for multiple-choice and it’s got lots of pretty graphics and all that look at this graph can you tell me what the half-life of element X is what okay drop down to 50% which is right here read it that’s when you’ve used up half of your element Tyra you’ve got 50% left Read Across drop down see it 1.3 billion years you guys next class for the class after are actually gonna make up your own decay curve from some fake radioactive popcorn turns okay so what’s the half-life 1.3 billion years so what percent would be left after 3.9 billion years well it’s tricky to read from the graph data dddd dddd dddd do well but since I picked that 3.9 intentionally it’s exactly three half-lives what percent is left 12.5 what fraction is left 1/8 12.5 by the way then what percent of the daughter isotope would be left after 3.9 billion years eighty seven point five okay we got a half-life of 1.3 billion years by looking at your purple data sheet what’s the probability I dent ‘ti of element X what do you have that has a half-life of around 1.3 billion years potassium-40 I don’t want to write out potassium oh I got a symbol for potassium K 40 potassium 40 before you turn the page okay we’re gonna sketch if you can with a different cut well actually you guys don’t have black ink so you blue ink is okay I’m gonna change colors I’m gonna go to red we’re gonna sketch this is the parent isotope we’re gonna also sketch the daughter isotope now the daughter isotope we start with zero after one point three billion years how much of the daughter is left 50% after two point six billion years one-quarter is the parent so how much is the daughter seventy five percent after 3.9 billion years after five point the daughter curve sort of looks like a flipped upside down image of the parent curve when one goes up the other goes down by exactly the same amount this would be a decay curve and a growth curve on the same graph so let’s draw an arrow and label it oh wait a minute from your purple sheet what is the daughter isotope of potassium 40 argon is AR yeah I’ll put in brackets AR 40 in fact this is one of the big geological clocks that we use we call it the potassium 40 clock you guys don’t have to turn the page do you I do oh no I gave you this one as well yeah yeah I found this one online so here’s a decay curve for carbon-14 okay what’s the half-life for carbon-14 looking at this decay curve Joseph 5000 nope you’d be dead for do better than that I actually labeled a point right on the

graph it’s more than 5000 yeah now you can only get that accurate because I put that point on the graph otherwise if I hadn’t put that point on the graph absolutely I would have taken about five thousand years oh sorry define half-life geez define half-life what is the definition of half-life the 5730 should go here what do we say half-life was how long it takes for what time for half of the parent to the cake and you’ll notice Tyra half-life graphs they have this curvy shape sort of like a elongated Nike symbol or so yeah it’s a it’s a it’s an exponential graph they actually use them in math all the time so how long is one half-life 5730 check what percentage remains after one half-life we can already answer this after one half-life by definition what percent remains fifty half of it after two half-lives twenty-five after three half-lives now that’s as a percentage but I also told you oh sorry says use the graph to estimate what would the percentage be after five thousand years a little more than half because it’s five thousand seven hundred and what is thirty so what’s up let’s read across let’s see five thousand years what do you think I’d take fifty five I’d take fifty six I take fifty three I’d take fifty four I would not take 49 I wouldn’t take 50 I wouldn’t take sixty between fifty and sixty and close to the middle you came with how we got that Julia you’re alive give her an elbow for me would you please wakey wakey eggs and Bakey okay you okay with how I got that Julie yeah yeah so what do you think around 55% what about after 10,000 years so 10,000 years didn’t in and and and oh really close I think to what percent I think pretty close to thirty fifteen thousand years dddddd yeah I almost think a little closer to 20 than 250 like 16 or 17 but if you said 15 I’m gonna say 17% ish but I take 15 I’d take 14 I wouldn’t take 10 I wouldn’t take 20 okay supposing you’re studying an organism in the lab and you know that it only has 40 percent of its carbon-14 left how old is it here’s 40 percent how old do you think it is I’d give you 7075 hundred years eight thousand I wouldn’t give you four thousand I wouldn’t give you five thousand I wouldn’t give you ten thousand but certainly yeah between five and ten let’s and it almost looks dead center yeah so let’s go plus or minus five hundred years maybe is that okay you get the hang of how you how you read these right you’re either gonna read up and back or a cross and down what was the next one twenty percent didn’t in an in an in an in it don’t you no no don’t write around there I think yeah between ten and fifteen is it closer the Tanner closer to fifteen closer to 15 so give me member between ten and fifteen that’s closer to 15 I don’t think twelve is closer to 15 if it’s between ten and fifteen and closer to 15 I heard it here I take 13 share let’s go 13,000 yours again plus or minus a thousand years we can’t be exact we can be close five

percent whew around 25 I’d get yeah it looks to be really close to 25,000 what if we extended this graph to 50,000 years how much carbon-14 would be left well it never quite hits zero but it’d be so close to zero ty we couldn’t detect it anymore we don’t have the instruments so when it says explain why carbon-14 measurements aren’t effective if the organism has been dead for more than 50,000 years we can’t detect levels that small there’s essentially none there is still a few atoms they never totally vanish but we’re not finding it then we need a new technique oh we have other elements with longer half-lives on your purple sheet so Alison we might try one of the other ones looking for that what percent of that is left in the original object now if it’s a living object it might not have any of those then we might look at the soil that we found that object in because we might say probably when they buried that if it was a person when they buried this may be roughly the soil is around the same age maybe could be longer could be older but this is how we do a lot of the archaeological dating the potassium-40 clock you know what I took two lessons last time I might finish this all in one and then that would give us all class next class to do it okay well B would be good in archaeology if any of you go into that field or geology there’s something that we call the potassium-40 clock potassium-40 on your purple sheet what is pataskala let’s write this down so not all clocks have hands anything that measures the passage of time can be at clock so potassium-40 decays to form argon-40 with a half-life of what is it from your purple sheet 1.3 billion years it turns out when rock turns to lava through heat through plate tectonics getting put back underneath into the earth all the gases including argon-40 are driven out they sort of bubble out but it’s more complicated than that Cameron because the rock is liquid but it’s more complicated than that but it resets the clock back to zero and then when the rock cools again the potassium-40 decays to argon-40 and by measuring how much of the argon-40 is left compared to the amount of we can tell not how old the rock is overall but we can certainly tell how old it is since it cooled so here’s the potassium-40 clock in blue now you guys I couldn’t whoever I was Rachel I was saying I would kill for a colour photocopier this is one of the reasons on you guys I think it’s just two graphs but you can kind of figure out which ones which because they’re smooth curves on mine it’s coloured so the parent and the daughter when one goes down the other one goes up because the parent decays into the daughter and exactly the same amount see it there so this would be a nice test question and I think in your homework you’ll be asked to do some of this I’ll give you a parent daughter isotope decay curve and I’ll ask you to age some things to determine the age of certain things so did Oh a why is there no argon-40 present in the molten rock when it solidifies it’s driven out you can sort of think that it bubbles out but lava doesn’t exactly bubble it’s not but pretend it sort of does we’re not gonna get into it after many years argon-40 is present in volcanic rock containing potassium-40 but there was no argon-40 there to begin with so how did the argon-40 get there where did it come from yeah okay 40 decayed into AR 40 what’s the length in years of one

half-life of potassium-40 on your purple sheep but you can also see it here here’s the 50% magic marker where you have this by the way it’s also where the two graphs intersect because you have the same amount of each read down dananananana 1.3 billion years suppose a sample of volcanic rock contained 100 nanograms that’s a very small amount of potassium-40 how many nano grams would be left after okay I’ve asked for how many nano grams of potassium-40 and how many nanograms of argon-40 let’s draw a little line we’ll put potassium on the left and argon on the right so after one half-life you’d have 50 nano grams abbreviation for nano grams is lowercase ng + 50 + G after two half-lives how many grams would be left how many grams of Arc nano grams of argon would there be 75 after three half-lives 12.5 and 87.5 nano grams mmm-hmm let me pause the video for a second I think I’m gonna first of all nuke this and nuke this I think you folks are getting the hang of it what’s your homework I’ve given you three things the first is this one that I called section 7.1 assignment 2 this one to me is due Wednesday and then I’ve also given you a practice quiz on it’s got eight nuclear equations where you have to figure out the type of decay alpha beta or gamma and then balance these equations which are a little easier than the standard chemical equations this is also due Wednesday Wednesday last year I took two classes to go through this this year I got through the half life lesson in one class so I’ve given you this this is gonna be due next week Monday because next class I’m going to be doing we’re gonna be doing an activity we’re gonna mark the take-home quiz and then I have a half life lab activity for us to do involving popcorn and creating a half life decay graph which will take most of the class and then you can also work on this so we’re gonna press pause for me oh thank you do next week wetness day because of family day Thank You Rylan for pointing out my mistake any questions on what you’re working on okay let me hit pause on the record thingy

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Big Stan (Full HD BluRay) FULL Movie || Rob Schneider, David Carradine, Jennifer Morrison

[man] Think about it Right on the beach, ocean breezes, blue skies, seagulls – All yours for the taking – [woman] It’s a timeshare [man] Well, it’s called a timeshare, but the truth is, for the two weeks you’re at the condo, you’re not sharing anything You’re not sharing the bathroom, not sharing the toaster, nothing Nada. Zip You are the mistress of all you survey [chuckles] My nephew looked up the neighbourhood on the computer Your nephew? Mrs. Darby He said the condo was in a bad neighbourhood [whispers] Blacks You’re right. You’re right The condo is in a rather poor majority black neighbourhood And you know what? I’m glad you brought it up Seriously Otherwise, I might have done something that I’d be ashamed of later And that would be to sell you that timeshare – You would not feel safe there – No, I wouldn’t Of course you wouldn’t How could you? We all know, and I say this at the risk of sounding a little racist, black dudes love white women Love ’em. I don’t know if it’s genetic or if it’s society We can argue nature versus nurture all day, but it’s a scientific fact that black men can’t get enough of white women Don’t think a woman of your age would be safe from their advances No, ma’am These big black bucks don’t care whether you’re young or old, skinny or fat, walking or with two wrinkled stumps right below the knees They want your white flesh They want it bad Truth be told, I’m part black myself And if it wasn’t for my wife, I’d be bending you over the desk doing you doggy-style right now I can just imagine you there, all alone in that big condo, awash in a sea of Negro cock I’ll… I’ll take it Smart move. Sign your Jane Hancock on the dotted line – You can’t go in there – Here you go – Stan Minton – I’ll be with you in a second Go on. Sign it Stan Minton, you’re under arrest for fraud Anything you say will be used against you in a court It’s just a little mix-up Go on, sign it – You white Jezebel! – [woman] I’ll call Mal! [Stan] You’re gonna regret this! Call my attorney! Madam Foreman, have you reached a verdict? – We have, Your Honour – Please hand it to the bailiff [judge] Will the defendant please rise? Madam Foreman, how do you find the defendant? [woman] We, the jury, find the defendant guilty – What? – [judge] Thank you, Madam Foreman – That bitch! – Stanley, please, quiet Sentencing will be tomorrow at 10am – What the fuck just happened in there? – You lost, Stanley I didn’t lose You’re the lawyer, you lost I’m truly sorry Damn it, man! I’m rich! I wanted some of that O.J. justice Maybe the judge will give probation No. In this state, first-degree fraud carries a minimum of three to five years I got it! – We bribe the judge – I’m not gonna bribe the judge – Bribe him – I’m not gonna bribe him – Bribe him! – Oh, please – Bribe him! – No! I don’t practise that kind of law, and I never will You wanna bribe the judge? Be my guest I’m sure any shyster on the street will be happy to do it for you [Stan] Mal? You’re fired [judge] Mr. Popper, is your client ready for sentencing? He is, Your Honour [judge] Anything you’d like to say before the court passes sentence? Your Honour, my client has been convicted of fraud in the first degree A crime of which he is innocent But even if he were guilty and his customers were defrauded,

isn’t it better that Mr. Minton, as a resident of Los Angeles, receive the money, thereby keeping it in the community, as opposed to some gypsies or travelling Mexicans, who would have taken the money out of the community? Please take that into consideration Mr. Minton, you are hereby sentenced to serve a term of no less than three years at the Verlaine State Correctional Facility Normally, your sentence would begin immediately However, I’m going to delay your incarceration for six months so that you may reorganise the charity that you’ve established to teach music to retarded children Thank you, judge Court is adjourned – Teach music to retarded children? – It sounded good at the time – I thought you were gonna bribe him – I did Hundred grand in Krugerrand doesn’t go too far now – Did we win? – No. I don’t get it You bribe the judge and I get three years? Mandatory The judge couldn’t fix that Now you got six months to set your affairs in order My affairs are already in order My legal opinion is that you take a Brazilian vacation. Permanently Sounds like fun. [laughs] I can’t do that Those Krugerrands were the last liquid asset I had The rest of my money is frozen in the bank I’m not gonna run and leave seven million behind Well, Stan, my old man had a saying: “You walk through a locker room, you’re gonna see some dick.” – What’s that supposed to mean? – It means you rip off enough people, eventually you’re gonna go to jail Thanks, that’s really comforting Hey, I’m a crooked lawyer I know I’m going to jail someday You don’t see me crying about it [laughs] Stan, slow down. You’re gonna choke I gotta eat now I hear that prison food is real crap I’m real glad we have six months together before you have to go to – You know – Tell me about it I could be in jail right now Popper’s one hell of a lawyer I’m gonna be awfully lonely while you’re gone I know, sweetheart But I think I get conjugal visits I can probably stick it to you once a month or so. Pretty good Oh, sure, that’s great – But I was thinking – Mm-hm maybe we could do something now so I wouldn’t be so lonely later Like what? Like maybe we could make a baby Mindy, are you crazy? – I just – I’m gonna be gone three years Five at the max. What are we gonna do with the kid when I get out? Give it up for adoption? That’s cruel I thought maybe we could keep it Mindy, how many times have we gone over this? It’s selfish to bring a child into this world A world full of suffering and hunger and war – It’s just… selfish! – I know Plus, a kid would totally cramp our lifestyle We couldn’t go on vacation when we wanted, they break stuff, they cry You’d get stretch marks That’s right. Stretch marks Scary stuff, huh? [sobbing] I just let you walk all over me – Oh, Mindy, come on – [sobbing] OK, Mindy, you can get a dog After I leave! Your other steak, sir [thunder rumbles] [rock music playing] – What do you want, doll? – Put some Scotch in this – We got whiskey – Not as good, but it’ll have to do All right. That’ll be 75 cents Good deal – Keep the change – Ooh! [laughs] Well Ah! Give me another one, honey Do you got a problem?

No. No, I I was just wondering you’ve been to prison, right? You do have a problem No, I… I’m going to prison But I’ve never been there before and I was just thinking maybe you could give me some pointers – I’ll pay you 100 bucks – Just for talking? – How much time did you get? – Three to five – Where at? – Verlaine Verlaine? That’s fucked, Stan Guards just don’t give a damn They let the cons beat the shit out of one another all day How am I gonna do in there? I mean, if you saw me, would you beat the shit out of me? I’d probably rape ya – You’d rape me? – Yeah So it’s true, huh? A lot of guys turn gay in prison? I’m always gay I only rape people in prison – You’re gay? – Yeah. This is a gay bar Whoo! [man] Let’s do this thing Whoo! Look, rape isn’t an act of sex Rape is an act of violence And in prison society, it’s all about violence You’re judged by how bad other cons fear you Raping a dude is the ultimate way of beating him down It means you’re one bad motherfucker So you rape people? Well, now that’s something I’m not real proud of I don’t condone the practise, to be honest. But I do it some Just to keep up with the Joneses You know what I mean Little dude like you, be an easy mark Oh, Jesus! Isn’t there anything I could do? You could join a gang – Are you a racist? – Not really That leaves out the Nazis – Got any Mob connections? – No – Wouldn’t happen to be Latino? – Uh-uh Looks like everybody’s gonna rape you OK. OK, I… I bet I can be a racist for three to five years – A real racist. Hardcore – Well, good – Then you can join the Nazis – Excellent You’ll only be raped by other Nazis Raped by Nazis? No way! Anything else I can do? Isn’t there some way I can cultivate some outlaw image? – You have to kill a dude – Without killing a dude? In your case, it’d be a real long shot, Stan – Wouldn’t happen to have any tats? – Tats? Ink Yes. Yeah. Yeah I didn’t grow up with my mom. So I When I was 18, I got a tattoo “Mommy” You might as well buy a welcome mat, strap it to your asshole Say, “I’m open for business.” [laughs] [thunder crashes] – [doorbell rings] – Whoo! – Stan? – [sobbing] I’m gonna get raped! [Mindy] Stanny! Stan, honey You wanna wake up? It’s 2:00 – Good morning, dear – Good afternoon, Stan I got you some orange juice [slurping] It was all a bad dream – Just a horrible dream – What was your dream, baby? It was awful! I was gonna go to prison and big men were gonna rape me But here I am, safe in my bed It was all a bad dream But you are gonna be going to prison, right? – Huh? – You’re going to prison in six months No! [sobbing] Oh! Oh! Honey, it’s OK A lot can happen in six months What’s gonna happen, Mindy? Is my anus gonna grow teeth? No, silly! You’ll find a way You always do What’d you just say? You always find a way That’s right. I always do My baby ready to eat breakfast? Mindy did I have a lot growing up? No, I did not I had nothing growing up I had a drunk father who was emotionally unavailable to me I had a summer job at Dairy Queen I had tomato soup for dinner

Nobody ever gave me anything Truly, mine was a hardscrabble existence Yet look at me today I own a palatial estate, I drive a Lamborghini, I have a summer house on the lake, a complete Bang & Olufsen home theatre system, – a beautiful wife – [giggles] And whom do I have to thank for all this stuff? Me. Nobody else Me. I am a winner I set my mind to do something, and I do it And so when I say to you that I will make myself un-rapeable, I will be un-rapeable! Yay! [♪ Joe Esposito: You’re the Best ♪] ♪ You’re the best around Nothing’s gonna ever keep you down ♪ ♪ You’re the best around Nothing’s gonna ever keep you down ♪ – ♪ You’re the best around ♪ – Ow! ♪ Nothing’s gonna ever keep you down ♪ I got a couple of things in mind. But first I got kind of a weird question Do you have anything you could tattoo around my sphincter to make it less attractive? Fourteen, 15 – Stanny, come to bed – Not… Not now, Mindy Nineteen, 25 [grunts] There You see new definition? My forearm. I think I see a new vein I see a very sexy man – You do? – [giggles] Well, I wonder what he’s gonna do next Take me, darling Mindy, I’m gonna go to prison in a few months Not now, honey And while I’m there, men are gonna try to take advantage of me – I don’t wanna hear about this – This is important – [sighs] – I’m doing everything I can to make sure that doesn’t happen But if it does happen, and I do get violated Stan! I want the first time to be by someone I love Oh! Oh Stan, I couldn’t Please, Min, for me Well… OK Great [Stan screaming] Oh, the horror! – [shouting] – Two! Three! Four! Five! Six! Seven! Eight! You must concentrate, Stanley Concentrate! – How can I concentrate when I’m bored? – If you’re bored, leave Oh, come on, Cho – Master Cho! – Master Cho I’ve been coming here for a week and I’m still doing baby stuff When am I gonna learn to kick some ass? I’m a yellow belt Nobody’s afraid of a yellow belt You think you’re ready to move up in rank? Yeah, that’s right [laughs] Fine. You’ll have your chance – Hey, Seymour! Come on – All right Seymour You’ll fight Seymour for honour of green belt – Want me to fight this little guy? – [growling] – All right – Fighting stance! All right, Seymour See what you got – [grunts] – [grunts] Ah! Ah! Oof! – [chuckling] – [grunting] – How do you like that, huh, Seymour? – Stanley! [grunts] – Uh! – You can forget about your refund! [both grunt] Is that all you got? Ah! Pussy [groaning]

That’s some technique you got [cat yowls] You couldn’t knock a shit out of a paper bag full of shit Oh, and you could do better? Any questions? – [Stan] Mindy! – Dinner’s almost ready! – I got great news! – What happened to you? Never mind that I just met the best guy. Guess what? – He’s agreed to be my trainer – Really? What’s his name? The Master – How do you do – The Master He’s gonna live with us and train me I have to pay him when my accounts get unfrozen – Oh – [The Master] Ahem And the contract Yeah, I’ll write it up right now I’m so sorry, The Master, but there’s no smoking in the house Yes, there is I better heat up another Lean Cuisine Honey, you’ve done it again You heated it just perfect [Mindy] So The Master, where are you from? Hell Oh! What brought you to LA? A job? I travel where the wind takes me – Isn’t he great? – [laughs] Well, how long have you been teaching the art of self-defence? Young lady, what I teach is not art It is science A careful amalgam of the most deadly parts of karate, kung fu, Wing Chun, Krav Maga, Muay Thai, savate and Filipino Kali My favourite Ooh! [laughs] Wow! I find weakness and turn it into strength I find fat and turn it into muscle I find blisters and turn them into canker sores I find doubt and I turn it into will You can stop doing that now – Doing what? – Your hand Oh. I forgot it was there I’m gonna take a shit – Enjoy yourself – Mm Stan, honey, does he really have to live here? – The Master? – He scares me I know. He scares me too. That’s exactly why he’s the perfect guy to teach me – But, Stan – Look, want me to survive in prison? – Of course I do – Then don’t argue with me about this You’ll see, he’ll grow on you Wake up, weakling – [both scream] – What the hell you doing in here? It’s time to begin your training – But it’s five in the morning – [The Master growls] – Is that liver? – It’s your breakfast And every moment you delay, I squeeze out more of its vital juices Trust me, you’ll need them later – OK, I’m up – [The Master] But are you ready? Look what I found beside your bed This is weakness This is defeatism Actually, we were kind of enjoying that Eat this And follow me [The Master] Punch! All right, now kick [The Master] Punch! All right, now kick – Kick! – [blender whirring] Kick like you mean it!

[glass shatters] – Oh! – I blended that gross stuff you wanted I got it all in Koreatown. I didn’t even know there was a Koreatown [sniffing] Too many eggs The fish oil is nice Ox pancreas is good – Next time, use more tongue – That’s what she said – Ooh! – Oh, Stan! – I’m all right – Get away from him! – I’m OK – Rise and drink your lunch [slurping] Don’t I get to eat anything that tastes good? – You like hot dogs? – Yeah, sure If you don’t drink that, the boys in prison will feed you many hot dogs I can kick your ass so fast you wouldn’t even feel it – I’d like to see that – [whooshing] You didn’t kick me in the ass I didn’t feel anything [sighs] [sniffs] [Stan] Ow! Ow! Ow! Ow! Ow! Ow! Ow! Ow! Ow! Oh! Ow! Ooh! – [The Master] Pain is interpretation – OK I’m gonna call a time-out here. You’re beating my husband with a flaming stick Isn’t there some kind of role-playing exercise you can do? Run along, honey This is man stuff here Go ahead, Master Ow! Ow! Ow! Ow! Ah! Oh! Ow! Ah! [grunting] No disrespect, I realise this is strengthening my nipples And believe me, I can feel the burn I was wondering, just how important are strong nipples? – Someday these nipples – Ah! may save your life – Ah! You are what you eat [Mindy] Um, are you sure that’s Eastern mysticism? Because I learned that in health class in third grade Silence, woman I mean, all that stuff about pain and illusion sounds totally mystical But “you are what you eat”? Even I know that. And I am from Omaha What part of Omaha? – Oh! – Dundee Happy Hollow You’re Oscar? I should have known Those womanly, childbearing hips could not be a product of this perfidious coast Uh, do you mind? I’m trying to eat scorpion here Insolent fool! – [Mindy screams] – You have lost the right to eat scorpion – [sighs] – Great. There goes my lunch – Thanks – This is not working – Master says – Master’s a jerk – Shh! – He is! And he is a creep. The house smells Does he have to smoke in every room? The only time I see you alone is in bed and you’re too tired to Hey! I got five months, and then it’s prison. I gotta stay focused I gotta think, eat, breathe prison I don’t have time for anything else Not even time for me? [sighs] Tell you what After I’m done working out with The Master, I’ll rent some movies, and we’ll cuddle around the TV like old times, OK? Really? – Mindy! – [gasps] Some men broke into the house! They wanna rape you! – What? – Big men! – They wanna rape you! Repeatedly! – What about The Master? They have guns! They killed him! There’s nothing we can do! – You’re gonna get raped! Raped! – Oh, my God! – Raped! – [sobbing] Rape! There – Now you know how I feel – What? Fear of rape. That’s what I’m gonna have to live with for three years [whimpering] Nobody broke into the house? That’s right Now maybe you’ll be supportive of what I’m going through [gasping] You son of a bitch! – OK, you’re upset – You son of a bitch!

– You don’t have to call names. Mindy! – Son of a bitch! – Bitch, bitch, bitch! You bastard! – Mindy. Mindy! – [screaming] – Oh! Mindy – What are you doing? – What’s it look like? Leaving Why? Because I pull one little prank, which when you calm down It’s not just one prank! You only think about yourself! You’re the most selfish man who ever lived, ever! Ever! Whoa! Excuse me? Selfish? I find that funny! I really do! I’ve given you everything you’ve ever wanted! – You’re crazy! – This house! – It’s in your name – Those boobs! – You wanted these – You said the Lamborghini’s too small, – I got a second car – A 1955 Porsche Speedster! – It has a back seat! – Oh! – What do you want? I’ll do anything – I want a baby, you asshole! That again? Fine. OK. You win – We’ll have a baby – Really? No, not really, but we can visit people who have kids – [groans] – [starts engine] [Mindy] Goodbye! Good, leave! I don’t need you! I don’t need anybody! – [woman moaning on TV] God! – [knock on door] Uh, one moment. I’m… meditating – [sighs] – [woman on TV] It’s so big! Oh, God! Mindy left – [woman on TV] Yes, yes, yes! – Good Oh, God! [screaming] Now, the real training can begin We do not have time to teach you the five fingers of death We have only time for one finger Pick one All right. Wait. This one Hold this Your turn – [grunts] – [cracking] Ah! Ow! Ah! Ah! – [cracking] – [screaming] [♪ The Briggs: Harder to Stand] Ah! [screaming] ♪ You don’t know what to do, you’re sitting there and you’re all alone Don’t look at what you’re doing Just feel. Feel ♪ You’ve got no place to call your home I felt. It felt bad Oh! You must learn to feel your opponent Know his intentions If he is good at a distance, then you must be close If he is good close, then you must fight him at a distance What if your opponent is good close and from a distance? Then you are up to your eyeballs in shit Watch your mouth You are nobody Ow! – Hey, what are those? – A little something I picked up – at the Shaolin temple – What do you use them for? Oh! Oh! Ow! Oh! Ah! Your lunch [coughing] Yeah

[Stan chuckles] – Whoo-hoo! – All right, that’s close enough Whoo-hoo! [cackles] Hoo-hoo! Ah! [grunts] Never celebrate too early I’ll remember that Yes Mississippi five, Mississippi six, Mississippi seven, Mississippi eight, Mississippi nine My God! That is amazing! Oh, that’s nothing You should see him It’s easy for me. Cigarettes have ruined my circulation so much I can’t even feel my hands anymore So that’s your trick Mm-hm Here’s to Stan Minton, my second finest student Second finest? Who’s number one? I hope you never have to find that out He used what I taught him, not for his own protection, but for evil Well, fuck that guy Here’s to number two Now, drink up Stan has one final test Tonight I do? OK Let’s go for it Hello, Cho It’s Master Cho to you Master Cho? Or Masturbator Cho? – Excuse me? – You heard me… punk Looking for a beat-down, mister? What are you looking for? To beat off? That’s it [grunting] Ooh! [Stan chuckles] [grunting] [clapping] [The Master] Very good, Stan You mind walking me to my car? – All right – [laughing] I don’t feel too comfortable here I don’t think the Asian people like me [♪ C-Bo: What You Want Nigga] [music stops] All right, you just go up those steps, turn yourself in for processing By the way, slight change of plans The Bureau of Prisons called me yesterday They’re sending you to Oaksburg, not Verlaine – Why? – Who knows? Bureaucracy It makes no difference Go on. You’ll do great – Yeah? – Yeah Uh, did Mindy or her lawyer call about the divorce? It’s not like I care anyway All right See you guys in three years – What do you think? – I think you should walk away quickly [coughing] – Ah! Filthy pig! – I need a beer Oh! Don’t get in the car! [continues muttering] [sobbing, sniffling] This your first time?

Hey, sweetie, ain’t you got a name? Ah! Talk to me again, I’ll twist your whole damn titty off – Ooh, my mama, ooh, my mama – Hey, man, I’m scared too But it can’t be as bad as they say it is It’s just as bad as they say The sooner you realise that, the better – Tell ’em – You’ll find out, soon enough What’d I say about talking to me? Damn, man! [man] Welcome to Oaksburg Penitentiary For reasons beyond what I care to imagine, you gentlemen have found yourselves under my stewardship My name is Warden Francis Gasque But you can just call me Boss We only got one rule here at Oaksburg: Don’t fuck with the Boss. That means you leave me and my men alone What you animals do to each other, that’s your business And right behind you is the warden’s garden Anybody caught pissing on that will have his penis removed Sergeant Bullard will lead you to the medical office where you’ll strip and have your cavities searched You’re gonna enjoy that Now, gentlemen! Single file Come on! Get up there Pecker to butt hole All right, assume the position – [screams] – Why you screaming like a little girl?! Sarge, look Sweet Jesus! It’s like an alien staring into my soul [door buzzes] Welcome home. New luxury condos, compliments of the state Step it up, boys – [blues plays] – [men shouting] – Come on, sweet meat! – [yelling] Hello there, young fella I guess we’re cellmates My name’s Larry But you can call me Shorts Shorts, you’re in my bunk – What? – That’s my bunk. Get out [laughing] You hold on there just a second This is my bunk What gives you the right to Ow! – I said that’s my bunk – Yeah, I guess it is Whoo! Uh, you might wanna change the sheets I’m kind of a compulsive masturbator Shorts, that’s your bunk – Really? – Absolutely Thanks, buddy I think we’re gonna get along just fine Hey, put her here – I don’t shake hands – Well, whatever [grunts, sighs] Ah, good to be back Tell me, Shorts, who’s the toughest guy here? Who’s the biggest bad-ass in the cell block? Biggest bad-ass There’s a lot of contenders There’s Cleon. He’s leader of the Diamond Kings, the black gang – I seen him kill a man with his fist – That’s right! Yeah! Then there’s Juanito He’s head of the Mexican gang Hey, get back. Hey! And whatever you do, don’t go near those guys – The goal is to express ourselves – They’re Scientologists – They don’t look so tough – Yeah. They’ll talk your ear off – and then sue your ass distinguish fear

Then there’s the Nazis None of them are too tough They don’t fight fair and don’t fight alone. They always gang up on you Their leader, Patterson, he’s a real bastard His uncle’s the head of the Aryan Nation Let me clarify my question, Shorts Who’s the most dangerous sexual predator? Oh, that’s easy It’s Big Raymond Absolutely insatiable Crazy. The other black guys don’t go near him But they’d back him up if it came to a fight Big Raymond it is – Can I borrow that? – Yeah Thanks Hey, Stan. Stan, where you going? You think that cigarette was free? Is that what you think? I’ll pay you back, man I don’t have any money You think I want money? Mmm – Excuse me – Bug off, bitch! I’ll get to you later Did you just call me bitch? Yeah, I said it Hey, everybody! Did you hear that? Big Raymond, for no reason, just called me bitch! Now, was that nice? – [muttering] – It’s not like I called him fat It’s not like I said I seen pig shit prettier than he is It’s not like I said his mother’s pussy smells like egg salad Which it does [men shouting] [man] Oh, hell nah! Ohhh, hell nah! Hell nah! Oh, hell nah! Ho-ho! Yeah! [shouting] [cracking] [screaming] – [snapping] – Ah! Ah! Ahhh! [screaming] Who’s the bitch now, bitch? [continues screaming] [all] Ooh! I told you Raymond was gonna get his ass beat. I told you! [cheering] [laughing] My cracker! Laying the boot to the big nigga Give it up! Don’t use that word around me It’s ugly and racist – [all laugh] – [man] Yeah, dawg! He’s funny too, man All right, listen here, player All right? We want you to join up with us, nah mean? Them niggas is gonna tear [man] Ooh! I said don’t talk that way around me Let me get some of that! – [man] Let’s kill him – No, I got it, I got it. I got it! Handle your business, Cleon Oh, come on. Don’t tell me you’re gonna stick up for that fat son of a bitch You happen to see the colour of that fat son of a bitch’s skin? Hey, aren’t we over that? Didn’t you see that Nova episode? Huh, you guys? They did that DNA test – We all come from Africa – [man] Kick his ass It’s a proven fact. Under the skin, I’m just as black as you are – [man] Fuck that – Get him! – [man] Get him, man! Get him! Get him! – Motherfucker! [grunting] – Get him! – Ah! [shouting] Man, get that fool! Dumb bitch! Hold on. See what happens – [shouting] – [grunts] – Oh! – Ah! [all] Oh! – [man] Take the stick! – [man 2] No, don’t take it! – [man 3] Take the stick! – [man 2] No, don’t take it! Oh, he did it again

– [man] Take the stick! Take it! – Mm-hm? – [all shouting] – [man 2] No, no, don’t take it! Whoo! [man 2] I told him not to take that stick [man] Even the Asian! Where the hell did that guy come from? – Whoo! – [man] Damn! – [man 2] That guy’s good – [man 3] All right [man 4] Come on, Cleon [man 5] It’s your time, baby Don’t be scared [man 6] It’s your time to shine, Cleon [all] Ooh! [Stan] Cleon If you wanna fight me, you’re gonna have to fight me – I understand – Pick up your gold teeth I’m gonna let you keep them this time But if you come at me again I’m gonna hang onto them like a Swiss banker [Cleon] Ya’ll ain’t gonna help me? I’m missing a bicuspid We should have killed him [sobbing] Somebody, call an orthodontist Hm. I see Mr. Minton has acquainted himself with his new surroundings I believe it’s time I had my little chat with him Ow! – [indistinct chatter] – Whoa, whoa, look out Beat it. All of you Oh, man, this stuff’s good. I don’t know what everybody’s complaining about You’re kidding me Hey, man I just wanna say thanks For what? You know, for helping me before With Big Raymond I wasn’t helping you I was helping me I had to beat up the biggest shithead He happened to be talking to you OK But, you know, I… I mean, I I think that guy wanted to fuck me Trust me, in your case, I was just putting off the inevitable [speaking Spanish] – [man makes kissing sound] – Yeah Well, thanks anyway [man] What’s your name, girl? Don’t be shy, just say hi Come here. Kick back, baby girl! Little hard on the kid, weren’t you? That’s got nothing to do with me And I’m gonna keep it that way – You got that? – Mm-hm [Bullard] One-one-five! Minton, warden wants to see you Get up – Me? – Now! Walk! Put your hands behind your back – [knocking on door] – Come in Minton, I’m glad you could make it – You can take the cuffs off him – Sure you wanna do that, Boss? I said take ’em off It’s all right I already got ’em It’s a matter of dislocating the wrists [snaps] [cracks] Ew! Ew, that is creepy! – You can wait outside – [shudders] Have a seat Warden, if this is about me fighting in the yard, it Cigar? Thank you Brandy?

Sure You know, you wardens should complain ‘Cause in the movies, they always make you look like assholes [laughs] Well, I don’t plan on being a warden forever – Is that right? – Tell me, Minton What do you think of this place? It’s OK, for a prison Not the prison. The land It’s a nice sized property. Great views of the foothills and city. Level grade I’m assuming there’s bedrock beneath us Easy access to downtown I see some nice development potential – Too bad you got a prison on it – Exactly You know, it’s no accident you came to Oaksburg I pulled a few strings to get you here What made you wanna do that? Come here Oaksburg Estates I’m a silent partner, so to speak, with some private investors who would like to develop this land into timeshare condominiums I believe that’s your field of expertise – True – ‘Course, all this is only possible in the event the prison ever closes down – Makes sense – You know, I’m in the prison business I know how to break a man’s will, crush his spirit But them real estate contracts, those things put a real hurt on you That’s where you come in – What’s in it for me? – How would you like to be out of here in a year? – But I’ve got a mandatory minimum – Wardens have great discretion getting early parole, especially to non-violent, first-time offenders – Prisons are crowded, you know – The system is corrupt Me likey But you gotta move the luxury units closer to the lagoon That’ll double rents Parking goes underground Wasting space. Eight extra units Whoever designed this is a moron – How will you get rid of the prison? – Let me worry about that Tell me more about them parking spaces [Stan singing in Spanish] You strapped? He ain’t gonna know what hit him, nah mean? Ah! That’s gonna scar, you psycho – Whoo! – [grunts] You want that shiv, don’t you? You made that with a melted toothbrush and a razorblade? – That’s very creative – Ah! Look what I made with three bars of soap and a shoelace [chuckles] Cracker, please Hoo! Hoo! Hoo! [high-pitched warbling] [high-pitched warbling] Come on, race traitor – Ah! – Ooh! [high-pitched warbling] Oh! – [neck cracks] – Ha! Hee-yah! He’s all yours This gonna be fun [all shouting] Hey, Stan. What’d you do to Patterson?

I just roughed him up a little bit – Why? – Somebody took a shiv to his ass They say he’ll be shitting sideways for a month. [laughs] Now I know what schadenfreude feels like – What? – Schadenfreude It’s German for when you feel good because your enemy’s anus is violated Oh You know you’re getting that on me [Stan on phone] I’m doing great. You guys are pussies. That’s terrific. Hey, listen, pal I need your help I can’t get Mindy’s lawyer to return my call If we wanna go through with this divorce, you’re going to have to contact her personally Stan. Yeah. I’ll get right on that – How’s the appeal coming? – [laughs] Believe it or not, I’m looking at the Madam Foreman right now – [laughs] – That’s great. [stammering] I gotta go now You know, duty calls All right. Thanks, Lew I’ll talk to you soon [grunting, farting] Ain’t you Charlize Theron? Oh, look what fell out there [laughing] So I had them exchange the beef for horse meat – Clever – That’s Stan Minton, I’d like for you to meet Mr. Dang He’s on the prison’s board of governors They let Vietnamese mafia on the prison board of governors? Your finger tats [laughs] Like you say, Stan, the system is corrupt Mr. Dang’s family happens to be my partners in Oaksburg Estates Oh, good, ’cause I was just going over the contracts The language gets rather vague on gross versus net liability I’m sure it’s unintentional, but that could screw you in the long run Could it? I’ll have my lawyers correct that immediately I got an excellent lawyer for that He specialises in it. Lew Popper Popper? I’ll be sure to contact him [laughs] Come on, Dang, let’s check out the floor show [shouting] It looks like the savages are ready for the inspection [Gasque] Well, give me a few more weeks I’ll even have ’em readier [Dang] I’m counting on that Would you like a strawberry? – I grew them in my own garden – Thank you Minton? Strawberry? No, I’m good [Gasque] Maybe I picked ’em a little too soon I don’t think that’s it [Stan on phone] People are scared shitless of me. Very good, Stan Is there anyone there who can challenge you? Nah. I got it all under control What’s the matter, Stan? You sound… distant I don’t know. It’s just… Don’t you ever find yourself feeling sorry for anybody? You might as well ask me if I feel sorry for the maggots I grind into my morning coffee [laughs] That’s how I feel too Listen, I gotta go Make me proud, Stan [woman] Come on, baby! Do it to me! – [Popper] Oh, yeah! – [woman] Are you using me? – [Popper] No! – [woman] Don’t you love me? – [Popper] Yeah! – [woman] Show me! – [phone rings] – [shouting] – Do you love me? – Yeah. Hello. Hey! Excuse me. Excuse me. Yeah Hi, Stan. Yeah I think I have good news – [woman] Do you love me? – Yeah. I think the… I think the The Madam Foreman is just one orgasm away from giving you your appeal [Stan] That’s great, Lew. And gross. Heard from Mindy or her attorney? Uh, no But don’t say I don’t earn my money [laughs] Hi, fellas I don’t believe I ordered Chinese I guess I could go for a little pot-sticker

[Shorts] Who are you writing to? No one special You’ve been sitting there for a while writing to no one special You know, Stan, I’ve been here for a long time. I can handle a lot of things Like having to spend the rest of my life in this shithole But there’s one thing I do regret I could never make it work with Miyoshi Oh, she was the only person who ever loved me for me I was too pigheaded to realise it [sighs] I’d give anything to change the way I behaved How did you behave? I killed her Oh Alcohol wasn’t something that always brought out the best in me, Stan [Stan] Dear Mindy, I’ve been thinking a lot about you lately. About us. I realise now that you were right. I was pigheaded and selfish. Leaving me was probably the best thing for you. And I’m truly sorry. I never should have hurt you. I know now why you wanted to have a baby with me. It’s just another way for us to love each other even more deeply. I hope, someday, you’ll be able to forgive me. Love always, Stan. [The Master] Hey, baby Now, I know all of you want to get back to your weightlifting and basketball and masturbating, so I’m gonna try to keep this short. All right? I am throwing away all of these violent video games and movies [all groaning] Don’t do that! No! Come on, man! From now on, I want you guys watching more wholesome entertainment And frankly, a lot of the rap music you brothers listen to – was too hateful towards women – [all laughing] What is up with that? You like women, right? [all] Yeah! Now, on the other hand, the Mexicans are onto something with mariachi and salsa music [cheering] It’s positive, easy to dance to and you never get tired of it – Shorts, give us a taste – Here we go [salsa music plays] [man singing in Spanish] [cheering, whistling] [cheering] Holy shit – All right. All right, all right – [music stops] That’s Afro-Cuban. I asked for mariachi. But you get the point All right? Now, lastly, and most importantly, from now on, there will be no more rape at this prison – [all shouting] – No, no! That’s right Anyone who rapes another inmate – will have to answer to me – [man] Boo! [Stan] I will not be kind – Excuse me, Big Stan – Yes, Juanito Why you putting your nose where it don’t belong? My men are aggressive and hard Sometimes they need a way to work off that excess energy. What’s it to you? – OK. Well, first off, good question – Thank you What is it to me? Well, frankly, I just don’t like it And let me show you why Robbie, come up here You, Robbie the hippie Come up here [all whistling] All right, all right. Robbie, how long is your sentence here at Oaksburg? – Five to ten – Five to ten years What exactly did you do to earn that sentence? – I sold marijuana – [laughter] – A shitload of marijuana – [cheering] Thanks, Robbie. Go sit down

He sold marijuana He was a marijuana dealer I’m not here to argue about drug policy I don’t think they’re tough enough – [protesting] – Whatever But just because Robbie was guilty of selling dope doesn’t mean he deserves to get raped up the ass every day for ten years I just don’t think that’s fair – [murmuring] – Some of you are here because you’re habitual drunk drivers Some of you have a fondness for crack – [laughing, murmuring] – Some of you robbed a bank – I’m talking to you, Lee Otis – [laughing] But that doesn’t mean you should get raped. It’s just not fair – Yes, Carnahan – What about guys convicted of rape? – Can we rape them? – [all] Yeah! Rape the rapists Seems appropriate Punishment fitting the crime and all Go ahead – [cheering] – [man] That’s what I’m talkin’ about – How about them child molesters? – [all] Yeah! Yeah, them too. Good point Anyone else? [cheering] [Big Raymond] Big Stan! – What about the counterfeiters? – [all] What? Counterfeiters? Big Raymond, you’re the only counterfeiter here [man] Yeah! Wait a minute Do you just want somebody to [all] Aw! OK, here’s another thing we gotta clear up There’s a difference between homosexual sex and rape – Now, Big Raymond – Hm? There’s someone here who wants to have sex with you – [man] Not me! – OK? How about it, anyone? Yeah. Yeah [laughter] Tyler! – Great! – Man! [giggles] You two have fun But wear protection – [cheering] – [Big Raymond] OK All right, grow up. Look, if you’ve got a problem with that, then that’s [farting, groaning] Nurse! [farts] [farts] Now, those two are about to have consensual homosexual sex A beautiful, beautiful thing The total opposite of rape, – which is not allowed – Except for rapists and molesters? – We can still rape them – No, you can’t – [all] What? – I changed my mind Bad habit. Quit cold turkey – [all yelling] – If you’re not happy with it, – you’re welcome to fight me – [groaning] I didn’t think so All right, you’re dismissed Beat it – Good speech – You think? – I should have opened with a joke – No, it was good – Yeah? – Yeah. Sorry about the mariachi Let it go Hey, Big Stan Check out the lovebirds – One for you! – [giggles] Mm! One for you Good for them I have something important to show you Let me eat, will you? Hey, Big Stan – Can we talk? – Make it quick I wanna thank you for what you did out there – I didn’t do anything – Don’t say you didn’t do it for me Because you did, didn’t you? – A little – Well, thanks – Yeah. Thanks, man – [Juanito] Julio! Get back here! What’s up with you? [speaks Spanish] Shut up! [speaking Spanish] Hey, Big Stan I like what you said I wanna join your gang – I don’t have a gang – Yes, you do OK, you’re in [man clears throat] Me too? – Yeah, you too – [giggling] – All of you – Thanks – [laughing] – Yeah! Ow! All right, can I eat now? – [Big Raymond] Yes, you did! – He’s gotta eat

I told you I had something important to show you From Mindy She wants to see me [laughs] Hoo-hoo-hoo! [♪ Los Niños de Sara: La Cubanita] [shouting, laughing] Shake hands Try to get along, huh? [speaking Spanish] Thanks – Excuse me, man – No, that was my bad No, really. It was my fault There’s a pickup game of hoops later, if you wanna play I’d like that [cheering] – Happy birthday – Ah! Thank you! – Oh, look, a shiv! – Yeah! – Hey, homes – Mm! Mm! – Hey – Hey! [horn squawks] Stanley! Honey bear! I loved your letter! – [Mindy laughs] – I missed you so much Before we go any further, there’s three little words I need to hear – I was wrong? – Good boy! It looks like a nursery school picnic out there It’s Minton – What do you mean, it’s Minton? – Well, first he banned rape It’s to the point that anybody gets beat up, they run and join Minton’s gang and Minton beats up the bad guy The truth, he’s got them too scared to look at each other funny – We ain’t had a fight in three days – I thought I saw Ingleberg fight that big Mexican yesterday, Jesus Oh, no, that was more in the nature of a lovers’ quarrel Ingleberg forgot their two-week anniversary That wasn’t very nice of him, was it? Well, they made up. You should have seen the cake Ingleberg made – It was special – You get out of here right now and get Minton up here! You understand me? I mean right now! – Now hurry! – [door closes] I’m not just saying this, but I think that was the most amazing sex – we’ve ever had – [giggles] I guess being away from me this long made you crazy Well, yes, I guess The Master’s opened my eyes, sexually He showed me all these different positions in the Kama Sutra. – The Master? You been seeing him? – Yeah, he’s staying at the house I’ve learned about massage and strengthening my Kegels – [knocking on door] – That sleazy son of a bitch! – [Bullard] Minton, time’s up – But Stan, I – Warden wants to see you now! – Wait. I don’t want you to see him You tell Master Dickface I’m gonna get out of here soon and kick his ass! Don’t tell him You’re not allowed to see him I said now, convict! – Minton! – Not allowed to see him! – I love you, sweetie-cakes! – Let’s go Cocksucker! [Gasque] I’ll bet you didn’t know I was part psychic

That’s right I’m able to see into the future – I didn’t realise – Let me tell you what’s going to happen one week from today The board of governors is gonna come to inspect the prison And something awful happens Some prisoners find a way to smuggle weapons into the yard And a full-scale riot breaks out And as the prison board watches in absolute horror, my men are forced to shoot into the yard in order to end the melee In the ensuing scandal, the Board chooses to sell the property to a Vietnamese family based in San Pedro And everybody lives happily ever after Especially me Now, if the events that I foretold do not come to fruition I will be very disappointed And when I get disappointed, Mr. Deng over there likes to stomp on men’s spines like they was bubble wrap I spent 35 years of my life in this stinking cesspool And I will not walk away without something to show for it Your little prison reform ends right now You play ball, you might get yourself a parole hearing How many will get killed? Who cares? They’re all animals Bullard! – Escort Mr. Minton back to his cell – Yes, sir. Come on, Minton Stan, you ever have two Asian men pounding your balls after sex with a questionably attractive older woman? No, I can’t say I have, Lew Madam Foreman won’t return any of my calls You better go for that deal the warden offered you – So there’s nothing else I can do? – I’m sorry, pal. It’s over You’re in real danger. Get yourself out of there as soon as you can [giggling] [gasps] Bullard Tell the warden I’ll take his deal I want out of here – [salsa music plays] – [shouting] Hey, Stan. The Nazis were saying the Virgin Mary tortilla’s a fake – That’s not cool, homes – Hey, the Nazis were saying the Virgin Mary has no power Constantine was pacifying the Byzantine priest by giving him a goddess to pray to. They’ve been watching the History Channel – What? – What are you gonna do about it? I’m not gonna do anything about it What’s up with him, man? Hey, Stan. Stan! The Brazilians won’t stop calling Farib an Arab I’m not an Arab! I’m Persian What do I care? You look like an Arab Hey, listen up! All of you! You’re all on your own! You hear me? I don’t care what any of you do to each other! Hey, you guys! An interracial book club You guys all hate each other So stop pretending you don’t – You don’t know about Macbeth. – Fuck you, motherfucker! [shouting] Yeah, that’s more like it. Yes, sir

Big Stan? We need to talk I thought you cared about us Well, I don’t [Patterson] Hey, little cracker Why don’t you sit over here, my little white brother Here, have mine I’m gonna need to shave your head Put a couple little tattoos on your forehead, huh? Come on, eat up I was wrong about you We all were Stay out of the yard tomorrow You hear me? D-block houses some of our most hardened offenders But here, we have Oaksburg’s greatest rehabilitation story Stan Minton. Stan, I’d like for you to meet the board of governors Not going in the yard today, Stan? – I don’t feel well, warden – Maybe this will make you feel better Due to Stan’s exemplary behaviour, the parole board has agreed to meet with him today Well, we better be moving along The shit goes down at 12.30 At 12.35, I’m in the real estate business [muted dialogue] [laughter] Stan! Honey! – I’ll deal with you in a minute – Everything OK? Both of you [woman] Next up is prisoner 5824 In the matter of Stanley Minton You have your files [woman] In his time here, Minton has accrued an exemplary record And let it be noted, he’s a first-time non-violent offender [ticking] Hold up! Before we vote, Mr. Minton, is there anything you’d like to add? I’d just like to say, um [clears throat] I’ve really learned a lot And I’m ready to get back to work [woman] Good, we like to hear that Here’s the yard where the prisoners come to exercise That’s where Charlie the Fly tried to fly over the wall. [laughs] Well, in light of Warden Gasque’s recommendation, I think we have a pretty clear-cut case for parole Mr. Minton? How would you feel about getting out of here today? Mr. Minton? Did I mention I’m in real estate? [laughs] I got my eye on some property real close by here

– I can’t wait to develop – Hm. That’s commendable You know, while I was in here, also, I joined a biker gang Satan’s Paedophiles Anyway, they said when I get out, they’d love to camp next to the grammar school near here I hope that’s not a problem They’re pretty cool guys, except when they drink and do crystal meth Which is almost every weekend But most of the people I sell to, they don’t need to know about that ‘Cause, uh, they’re old ladies, mostly Not too good with fine print, if you get my drift Tell me, is your grandma still alive? I bet I could make her a sweet deal By the time I’m through with her, she’ll give hand jobs behind the pharmacy to pay for arthritis medication Two at a time, you know? Stuff you see in pornos Anyway, that’s a nice top you have on Seriously Mind lowering it? I’d love to see some boobage Let me see that, woman. That’s sexy Let me see that Let me touch one of them Let me touch one of them. Can I? Please? Parole denied! Take him back to his cell! What colour are your nipples? I bet they’re pink! Light brown? Dollar size or quarter? Stan, did we win? Let go of me. I’m in a hurry Have no fear, Stanley I will continue to take care of your wife while you’re gone – Thanks a lot, pal – No thanks needed I cherish Mindy’s company Since my addiction to cigarettes made me impotent, I’ve had very little contact with the fair sex Impotent? I used to think smoking was cool, but a limp dick spells nerd in any language – You’re impotent. That’s great! – Not really Baby, I love you I’ll write to you as soon as I can OK [Mindy screams] That’s my boy Love you, baby! – He’s running! – Code red! Watch the prisoners file in [phone rings] The Master has taught you well Don’t tell me You studied with The Master too? – I am his number one – [scoffs] I didn’t see that coming There are many things you will not see coming Oh, really? Like what? Hmm [grunts] – Whoa. Take it easy – I have been taking it easy [both grunting] [man] I wanna break me off some chocolate [man 2] Come on, hold the line – Top you up here? – Thank you very much – How are you doing? – [indistinct chatter] Yeah, good I don’t think The Master prepares you for this Here comes the eagle [screaming] [indistinct chatter, laughter] [grunting] [all shouting] Are those weapons? Hoo, hoo, hoo!

Ah! [groaning] Somebody didn’t strengthen their titties Whoo! [shouting] It looks like a riot – [panting] – [grunting] [shouting] Whoo! – I celebrated too early! – Ah! Warden, can’t you do anything to stop this? – Bullard, prepare to fire – [cocks gun] [shouting] Whoo! Whoo! Whoo! Whoo! Finger of death [sniffs] That’s you [high-pitched warbling] I don’t know if The Master prepared you for this Hoo! [all shouting] – Ready to dance, motherfuckers? – Handle your shit, bitch! Fire at will Don’t fight! [salsa music plays] [laughing] Why aren’t you firing? – Fire that weapon – I can’t do it, boss Well, why the hell not? They’re just dancing Give me that rifle What the hell are you doing? [Gasque] Restoring order They’ve clearly lost their minds Warden, it’s over Look at all these witnesses It’s over, warden You did this to me – Where did that come from? – What do you think I’ve been doing with The Master for the last six months? [sighs] Thank God You did good with Dang But you’re still my number two student – Number two? – She’ll kick your ass

I might like that Ready position! Focus! Lock! Punch! – Kick! Double punch! – [all] Yah! Ready position! Lock! Punch! – Kick! Double punch! – [all] Yah! – It’s time, Minton – Just a minute, warden Looks great, guys Thanks, Robbie OK, everybody, I gotta go now – [all groaning] – I’ll miss you too I want you guys to be especially nice to our newest inmate and best disbarred lawyer in the world, Lew Popper – Welcome aboard! – Lew! – Is the ban on rape still in effect? – I’m pretty sure – [chuckles] – [Shorts] Hey! Permission to give Big Stan a group hug – Permission granted – Come on, gang! [all shouting] Hey, little homey, thanks for giving me my teeth back – My pleasure – [speaks Spanish] [speaks Spanish] – Where you going, cracker? – I’m going home, man – I think Big Stan is staying here – Oh, yeah? Oh, shit! [♪ Los Niños de Sara: Vagabundo] [Patterson] I’m Big Stan No more rape. [laughs] Aw, very creepy My cracker Be good, huh? Bye, Stan! [Big Raymond] Hey. Hey Whoo! – Big man – Bye, Big Stan Say bye Stan! Sweetie Hey, handsome – Where’s Mindy Junior? – In the car – She’s being kind of a brat – Isn’t the nanny helping? Yeah. I think he still sneaks cigarettes Yeah? I’ll talk to him [coughing] Hi, precious. Hi, The Master – Say hello to your father, child – Hi – Rumour is you’re sneaking smokes – Shh – How’s her technique? – She stinks But so did you at first You sure? I don’t remember that – [Mindy] Stan! – OK, baby [Mindy] Let’s go, sweetie! [Mindy] Whoo-hoo!

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Watch NASA's OSIRIS-REx Spacecraft Attempt to Capture a Sample of Asteroid Bennu

OSIRIS-REX IS PREPARING SINCE THE APOLLO PROGRAM AFTER MONTHS OF DEFAILED ANALYSIS OF TERRAIN AND THE TEAM SELECTED THE CRATER AS THE SAMPLE SAFE FOR THE MISSION AND CAREFULLY DODGE ROCKY HAZARD AS DESCENDS TO SPACE NO LARGER THAN FEW PARKING

SPOTS THIS SPACECRAFT IS NOT TERRAIN IN HIGH RESOLUTION CAPTURING A STUNNING CATALOG OF IMAGES ACROSS THE ROUGH SURFACE AND NOW, WE ARE READY TO TARGET FOR THE TOUCH AND GO SAMPLING EVENT >> IN THE DARK VOIDS THE SOLAR SYSTEM DRIFTING IN-BETWEEN THE FAMILIES ARE THE ASTEROIDS AND THE MILLION OF THESE COLD, DARK ROCKS, BUT THESE SMALL WORLDS ARE ANYTHING BUT DULL, IN FACT, SOME ARE TIME CAPSULES FROM BEGINNING OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM UNALTERED FOREL ARE BILLIONS OF YEARS INTACT THE CLUES OF HOW EVERYTHING BEGAN FROM FORMATIONS OF PLAN KNELTS TO BEGINNING OF LIFE ITSELF MAYBE LOCKED UP IN THE ASTEROIDS TONIGHT A SPACE CRAFT FROM EARTH I GOING TO TOUCH ONE, BRING BACK THE SAMPLE AND PREPARE THE LONG JOURNEY BACK TO EARTH WHERE WE CAN AND LIES IT WELCOME, I AM OF NASA GODDARD’S SPACEFLIGHT CENTER THANK YOU FOR JOINING US AM SPEAKING TO YOU LIVE AT THE LOCKHEED MARTIN SPACE IN LITTLETON, COLORADO, AS YOU CAN SEE I AM STRUGGLING WITH THE MASS AC LITTLE BIT HERE TO FOLLOW THE SAMPLE MISSION THIS IS OPERATION REFERRED TO AS TAG NOW, REMEMBER, THIS IS HISTORIC EVENT TODAY’S ENDEAVOR WILL BE THE FIRST TIME THE SPACE AGE EVER TOUCH THE SURFACE OF ASTEROID CLOAKING A SAMPLE OF THIS PRISTINE ANCIENT MATERIAL A SCIENTIFIC TREASURE FAR MORE PRECIOUS THAN GOLD JOINING ME WITH WILL BE THE PRINCIPLE INVESTIGATOR WELCOME >> WELCOME IT IS GREAT TO BE HERE I AM PROPOSE PROFESSOR AT THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA AND THE HONOR AND PRIVILEGE OF LEADING THIS AMAZING MISSION FOR AS? AND THE WORLD >> IT IS AMAZING SOL THE MAIN EVENT IS HAPPENING IN AN HOUR WE ACTUALLY, THIS IS CALLED TAG CAN YOU EXPLAIN TO US WHY IT IS CALLED TAG >> YEAH TODAY WE ARE TAGGING ASTEROID TAG IS ACRONYM THAT DESCRIBES THE SAMPLE COLLECTION STRATEGY AND SEND IT DOWN FAR SHORT DURATION CONTACT WITH THE ASTEROID SURFACE BETWEEN FIVE AND Z AS LONG AS 15 SECONDS SO CALL IT TOUCH AND GO OR TAG AN ASTEROID >> IT IS LIKE A QUICK TOUCH A GOOD BIT >> EXACTLY >> YEAH THERE IS LOTS OF ASTEROIDS OUT THERE WE TALKED ABOUT A COUPLE MILLION WHY DID WE SELECT THIS ONE TO SAMPLE THE TARGET OF THE MISSION IS CALLED ASTEROID AND WE WERE DEEVENING THE MISSION AND HAD TO CONSIDER ENGINEERING CONSTRAINT AND THE SCIENCE OBJECTIVE WHEN WE LOOKED AT THE CAPABILITIES OF THE SPACECRAFT WE KNEW WE NEEDED TO GO TO A NEAR EARTH ASTEROID AND BASICALLY LOOKING AT THE ORBITAL PROPERTIES AND LOCATION WITHIN THE SOLAR SYSTEM AND WE NEEDED OBJECT WO WHOSE ORBIT WAS SIMILAR TO THE EARTH SO WE COULD LAUNCH OFF THE PLANET, RON DAZE VIEW, THEN SPEND TIME AT THES A VOID, THEN LEAVE AND BRING THE PRECIOUS CARGO BACK TO EARTH >> ABSOLUTELY >> THEN FROM THE SCIENCE PERSPECTIVE, WE’RE ANSWERING FUNDAMENTAL QUESTIONS WHY ARE WE HERE? WHY IS EARTH HABITABLE PLANET INHOW DID THE ORIGIN OCCUR? WE BANTED AS STROYED WHICH IN WATER THAT BROUGHT THE OCEANS TO OUR PLANET, THEN RICH IN CAR BEEN AND LOOKING FOR THE ORGANIC SEEDS OF LIFE THAT MAY HAVE LED TO EVOLUTION AS WE KNOW IT TODAY >> THIS IS REALLY AN MADING POINT, OUR CONNECTION TO THESE ASTEROIDS, SO WHAT YOU ARE SAYING IS SOME OF THE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS MINE BODY THE WATER IN MY BODY NOW MAY HAVE COME FROM ASTEROIDS? >> WELL, ALMOST CERTAINLY THE EARTH WAS FROM THESE ASTEROIDS, BENU IS A REMNANT THAT SURVIVED THAT PROCESS BUT THE GAE OH LOGIC HISTORY OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM THAT IS LOCKED INSIDE OF THE BODY >> ABSOLUTELY THERE ARE MANY OTHER ASTEROIDS LIKE IT IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM AND SOME THAM ARE LARGER OVER THE LAST DECADES WE BELIEVE WE HAVE FOUND ALL THE POTENTIALLY DAN DANGEROUS WOUNDS >> AIL PAUSE >> PAUSE RESUME PROCESSING POSITION UNCERTAINTY IS 1.6 METERS >> EXCELLENT >> SO GETTING BACK TO THE POINT, WE KNOW THERE ARE OTHERS THROUGHOUT WE HAVE NOT YET DETECTED YOU KNOW, IN FACT, THIS PAST AUGUST, A TRUCK-SIZED ASTEROID MISSED THE EARTH BY LESS THAN 2,000 MILES HO ONE KNEW IT WAS HEADED OUR WAY UNTIL IT ALREADY PASSED US BY IT IS ESSENTIAL TO UNDERSTAND WHAT IS OUT THERE IN SPACE THIS IS ONE OF THE MAIN ON JECTS OF THE OSIRIS-REX MISSION WE LOO TO MEET BENU SO DANTE, WHAT CAN YOU TELL US ABOUT THE IDEA OF PLANETARY DEFENSE? >> SO AS A RESULT OF HAVING THIS OBSESS MALL ORBIT IT WHAT IS WE KALPOE TENSIONALLY HAZARDOUS ASTEROID BECAUSE IT IS ORBIT DOES CROSS THE OR PITT OF THE ETHER AND A PROCT ABOUT 150 YEARS IN THE FUTURE THAT MAY IMPACT IMPACT OUR PLANET

CREATING NATURAL DISASTER SO OSIRIS-REX IS TRYING TO STUDY VERY PRECISELY WE KNOW THAT SUNLIGHT ACTUALLY INFLUENCES THE TRAJECTORY AND STUDYING THAT PHENOMENON AND HOW IT INTERACTS THEN HOW IT IS GOING TO ALLOW US TO ACCESS THE IMPACT RISKS THAT BENU POSES TO THE EARTH >> ABC LOOT LIT THE IDEA OF PLANETARY DEFENSE IS NOT AN EXERS SIGHS BUT IT IS SOMETHING THAT NASA TAKES SERIOUSLY A LITTLE LATER IN THE BROADCAST, WE’LL TALK ABOUT FOLKING THE PLANET FROM SURPRISE VISITORS FROM SPACE SO BACK TOENU IT A LOFT EXCITING STUFF TO SHARE WITH YOU ABOUT THE TAG OPERATION FROM HOW IT WORKS TO WHY THIS OVERALL MISSION MATTERS SO MUCH AND YOU CAN A PART OF THIS, TOO, BY JOINING OUNCE THE SOCIAL MEDIA PLATFORMS I WOULD LIKE TO INTRODUCE TO YOU JAMES JAMES? >> THANKS I AM PRODUCER SAT NASA GOODARD SPACEFLIGHT CENTER TODAY I AM JOINING TO YOU SHARE EXCITEMENT OF THE MISSION AND THE INCREDIBLE SAMPLE COLLECTION AT AS STROYED TO JOIN US TODAY JOIN THE HASHTAG TO BENNU AND BACK TO THE JOIN THE CONVERSATION AND EXCITEMENT WITH HER AND FOLLOW THE TWITTER ACCOUNT FOR LIVE UPDATES A Z WE TAKE THE ATTEMPT WE HAVE POLL GOING ON AT THE TRITER NU AND ASKING YOU HOW MUCH SAMPLE DO YOU THIS OSIRIS-REX WILL PICK UP AT BEN NU TODAY FOR NOW BACK TO YOU >> THANKS, JAMES? WELL, RIGHT BEHIND ME IS THE MSA, THE MISSION SUPPORT AREA FOR OSIRIS-REX AND FILLED WITH EXCITED PEOPLE, THE SCIENTIST, ENGINEERS, WHO WORKED ON THIS MISSION FOR ANOTHER THAN A DECADE 1:00 SO BACK THERE IS GARY NAPIER FROM LOCKHEED MARTIN IN THE MIDDLE OF UL? SOME OF THE GARY, WHAT IS KNEELING IN THE ROOM >> MILLIONLE WELL, LIKE YOU SAID AM BEHIND YOU 90 FEET HERE IN THE LARGER LOCKHEED MARTIN MISSION SUPPORT AREA WE ARE OPERATING SIX OF AS? SEA SPACECRAFT AROUND THE SOLAR SYSTEM FOUR AT MARS ONE IN JUPITER ONE RIGHT HERE, OH OSIRIS-REX THIS IS WHERE THE FLIGHT TEAM IS RIGHT NOW THE CONTROLLERS ARE ALREADY ONBOARD WE HEARD GOOD CALLOUTS NOW IN A LITTLE WHILE, ARE, WE’LL COME IN HERE TO TALK TO THEM TO SEE HOW THINGS ARE GOING LOOKING REALLY GOOD RIGHT NOW BACK TO YOU >> THANKS, GARY THINK RIGHT NOW, WE HAVE TO ACKNOWLEDGE SOMETHING THIS IS A BIT OF UNUSUAL PROGRESS AND DEALING WITH BIG CHALLENGES BECAUSE WE’RE DOING IT IN THE MIDST OF A PANDEMIC YOU WILL NOTICE I AM WEARING A MASK CERTAINLY NEVER HOSTED AN EVENT WEARING A MASK BEFORE FORGIVE ME WHEN WE STRUGGLE WE ARE STAND FURTHER AWAY THAN NORMAL THEN I WILL STAY RIGHT HERE NORMALLY I MAY BE BACK IN THE MISSION SUPPORT AREA BUT NOT ALLOWED TO GO BACKING THERE I AM ISOLATED FROM THEM SO IT US MAZING WITH THE INCREDIBLE OPERATION GOING ON AT BENNU TONIGHT AND PEOPLE AROUND ME WORKING ON THIS FOR YEARS WE STILL HAVE TO DEAL WITH THE CHALLENGES OF COVID-19 SO TONIGHT OUR ATTENTION IS ON THE WONDERFUL REN, ACTUALLY, SAMPLING AN ASTEROID THAT IS INCREDIBLY ADVENTUROUS IT IS HAPPY WE REMEMBER TO TAKE CARE OF EACH OTHER WE CAN’T FORGET THAT PLEASE BEAR WITH US TODAY AS WE ARE WORKING WITH THE MASKS AND TRYING TO DO IT THE BEST HE WAY WE CAN OK, DONE ARE DANTE, GIVE US AN IDEA >> WELL, SO IT IS IMPORTANT ARE IMPORTANT TO UNDERSTAND THE SPACECRAFT IS LITERALLY ON THE OTHER SIDE OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM OVER 200 MILLION MILES AWAY FROM THE EARTH SO ANN SIGNAL WOULD TAKE OVER 18.5 MINUTES TO REACH THE SPACECRAFT, SO WHEN WE GET THESE BACK WE’RE SIGN THISES THAT HAPPENED IN THOUGH PAST ATS A HAVE IT AS A RESULT WE HAVE TO HAVE A SMART SPACECRAFT THAT HAS TO MAKE THE OWN GUIDANCE CALCULATIONS AND MAKE OWN DECISION IN FACT INSTEAD OF GETTING HIGH DATA BACK WE’RE GETTING SA LOW DATA RATE WHAT WOE CALL BREAD CRUMBS KEY PIECINGS OF INFORMATION FROM THE SPACECRAFT THAT TELL US KEY EVENTS HAVE TAKEN PLACE IN THE SEQUENCE >> NEXT IMAGE 09 METERS >> SO THAT IS AN EXAMPLE OF THE KIND OF INFORMATION WE’RE GETTING BACK FROM THE SPACECRAFT THAT HAS ONBOARD NATURAL FEATURE TRACKING SYSTEM WHICH WE WILL HEAR ABOUT TODAY >> ABSOLUTELY ALL RIGHT SO I GUESS AFTER THIS, WE ARE DEALING WITH, YOU KNOW, THE TAG EVENT ITSELF I UNDERSTAND, WE ARE NOT ABLE TO SEE IMAGES TONIGHT IN REAL-TIME WE HAVE TO WAIT AWHILE WHY IS THAT? >> THE IMAGES TAKE A LOT OF DATA TO BRING BACK FROM THE SPACECRAFT TO THE EARTH AND ON THE LOW DATA RATE WHAT WE’RE USING TODAYS THE REAL-TIME SIMULATION WE PUT TOGETHER WHAT WE’RE SEEING HERE AND REFERRING TO THIS THROUGHOUT THE BRAD CAST TONIGHT, THIS IS NOT ANY KIND OF REAL INFORMATION FROM OUTER SPACE THIS IS WHAT WE BEX THE

SPACECRAFT TO BE DOING, SO LET US KNOW WHEN KEY EVENTS ARE PROGRAMMED TO TAKE PLACE ON THE SPACECRAFT TO BE RECEIVED BACK ON EARTH AND THERE MAY BE SOME LAGS BUT THIS IS GOING TO HELP US VISUALIZE WHAT IS ACTUALLY HAPPENING AT ASTEROID BEU SO EVERYTHING IS GOING TO PLAY OUT AT THIS VERY LOW DATA RATE THROUGH THE BROADCAST TODAY THEN, SPACECRAFT HAS TO BACK AWAY FROM THE ASTEROID SURFACE AND COOL OFF IT HAS TO GET BACK ON THE SOLAR ARRAYS THEN IT WILL TURN THE AND MEAN IN TO THE EARTH THIS EVENING AND PECT IMAGES BE COMING IN OVERNIGHT AND HOPE TO HAVE GREAT INFORMATION FOR EVERYBODY BY TOMORROW >> I AM LOOKING FORWARD TO THOSE IMAGES PEOPLE AROUND THE WORLD ARE AT THIS POINT, THE SPACECRAFT HAS LEFT THE HOME ORBIT AND ON THE WAY TO THE SAMPLE SITE, EVERY MINUTE NOW, WE’RE DRAWING NEAR TOLL THE MOMENT WHEN OSIRIS-REX TOUCHES THE SURFACE OF BEN NEW WHILE WE’RE WAITING LET’S CHECK IN >> WE HOSTED A READIT WITH A FEW OF THE SIGN SCIENTIST AND GOT A LOT OF FANTASTIC QUESTIONS AND WANTED TO RECAP RIGHT NOW SOL THE FIRST QUESTION ASKS: HOW IS IT POSSIBLE TO MAP A TINY SPECK ON THISSED BY THE DO YOU HAVE ANY IMAGES CUE SHARE? DO YOU SEE THE LANDING SITE OTHER ALL BASED ON MEASUREMENTS OF WEIRD PROPERTIES AND CALCULATION ALSO HAVE SO THE FIRST OBSERVATION OF BENNU CAME HERE ON EARTH FROM PUERTO RICO THIS HUGE RADIO TELESCOPE GAVE US A BASIC UNDERSTANDING OF THE ROUGH SHAPE OF BENNU THAT YOU SEE HERE AS OSIRIS-REX WAS OUT IN SPACE AND BEGAN MAKING APPROACH CLOSER AND CLOSER TO THES A VOID IT USED THE ONBOARD CAMERA INSTRUMENTS TO INCREASE DETAIL THEN, A FEW TINY PIXEL ON THOSE SCREEN TO SUPER HIGH RESOLUTION WOULD SEE HERE LITTERED WITH GIANT RUGGED BOULDERS ANOTHER QUESTION FROMLE READIT IS ASKING US, LET’S SEE HERE YES SO WOULD VIT BEEN FEASIBLE TO HAVE ROBOTIC ARM PICK UP A FLOCK WOULD A SINGLE ROCK BE BETTER THAN 100 TINY GRAINS THE TEAM THAT DESIGNED TO SYSTEM SAMPLE ON A NICE FLAT SANDY-LIKE SURFACE AND NOT AT ALL LIKE THAT AND SUPER RUGGED AND FILL SO THE TEAMING HAD TO WORK THE FLAT SANDY SURFACE FOR EXAMPLE FELL WE PICK UP A ROCK, IT MAY CRUMBLE AWAY WE WOULD GET A SAM FELL PELL OUT OF IT IF WERE TO PRY THOSE LOSE WE WON’T BUDGE AND GET A SAMPLE SO THESE ARE ALL THINGS THAT THE TEAM HAS TO CONSIDER WHEN DESIGNING SOMETHING THAT IS OPERATING MILLIONS UPON MILLIONS OF MILES A I WAY FROM US SO FOR NOW, BACK TO YOU MICHELLE >> THANKS, JAMES OK, NOW, I HAVE BEEN A “STAR WARS” FAN NEARLY ALL MY LIFE IN ONE MOVIE, DARK VADER SAID THAT ASTEROIDS DO NOT CONCERN ME BUT CERTAINLY NOT TRUE FOR US THIS EVENING WE’RE ALL ABOUT ASTEROIDS HERE AT THE MISSION SUPPORT AREA HERE IN LITTLETON, COLORADO, AND BRING YOU LIVE COVERAGE OF THE ATTEMPT TO COLLECT A SAM TELL FROM THE ASTEROID NOW OSIRIS-REX IS A ONE OF A KIND SPACECRAFT WITH EXTRAORDINARY TEAM CHARTERING UNEXPLORED SPACES THE VEHICLE HAS TRAVELED OVER 2.2 BILLION MILES ON A COMPLEX ROUTE TO REACH BENNU AND SCHEDULED TO DELIVER BACK TO EARTH IN 2023 SO NOW TAKE A CLOSER LOOK AT OSIRIS-REX >> OVER 200 MILLION-MILES A WAY FROM EARTH, NASA’S OSIRIS-REX SPACECRAFT IS PREPARING FOR A COLLECTION ATTEMPT AT ASTEROID BENN BEFORE IT MAKES APPROACH, LET’S TAKE A LOOK BACK AT THE IN CRENEL FIRST FOR THE MISSION WHICH SEEM LIKE SOMETHING OUT OF A HOLLYWOOD MOVIE THIS IS THE FIRST AS STROYED SAMPLE RETURN MISSION ARE MISSION FOR NASA AND IT COULD BE THE LARGEST RETURN FROM SPACE SINCE THE APOLLO ASTRO NOIDS BROUGHT MOON SAMPLE BACK TO EARTH WHILE GETTING SET, OSIRIS-REX HAS SENT NOT ONLY ONE, BUT TO GUINNESS WORLD RECORDS FIRST FOR THE SMALLEST EVER BODY ORBIT BE A THE SECOND FOR THE CLOSEST ON THE SPACECRAFT THIS TIGHT ORBIT HAS BROUGHT THE SPACECRAFT SO CLOSE TO BENNU THAT THE ONBOARD CAMERAS HAVE BEEN EKE ACTUAL IMAGE AND CHARACTERIZE THE ASTRID’S SURFACE AND SHAPE BETTER THAN EARTH OUR OWN MOON OR ANY OTHER CELESTIAL BODY OSIRIS-REX HAS IMAGED DOWN TO 5 SEN TY MOTIER PROVIDING US WITH UNPRECEDENTED VIEW TO THE ROCKY WORLD AND WITH 28 ONBOARD THRUSTERS OSIRIS-REX IS ONE OF THE MOST MANEUVERABLE THAT ALLOWS TO IT PRECISELY DESCEND

TOP A SPOT ON BENNU CERTAINLY SOME UNEXPECTED TWISTS ALONG THE WAY, HOWEVER, OSIRIS-REX HAS CAPITALIZE THE END MOMENTS RIGHT AFTER ARRIVING AT THE ASTEROID, OSIRIS-REX IMAGE ROCKY TRA JK RY, THIS IS THE FIRST TABLE WE HAVE BEEN ABLE TO OBSERVE THE ENTIRE LIFE CYCLE OF THE NATURAL SATELLITE OBJECTS OF OUR THOUGH OBJECT AND RETURNING BACK TO THE SURFACE BECAUSE OF THE EXTREMELY ROCKY SURFACE, THE TEAM NEEDED TO ADAPT THE SPACECRAFT’S NAVIGATION METHOD TO NATURAL FEATURE TRACKING THIS IS THE FIRST TIME THIS APPROACH HAS PLAN USED IN SPACE AND IT WILL ALLOW OSIRIS-REX TO STEER ITSELF DOWN TO COLLECT A SAMPLE FROM BENNU NOW OSIRIS-REX IS LOOKING TO SET ANOTHER FIRST FOR NASA SUCCESSFULLY COLLECT A SAMPLE OF ASTEROID AND DELIVER IT TO EARTH BY 2023 >> WELCOMING BACK IF YOU ARE JUST JOINING US I AM MICHELLE BAUER FROM NAS SASS YOU GO DARD’S SPACEFLIGHT CENTER YOU ARE HERE WITH US ON HISTORIC EVENING NASA’S FIRST SAMPLE RETURN FROM ASTEROID THE ATTEMPT TO ACTUALLY SAMPLE THE ASTEROID BENNU AND SCENING TOWARD BENNU RIGHT NOW SO DANTE, TALKING ABOUT THE REAL-TIME SIMULATION WE’RE LOOKING AT >> YEAH IT HAS BEEN EXCITING DAY ALREADY, MY KHOL WELL OVER THREE HOURS TO THE TAGGED SEQUENCE, THE PREPROGRAMMED SET OF COMMAND ON THOSE SPACECRAFT AND EARLIER WE DEPARTED OUR ORBIT AROUND THE ASTEROIDS SO FLYING OVER THE SUNLIT SIDE OVER THE ASTEROID TAKING IMAGES IF FOR THE ONBOARD GUIDANCE SYSTEM CALLED NATURAL FEATURE TRACKING A COUPLE OF OTHER’S EVENTSES THE SPACECRAFT DEPLOYED THE ROBOTIC TAG SAMPLING ARM SO THE ARM IS READY IN POSITION TO COLLECT THAT SAMPLE AND TURNED ON AND STARTED CLOAKING SCIENCE DATA FROM ONE OF THE SCIENCE INSTRUMENTS THE THERMAL MISSION THE SPACECRAFT HAS MOVED INTO THE SECOND MARBLE FEATURE TRACKING ATTITUDE AND GETTING ONBOARD POSITIONAL UPDATES DID AS WE SPEAK AND I CAN TELL YOU, EVERYTHING IS GOING EXACTLY ACCORDING TO PLANNED NOW AND LOOKS REALLY GOOD OH, IT HAS BEEN EXCITING DAY SO OSIRIS-REX TRAVELED MORE THAN TWO AND A HALF YEARS AS IT NAVIGATED THE WAY ONCE THERE, IT BEGAN MAPPING THE SURFACE AND THE TASKS IN THE ENGINEERING TEAM AND THEN THERE HAVE BEEN CHALLENGES AND SURPRISES, TOO CORRECT >> ABSOLUTELY CAN TELL YOU ALREADY, THE SCIENCE RETURNED FROM OSIRIS-REX HAS BEEN PHENOMENAL AND REWRITTEN A LOT OF THINGS ABOUT WHAT WE KNOW I WILL TALK ABOUT THREE OF THE MOST INTERESTING RESULTS FOR ME FIRST OFF, WE LEARNED LIT BLIR ONE WEEK AFTER GETTING INTO ORBIT THAT BENNU IS WHAT WAY WE CALL ACTIVE ASTEROID THAT IS JEKING FROM THE SURFACE AND THESE PARTICLE KELLS ARE COMING OFF IT LOW AND FELICITIES FOR THE MOST PART AND GOING NA ORBIT SPIRALING AROUND THE ASTEROID PROVIDING EXCELLENCE SCIENCE ALLOWING US TO MAP OUT AND UNPRECEDENTED DETAIL WAY BEYOND WHAT WE EXPECTED TO DO HER TO THAW RIGHT AWAY AS WE WERE APPROACHING THERE WERE GENERALLY DARK BLACK SURFACES EXPECT BUDDABLE BRIGHT BOULDERS THAT ARE WERE SHOUTING BEACONS TO US AS WE TRAINED THE SCIENCE INSTRUMENT ON THERE AND CHARACTERIZED THE MINERALLOLOGY AND LINK THEM TO VESTA, ONE OF THE LARGEST IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM AND THE TARGET OF THE AS? DAWN SPACECRAFT WHICH DY A PHENOMENAL JOB CHARACTERIZING THIS TARGET AND IT SHOWS EXCHANGING PIECES BACK AND FORTH ADDS THEY COLLIDE INTO EACH OTHER AND SHOOT THE PARTICLES OFF INTO SPACE WOW [APPLAUSE] I WOULD SAY BACK TO THE SCIENCE THE FINAL RESULT THAT IS IMPORTANT FROM THE MISSION WE DID EXPECT THE ASTEROID TO LOOK SANDY AND BEACH-LIKE BASED ON THE THERMAL PROPERTIES FROM EARTH AND WE GOT THERE WOE USED THE OTIS SPECK SPECTROMETER EVERYTHING TUPPED ITSELF UPSIDE DOWN THE AREAS THAT WE THOUGHT WOULD BE BEACH-LIKE BASED ON THERMAL PROPERTIES TURNED OUT TO BE THE LARGEST BOLDERS ON THE ASTEROID’S SURFACE AND THE FINE-GRAIN REGIONS HAD TO HAVE THE HUER COMPLETELY OPPOSITE OF EVERYTHING WE EXPECTED PROPAGATING A LOT OF GREAT SCIENCE AS A RESULT WE MENTIONED THERE ARE BRIGHT ROCKS FROM VESTA THAT MEANS THAT BENNU IN THE ASTEROID BELT BETWEEN MARS ANDUPPER? THAT RIGHT IT IS A RECENT WON WE THINK IT IS FRAGMENTS OF A MUCH LARGER ASTEROID THAT WAS CATASTROPHICALLY DISRUPTED MAYBE A BILLION YEARS AGO WOW THAT IS SO COOL THANKS SO MUCH OK NOW, AS CHALLENGING AS IT IS GETTING TO BENNU CATCHING A AND PELL IS SOMETHING ELSE EN TRY

THE TEAM NEEDED TO DEVELOP THRASHINGABLE SYSTEM HAS BEEN IN DEVELOPMENT FOR ALMOST 20 YEARS DEVELOP NEWING STRATEGIES TO ACCOMPLISH SOMETHING NEVER DONE BEFORE THIS IS PARTICULARLY CHALLENGING BECAUSE BENNU HAS WEAK GRAVITY FIELD AND THINK ABOUT GOING INTO ORBIT HOW DO YOU ORBIT SOMETHING WHERE THE GRAVITY CANNOT GRAB AND PUSH INTO ORBIT ALL ABOUT FLYING THE SPACECRAFT AND VERY DIFFICULT TO TAKE A SAMPLE IN A VERY LOW GRAVITY ENVIRONMENT SO THANKFULLY, WE HAVE THE MASTERMIND BEHIND THE DEVICE TO WILL TAKE THE SAMPLE TODAY LOCKHEED MARTIN WELCOME, BEAU >>NK YOU, GREAT TO BE HERE OK TALK ABOUT WHY WORKING IN THE LOW GRAVITY ENVIRONMENT MAKES IT TOUGH TO GET A SAMPLE YOU MAY THINK YOU CAN TAKE A ROBOTIC ARM AND SCOOP SOMETHING UP THAT IS NOT GOING TO WORK IN THESE CONDITIONS RIGHT THE MICROGRAVITY OF BENNU PROVIDES A CHALLENGE OF SAMPLING WE DON’T NORMALLY FACE ON EARTH AND IMAGINE TRYING TO USE A SHUTTLE OR SCOOP ON EARTH AND THE GROUND PUSHES AGAINST YOU, BUT THE GRAVITY KEEPS ON IN THIS GROUND, ON BENNU, THE SURFACE GRAVITIES THOUSANDS OF TIMES LOWER ON EARTH IF YOU PUSH A SHOVE INTO THE GROUND, YOU YOU SHALL YOURSELF OFF THE SURFACE SO WE HAD TO COME UP WITH A TECHNIQUE WORKED WITH THIS VERY LOW GRAVITY AND WE ALSO HAD TO CHALLENGE OF UNCERTAINTY OF THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIESES OF THE SURFACE AND BOTH OF THOSE THINGS MADE LANDING A CHALLENGE AND WOULDN’T KNOW HOW TO GRAPPLE PARTICULARLY WELL IN THIS MATERIAL SO WE HAD TO COME UP WITH A TECHNIQUE THAT WORKED IN THE MICROGRAVITY ENVIRONMENT THAT COULD WORK IN THE TAG ARCHITECTURE, THIS TOUCH AND GO ARCHITECTURE OF A YOU FEW SECONDS LONG INDIA STANDERS YOU BROUGHT MOLDS WITH YOU SHOW US WHAT YOU GOT HERE >> THAT IS RIGHT SO THIS IS A SCALE MADLE MOD OF THE SPACECRAFT THE ARM IS TEXTED IN THE SAMPLING POSITION THE ARM IS EXTENDED PARTWAY DOWN THE ARM, CAN YOU SEE THREE GAS BOTTLES WELL EUSE ONE TODAY THIS HAS HIGH PRESSURE NITROGEN GAS WHICH PASSES DOWN THE ARM TO THE TAG ITSELF AND HERE, I HAVE ACTUALLY A FULL SCALE TAG, IT IS ACTUALLY DEVICE THAT WE USED FOR COLLECTION TESTING ON EARTH IT COMES DOWN I DON’T HAVE THE TUBE HOOKINGER TO SHOW YOU THE GAS COMES DOWN THE CENTER AND SPLIT INTO TWO AND PASSES UNDERNEATH THE HEAD THERE IS NOW A HIGH PRESSURE BUBBLE OF GAS UNDERNEATH THE HEAD THAT IS MOBILIZING MATERIAL LIKE WIND BLOWS DIRT ON DUSTY DAYTON THE EARTH WE ARE SURROUNDED BY THE VACUUM OF SPACE SO THE GASES, THERE IS A HIGH PRESSURE GAS UNDERNEATH THE TAG, IT WILL ESCAPE TOP THE LOW PRESSURE ENVIRONMENT OF THE VACUUM OF SPACE SURROUNDING IT AND DOES SO THROUGH THE SCREEN AROUND THE ENTIRE PERIMETER OF THE TAG HEAD ITSELF WHILE THE GAS CAN ESCAPE, THE SCREEN TRAPS THE MATERIAL SAFELY INSIDE >> ONE OF THESEIENT THINGS ABOUT ENGINEERING FOR SPACE TO HAVE THINGS THAT ARE RIGOROUSLY BUILT AND CANNOT BREAK EASILY SO THERE ARE NOT ANY MOVING PARTS HERE ANDIZING THE VACUUM OF SPACE ITSELF TO PROVIDE PRESSURE TO COLLECT THE SAMPLE A LIGHT WHEN WE WERE DESIGNING THIS DEVICE MANY YEARS AGO WE WERE THINKING WE WANTED TO KEEP IT AS SIMPLE, ROBUST, FULL PROOF AS POSSIBLE WE DIDN’T WANT ANY MECHANISM, ELECTRICAL DEVICES THE ENTIRE COLLECTION IS DRIVE BIN THE DYNAMICS OF THE GAS ITSELF SO ONCE THE GAS IS RELEASED FROM THE BOTTLE, TRAVELS DONE THE ARM, THE GAS DOES ALL THE WORK THAT IS SO COOL WHAT SIZE ARE WE TALKING ABOUT HERE? >> WELL, TAG IS DESIGNED TO COLLECT TWO CENTIMETER PARTICLES AND I HAVE EXAMPLES TO SHOW YOU THIS IS TWO CENTIMETERS IT IS ABOUT THE SAME DIAMETER AS A NICKEL BUT OF COURSE MOST MATERIALS ARE NOT ACTUALLY PERFECT MOST MATERIALS ARE IRREGULARLY SHAPED >> PROCESSED POSITION UNCERTAINTY IN 0.5 METERS >> ALL RIGHT THAT IS FANTASTIC [APPLAUSE] EXCELLENT OOMS SO WE’RE GOING WHERE WE NEED TO GO TO GET MATERIAL SO MOST GEOLOGICAL MATERIAL IS IRREGULARLY SHAPED SO THIS ROCK IS FOUR CENTIMETERS LONG IN THE LONGEST DIMENSION BUT STILL ABLE TO COLLECT THIS IN A TEST ON EARTH THAT IS BECAUSE EVEN THOUGH IT IS FOUR CENTIMETERS IN THIS DIMENSION CAN SEE IT IS MUCH LESS THAN TWO SEN TY MOTORS IN THAT DIMENSION OR TWO SEN TY MOTIERS IN THE OTHER DIMENSION SO WHILE LIMITED IN ONE DIRECTION FOR TWO SEN TY MOTORS AS LONG AS THE OTHERS ARE LESS WE CAN COLLECT MUCH LARGER PARTICLE HAS TO THE TAG HEAD ITSELF >> WELL, EXCELLENT UNDERSTAND YOU HAVE ANIMATIONS TO GIVE US A SENSE TONIGHT A SURE THING SO YOU ARE SEEING 15 TIMES SLOWER THAN WALKING SPEED IT CONTACTS THE SPACECRAFT AND CONTACTS AND FIRES THE GAS, THE GAS MOBILIZES MATERIAL UNDERNEATH THE TAGHEAD ARE HEAD AND THAT GAS ESCAPES TO THE VACUUM OF SPACE THROUGH THE PERIMETER AND MATERIALS

COLLECTED INSIDE OF THE TAG HEAD AND THE SPACECRAFT FIRES THE THRUSTERS AND BACKS SAFELY AWAY FROM THE SURFACE OF THE ASTEROID THANK YOU FOR THE TUTORIAL, BEAU CLEARLY, THEY ARE EXCITED TO STUDY WITHEVER IT COLLECTS THANKS SO MUCH >> THANK YOU WONDERFUL TO FLOOR ARE BE HERE OK SPEAK OF THE IMPORTANT TAG THAT IS HAPPENING IN LESS THAN AH NOUR LATE REFRESH IT WOULD BE A GOOD TIME TO GET A TOUR OF THE CENTER HERE AT LOCKHEED MARTIN SPACE IN LITTLETON, COLORADO RIGHT BEE HEINZ ME, THAT IS WHERE TEAM MEMBERS ARE KEEPING AN EYE ON THE SPACECRAFT NOW LET’S SEND IT OVER TO GARY WHAT IS GOING ON, CAR ARE GARY >> WE ARE AROUND THE CORNER FROM YOU THE HEART OF THE TAG OPERATION WE THOUGHT IT WOULD BE A GOOD TIME TO CHECK WIN THE TEAM TO SEE HOW THINGS ARE GOING THE BEST PERSON TO DO THAT IS JOINING ME THIS IS SANDY SHE IS OSIRIS-REX OPERATIONS MANAGER HER AT LOCKHEED MARTIN SO SANDY, THANKS THANKS FOR JOI HOW IS THE TEAM DOING? >> OH, THE TEAM IS GREAT! WE ARE HERE SINCE 6:00 THIS MORNING SETTING THE FINAL COMMANDS GETTING READY FOR TAG >> REALLY COOL I KNOW THERE IS LIKE 40 PEOPLE ON THE OVERALL FLIGHT TEAM BUT SEEMS LIKE 20 HERE NOW MAYBE GIVINGS IDEA WHO HAVE THE FOLKS ARE AND WHAT THEY ARE DOING? YEAH THIS IS THE AMAZING TEAM CAN SEE ALL THE SUB SYSTEM HASSER ON CONSUL MONITORING THE TELEMETRY LIKE YOU MENTION, WE CAN’T HAVE EVERYBODY IN HERE WE DO HAVE MANY TEAM MEMBERS SUPPORTING FROM OTHER CONFERENCE ROOMS IN THE BUILDING, SOME EVEN FROM HOME SO LET’S TALK BACK A COUPLE OF THE POSITIONS IN THE ROOM THEN BACK CORNER OVER THERE IS DALE DALE IS OUR TAG PHASE LEAD AND HEARING HIS VOICE CALLING OUT EVENTS AS THEY COMPLETE ONBOARD THE SPACECRAFT HERE IN THE CENTER AREA, WE HAVE CURTIS MILLER CURTIS IS THE NFT LEAD AND WATCHING NATURAL FEATURED TRACKING THAT IS HOW WE ARE NAVIGATING TO THE SURFACE OF BENNU TODAY SO IS WATCHING HOW MANY FEATURES WERE MATCHING AND HOW THAT SYSTEM IS WORKING SO I KNOW NATURAL FEATURE TRACKING LOOK YOU ARE SAYING IS KEEPING AN EYE AND TELLING US WHERE WE ARE ARE GOING I KNOW WE’LL GET THAT LATER IN THE SHOW BUT ALSO, IT IS IMPORTANT TO STAY IN COMMUNICATION WITH THE SPACECRAFT WHAT ABOUT IT >> YEAH SO RIGHT BEHIND ME HERE ICY REAR, THE REAL-TIME OPERATOR OR ACE HE SHIES WORKING WITH THE DEEP SPACE NETWORK PARTNERS WE’RE ON A STATION IN GOLDSTONE MAKE SHORING WE MAIN TAUN THOUGH CALM LINK AND THE CALM LINK IS ONLY 40 ABOUT ITS PER SECOND AND BRINGING DOWN THAT KEY INFORMATION BUT SY REAR IS HERE TO MAKE SURE WE KEEP THAT LINK GOING AND THE STATION OPERATORS INFORMED RIGHT NEXT TO HERE IS SOUR SYSTEMS COORDINATOR FOR THIS EVENT SHE HAS BUILT ALL THE COME MAN PRODUCTS THAT ARE EXECUTING AND KEEPING AN EYE ON EVERYTHING IS PROGRESSING TALKING TO ALL OF THE SUB SYSTEMS HERE IN THE ROOM AND MAKING SURE THINGS ARE GOING JUST AS PLANNED >> VERY GOOD I KNOW YOU YOURSELF HAVE BEEN ON THIS PROJECT FOR QUITE AWHILE AND EVEN BACK BE >> WELL, ACTUALLY, I AM EXCITED FEEL LIKE WE HAVE DONE EVERYTHING WE CAN TO MAKE IT SUCCESSFUL I HAVE BEEN ON THIS MISSION FOR SEVEN YEARS SO I WATCHED IT GO FROM SPACECRAFT ON PAPER TO BEING BUILT TO LAUNCH AND EVERYTHING HERE YEAH I AM EXCITE MIDS ARE EXCITED THIS MORNING WE’RE READY MY KIDS WERE EXCITED >> WE’LL LIT GET BACK TO IT WE DON’T WANT TO INTERRUPT TOO MUCH SANDY, THANKS SO MUCH FOR JOINING US AND I KNOW THAT FOLKS AROUND THE WORLD ARE PAYING ATTENTION TO THIS NOW WE’RE SEEING A TON OF SOCIAL MEDIA COMING IN SO LET’S GO OVER TO JAMES ON THE SOCIAL MEDIA DESK TO SEE WHAT THE CONVERSATIONS ARE ABOUT >> YEAH THANK YOU, GARY IT IS AWESOME TO SEE THE TEAM YOU CAN FEEL ENERGY IN THE ROOM ESPECIALLY AFTER EVERY CALL OUT >> THE THIRD AND FINAL NATURAL FEATURE TRACKING ATTITUDE A OK WE ARE INCHING CLOSER BUT TODAY WE WANT TO HEAR FROM YOU SO YOU CAN CHECK IN ON LIVE UPDATES ON THE TWITTER ACCOUNT AT OSIRIS-REX USING THE HASHTAG TO GET IN ON THE CONVERSATION MEANTIME, THE QUESTION I HAD WHEN I FIRST STARTED COVERING THE MISSION IS HOW DO YOU BEGIN TO PREP FOR A MISSION OF THIS SCALE? I MEAN, I FIRST HEARD ABOUT OSIRIS-REX IT SEEMED LIKE SOMETHING OUT OF A BIG BUDGET MOVIE THIS ISRAEL WE’RE TRYING TO SAMPLE ON ASTEROID TO PUT INTO PERSPECTIVE FOR YOU BENNU IS ABOUT THE SIZE OF THE THAT IS SMALL FOR OBJECT IT MAKES IT EXES EXCEPTIONALLY CHALLENGING FOR US TO ORBIT SOMETHING WITH WEAK GRAVITY FIELD THAT SAMPLE IS JUST A FEW METERS IN WIDTH WHICH IS THE SIZE OF A FEW SPARKING SPACES SO JUST TAKE A STEP BACK FOR A SECOND AND PUT YOURSELF IN THE SHOES OF THOSE ENGINEERS I IMAGINE TRYING TO PARK A SPACECRAFT ON ASTEROID 200 MILLION MILES AWAY IN A SPACE NO LARGER THAN FEW SPARKING SPOTS AS IF PARALLEL PARKING IS NOT HARD ENOUGH I IMAGINE TRYING TO DODGE

HAZARDS LIKE ROCKY BOULDERS AND ALL KINDS OF THINGS AS YOU MAKE YOUR DECENT DOWN ON TOP OF THAT THE TEAM IS ACTUALLY PROGRAMMED THE SPACECRAFT TO STEER ITSELF DOWN TO THE SURFACE AND IT IS TRULY INCREDIBLE ALL THE FOR SIGHT THAT WENT INTO IT BLOWS MY MIND WE HAVE A COUPLE OF QUESTIONS COMING IN FROM TWITTER A LOT OF PEOPLE ARE ASKING ABOUT THE FUEL USAGE FOR THE MISSION ONE QUESTION IS ASKING HOW DOLES THE CRAFT HAVE ENOUGH FUEL TO RETURN BACK TO EARTH FROM THE ASTEROID? SO WE’LL LOOK TO BRING THE SAMPLE BACK IN 2023 AND OSIRIS-REX’S FLUTERS THRUSTERS ARE POWERED BY LO DRO GEN WE’RE TAPPING IN TODAY ON THE ORDERS OF TENS NOT A LOT BECAUSE AS YOU ARE MAY REMEMBER, BENNU AS HAS THE MICROGRAVITY ENVIRONMENT THAT REQUIRES A LITTLE BIT OF THRUST TO KICK USE THIS THE RIGHT DIRECTION TO COLLECT THE SAMPLE AND RETURNS BACK TO EARTH AND THAT IS A BIT OF A DIFFERENT STORY AND USING A LOT MORE FUEL FOR NOW DON’T WORRY TEAM HAS THOUGHT WAY AHEAD SAN PACKED MORE THAN ENOUGH FUEL TO GET US BACK HERE SAFELY IN 2023 BUT THERE IS A LOT MORE DOM AND CHECK BACK IN A MINUTE BACK TO YOU, MICHELLE THANKS, JAMES OK LET’S TAKE A QUICK LOOK AT THE SEM LATION TO SEE WHERE WE’RE AS YOU NOTICED THE SIMULATION IT IS TEXTED NOW ON SLOW PATH TO THE SURFACE SO AS WE GET CLOSER TO THE MOMENT OF CONTACT THE DRAMA STARTS TO HAPPEN IN SLOW MOTION MAXIMIZE PRECISION AND INTENTIONAL SURPRISES SO SPEAKING OF SURPRISES, THERE IS ONE BIG ASPECT OF THE OSIRIS-REX MISSION THAT IS ALL ABOUT PREPARING ANOTHER UNEXPECTED JOINING US TO DISCUSS THIS IS LORI NOW, LOR WHERE I, YOU KNOW DRAMATIC SPECIALITY AND A RESPONSIBILITY THAT COMES WITH YOUR POSITION AT NASA AND ACTUALLY WORRY ABOUT THINGS LIKE PLANETARY PROTECTION A YES PLANETARY DEFENSE OR PROTECTION, DEPENDING OUR PLANET FROM POTENTIAL IMPACTS AND BENNU IN A SPECIAL CLASS AND DANTE SPOKE EARLIER BENNU IS A NEAR EARTH OBJECT, IT IS ASTEROID OR A COMET THAT ORBITS THE SUN MUCH LIKE THE PLANETS DO AND LIGHT SLY UNUSUAL >> THEY ARE SLIGHTLY USUAL AM >> THE SPACECRAFT WILL HOLD UNTIL TAGGED EXCELLENT GREAT NEWS >> BACK TO NEO SO THEY ARE UNUSUAL THEIR ORBITZ BRING THEM WITHIN THE VICINITY OF EARTH’S ORBIT THE TECHNICAL DEFINITION IS SOMETHING THAT COMES WITHIN 30 MILLION MILES OF EARTH’S ORBIT AND ASTEROIDS ACTUALLY COME CLOSER TO EARTH ALL THE TIME ONE OR TWO PER WEEK, ACTUALLY, PASS IN BETWEEN EARTH AND THE MOON BUT MOST OF THOSE ARE SMALL THEY ARE NOT DANGEROUS BUT AS STROYEDS OF A MUCH BIGGER SIZE THAT COULD ACTUALLY DO DAMAGE THE EARTH’S SURFACE THEY WERE TO IMPACT AND PASS BY EARTH CLOSER TO THE MOON ABOUT ONCE PER MONTH AND REALLY IMPORTANT FOR US TO FIND THEM, AS EARLY AS POSSIBLE SO WE CAN TRACK THE ORBITS TO STUDY AND IF NECESSARY, WE CAN MITIGATE POTENTIAL FUTURE IMPACT THREAT AND THAT IS WHERE MISSION THAT WE ARE BUILDING NOW CALLED THE DOUBLE ASTEROID REDIRECTION TEST THAT IS WHERE DART COMES IN IT I GOING TO LAUNCH NEXT SUMMER 2021 AND GOING TO TEST SOMETHING WE CALL THE KINETIC IMPACTOR TECHNIQUE THAT COULD BE USED ONE DAY TO HELP US MITIGATE A FUTURE POTENTIAL IMPACT THREAT BY BUMMING ASTEROID EVER SO SLIGHTLY ON COLLISION COURSE OUR PLANET TO SLIGHTLY DIFFERENT ORBIT SO IT MISSES EARTH JUST A TINY MISS SO THAT IS REALLY EXCITING NOW I ALSO UNDERSTAND THAT NOT ALL THE ASTEROIDS IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM ARE THE SAME THEY ARE DIFFERENT AS? HAS UPCOMING MISSIONS TO STUDY TELL US A BIT MORE ABOUT THAT, PLEASE >> YEAH WE KNOW THAT MAJORITY OF OUR ASTEROIDS ARE FOUND IN THE MAIN ASTEROID BELT BETWEEN MARS AND JUPITER AND IN FACT WE HAVE A MISSION THAT IS GOING TO LAUNCH IN 2022 CALLED PSYCHE AND IT IS GOING TO VISIT THE BIGGEST ASTEROIDS IN THE ASTEROID BELT THAT IS CALLED 16 PSYCHE AND THIS MISSION IS GOING TO ARRIVE IN EARLY 2026 AND HELP US BETTER UNDERSTAND THIS ASTEROID IS POTENTIALLY ACTUALLY THOUGH CORE OF A PLANET SIZE OBJECT WE ALSO HAVE OTHER TYPES OF ASTEROIDS CALLED TROJANS THAT ARE CLUSTERED IN TWO GROUPS THAT LED AND TRAIL IN JUPITER’S ORBIT DUE TO A BALANCING ACT OF THE POLE OF THE SUN’S GRAVITY ON THEM NASA HAS MISSION TO THOSE TROJAN ASTEROIDS CALLED LUCY GOING TO LAUNCH NEXT YEAR ANNEX FALL FROM A YEAR FROM NOW AND VISIT SEVERAL OF THESE ASTEROIDS AND NEW MISSION AND CALLED JANICE AND WE SELECTED THIS MISSION THROUGH OUR SIMPLEX SMALL MISSION PROGRAM LINE THIS MISSION IS GOING TO SEND TWO SMALL SPACECRAFT VERY SMALL SPACECRAFT TO TWO BINARY ASTEROID SYSTEMS AND HELP US UNDERSTANDS WHAT IT IS THAT MAKES THESE BINARY ASTEROID SYSTEMS DIFFERENT FROM ONE ANOTHER SO STUDYING THIS FULL BREATH OF THESE DIVERSE SMALL

WORLDS WILL CONTINUE TO HELP US FILL UP THE KNOWLEDGE GAPS OF HOW THE SOLAR SYSTEM FORMED AND EVOLVED OVER TIME IT SEEMS WITH THE MISSIONS COMING UP IN THE GOLDEN AGE OF ASTEROID EXPLORATION THEN THIS OTHER ASPECT OF THE MISSION WISSAM PELL RETURN IT TURNS OUT WE’RE BEGINNING THIS GOLDEN AGE OF SAMPLE RETURN, TOO NOT JUST ASTEROIDS ARE RIGHT WE ARE REALLY EXCITED ABOUT ALL OF THESE SAMPLES BECAUSE THERE E THEY ARE PRECIOUS AND SO MUCH SCIENCE WE CAN DO WITH THEM IN ADDITION TO OSIRIS-REX, WE’RE PARTNERING WITH THE JAPANESE SPACE AGE GN SO IN THEIR MISSION WHICH IS ACTUALLY ALL RIGHT ON THE WAY BACK BRINGING A SAMPLE THEY ARE GOING TO BE COME BACK IN DECEMBER WE ARE ALSO PART PARTNERING WITH JAPANESE SPACE GAG SON ANOTHER SHALL MISSION OF THEIRS THAT WILL TURN A SAM TELL FROM ONE OF THE TWO MOONS OF MARS THEN FINALLY, AT THE END OF THIS DECADE, WE’RE GOING TO SEND A MISSION TO MARS TO RETRIEVE THE SAMPLES THAT ARE COLLECTINGED BY THE PERSEVERANCE ROVER WHICH IS THE FIRST ASTRO BIOLOGY POLICING FROM NASA AND IT IS FOCUSED ON LOOKING AT FINDING ANCIENT LAV ON MARS SO SAMPLE OF RETURN IS REALLY IMPORTANT ATE I LOYS US TO STUDY THE PRISTINE SAMPLES BACK HER ON EARTH WE CAN THEN TAKE ADVANTAGE OF SOUR ROOM SIZE LABORATORIES AND ALL OF THE >> BEGUN BLOWING THE SOLAR AWAYS TOHE CONFIGURATION TO AVOID POSSIBLE CONTACT WITH THE SURFACE DURING TAG >> GREAT NEWS >> MOVING RIGHT ALONG SO WE BRING THE SAMPLES BACK THAT ALLOWS US TO USE ALL THE LABORATORY CAPABILITIES WE HAVE HER ON EARTH AND THE FULL SWEEP OF THE SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS WITH WE HAVE HAVE TO HELP US UNDERSTAND THE SAMPLES AND THE HUST RIFF THE BODY FROM WHICH THEY CAME AND ALSO HAVING THE SAMPLES BACK HERE AROUND HEART ALLOWS US TO PRESERVE THEM FOR FUTURE GENERATIONS TO COM AND ALLOWS THE FUTURE EXPLORERS TO ANALYZE USING TECHNIQUES AND INSTRUMENTS THAT HAVE NOT BEEN VINTED AND TOES A K QUESTIONS WE DON’T KNOW ASK YESTERDAY >> THAT IS SO COOL MAIN, LIFE IS ALL ABOUT HOW WE NAVIGATE UNKNOWNS AND SOMETHING HAPPENING IN REAL-TIME TONIGHT SO IT IS REASSURING TO KNOW THERE IS ORGANIZED PLAN YOU ARE IN CHARGE OF TO TAKE THE SO THANK YOU FOR JOINING US SO GOOD TO? I THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR HAVING ME I WANT TO ADD IT HAS BEEN FANTASTIC TO WATCH THE MISSION SO FAR AND REALLY, REALLY EXCITED FOR WHAT IS AHEAD TONIGHT AND SAY CONGRATS TO THE ENTIRE TEAM >> THANKS SO MUCH >> THANK YOU >> THANK YOU >> NOW, ASTEROIDS ARE NOT EASILY NAVIGATED THEY ARE HARD TO SEE THEY HAVE LOW GRAVITY FIELDS THEY ARE DARK, ROCKY, TRAVELING AROUND THE SOLING SOLAR SYSTEM WHERE EVERYTHING IS MOVING RARELY MEANS TRAVELING A STRAIGHT LINE LET’S TAKE LOOK AT THE BIG CHALLENGES THE TEAM HAS FACED TO GET TO THIS POINT >> AS WE STARTED TO APPROACH AND STARTED TO FILL UP THE CAMERAL VIEW, IT LOOKED LIKE WE THOUGHT IT WOULD WELL A FEW STICKING OUT AS WE GOT CLOSER, WE EXPECTED TO SEE SANDY SURFACE WITH A FEW BOULDER HERE’S THAN WHAT WE SAYS VERY LITTLE SAND WOE SAW THE MOUNTAINS WE SAW BOULDERS WE SAW ROCKS WE SAW FEW AREAS THAT HAD SANDY SURFACE WE WERE EXPECTING AND WHAT WE DESIGNED >> WE HAVE NEVER DONE THIS BEFORE WE ARE GOING TO CLOAK THE SAMPLE AND BRING IT DOWN-TO-EARTH FOR FURTHER EXAMINATION BY SCIENTIST IN ORDER TO ACHIEVE THAT OBJECT IVE THREE OSIRIS-REX HAS BEEN NAVIGATING FOR THE LAST TWO YEARS STUDYING IT IN GREAT DETAIL AND OVERCOMING A NUMBER OF CHALLENGES WE ARE LOOKING FOR TOW LOCATIONS ON BENNU50 MEL METH TERSE IN DIAMETER, RELATIVELY FLAT AND COVERED WITH FIND GRAIN MATERIAL BY FIND GRAIN, THE SUFFICIENT THAT IS THE SIZE OF A DIME OR SMALLER? SITES ON BENN THAW CAME CLOSE EVERYWHERE WE LOOK IT WAS TOO SMALL, COVERED WITH BOULDERS SO WE HAD TO FLY A NUMBER OF ADDITIONAL CLOSE PASSES OVER THE ASTEROID AND RETHINK THE ENTIRE PLAN FOR GRABBING THE SAMPLE AFTER THE ADDITIONAL OBSERVATIONS OF BENNU WE HAD TO DOWN SELECT TO FOUR SITES THEN GO BACK TO SURVEY IF YOU ARE HER TO COLLECTING THE FINAL SAMPLE SITE MY FIRST IMPRESSION THAT IS THE LAST PLACE WANT ITED TO GO AS WE STARTED LOOKING AT OTHER SITES WE SAW THAT ONE PROBABLY ONE OF THE MOST SAMPLES FOR BOTH SIDE AND WE WERE OVERPERFORMING OR IN NAVIGATION CAPPING AND OUR ABILITY TO CONTACT THE FEATURED TRACK WORKS LIKE THE HUMAN MIND AND WE PICK UP LAN MARKS ALONG THE WAY AND AS WE DESEN WE LOOK AT FEE THORN’S GROUND AND PROGRAM THE COMPUTER TO RECOGNIZE IT TAKES A PICTURE SAY ITS THIS FEATURE IS NOT WHERE I EXPECTED TO IT TO BE IT IS THINK OF SIDE AND UPDATINGS THE POSITION BASED ON WHERE IT IS POINTED AND WHERE

IT SHOWS UP THE EVENT IS OUR TOUCH AND GO EVENTP WHICH IS WHERE WE WILL ACTUALLY BE TREEING THE SAMPLE FROM ASTEROID BENNU WE START WITH THE CHECK POINT BURN WHICH IS WHERE WE WILL CHECK OUR POSITION AND VA LOYS TY IN RELATION TO THE SAMPLE SITES >> THEN THE MATCH POINT BURN ABOUT TEN MINUTES LATER WILL ZERO OUT THE HORIZONTAL VA LOYS TYRELL THINK OF SR. FIS AND TEN MINUTES AFTER THIS WE MADE CONTACT WITH THE TAGS AND FIRE THE GAS BOTTLE THEN BACK AWAY THEN, WE HOPE TO GET AT LEAST 60-GRAMS OF SAMPLES THEN WE ARE ABLE TO STORE THAT AND BRING IT BACK DOWN-TO-EARTH THERE ARE SEVERAL THINGS THAT COULD GO WRONG WE HAVE TO BE PREPARED UNWONTED BE SUCCESSFUL IN THE FIRST TRY AT NIGHT IN GAYLE WE DON’T ONLY GET ONE TAGGED AND WE HAVE THREE NITROGEN BOLTS ONBOARD THE SPACECRAFT SO WOE CAN POTENTIALLY DO THREE TAG EVENTS IF NEEDED AND GO THROUGH SEVERAL WHAT IF SCENARIOS AND HOW WE ACTUALLY PREPARE FOR A LOT OF THE CONTINGENCIES SOL WE HAD TO LOOK AROUND THE SURFACE IN IDENTIFYING THE ROCKS AND COLD ARE BOLDER AFTER 25 DEGREES AND COULD COME INTO CONTACT AND BE DAMAGED >> WE HAD TO DEVELOP SA HAZARD MAP WHICH WE PROGRAM ARE PROGRAMMED AND IF YOU ARE GETTING TOO CLOSE TO THOSE HAZARDS WE’LL DO IT WAY OFF AND BACK AWAY FROM THE ASTEROID AND COME BACK TO DO THIS ANOTHER DAY >> EVERYTHING MIGHT WORK PERFECTLY WE COME DOWN WE TOUCH THE SURFACE WHERE WE WANT TO WE FIRE THE GAS BOTTLE AND THE AREA WE CONTACT IS COVERED IN LARGE ROCKS THOSE ROCKS WOULD PREVENT ANY FIND GRAIN MATERIAL FROM BEING STIRRED UP AND CAPTURED IN THE SAG SO ANOTHER SIMILAR SCENARIO THAT IS THE TAG WERE TO TOUCH ON THE EDGE OF THE BOULDER AND BECOME TIPPED UP AND IN THAT CASE THE GAS POTTLE FIRE AND THE GAS ESCAPES OUT THE SIDE NOT CHURNING THEME WHICH WANT TO CAPTURE THE TAG IS REALLY EXCITING BUT THE SEGMENT FOR OUR TEAM DOESN’T END THERE WE HAVE TO VERIFY THAT WE HAVE PROPER SAMPLE A FIRST, WE WILL IM HAJJ THE HEAD BY STICK IN FRONT OF THE CAMERAS THEN DO A MANEUVER CALLED THE SAMPLE MASK MEASUREMENT IN WHICH WE STICK OUT THE ARM AND SPIN THE SPACECRAFT TO DECIDE IF WE COLLECTED ENOUGH MASK TO STOW THE SAMPLE AND RETURN HOME OR IF WE HAVE TO TRY AGAIN THIS IS THE CULMINATION OF A LOT OF WORK AND ONE OF THE MOST EXCITING MISSION I WORKED ON AND EXCITING TO KNOW WE ARE FINALLY GOING TO BE ABLE TO TOUCH THE SURFACE OF THOUGH ASTEROID AND COLLECT THE SAMPLE TO RETURN BACK TO EARTH >> SO STEP BACK FOR A MOMENT AND REALIZE THAT TONIGHT’S EVENTS ARE EXCEEDINGLY RARE AND HISTORIC HUMANITY ONLY LANDED ON FEW DIFFERENT BODIES IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM AND RETRIEVING THE SAMPLE IS MORE RARE AND LUCK WHETHER I ME TONIGHT ARE THOSE WHO KNOW BETTER THAN ANYBODY THE CHALLENGES THAT IT TOOK TO GET HERE LOTE ME INTRODISUSE MIKE MONROE THE DEPUTY PROJECT MANAGER AT THE GODDARD SPACEFLIGHT CENTER SAN TAG NAVIGATION MANAGER ATKIN NOTIC AEROSPACE HOW ARE YOU DOING? >> SO EXCITED >> LESS THAN HALF-HOUR FROM TAG YEAH YOU COULD FEEL ENERGY BUILDING AS YOU MENTIONED YOU HAVE BEEN HEARING IT BEFORE CHEERS CAN YOU GIVE DUS A SENSE OF WHAT IS GOING ON NOW? >> YEAH SO EVERY FEW MINUTES A MAVGATION CAMERA IMAGE IS TAKEN OF THE SURFACE BELOW AND SENT TO THE NATURAL FEATURE TRACKING SYSTEM AND THAT SYSTEM IDENTIFIES FEATURES IN THE MAIM PANEL A SO THE SIGNAL BACK TO EARTH SOT WAS SUCCESSFUL [APPLAUSE] ON TRACK TO THE NEXT TARGET ABSOLUTELY SO NOW, CLEARLY, A LOT TO TALK ABOUT ONCE A GAIN YOU HAD TO DO IN THIS THE MIDST OF THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC SO ANY MISSION EXPECTATIONS THAT CHANGED? >> YEAH FOR SURE I MEAN, ADDS THE WHOLE WORLD WAS COMING TO GRIPS WITH THE PANDEMIC IN THE MARCH TIMEFRAME THIS TEAM WAS IN THE MIDst OF PREPARING FOR THE FIRST TAG REHEARSAL THE CHECKPOINT REHEARSAL TO TALK THE SPACECRAFT ONLY 65 METERS ABOVE SO WEED TO RETHINK THE ENTIRE WAY IN WHICH WE WERE GOING TO DO THAT WITH ONLY A SKELETON CREW HERE IN THE BUILDING MANY TEAM MEMBERS REMOTE AS SANDY MENTIONED BEFORE TODAY WE HAVE PEOPLE ALL OVER THIS BUILDING MONITORING AND GODDARD SPACEFLIGHT CENTER AND AT THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA WATCHING TODAY THANKFULLY WE GOT THROUGH CHECKPOINT IN APRIL AND THAT REHEARSAL IN AUGUST >> ALL OF THOSE SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS GOING ON AROUND US TO DATE >> YEAH YOU CAN SEE PEOPLE SPACED OUT IN MSA WHEN YOU WERE OVER THERE WE HAD MORE TIME TO PREPARE FOR TAG IN ORDER TO ACCOMMODATE THAT AND GET EVERYONE INTO THE BUILDING HERE TODAY I AM INCREDIBLY PROUD OF OUR TEAM FOR YOU KNOW THEIR EFFORTS TO KEEP THE PROJECT ON TRACK FOR FAG INSIDE OF THESE CHALLENGES >> ABC LOO PLIM SO I KNOW NASA’S FA FAMOUS FOR HAVING TO DEAL WITH UNEXPECTED SITUATIONS AND THE COVID-19 THING IS A DIFFERENT FLAVOR >> A WHOLE NEW LEVEL SO OK NOW? TALK MORE ABOUT THE CHALLENGES OF TAG THAT WE SPOUSE DOO IN THE VIDEO SEGMENT SO YOU SAW IT AND NIGHTINGALE IS

EXTREMELY CHALLENGE SPOT BOULDERS ALL AROUND IT IT IS TOTALLY DIFFERENT THAN HOW WE DESIGNED THE SYSTEM AND THEN, TO TARGET A 15-METER DIAMETER AREA IT IS TEN TILE! TYPES SMALLER THAT THAN SO REQUIRED THE WHOLE TEAM TO RETHINK HOW TO SAFELY NAVIGATE INTO THE SURFACE AND HOW TO COME UP WITH NEW IDEAS YEAH SOL ORIGINAL NAVIGATION AROWE PROCH USES LASER BASED MAVGATION TO TAKE US TO THE CRATER WHEN WE SAW WHAT BENU LOOKED LIKE WE HAD TO SWITCH TO A VISION-BASED APPROACH AND THE SYSTEM YOU HAVE BEEN HEARING ABOUT YEAH YEAH THE KIN OATIC NAVIGATION TEAM HAS SPENT THE LAST TWO YEARS LEARNING HOW TO NAVIGATE AROUND BENNU USING TECHNIQUES AND SIMILAR TO WHAT THEY ARE DOING ONBOARD THE SPACECRAFT TODAY SO KINNETTE EK WORKED WITH LOCKHEED MARTIN TEAM TO THE SURFACE >> SO WE MAPPED THE SURFACE OF BENNU TWO OF CENTIMETERS PIXEL A WHICH IS BOATER THAN WE HAVE DONE ON THE OWN EARTH AND MOON SO IT WAS HUGE HERC CUE LEANN EFFORT TO GET TO THIS POINT WHERE WOE ARE COMFORTABLE HANDING THE MAPS THAN THE KEYS OVER TO THE SPACECRAFT TO GET US DOWN THE SMALL SITE TODAY >> ABSOLUTELY SO I GUESS, RIGHT NOW, IT IS TIME TO SAY GOOD-BYE TO YOU GUYS THE BEST OF LUCK FOR TODAY I AM EXCITED GREAT TO BE WITH YOU GUYS >> THANK YOU >> YEAH WELL, SO RIGHT NOW, I THINK PROBABLY THE BEST THING TO DO IS CHECK WIN GAR ARE GARY NAPIER AND GO BACK TO SEE HOW THINGS ARE GOING BACK ARE SO TO GARY >> SO THINGS ARE GOING REALLY GOOD RIGHT NOW, MICHELLE WE ARE ACTUALLY GOING TO TALKK TO HEATHER HERE THANKS FOR JOINING US WHERE SHALL HI, GARY >> SO WHAT IS INTER HEATHER, YOU ACTUALLY FEEL THAT YOU KNOW, LONG MISSIONS LIKE TO ARE REALLY IMPORTANT YOU GO FROM DESIGN TO BUILD AND OPERATIONS IS REALLY QUITE WILD THAT ACTUALLY REALLY IMPORTANT TO INVOLVE THAT NEXT GENERATION AND KIND OF BRING THAT GENERATION UP, CORRECT TALK TO US ABOUT THAT A ABSOLUTELY, GARY, RIGHT AL THE WAY BACK TO WHEN WE STARTED PLANNING THIS MISSION WE RECOGNIZED IT IS A LONG DURATION MISSION AND ALTHOUGH THAT PRESENT CHALLENGES AT RETAINING THE KEY PERSONNEL WE TOOK IT AS AN OPPORTUNITY USE THIS MISSION TO TRAIN OUR NEXT GENERATION OF STUDENTS AND SCIENCE AND ENGINEERS AND SCIENTIST A GOOD EXAMPLE IS WE HAD ONE OF THE SCIENCE INSTRUMENTS AND X RAY SPECTROMETER BUILT BY HARVARD TEAM SO IT IS HANS ON >> THAT IS REALLY INTEREST I UNDERSTAND YOU HAVE FOLKS THAT WERE STUDENT AND CAME TON THE TEAM LATE SNEER YEAH SO BEING AT THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA AND A LED MISSION WE HAD HUNDREDS OF UNDERGRADUATE AND GRADUATE STUDENTS WORK ON THIS MISSION OVER THE COURSE OF THE LAST DECADE AND TWO, TWO OF OUR STUDENTS THAT STARTED OFF AS STUDENTS ARE ACTUALLY TWO OF THE NAVIGATION TEAM MEMBERS DAN AND ERIC SARS THEY ARE ON CONSUL >> THEY ARE ON ROOTING NOW INYEAH YEAH THEY ARE >> AT THIS TIME, THAT IS SO COOL THE CHECK POINT AND MARCH POINT BURN UPDATES CORRECT FOR LERS INTRAJK RY ACCUMULATED DEPARTURE BURN IN TWO MINUTES >> WE’LL CHECK POINT IN TWO MINUTES WE WILL THROW IT BACK OVER TO MY KHOL BECAUSE I KNOW IT IS IMPORTANT UPDATE FOR HER MICHELLE, THANKS BACK OVER TO YOU THANK YOU [APPLAUSE] >> THANK YOU, GARY >> YEAH SO TELL US WHAT THE IMPORTANT MILESTONE CHECKPOINT MEANS? >> THIS IS REALLY IMPORTANT PART OF THE MISSION FLIGHT SO WE HAVE BEEN HEARING ABOUT NATURAL FEATURE TRACK AND HOW IT IS PROS HING THE MAJORS IS PROCESSING THE IMAGES >> 0.46 MERT SOME OF THE RIGHT WHAT IT IS DOING WITH THAT INFORMATION IS CALCULATING HOW IT IS GOING TO FIRE THE THRUSTERS NOR CHECKPOINT WHEN WE LEFT ORBIT, WE WERE ON TRA JKLY THAT WOULD TAKE US OVER THE SURFACE OF THE ASTEROID AND IF NOTHING ELSE HAPPENED AND SAFELY FLY PAST BENNU ONCE WE FIRE FOR THE CHECKPOINT WE WILL START SCENE DOWN THE ASTEROID SURFACE SO PLANES WE’RE ON THE WAY TO MAKE CONTACT SO NATURAL FEATURE TRACKING HAS BEEN DOING NOTHING BUT CALCULATING THIS MANEUVER SUNS WE STARTED TAKING IMAGES >> SO THIS IS ONE OF THE BIG DEALS THE BIG MILESTONES THIS IS HUGE YEAH ABSOLUTELY I KNOW AS WE LOOK HAT THE SIMULATION THERE IS INTERESTING CONFIGURATION THE SPACECRAFT YOU SEE THE FLUSTER IS FIRING >> RIGHT YOU CAN SEE WE EXPECTABILITY RIGHT NOW THE THRUSTERS TO BE FIRE SOG PAYING CLOSE ATTENTION TO DALE HOW WELL TO LET US KNOW WE GOT TELEMETRY BACK TO TELL US THAT MANEUVER HAS SUCKS! SUCCEEDED >> MEANTIME, IF YOU WANT TO TELL BUS THE CONFIGURATIONS GO AHEAD YEAH WE HEARD DALE CALL OUGHT EARLIER

THE SPACECRAFT IN THE CONFIGURATION AND RECONFIGURED THE SOLAR ARRAYS TO GET UP TO PROTECT THE ACTIVE AREAS FROM ANY DUST LOADING THAT MAY BE KICKED UP DURING THE TAG EVENT ANOTHER EXCELLENCE “STAR WARS” REFERENCE THAT IS RYE ALWAYS YOU CAN SOUTHERN SIMULATION THE NIGHT IN GAYLE SAMPLE SITE IN THE LOWER CORNER HERE S THIS TEA TARGET WHAT WE’RE TRYING TO GET INTO IF W THE SPACECRAFT A LOT OF BOULDERS AROUND THAT? >> YEAH AS WE SAID GENERALLY THE SURFACE OF BENN IS ROUGH, RUGGED, NIGHTEN FROM GALE STANDS OUT HOW ARE YOU DOING? DOING GOOD PAYING CLOSE ATTENTION TO CALLOUT >> WHAT WE’RE WAITING NOR FOU THIS IS CALLOUT THE CHECK POINT HAS OCCURRED AND THE OSIRIS-REX SPACECRAFT HAS BEGAN THE DECENT TO THE ASTEROID SURFACE >> RIGHT ANY TIME NOW >>> CHECKPOINT BURN HAS COMPLETED [APPLAUSE] 3:00 >> OK WE ARE HEADED TO THE ASTEROID SURFACE AT THIS POINT [APPLAUSE] >> WOW OKAY WOW, I GUESS THE NEXT THING THAT COMES UP IS GOING TO BE THE MATCH POINT MANEUVER THAT IS WHAT THE NEXT BIG MILESTONE FOR US A RIGHT SO WE GOT ONE MORE FIRING OF THRUSTERS WITH THE SPACECRAFT TO GET US LINED UP HER TO SAMPLE ACQUISITION EVENT WE CALLED THET MATCH POINT BECAUSE HE WE’RE DOING THERE IS CURRENTLY AS WE’RE FLYING OVER THE ASTEROID SURFACE AND IT’S THE ASTEROID SURFACE THAT IS ROTATING UNDERNEATH US AND WHEN WE FIRE THRUSTER FOR MATCH POINT AND DOING THAT TO MATCH ROTATIONAL VA LOYS TY SO THE SPACECRAFT BECOMES STATION KEEPING EVENTUALLY OVER THAT SAMPLE SITE >> ABC LIT >> ALL RIGHT SO I THINK WE HAVE A LITTLE BIT OF TIME NOW TO TURN TO OUR SOCIAL MEDIA DESKS SO JAMES WHAT IS GOING ON WITH SOCIAL MEDIA YEAH MICHELLE SUPER EXCITING TO CONFIRM WE ARE VERY, VERY CLOSE TO THE SURFACE YOU GUYS HAVE BEEN EXCITED OVER ON SOCIAL MEDIA AT THE HASHTAG LOTS OF GREAT METSAGE HERES SOMEONE IS EXCITE FOR THE ROBOT FRIEND TO GO ROCK HUNTING THE SURFACE SOMEONE WHO TENDED THE LAUNCH BACK A COUPLE OF YEARS AGO AT CAPE A AND A HALF VAL AND WATCHING THE BROADCAST LIVE FOR TODAY EXCITED FOR THE SAMPLE COLLECTION EVENT AND PHILLIP WHO PUTS INTO PERSPECTIVE HERE THIS IS AMAZING AND EXTRA LIMB DIFFICULT IN SO MANY WAY THE ORBIT SPIN AND THE MECHANICS OF THE LONG MISSION ARE ASTOUNDING AND I CAN ONLY IMAGINE COMING TO ORBIT SIMULATION MADE HEAR ON EARTH AND REALLY IS A GREAT ARE CRAZY MISSION AND YOU HAVE THE FRIENDS AND OUR PETS CHEERING US ON HERE AS WELL BENNU IS ROUGH FROM A COUPLE OF THE PETS HERE REALLY PEEKS ITED? SOME OF THE WE ARE NOW JUST MINUTES A YOU WAY FROM THE MATCH POINT BURN AND FOR THAT BACK TO YOU >> OK EXCELLENT SO YOU KNOW, A FEW MINUTES AGO, DANTE BRUSH SAYING THE LANDING SITE IS UNIQUE AREA ON THE ASTEROID AND TELL US ABOUT THE SITE YEAH WE SPEND AN ENORMOUS AMOUNT OF EFFORT SLEEKING THE AREA ON THE ASTEROID SURFACE WHERE WASN’TED TO GET THE SAMPLE FROM AND DIVIDED OUR ANALYSIS UP TO FOUR DIFFERENT CATEGORIES FIRST BREEZE LOOKING AT THE DELIVERABILITY THIS WAS A REAL CHALLENGE BECAUSE AS WE HAVE SEEN EARLIER IN THE BROADCAST, THE ORIGINAL GUIDANCE ACCURACY WAS 25-MERT RADIUS AND TRYING TO GET INTO AREA THAT IS 10% OF THAT SIZE AND SOME OFFED THAT PROBLEM WITH THE AMAZING NATURAL FEATURE TRACKING SOLUTION AS WE HEARD, THAT HAS WORKED REALLY WELL AND UPDATED THE CHECK POINT AND THE MARCH POINT MANEUVERS ONBOARD BASED ON INFORMATION AND GETS DOWN THE SURFACE SO THE NEXT THING WE HAVE TO WORRY ABOUT IS MAINTAINING SPACECRAFT SAFETY THERE IS A LOT OF HAZARD THONS ASTEROID SURFACE THINGS THAT COULD DAMAGE A CRITICAL COMPONENT AND WOE DECIDED TO FOCUS SAFETY ON THE THINGS THAT WERE NEEDED TO GET THE SAMPLE BACK TO THE EARTH SO CERTAIN THINGS QUEAS LOSE AT THIS POINT THE MISSION IF THEY DIDN’T FULL NAIL OBJECTIVE WOE STILL HAVE SOME UPCOMING MAJOR MILESTONES THAT HELP US MAIN IN THAT SAFETY NOW SWITCH EVERYTHING TO CALCULATING THE CONTACT POINT ON THE ASTEROID’S SURFACE AND A PIECE OF SOFTWARE ONBOARD CALLED THE HAZARD MAP THAT IS DETERMINING IS THE LOCATION THAT I AM GOING TO TOUCHDOWN ON SAFE A GREEN AREA ON THE HAZARD MAP OR IS IT HAZARDOUS OR A RED AREA ON THE HAZARD MAP SO AS WE GET CLOSER A KEY MOMENT IS THE FIRE METER CROSSING WHEN THE SPACECRAFT MAKES THAT DECISION AND CONTINUE DOWN TO CLOAK THE SAMPLE OR BACK AWAY AND LIVE TO TAG ANOTHER DAY >> AFTER THIS THERE IS SOMETHING FOR TO YOU PICK UP THINK SIZE OF THE PARTICLES THAT TAG COULD COLLECTING AND SO WE HAD TO MAP THE AREA AND OTHER POTENTIAL SAMPLE SITES WELL BELOW THE TWO CENTIMETER A RES LUGS AND WE GOT OPINION .5-MILLIMETER OVER THE SAMPLE SITE SAN WE REPEEKS ITED TO SEE LOTS OF PARTICLES OF THAT SIZE THE FINAL PERIMETER LOOK AT WAS

THE VALUE AND I COULD TELL THINK GOOD NEWS IS ANY SAMPLE FROM BENNU IS VALUABLE AND SEEN THE HYDRATED CLAY MINERAL AND ORGANIC MOLECULES ALL OVER THE SURFACE AND THE KIND OF MATERIAL WE ARE HOPING TO BRING HOME >> SO I UNDERSTAND THE NEXT BIG MILESTONE HERE IS SOMETHING CALLED MATCH POINT RIGHT WHAT HAPPENS AT MATCH POINT YEAH THE FINAL MANEUVER THAT THE SPACECRAFT PERFORMS BY FIRING THE THRUSTERS AND THAT IS WHERE WE BECOME CENTERED OVER THE SITE AND BEGIN THAT FINAL DECENT DOWN THE SR. FIS AND THE SPACECRAFT IS SOLELY FOCUSED ON THE SAFETY AND DECISION ON WHETHER IT I GOING TO PROCEED DOWN TO COLLECT THAT SAMPLE SO GO TO MATCH POINT THE SPACECRAFT HAS TO MATCH SO IT COMES DIRECTLY DOWN ON TO IT AND SO HOW HAS IT ROTATED >> I HAS ROTATION PERIOD OF 4.3 HOUR AND THE LENGTH OF THE DAY ONLY EARTH ROTATION PERIOD IS 24 HOURS WHICH IS A DAY ON EARTH IS 24 HOURS LONG SO THAT TRANSLATES BECAUSE BENNU IS A SMALL ON JECT HAVE SEEN, THE SAME SIZE AS THE EMPIRE STATE BUILDING AND MOVING AT TEN CENTIMETERS PER SECOND AND ACTUALLY GETS SCHEIERN SLOWER AS YOU GO TO HIGHER LATITUDE AND THE TIME YOU GET TO THE NORTH POLE, IT IS ZERO IT IS FARINATA ARE NRT AND ACTUALLY MUCH LOWER AND THAT SHOWS YOU THE DELICATE PRECISION NATURE OF THIS MISSION YOU KNOW, WE GOT TO GET VERY LOW THRUST MANEUVERS VERY DELICATE, VERY SLOW APPROACH TO THE ASTEROID SURFACE EVERYTHING HAPPENS SLOW MESSING WHEN OPERATING IN MICROGRAVITY ENVIRONMENT LIKE BENNU WHAT’S THE NEXT CRITICAL MILESTONE AFTER MATCH POINT WE ARE LOOKING FOR THE NATURAL FEATURE TRACKING SYSTEM COMING BACKEN LINE TAKING THOSE AND ADDITIONAL CORRELATION AND PRECISION ON THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE POSITION AND WE MIGHT EXPECT IT TO ACTUALLY JUMP UP AND HEARING NATURAL FEATURE TRACKING UNCERTAINTY ON THOSE ORDER OF HALF METER AND MAY GO UP A LITTLE BIT ABC NEWS IT HAS RESUMED PROCESSING >> YOU CAN SEE THERE WE WENT BACK WE WENT THROUGH THE CHECKPOINT MANEUVER WHEN YOU IMPART A THRUST LIKE THAT IT ADDS UNCERTAINTY TO THE SYSTEM AND WE’RE SEEING THAT WITH NATURAL FEATURE TRACKING SYSTEM NOW >> THAT IS SO EXCITING OK WE’LL INTRODISUSE ACTUALLY THE ASSOCIATED ADMINISTRATOR OF NASA THOMAS, THANK YOU FOR JOINING SO GLAD TO BE YOU >> EXCITING TIME, THOMAS HAPPY BIRTHDAY >> THAT IS RYE YESTERDAY WAS HIS BIRTHDAY ING THAT IS RIGHT HAPPY BIRTHDAY SO I GUESS, YOU KNOW, EVERYBODY HOO HERE WAS AIMING FOR THE PINT TIME CALLED THE TAG THAT IT TURNS OUT THERE HAVE BEEN IT A LOFT FRIENDS AND COLLEAGUES TO HELP GET US TO THIS MOMENT AND SO YOU KNOW, >> WELL, LOOK, THERE IS A NUMBER OF NOSE, PARTNERS MANY AROUND HERE YOU TALK TO SOME OF THEM BUT ALSO INTERNATIONAL PARTNERS AND THE AGENCY PROVIDED THE LASER WHICH IS IMPORTANT IN STREWABLE HERE AND OF COURSE WE HAVE PARTNERSHIP AND WHAT WE ARE GOING TO DO IS SHARE THE SAMPLES WITH US FOR MAXIMUM SCIENCE AND THAT IS REALLY THE NATIONAL PARTNERSHIPS >> SO THIS IS A BIG MISSION FOR AS? BUT TURNS THROUGHOUT ARE MANY DIFFERENT KINDS OF NEATERS AND A MISSION LIKE THIS GIVE US THE RANGE WE HAVE WELL, LA LOOK, IT STARTS WITH THE UNIVERSITY EVER ARIZONA WHERE THE LEADERSHIP IS AND WITH YOU AND THERE AND YOUR ENTIRE TEAM BUT NASA GOOD ARD IS A CRITICAL PARTNER WITH MANAGING OF COURSE AND ACCOMPLISHES ALSO WORKING WITH LOCKHEED MARTIN OR REALLY, WITH THAT TEAM DESERVES A LOIT OF CREDIT WHICH KIN NECTS WAS ROUNDS DOOD AS WALT AS MANY OTHERS LOOK SO OFTEN MISSIONS LIKE THAT TOUCH MANY STATES AROUND THE UNITED STATES >> ABSOLUTELUTELY 1:00 THANK YOU FOR JOINING US WE WILL SEE YOU LATER ON IN THE PROGRAM THAT HOW DO YOU FEEL? EYE SAM PRETTY EXCITED >> THIS IS THE FINAL LIKE 10-12 MINERALLOLOGY MACHINES HERE FOR CONTACT AND FEEL GOOD THE TEAM IS IN HIGH SPIRITS A Z WE TALKED ABOUT EARLIER WE HAVE DOLING ARE DODGER POSSIBLE TO MAKE TODAY A SUCCESS >> RIGHT YOU KNOW, YOUR MIND IS OUT THERE IN THE SPACECRAFT IS ON THE WAY OUT >> RIGHT >> THAT IS RIGHT >> IMAGINE THAT IT IS GOOD POINT OUT WHATEVER HAPPENED WITH TAG HAS ALREADY HAPPENED WE ARE WELL PAST THE 18.5 ONE WAY LIFE SOMETIME >> ABSOLUTELY CONGRATS ALSO CONTINUE DOING THIS SEE YOU LATER, THANK YOU, THOMAS OH WOW OK WE’RE COMING UP, I KNOW, ON THE CRITICAL POINT OF MATCH POINT RIGHT >> AT WHAT POINT WILL WE KNOW WE HAVE A SYSTEM SAMPLE? >> WELL,ING THAT IS A GREAT QUO WE ARE NOT SURE WHAT IS GOING TO HAPPEN RIGHT AWAY WE KNOW IF WE MADE CONTACT WITH THE ASTEROID SURFACE TODAY ANOWE ARE BACKED SAFELY WAY FROM THE

ASTRID AND A LOT OF TO WORK COVER THE NEXT WEEK OR SO AND WE’LL TAKE A LOOK AT THE MAJORS THAT WE QUIRED DURING THE SURFACE THEN GO TO A DIFFERENT MAJORING CAMPAIGN WHERE WE’RE 30 SECONDS FROM THAT POINT SO KEEP OUR EARS OPEN FOR THAT CRITICAL CALLOUT SO POSITION UNCERTAINTY IS ONE METER AFTER WE ARE WELL AWAY AND EVERYTHING HAS SETTLED DOWN WHICH TUESDAY THAT TO PUT INTO THE FIELD OF VIEW AND WE CAN LOOK AT THE TOP OF THE SAMPLE HEAD BUT WE CAN TURN IT AROUND IN A DIGS WITH WE HAVE CONTACT PATTEDS LESS THAN MILL MY LET MILLIE MOTIER OR SO AND ANY EVIDENCE OF AS STROYED MATERIAL ON OR INSIDE OF THE TAG SO GO ALL THE WAY BACK >> MATCH POINT IS COMPLETE ALL RIGHT ALL RIGHT WE ARE HEADED DOWN AND GOT TEN MINUTES OF CONTACT WITH THE ASTEROID SURFACE OH, WOW >> YOU DON’T WANT TO HEAD BACK TO EARTH HOW DO YOU KNOW? THERE IS INCREDIBLY CLEVER PHYSICS EK PERMANENT CALLED THE SAMPLE MASK MEASURE SOME OF THE WHAT WE ARE GOING TO DO IS PLACE THE SPACECRAFT TIME THE SIDE AND AND PLING POINTED ABOVE FOR THIS WE PUT IT OUT AND SPIN ENTIRE SPACECRAFT ARCH AROUND MEASURING THE PROPERTY CALLED THE MOMENT WE HAVE ACTUALLY ALREADY DONE THIS PRIOR TO INITIATING THE TAG SEQUENCE TODAY AND WE KNOW WHAT HA THAT PROPERTY IS WHEN IT IS EMPTY NOW WE’RE ABLE TOLL DO IT HOPEFULLY WHEN IT US FULL AND ONLY LOOKING FOR A SMALL DIFFERENCE IN THE PROPERTY AS A RESULT OF THIS OAKS PERMANENT AND PRECISION JUST LIKE EVERYTHING ON THE PROGRAM, IT IS PHENOMENAL WE ARE TALKING TENS OF ON A MEASUREMENT AND SPACECRAFT HUNDREDS ARE OF MILLIONS OF MILES AWAY AND THAT PICKED UP THIS ASTEROID SAMPLE THE MUN NUMB IS 60-GRAMS THE MINIMUM IS 60-GRAMS >> AND SO THE SAMPLE MASK MEASUREMENT WILL TELL US WHAT WE HAVE 60-GRAMS OR MORE THAT WILL HAPPEN ON SATURDAY LATER THIS WEEK >> SO LECT THIS IS THE ENGINES HAVE GIVEN AS YOU PUSH AND OSIRIS-REX ON COURSE TO MAKE TOUCHDOWN ON ASTEROID SO LISTEN TO THE FLIGHT CONTROLLER CALLS AND BEFORE WE ACTUALLY TOUCH THE SURFACE IT IS A GREAT TIME TO HAVE IT SO JAMES WHAT IS GOING ON YEAH THANKS SO YOU HAVE BEEN HEARING THE CALLOUTS OVER THE LOUDSPEAKERS ABOUT THE PROCESSING SAN AWESOME TO GRAB CAMERAL TO MAKE A TREKO AS WE MENTIONED BENN IS A LITTLE BIRTH ARE BIT FAR AWAY FROM US NOW ON THE ORDER OF 200 MILLION MILES SONG WORRY HERE IS SOMETHING OSIRIS-REX CAN DELIVER TO YOU RIGHT NOW FROM THE COMFORT OF YOUR OWN HOME AND HEAD OVER TO AT NASA AND WE HAVE TWO AR FILTERS YOU CAN USE ON THE SOCIAL MEDIA STORIES THE FIRST ONE IS CALLED OSIRIS-REX AND FEATURES OSIRIS-EX PLA PLAGUE TAG WITH BENNU AROUND THE HEAD AND ALLOWS TO YOU PLACE ASTEROID WHERE WE’REEVER YOU ARE AT HOME OR SCHOOL AND BRING ASTEROID WITH YOU SOIAN STANDERS THAT WE HAVE A QUESTION COMING IN FROM INSTAGRAM WHO ASKED HOW DO YOU MANAGE THE FORCE BACK TOUCHING DOWN I MEAN, THE MOMENT THE SPACECRAFT TOUCHES THE SURFACE IT SHOULD EXPERIENCE SA SIMILAR FORCE HOW DO YOU HANNAGE THAT WELL, THANKS THE TEAM ACTUALLY THOUGHT AHEAD FOR THIS AND YOU DESIGNING THAT SAMPLE SARM AND THEY ACTUALLY AD SADDED THE SPRING-LIKE MECHANISM TO IT THAT YOU CAN THINK LIKE POGO STICK THAN SAMPLE ARM WERE RIDGED AND CONTACTING BENNU AND WOULD STOP THE DOWNWARD MOTION AND FIRING TO STIR UP A SAMPLE WE KICK BACK TOUGH SPACE AS HE MENTIONLED THIS TAG INSTRUMENT S APPROACHING THE SAMPLE SITE WE ARE COLLECTING TONS NOW AND DON’T HAVE THE DATA RATE TO GET BACK TO THE EARTH IN REAL TIME SO THEY ARE GETTING BACKED INTO THE SPACECRAFT MEMORY AND START LOOKING AT THOSE LATER TONIGHT AND HAVE THEM AVAILABLE FOR EVERYBODY TOMORROW MORNING THIS IS JUST A SIMULATION OF THE FIELD OF VIEW OF THE SAMPLING CALM ARE AND PART OF THE CRAM SWEEP HATES A CLEAR SHOT OF THE TAG COLLECTOR RIGHT IN THE MIDDLE OF FIELD OF VIEW AND SEE THE LOWER END OF THE TAG ARM HERE >> P.M. REX IS SCENING BELOW 25-METERS? OK ITS THE 5 MERT CROSS THAT THE REALLY CRITICAL WITHIN WE ARE ONLY A COUPLE OF MINUTES A WAY FROM THAT SO THE SPACECRAFT HAS ONE KEY DECISION LEFT TO MAKE IT IS CALCULATING NOW THE PROBABILITY IT IS GOING TO COME

DOWN AND ETH OWNER THE HAZARDOUS AREA AS WE DEFINED ON THE HAZARD MAM MAP OR A SAFE AREA SO WE MAY WE MAY DECIDE IT IS HAZARDOUS AND GOING TO BACK AWAY ALOG US TO LIVE ANOTHER DAY SO TO KNOW, ALL OF MY SENSES ARE ON THAT CALL OUT NOW >> YEAH I REALLY WANT TO HEAR THAT WE’RE GO FOR TAG SO THAT IS A COUPLE OF MINUTES I WAY HERE >> YEAH OF COURSE, REMEMBER THAT WAS PLANNED FOR >> RIGHT >> OTHERWISE IT IS GOING TO BACK UP AND TRY AGAIN THAT IS HOW WE SOLVE THE AMAZING CHALLENGE THAT’S THE ASTEROID SURFACE PRESENTED TO US YOU CAN SEE HERE THIS IS DAUNTING TERRAIN WE’RE COMING DOWN HERE AND THEN, THERE IS GIANT BOLDERS ALL AROUND THE SITE SAN SEEN LARGE ROCKS SIGNED OF THE CRATER WE DO NOT THINK THE SPACECRAFT WOULD SURVIVE AT LEAST WITH THE ABILITY TO RETURN BACK TO EARTHED AND MADE CONTACT SO IT THERE IS TO FRONT CIVIL ITSELF AND SAFETY IS ALWAYS FIRST AND WE ARE FEELING GOOD EVERYTHING HAS GONE WELL TODAY AND I WOULD SAY THINGS ARE LOOKING GREAT FO A TAG AND THE SPACECRAFTS THE ONE THAT GETS TO MAKE THAT DECISION JUST AMAZING WE HAVE BEEN REHEARSING THIS ALL WEEK LONG AT THE MISSION CALLS AND MILE TONES TO BE HERE TONIGHT AND REALIZE IT I GOING ON 200 MILLION MILES AWAY RIGHT YEAH >> I AM EXCITED SO I MEAN, THERE ARE OBVIOUSLY A LOT OF FIRSTS IN THE MISSION AM ROOM O REX HAS PROCESSED THE NEXT MESSAGE POSITION UNCERTAINTY IS 0.5 METERS [APPLAUSE] PREDICTED TAG LATERAL OFFSET IS 1.7 METERS HAZARD PROC IS 0% TAG LATERAL VELOCITY IS 0.2-MILLIMETERS PER SECOND 10.2 THAT SOUNDED REALLY GOOD IT SOUNDED LOOK THE MAP LOOKSES GOOD WE’RE COMING DOWN ON THE GREEN AREA AND MAKE CONTACT WITH THE SURFACE >> WOW JUST LOOK THAT ANIMATION NOW SO WE WHEN LOOKING AT THE TEAM NOW I THINK I THINK WE CAN SEE HE EVERYBODY IS LASER FOCUSED ON WHAT THE SPACECRAFT IS GOING TO DO SO I SAY LET’S LET IT PLAY OUT >> OH >> I GUESS A LOT OF FIRSTS IN THE MISSION AND A TIME WHERE YOU SAID A LOT OF WHAT IFS BASICALLY WHAT IF WE COULD SEND THE SPACECRAFT TO AN ASTEROID AND WHAT IF IF WE COULD BRING BACK A SAMPLE OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM FROM BILLIONS OF YEARS AGO? DO YOU REMEMBER WHERE YOU WERE? >> THE HAZARD MAP IS GO FOR TAG >> GOING IN >> WE’RE GOING IN [APPLAUSE] >> TOUCHDOWN DECLARED [APPLAUSE] >> OH MY GOSH THAT WAS MAYING THE TEAM WENT BLUE YOU CELEBRATING THE SUPER BOWL, SO, SO IT IS ALL GOOD THIS IS AMAZING CONGRATULATIONSES EVERYBODY I KNOW THAT DANTE AND THREE ARE HERE DANTE, YOU GUILTY OVER HERE PRETTY QUICK I SURE DID [APPLAUSE] >> CONGRATULATIONS HOW ARE YOU FEELING? EYE MEAN, I CAN BELIEVE WOE ACTUALLY PULLED THIS OFF >> MAY I POINT OUT SOMETHING? >> SURE PLEASE EYE CAME ON FROM THE BEGINNING I FEEL IT RIGHT HERE WHICH IS US TODAY I KNOW HE IS INCREDIBLY PROUD OF THIS TEAM AND EVERYTHING WE HAVE ACCOMPLISHED ACCOMPLISHED THIS HEIST HISTORY THIS IS AMAZING >> I CAN BARELY SPEAK I AM SHAKEN >> YEAH ABSOLUTELY IT IS ALMOST HARD TO PROCESS EVERYTHING THAT IS HAPPENING NOW PIT IS OVERWHELMING PRIDE IN THIS TEAM AND EVERYTHING WE HAVE DONE GET HERE AND I COULDN’T REALLY HAVE ANYTHING BETTER TO SAY ABOUT THIS GROUP OF PEOPLE THE SAM PEM COLLECTION COMPLETE [APPLAUSE] ALL RIGHT

[APPLAUSE] >> THAT WAS ACTUALLY PROBABLY EVEN MORE IMPORTANT CALL WHY THAT IS THE BOTTLES FIRED IT OPERATED THE ABOUT A BACKAWAY LIST THISES FIRE SOD SAFELY MOVING I WAY FROM THE ASTEROID SURFACE IN THIS THE SPACECRAFT DID EVERYTHING IT WAS SUPPOSED TO DO SO WE DID IT WE TAGGED THE SURFACE OF THE ASTEROID AND IT IS UP TO BENNU NOW TO SEE HOW IT WENT WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO AS? >> KEY KEY >> I THINK SO PROUD OF THIS TEAM [APPLAUSE] [APPLAUSE] OH MY GOODNESS MY GOODNESS WELL, I GOT SELL YOU THIS HAS BEEN A FANTASTIC DY AND FANTASTIC JOURNEY WE’RE SO PROUD OF YOU FOR BEING HERE AND SUPPORTING THAT TEAM AND GET BACK OVER THIS STAGE AND MICHELLE SOME REALLY GOOD NEWS >> BACK TO YOU, CHY HE THIS IS WHERE WE WILL KEEP EACH OTHER SAFE AND LOTS OF SUPER EXCITED PEOPLE ALL OVER WHO WANT TO SHARE IN THE MOMENT AND SHARE CONGRATULATION SO N KIDDING TAKE A MOMENT TO HEAR A FEW WORDS WORDS FROM THRE LEADERS WHO COULD NOT BE HERE TONIGHT AND CHEERING ON A TEAM ON BEHALF OF SO MANY SUPPORTERS >> HIGHER ONE DENNIS ANDREW AT THE GODDARD CENTER AM SO EXCITED THAT OSIRIS-REX IS CLOAK SAMPLE FROM THE SURFACE OF THE MOON THE TAG IS JUST THE PINNACLE OF THE MISSION IT HAS BEEN A GREAT EVENT I GOT TO CONGRATULATE DANTE YOU AND THE TEAM AND THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT SKILLS AS PI JUST SUBURB RICH THE OPERATIONS TEAM FORGETTING US TO WHERE WE’RE AND LISA CALLAHAN FOR THE AWESOME LOCKHEED MARTIN TEAM IN GETTING OSIRIS-REX TO WHERE WE’RE AND BUILDING A GREAT SPACECRAFT AND RETURNING TO EARTH GO OSIRIS-REX >> TODAY IS AN EXCITING DAY AS OSIRIS-REX BEGINS THE DECENT TO BENNU THE NATION IS LOOKING FORWARD TO THE NEWS OF SUCCESSFUL TAG EVENT AND OH CYRUS TEAM MEMBERS HAVE BEEN WORK FOR MORE THAN DECADE AND THE WORK BE BEING DONE IS HARD IT IS COMPLICATED AND IT IS NECESSARY UNDERSTANDINGUNDERSTANDING THISF THE BENNU WILL HELP US HOW TO PROTECT THE MOST IMPORTANT ASSET IN SPACE AND EARTH AND BETWEEN IT WISH THE BEST OF HAWK TO THE TEAM INCLUDING THE PARTNERS AT THE SPACEFLIGHT CENTER THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA AND ESPECIALLY THE MISSION OPERATORS AND ENGINEERS RAG HERE AT LOCKHEED MARTIN GO REX >> THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA INCREDIBLY PROUD OF THE LONG TRADITION OF EXCELLENCE AND LEADERSHIP IN SPACE EXPLORATION I AM THRILLED TO SEE THE OSIRIS-REX’S MISSION ACHIEVEMENTS CARRIED THIS TRADITION FORWARD TODAY WITH AS AND LOCKHEED HARTIN AND ALL THE INCREDIBLE PARTNER >> CONGRATULATIONSES TO ALL OF THE MISSION TEAM MEMBERS YOU HAVE SHOWN THE WORLD HOW OUR DETERMINATION AND CREATIVITY AND TALENT CANNED ARANCE THE CAPABILITIES OF THE ENTIRE NATION IN A CANNOT WAIT FOR AMAZING SCIENCE WE WILL SEE WITH THE SAMPLE RETURN IN 2023 >> OK WELL, WE’RE HERE LIVE AFTER SOME EXCELLENT NEWS I AM HERE WITH ONE FROM THE UNIVERSITY OF ARZ A ONE MORE TIME EXPLAIN WHEN WE KNOW WE WILL HAVE A SAMPLE >> , A LITTLE OVERWHELM NOW, MICHELLE, I HAVE TO SAY IT HAS BEEN INTENSE SEVERAL MINUTES HERE WELL, I CAN TELL YOU THAT EVERYTHING WENT JUST EXACTLY PERFECT AND WHICH IS KIND OF THE HALLMARK OF THIS TEAM WE HAVE CONSIST CONTINUALLY BEAT OPINION EXPECTATION OVER AND OVER GAIN 6:00 WE HAVE OVERCOME THE AMAZING CHALLENGES THAT THE ASTEROID HAS THROWN AT THAT IS IN SPACECRAFT APPEARS TO HAVE OPERATED FLAWLESSLY AND WE MADE IT DOWN TO THE ASTEROID SURFACE WE WERE IN CONTACT THE GAS BOLTS FIRED WITH DON’T KNOW HOW LONG YET THAT IS INFORMATION WE WILL HAVE TO PUT TOGETHER OVER THE NEXT PEW HOURS AS THE DATA COMES IN WE BAKED SUCCESSFULLY FROM THE ASTEROID SURFACE THOUGH TEAM IS EXUBERANT BACK THERE EMOTIONS ARE HIGH HE IS REALLY PROUD AND WE HAVE SOME WORK TO DO TO DETERMINE HOW MUCH SAMPLE OF THAT WE HAVE CLOAK AND THE NEXT THING THAT I WILL BE LOOKING FOR IS ONCE THE SPACE DRAFT COOLS OFF AND IT PROBABLY GOT PRETTY WARM AS IT APPROACHED THES A VOID SURFACE AND NEEDS TO GET RID OF THAT EXCESS HEAT AND IT HAS GOT TO GET THE SOLAR ARRAYS BACK TO THE SUN AND GET POWER POSITIVE AND ONCE IT IS STABILIZED IT WILL POINT THAT AND MEAN IN AT THE EARTH AND BRING THAT DATA BACK AND THOSE IMAGES ARE GOING TO TELL US EFRMOUS AMOUNT OF INFORMATION ABOUT HOW EVENTING OF TODAY WENT

WE ARE GOING TO BE LOOKING AT A WHOLE SER RIFFS IMAGES AS WE DESCEND IT DOWN THE SURFACE AND MADE CONTACT FIRE THAT GAS BOLT AND I REALLY WANT TO KNOW HOW THAT SURFACE RESPONDED A WE HAVE NOT DONE THIS BEFORE 1:00 SO IT IS NEW TERRITORY FOR US THE WHOLE SCIENCE TEAM I KNOW IS LOOKING FORWARD TO THAT INFORMATION AND FOR ONE THING WILT TOLL US THE LIKELIHOOD OF SAMPLE COLLECTION KIND OF A PROBABLY ASSESSMENT QUALITY PROBABLY A LOT OF SCIENCE THAT COMES OUT OF THAT AS WELL ARE WELL LISTEN I KNOW YOU WANT TO BE BACK FROM WITH THE TEAM AND LONG HAPPY NIGHT FOR YOU AS DATA COMES IN THANKS SO MUCH IT HAS BEEN HONOR TO ONCE THANK YOU THANK YOU THANKS THANK YOU FOR A GREAT EVENING AND KUDOS TO THE TEAM IT IS AMAZING EXPERIENCE YEAH IN HISTORY IT WAS MADE TODAY YEAH YEAH SO YOU KNOW, WHAT WE’LL DO NOW IT IS ACTUALLY TAKE A CLOSER LOOK AT THE BEAUTIFUL TER RAIN IN WAS SAMPLED AND EYE DIDN’TED OVER ONE MILLION BULL REMEMBER IT IS A NEAR EARTH ASTEROID INSTEAD OF ORBITING IN THE MAIN BELT BETWEEN MARS ANDUP TIER AND ORBIT SIMILAR TO OWN PLANET FIRST AND NOT ONLY GETS DID OUR STANTIAL BECAUSE IT IS SO CLOSE TO EARTH BUT BECAUSE WE BELIEVE IT MAY BE ONE OF THE OLDEST BOD THINS SOLAR SYSTEM WITH A WEALTH OF INFORMATION ABOUT HOW THE SOLAR SYSTEM AND LIFE BEGAN LET’S TAKE A CLOSE LOOKER AT THE SUBJECT OF THIS ACTIVITY AUM OF THIS JOY TONIGHT? THANK YOU LET’S TAKE IT >> THANKS THANKS >> AFTER TRAVELING OVER 1.2 BILLION MILES NASA’S OSIRIS-REX SPACECRAFT ARRIVED AT THE TARGET NEAR EARTH ASTEROID BENNU OSIRIS-REX THE FIRST MISSION FLOW, THE PRIMITIVE REMNANT FROM THE ORIGINS OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM A ARE SYSTEM DESIGNED TO STUDY THE ASTEROID AND RETURN A SAMPLE TO EARTH BENNU WAS DARK WORLD ROUGHLY THE HEIGHT OF A SKYSCRAPER NOW THE SMALLEST BODY TO BE ORBIT BY A SPACECRAFT PRAY TO ARRIVAL, IT WAS KNOWN TO HAVE LOW THERMAL INERTIA LIKE SAND AND INFER RED ON OSIRIS-REX CONFIRMED THIS PROPERTY LEADING SCIENTISTS TO EXPECT A PREDOMINANTLY SMOOTH SURFACE BUT THE FIRST CLOSE-UP VIEWS OF BEN NU DELIVERED A MAJOR SURPRISE,AN EXQUISITE DETAIL THE MISSION’S CAMERAS RAE VALLED A ROCK SCAPE DOMINATED BY BOULDERS BY COMBINING FLEECE OSIRIS-REX WITH THE LASER DALT WE CAN TAKING A TOUR OF BENN AYE REMARKABLE TERRAIN THE FIRST STOP IS AM THE PROMINENT BOULDER DEFINES THE ASTEROIDS PRIME MERIDIAN AND SUFFERS AS THE BASS SAYS THAT CORDIANT SYSTEM IT IS A LARGE AND BENEVOLENT BIRD AND PROCESSOR OF ALL IMAGINE IT IS LATIN FOR STONE TO THE NORTHEAST, THRICE LARGEST BOULDER ON BENN MEASURING OVER 300 FIENT LENGTH, IT IS A LONGER THAN FOOTBALL FIELD IT IS ALSO RICH IN A TYPE OF IRON OXIDE BALL ARE CALLED MAG KNOW TIGHT WHICH WAS UD BY EARLY FORM OF MAGNETIC COMPASS IN ARAB FOLKLORE THE ROCK IS A BIRD OF PREY THAT COULD CLASS ELEPHANTS IN THE TALENTS AS WELL AS STRANDED SAILOR LAX THE HERO OF SINBAD CONTINUING NORTHEAST OVER THE RIDGE WE ARRIVE THIS STRIKING BOULDER IS AMONG THE DARKEST ON BEN UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA AND CLUTCHES A MUCH BRIGHTER ROCK ABOUT THE SIZE OF A PERSON IN MID EF LEGEND THEY ARE DRAGON LIKE SAN CAN BREATH FIRE ANKA THREAD DRALS FROM EVIL SPIRITS OUR NEXT DESTINATION TAKES US FAR TO THE EAST THE NORTHERN END OF A SMALL CRATER LIES BRIGHT BOULDER IT IS LOCATED NEAR ONE OF THREE SITES WHERE BEN IF YOU OBJECT NOT A SPACE IN EARLY OF 2019 DISPLAYING THE DYNAMIC EVOLVING MATURE IN GREEK MYTH LOCAL GY IT ITS ONE OF THE THREE PERSONIFICATIONS OF STORM WINDS WHO CARRIED EVIL DUER WAYS WAY FROM THE EARTH ♪ IN CREATION STORIES THE UNIVERSE BEGAN AS A FORM OF WATER A ROSE THE MOUND AND IT WAS UPON THIS ROCK THAT THE GOD TO SHAPE CREATION THE STORY HARKENS TO THE MOUNDS OF SILK THAT ONCE EMERGED FROM THE NILE AND PROVIDE SASS IF IT FITTING NAMESAKE FOR THE TALLEST BOULDER ON BENNU PORTRAYING

70 FEET IT IS SO TALL, THAT WAS FIRST DEKED FROM EARTH AND NOW THIS MONUMENT FEATURE IN DETAIL USING DATA FROM OSIRIS-REX THE FINAL STOP ON THE TOUR IS A CLUSTER OF EXCEPTIONALLY BRIGHT BOULDERS SCATTERED ACROSS THE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE AND BEAR THE FINGERPRINT OF A MINERAL FOUND IN ROCK THAT IS LUNE LIKE TO HAVE FORMED ON BENNU THESE BOULDERS ORIGINATE ON THE LARGE ASTEROID VESTA AND DELIVERED TO BENN AWE HE PARENT BODY THROUGH IMPACTS ALTHOUGH IT IS SMALL IN SIZE, ASTEROID BENNU IS PROVED TO BE A FASCINATING WORLD ABUNDANT IN GEOGRAPHIC FEATURES THAT DEFIED OUR EXPECTATIONS THANKS TO OSIRIS-REX, WE CAN NOW EXPLORE BEN NU TO UNCOVER THE COMPOSITION, THE EF LUGS AND THE ANCIENT MEMORIES FROM THE ORIGINS EVER THE SOLAR SYSTEM >> A LITTLE BIT OF BENNU WILL CON BACK DOCK EARTH IN 2023 AND ONE LAST VISIT WITH THE SOCIAL MEDIA DESK JAMES BE WHAT WHAT IS GOING ON >> YEAH MICHELLE, I GOT GOOSEBUMPS CANE NOT BEGIN TO FATHOM WE COLLECTINGED A SAM NELL THE ASTEROID 200 MILLION-MILE WAYS I KNOW I WILL WANT TO RELIVE TONIGHT IN A AM SURE WOMEN AS WELL ONCE GAIN 360 VIDEO UP ON THE NASA GODDARD YOUTUBE PAGE GO CHECK OUT AND PUT YOURSELF IN THE ACTION OF WHERE IT MEANED TRULY MIND-BLOWING STUFF AND CHECK OUT WITH THE TWITTER POLL AND WE ARE ASKING YOU HOW MUCH MATERIAL DO YOU THINK WE GOT FROM ASTEROID BEN UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA SO REMEMBER WE ARE LOOKING FOR 60-GRAMS BUT THAT SAMPLE CAN HOLD TOMS TWO SO YOU GUYS ARE SAYING THAT LIKE A CANDY BAR SIZE SAMPLE LET’S HOPE WE HAVE THAT CONTAIN ATTORNEY THE MASK AND BRING ALL THE SAMPLE BACK HOME ANY SAMPLE WE GET BACK IS TRULY MAGICAL AND WILL HELP US LEARN MORE ABOUT THIS SOLAR SYSTEM AND ORIGINS HERE SO KEEP AT US ON THE HASHTAG TO BENNU BACK AND WITH WE LOOK TO BRING THE SAMPLE BACKING FROM BENNU HERE TO EARTH IN 2023 SO BACK TO YOU >> THIS IS ONE OF THE EVENING WRITS IS A PRIVILEGE AND PLEASURE TO WOB KING FOR AS? AND THE IDEA OF SCIENTIFIC EX PLOR RACIAL SO WHAT WE HAVE BEENING DOING IS SEEING THE JI AND THE PEOPLE THAT WORKED ON THIS FOR DECADE BUS YOU HAVE TO REMEMBER THIS A REAL REASON WE’RE LOO GOINGK TO LOOK WE THINK WE MAY BE COME BACK A BABY PICTURE OF WHAT THE SOLAR SYSTEM WAS LIKE WHAN ART CHEM I INDUSTRY WAS LIKE BILLIONS OF YEARS AGO AND LOOKING LOOKING FE OWN ORIGINS THROUGHOUT WHY WE HAVE GO GONE SO FOR BRING BENNU BACK THAT HAS BEEN INCREDIBLE EVENING THE ADRENALINE SLOWLY GOING DOESN’T AND GOING TO BE A LOT OF CELEBRATION AND IT A LOFT WORK IN THE COMING HOURS SO FROM LOCKHEED MARTIN SPACE IN LITTLETON, COLORADO, I AM DR. MY KHOL FOWLER, GOOD NIGHT DR. MICHELLE FOWLER, GOOD NIGHT

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Mod-01 Lec-25 Imperial Smelting Process

Today, let us do another example of reduction smelting- that is production of zinc. This is in fact the imperial smelting process Now this process utilizes zinc concentrate, and reduction smelting is done in a single reactor is called zinc blast furnace Today I will be illustrating a problem on imperial smelting process, in fact, material balance in imperial smelting process. Now, in an imperial smelting process- first I will write down the problem- the sinter consists of 50 percent zinc oxide, 20 percent lead oxide, 20 percent Fe O and 10 percent SiO 2, and the coke is regarded as amorphous carbon for this problem. Though it may have certain impurities, but for the illustration I am considering that it contains pure carbon Now conditions: all ZnO is reduced to zinc vapour and lead oxide to liquid lead, whereas Fe O and SiO 2 form a molten slag. The gas after reduction contains 7 volume percent zinc and CO 2 upon CO ratio is equal to 0.5 What you have to do is to make a material balance of the process and calculate weight of carbon, volume of air and composition of gas. Second, make heat balance Now the respective input and output temperatures as required for heat balance: I will give it when I will be illustrating the heat balance As I have said, the first thing you have to consider is called mass balance or material balance- you have to do this in order to go to the heat balance. This is a typical

zinc blast furnace. Here what to do air rather sometimes preheated air is injected through the tiers, which are located on the circumference of the blast furnace Now, this is the hearth and on the hearth what you are having is the lead, and this is slag. Lead has very high density so it will be sinking and slag will be on top. Here you have a burden which is traveling downwards; the burden consists of sinter plus coke. So the burden is descending downwards and the gases that are forming- they travel upwards. This is the gases. Now mind you, here the gases consist of zinc vapour plus CO plus CO 2 plus nitrogen and if there is some excess oxygen, that will also be there. Here these gases- they are taken out in the lead condenser These gases are shock cooled in order to recover zinc. The gases CO, CO 2, N 2 and oxygen- they are leaving the system. In short, what I have thought to show you is the diagrammatic sketch of a blast furnace. Here lead and slag- they are taken out and they can be used for some purpose That is how a typical zinc blast furnace looks Now let us go to the material balance In the material balance let us consider 1000 kg sinter basis of calculation. It is 1000 kg sinter but you can make 1000, 1 ton or whatever you like. The input is zinc oxide, this is lead oxide, this is Fe O and here we have SiO 2. So the kg that is 500kg Pb O 200 Fe O 200 and SiO 2 is 100. Now what I am doing is that I am converting into kg mole. Here I am using the atomic weight of zinc 65, lead 207, iron 56 and silicon 28 and, of course, I do not need to say, oxygen is 16 I just divide kilogram by their molecular weights and I get kg mole. So here I am writing in kg mole 6.173, 0.897, 2.778 and 1.667 Now the problem does not ask what the amount of air that is being used is; all that it says is that the gas after reduction contain 7 percent or 7 volume percent of zinc and CO 2 upon CO ratio has been given to be 0.5 The problem does not mention the amount of air that is required to carry out the smelting reduction process. So, at this stage we do not know whether excess air is used or theoretical air is used. All we know is that the sum component of the exit gas- that exit gas here means the gases which are resulting due to reduction of ZnO and Pb O at the hearth level. that just above the hearth level so that is what the gases in the conventional the top exit no it is not the top exit gas these are the gases which are

forming above the hearth level and a mixture of zinc CO CO 2 N 2 and oxygen they are travelling upward and as a result of travelling they are taken into a condenser and from the condenser then the gases go out of the system We know that there is no loss of zinc- the problem does say any loss of zinc. That means whatever zinc is being charged the same should be available in the gas. That is a clue to start the problem Now let us consider that Y kg mole of gas is being formed. I will now do zinc balance. If I do zinc balance then that is 0.07 Y that is equal to 6.173 So I get Y is equal to 88.186 Now the amount of gas that is forming due to reduction of ZnO and Pb O above the hearth level is equal to 88.186 kg mole. Mind you, this is not the exit- by exit gas I mean the gas leaving the condenser, no it is not; it is the amount of gas that is forming above the hearth level due to reduction of ZnO and Pb O. That is the important thing here. Now we are also given that the CO 2, CO ratio is 0.5 We can write down the reduction equation by considering the CO 2 upon CO ratio given That reduction equation satisfies; so, from that we can proceed to calculate something It is said that reduction of ZnO and Pb O occurs by carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide is being produced- C plus, half O 2 plus 3.76 N 2- that is equal to CO plus 1.88 N 2; that is how the carbon monoxide is produced. Now I will be utilizing this particular equation and recognizing that the problem states CO 2 upon CO ratio- it gives some value. So if I write down the reduction equation by maintaining the CO, CO 2 ratio as given in the problem, then I am proceeding in the right direction So let me write down. I have 6.173 ZnO plus 3 into 6.173 C O plus 1.5 into 6.173 O 2 plus 3.76 N 2. Now O 2 plus 3.76 N 2, that is- 1 mole of air, so that will give me 6.173 Zinc vapour plus 6.173 CO 2 gas plus 12.346 carbon monoxide plus 34.816 nitrogen You see, in writing this particular equation you should be clever enough to maintain the exit ratio given in the problem. Accordingly, you back calculate the requirement of CO to carry out the reaction, as well as the oxygen requirement. These are the important issues. So, this is the equation that must be taking place as per the condition of the problem above the hearth level Similarly, now I can write down for lead oxide 0.897 Pb O plus 3 into 0.897 CO plus 1.5 into

0.897 O 2 plus 3.76 N 2 that will be equal to 0.897 lead, which is liquid plus 0.897 CO 2 plus 1.794 CO plus 5.059 nitrogen These are the reduction equations. Now from the and there is no other component which is reduced from the sinter. The reducing components are ZnO and Pb O, rest Fe O and SiO 2 they are directly from the slag From the above equation, the gas consists of Z n vapour- that is equal to 6.173, CO 2- 7.070, carbon monoxide- 14.140 and nitrogen that is equal to 39.875, mind you they are all in kg moles Now a total of all these- that is equal to 67.258 kg mole. This 67.258 kg mole we have gotten as a result of writing the equation by maintaining the exit ratio of CO 2 and CO You remember, just before, we calculated the amount of gas which is produced above the hearth level was of the order of 88.186; that means there is a difference. So what is that difference? We have calculated the amount of exit gas earlier as 88.186; it follows that 88.186 minus 67.258, this difference, that is equal to 20.93 kg mole. What is this difference? is you know while writing down this equation we have taken care of only the CO 2 CO exit ratio that is maintained Now, the difference of 20.93 kg mole compels you to think that this comprises of only excess amount of air and that there is nothing else in the system; as per the statement of the problem. The problem does not say anything about the amount of air. This difference between the gas that you have determined from zinc balance and the gas which you have determined from CO 2 CO exit ratio and seeing the appropriate kg moles of ZnO and Pb O, the only possibility is that 20.93 kg mole is excess air So, what I wanted to say to you is that you cannot take or you cannot presume right in the beginning that there is no excess air in the system. You have to make the calculation, you have to show that, well, there is no excess air in the system Here this calculation shows that the system operates with excess amount of air equal to 20.93 kg mole and that this excess air contains O 2 plus nitrogen, both So from here we can determine the excess oxygen Here one should also be careful to determine the nitrogen part of it Now the nitrogen that you have determined earlier was 39.875. To determine nitrogen you have to consider the oxygen from the charge because you have determined oxygen by multiplying

3.76. If all the oxygen would have been obtained from air- in that case- we have multiplied by 3.76 and gotten the amount of nitrogen. But some amount of oxygen is also from the charge. So according to the problem the oxygen required from air will be equal to 7.070- this is from C to CO 2 plus 7.070 this is from C to CO and minus 3.535. Now this is oxygen from charge This you have to determine ZnO and Pb O Considering that you get this is oxygen from charge, then, the nitrogen would be 14.140 minus 3.535 into 3.76. That is how we have gotten the figure 39.875 kg moles That is what I have shown just earlier that the nitrogen moles are 39.875, that is how u will be getting 39.875 moles Now, say this 20.93 is the excess air; accordingly, excess oxygen would be say 4.40 kg mole, that is, 20.93 into 0.21. Then the excess nitrogen corresponding to excess oxygen- I will subtract 20.93 from and minus 4.40- that will be excess nitrogen- so that will be equal to 16.53 kg mole Now, for the composition of gas forming above the hearth level- we can now write down zinc vapour- 6.173, CO 2- 7.070, CO- 14.140, oxygen- 4.40 and nitrogen you have to add 39.875 which you have determined earlier plus 16.53 which is due to the excess oxygen. So, the nitrogen is 56.405- mind you, these values are all in kg moles. So, total is again 88.186, that is how the composition of exit gas would determined Once we know this, we can find out the amount of air. Can you tell me how you will calculate it? Because nitrogen from air, that will be nitrogen available in the exit gas. So, very simple, that will be 56.405 divide by 0.79- that is equal to 71.40 kg moles This is the amount of air that is used in the process. Now we can do all calculations, say, amount of liquid lead- that is equal to 0.897 kg moles Well, if you are interested in obtaining in kg, just multiply 0.897 into 207. That is the molecular weight of slag Liquid slag- the problem says all Fe O and SiO 2 they form a slag. So Fe O 2.778 and SiO 2 1.667 in kg moles

Now we have to determine the amount of coke also. Simply weight the carbon monoxide and find out from there- that is equal to 21.21 kg moles, and if you like, that is equal to 254.52 kg Now we have done complete material balance; we are now in a position to perform heat balance I will summarize the material balance calculation I will just summarize in the form of a block diagram so that I can proceed for heat balance calculation. To my left hand side is the input and to my right is the heat output. So input now is ZnO 6.173 mind you, this is for 1000 kg concentrate or 1000 kg sinter Lead oxide- 0.897, Fe O is equal to 2.778, SiO 2 is equal to 1.667 and the input temperature I am taking at 1100 kelvin, that is, the sinter enters the zinc blast furnace at 1100 kelvin. Normally, the sinter roasting process is integrated with the blast furnace smelting for zinc, so the temperature is that is up this particular order plus air the amount of air is 71.40 and for the sake of calculation I am taking air is supplied at 289 kelvin Next input is coke. Coke amount is 21.21 kg moles and we are taking it as supplied at 1100 kelvin Mind you, in the initial statement of the problem I have not provided the temperatures; now I am giving the temperatures. The exit gas, it is not the exit gas- again I am repeating- out of the furnace, but it is the gas which is produced above the hearth level So we have zinc vapour; its amount is 6.173- mind you they are all in kg moles, CO 2- 7.070, CO- 14.140, O 2- 4.40 and nitrogen- 56.405 and the temperature of the discharge- I am taking that they are discharging at 1300 kelvin The next that is forming is liquid lead. Liquid lead- its amount is 0.897 kg moles and the temperature is 1600 kelvin. Then the liquid slag that is forming, that is, Fe O- that is equal to 2.778 and SiO 2- 1.667, mind you again, they are in kg moles and the temperature of the discharge is 1600 kelvin

Now, this is what is the calculation of material balance. I have projected on this particular block diagram the various temperatures that are given. Now what we have to do is that we have to perform the calculation. We should know at this stage what thermodynamic values you will be needing to solve this particular problem. I will be providing all the values because I have calculated the problem and I know what values are required. But as a beginner, when you attempt to solve the heat balance problem, you have to be very clear what thermodynamic values you will be needing. For example, in this particular case zinc vapour is produced so you have to use: C p value of zinc from 298 to its melting point, the latent heat of fusion, then from melting point to the temperature of discharge of zinc vapour, that C p value. So all those values you have to collect and then you should proceed to have a solution of the problem This is one example of zinc Another example is the formation of slag Here Fe O, SiO 2 is forming it is also known, and I also said at the time when I was taking thermo chemistry lecture that when the slag forms, for example, Fe O SiO 2 or Ca O SiO 2 there is a heat of formation and that heat of formation is a heat input It is a positive, which means it gives you some amount of heat to carry out the process So, what I wanted to tell you is that these are the inter cases of the heat balance that you should know well in all cases. When supposed liquid is solid to solid no problem, but when there is a phase transformation, then you should be very careful while calculating the heat content of the phase which is coming out of the reactor So that is a very important issue. Next what I am going to do is that I have calculated the heat content values for you. Immediately I will be writing the heat content at the temperature at which they are entering or leaving the system You may be surprised or you may be thinking that it is very easy; no sir, it is not easy, particularly when there is a phase change involved. Then you must accordingly consider the latent heat of condensation or the latent heat of vaporization- whatever is the case over there If the phases are forming or if there is slag forming there is a heat of formation of slag These things are I think they are an important part of the heat balance, otherwise it is just a multiplication, you take stupidity do 298 to form one phase and you get the heat content value. I thought this is an important thing You also need the heat of reaction value minus delta H naught ZnO. That means this is the heat of formation value of zinc oxide- that is equal to 83500 kilocalorie per kg mole Lead oxide minus delta H naught Pb O is equal to 52500 kilocalorie per kg mole. They are given to you at 298 kelvin so our basis of calculation is also 298 kelvin The basis of calculation of heat balance is 298 kelvin; that means those reactants which are entering at 298 kelvin- their sensible heat will be 0. Now, you need the heat content values; so I am giving you the heat content value in kilocalorie per kg mole per kg mole For example, H 1100 minus H 298 for ZnO for Pb O for Fe O for SiO 2 and for the carbon-

since we have taken coke is a pure amorphous carbon. These values are for ZnO- 9500, for lead oxide- 10800, for Fe O- 10280, for SiO 2- 19940, for carbon- 3320. So these are the values of zinc oxide, lead oxide, Fe O, SiO 2 and carbon Other heat content values say H 1300 minus H 298- this is for zinc vapour, Then CO 2, then CO, this is equal to 36160, CO 2- 12010, CO- 7460, N 2- 7500, oxygen- 7873 and this is all, as usual, in kilocalorie per kg mole minus 1 So that is about this value now. H 1600 minus H 298 for liquid lead- that is equal to 10110 kilocalorie per kg mole, then, H 1600 minus H 298 for Fe O- that is equal to 11990 kilocalorie per kg mole and H 1600 minus H 298 SiO 2- that will be 21100 kilocalorie per kg mole Now mind you, in calculating the heat content SiO 2 it also undergoes several phase transformations tridymite cristobalite. So those things are to be taken care of while calculating the heat content. I have given you all the values now let us calculate. So the first thing is- the heat liberated Now I am calculating the heat liberated at 298 kelvin. I am writing the sensible heat of reactants, or you can calculate the heat liberated at 1100 kelvin Heat liberated is ZnO to zinc vapour and Pb O to Pb liquid. So delta H naught 298 for this given value is equal to 562539 kilocalorie Now sensible heat of reactants will be equal to 6.173 into 9500 plus 0.897 into 10800 plus 2.778 into 10280 plus 1.667 into 19940. Weight taken out will be 200687- that

is the sensible heat of reactants. It is in kilocalorie Now heat taken out by gases- all that you have to multiply by the heat content. Multiply by the moles, so this is equal to 871289 kilocalorie Similarly, heat taken out by lead, that will be 0.897 into 10110 that is equal to 9069 kilocalorie Then heat taken out by slag, you have to multiply by moles so that value will be equal to 68481 kilocalorie Similarly, there is a heat of formation because here it is likely that Fe O SiO 2 that forms only Fe O SiO 2 and heat of formation that is equal to 153 kilocalorie per kg Fe O; so this heat of formation will be 30602 kilocalorie We have done all the calculations, now we can do heat balance. This side is heat input In the heat input, first is the heat of reaction and this heat of reaction is 562539, then sensible heat 200687 and heat of slag formation that is equal to 30 602. So the total will be 793828- it is all in kilocalorie Now let us write down heat output. heat out so First is zinc vapour that is carrying 223216 kilocalorie, gases- 648073 kilocalorie, lead- 9069, slag- 68481 and heat losses I am making 10 percent of heat input- that is equal to 79382. So total heat output is equal to 102822 So what this calculation suggests is that heat input is less that heat output

So we have to meet there is a heat deficiency and heat deficit you have to subtract. So heat deficit will be 234393 kilocalorie. One way to meet the heat deficit is to preheat the air. The question that comes up is- what should the preheat temperature be? Consider for example the average value of C p; so if you consider average C p that is equal to 7.5 kilocalorie per kg mole degree Celsius, then I can find out preheat temperature, that will be equal to 463 degree Celsius. That is, you have to C p delta T delta T will be equal to 234393 divided by 7.5 into 71.4 plus 25. This is what is the preheat temperature you require. That means, you have to heat the air to this to meet the heat deficit and to a temperature of 463 degree Celsius Now the question comes the preheating of the air. One option is clearly open to you that you employ additional preheating installation and do the preheating. Another option that is still there, is to recover the heat because the exit gas has a substantial amount of heat. But here, you should be careful what the amount of heat that is exiting is. So what we see from here say out of this a total heat the zinc vapour that is heat carried by zinc vapour is equal to 27 percent of the total output Off the slag- the heat will not be available, off the lead- the heat will not be available Only the heat carried by the gases CO, CO 2, O 2 and N 2 will be available. But remember a mixture of gases, that is, zinc vapour, CO, CO 2, N 2 and O 2- they are shock cooled in order to recover zinc So, any amount of heat will not be available to you. What we have done in the calculation is that we have taken into account the exit gas temperature above the hearth level for the waste heat recovery point of view The temperature of the gas exiting the lead condenser- that is an important one- because when these gases exit the lead condenser they will have substantial amount of CO. Because you have to maintain a certain amount of CO CO 2 ratio in the entire blast furnace so that zinc vapour does not reoxidize So mind you, there is very large amount of carbon oxide there and since carbon monoxide is a very good fuel, one can utilize the potential energy of the CO by combustion of carbon monoxide So one way is that, you have to find or measure temperature of exit gas from lead condenser and second, you have to see the amount of carbon monoxide in the exit gas. One can evaluate the potential energy that is available if combustion of CO is carried out and the temperature of the waste gas that is exiting the condenser- the total amount of heat that will be available. Now of course, here one has to integrate the heating, the wastage recovery facility and combustion facility of the gas exiting from the lead condenser to the preheating facility of the air In fact, the total knowledge of the process and how to preheat the air to this temperature requires a close outlook of the temperature of the exiting gases and the amount of CO

that will be available to you. So, an overall picture will give you how to attain air preheat temperature. For example, in this calculation, 463 degree is not only attainment of this temperature- it is important- but also its integration with the furnace is equally important

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Christian World News – September 15, 2017

>> George: THIS WEEK ON “CHRISTIAN WORLD NEWS,” HURRICANE IRMA CHEWED UP FLORIDA, LEAVING DEVASTATION IN ITS WAKE NOW GOD’S FOOT SOLDIERS ARE DRIVING BACK DISPAIR WITH ACTS OF LOVE >> Wendy: PLUS…THE POWER OF PRAYER AS BAD AS IT WAS, IRMA COULD HAVE BEEN MUCH WORSE MANY BELIEVE IT WAS SCENES LIKE THIS THAT MADE ALL OF THE DIFFERENCE >> George: AND…WE ALL KNOW ABOUT THE POWER OF COFFEE TO START JOU YOUR DAY SEE HOW THIS CHINESE COFFEE SHOP IRO OWNER IS USING IT TO CHANGE LIVES >> WELCOME, EVERYONE, TO THIS WEEK’S EDITION OF “CHRISTIAN WORLD NEWS.” I’M GEORGE THOMAS >> Wendy: AND I’M WENDY GRIFFITH PRESIDENT TRUMP AND THE FIRST LADY TRAVELLED TO NAPLES, FLOR AR FLORIDA, TO SURVEY DAMAGE CAUSED BY HURRICANE IRMA, AND THE FIRST COUPLE SERVED UP MEALS AND ENCOURAGED VICTIMS OF THE STORM AND CBN’S “OPERATION BLESSING” IS ALSO IN NAPLES, BRINGING MUCH-NEEDED HELP TO PEOPLE IN CRISIS OUR GARY LANE HAS THE STORY >> Reporter: IN FORT MYERS THE PRESIDENT PRAISED GOVERNMENT RESPONDERS WHO ACTED SELFLESSLY TO SAVE LIVES IN THE HURRICANE >> President Trump: PEOPLE THOUGHT THOUSANDS AND THOUSANDS OF PEOPLE MAY HAVE THEIR LIVES ENDED, AND THE NUMBER IS A VERY SMALL NUMBER, WHICH IS A GREAT TRIBUTE TO YOU >> Reporter: THEN IN NAPLES, THE PRESIDENT AND FIRST LADY RECEIVED A WARM GREETING AND CHEERS AS THEY ARRIVED AT ESTATES MOBILE HOME PARK THEY LOOKED OVER THE DAMAGE AND LISTENED TO RESIDENTS TELL THEIR STORIES ABOUT WHAT HAPPENED DURING THE STORM THEN THE PRESIDENT AND FIRST LADY SERVED UP HOAGIE SANDWICHES FOR LUNCH >> LET’S MAKE AMERICA GREAT AGAIN! >> President Trump: COME HERE DON’T FORGET TO TAKE THIS >> I’VE GOT THAT >> President Trump: TAKE ANOTHER ONE >> Reporter: THE PRESIDENT OFFERED WORDS OF ASSURANCE THAT AMERICA WON’T FORGET FLORIDA >> President Trump: I JUST WANT TO TELL YOU, WE ARE THERE FOR YOU 100% I’LL BE BACK HERE NUMEROUS TIMES THIS IS A STATE THAT I KNOW VERY WELL, AS YOU UNDERSTAND AND THESE ARE SPECIAL, SPECIAL PEOPLE AND WE LOVE THEM THANK YOU >> Reporter: FLORIDIANS WERE ENCOURAGED TO SEE PRESIDENT TRUMP SERVING UP MEALS TO THE PEOPLE OF NAPLES, BUT PERHAPS MORE ENCOURAGING WAS TO KNOW THAT CBN’S “OPERATION BLESSING” WAS ON THE GROUND HERE IN FLORIDA LONGER BEFORE IRMA ARRIVED BEFORE IRMA THREATENED FLORIDA, O.B. HAD SUPPLIES AT ITS DISTRIBUTION HOUSE IN OCALA TRUCKS WERE LOADED AND READY EVACUEES GOT HELP AT SCHOOL SHELTERS PARTNERING WITH LOCAL CHURCHES, O.B. HAS ALREADY DELIVERED WATER, FOOD, AND OTHER SUPPLIES TO 10 OF FLORIDA’S HARDEST HIT CITIES IN NAPLES ON THURSDAY, A TEAM OF VOLUNTEERS UNLOADED AN O.B. TRUCK, FILLED WITH ITEMS LIKE FOOD AND WATER, READY FOR DISTRIBUTION TO THOSE WHO NEED THEM JODY GETTYS IS “OPERATION BLESSING’S” VICE PRESIDENT FOR U.S. DISASTER RELIEF >> NAPLES IS KNOWN AS ONE OF THE WEALTHIEST CITIES IN AMERICA, BUT ALSO REPRESENTS SOME OF THE POOREST POPULATIONS IN AMERICA WE ARE AT THE CHURCH WITH PASTOR GREG, AND WE’RE DELIVERING THOUSANDS OF POUNDS OF PRODUCT, EMERGENCY SUPPLIES, AND EVEN READY TO EAT MEALS >> Reporter: SHE EXPLAINS THAT THE READY TO EAT MEALS ARE COOKED WITHOUT ELECTRICITY >> THESE ARE COMPLETE KITS IT LOOKS LIKE A SPAGHETTI DINNER WERE YOU GET AT A GROCERY STORE IT HAS THE WATER, THAT YOU POUR ON THE HEATING PAD, AND YOU SLIP IT INSIDE THE BOX AND IT BECOMES AN OVEN >> Reporter: AND THEY RECEIVED ANOTHER HARD TO GET ITEM: BOTTLED WATER >> WE WENT DOWN THE STREET HANDING WATER TO PEOPLE, AND THEY WERE CRYING AND HUGGING US AND TRYING TO PAY US AND THIS IS NOT ABOUT MONEY THIS IS ABOUT NEEDIN MEETING THE NEEDS OF THE PEOPLE THAT’S WHAT IT IS ALL ABOUT >> Reporter: PASTOR BALL SAYS IT IS IMPORTANT FOR PEOPLE TO DEMONSTRATE CARE AND CONCERN FOR OTHERS IN NEED >> TO BE ABLE TO HELP TAKE CARE OF PEOPLE, THAT’S WHAT WE’RE ALL ABOUT IN THE BODY OF CHRIST WE’RE SO GRATEFUL TO “OPERATION BLESSING” AND “THE 700 CLUB” FOR ALL THEY’RE DOING THEY’RE ON THE GROUND, AND GOD IS DOING BIG THINGS WE’RE SO BLESSED TO BE PARTNERING WITH YOU TO SEE ALL THAT GOD IS GOING TO DO >> CBN REPORTER GARY LANE JOINS US FROM JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA WE’VE SEEN THE PICTURES OF THE DEVASTATION TELL US HOW THE PEOPLE OF FLORIDA ARE DEALING WITH THIS ENORMOUS CHALLENGE >> Reporter: IT IS BACK TO WORK TO MANY HERE IN JACKSONVILLE, AND OTHER PARTS OF FLORIDA THE WORST HIT AREAS, NAPLES, DOWNED AR AROUND FORT MYERS AND THE FLORIDA KEYS, THAT’S WHERE THE PROBLEM IS MANY ARE NOT BACK TO WORK SOME CANNOT GET BACK TO THEIR HOMES IN THE KEYS MANY ARE JUST CLEANING UP, BUT IT IS GOING TO BE A LONG ROAD BACK >> TO HELP THE FOLKS THAT

ARE MAKING THAT LONG ROAD BACK IS CBN’S “OPERATION BLESSING.” THEY’RE THERE SERVING PEOPLE, AND WE KNOW THERE ARE A NUMBER OF FAITH-BASED GROUPS AND CHURCHES AT WORK GARY, TELL US HOW BAD WOULD THE SITUATION BE IF THESE GROUPS WEREN’T ON THE GROUND SERVING? >> Reporter: GEORGE, THE FAITH-BASED GROUPS ARE THE ONES THAT RESPONDED IMMEDIATELY THEY’RE RESPONDING FASTER THAN THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT I’M NOT SAYING THAT THE FEDERAL AND STATE GOVERNMENT HAVEN’T DONE A GOOD JOB, BUT THE CHRISTIAN-BASED GROUPS AND JEWISH AS WELL ARE DOING A TREMENDOUS JOB THE PEOPLE ARE VERY APPRECIATIVE I HEARD FROM ONE PASTOR TODAY WHO SAID AS THEY WERE HANDING OUT WATER TO PEOPLE, BECAUSE THEY HAD NO WATER, THEY WERE ACTUALLY CRYING AND HUGGING THEM THEY WERE SO GRATEFUL, THEY WANTED TO PAY THEM AND THEY SAID, NO, WE’RE JUST COMING HERE SHOWING YOU THE LOVE OF CHRIST AND HELPING OUR COMMUNITY >> OBVIOUSLY GETTING A WATER SUPPLY IS VERY, VERY IMPORTANT WHAT ARE SOME OF THE OTHER ACTIVITIES THEY’RE ENGAGED IN? >> Reporter: WELL, THEY’RE ENGAGED IN ACTIVITIES “OPERATION BLESSING” IS PROVIDING PEOPLE WITH SOME HOT MEALS AND THE ABILITY TO HAVE HOT MEALS BECAUSE, AS YOU KNOW, THERE IS NO ELECTRICITY THAT IS VERY STRENUOUS ON THE ELDERLY, ESPECIALLY WITH THE HEAT THERE IS NOT A LOT THEY CAN DO ABOUT THAT, OTHER THAN OFFERING THEM A COLD DRINK OF WATER, MAYBE SOME ICE THEY’RE HELPING AT THIS POINT JUST MEETING THOSE BASIC NEEDS AND ALSO SOME HYGIENE PRODUCTS BECAUSE THE STORES DON’T HAVE THOSE AND MANY PEOPLE CAN’T EVEN GET OUT TO THE STORES THE BIGGEST NEED RIGHT NOW IS WATER AND ALSO FUEL BECAUSE A LOT OF THE GAS STATIONS ARE CLOSED >> THE STORM WAS SUPPOSED TO HIT A LOT HARDER AND DO MUCH MORE DAMAGE WHY DO YOU BELIEVE FEEL LIKE THEY DODGED THIS BULLET? >> Reporter: WELL, A LOT OF PEOPLE WERE PRAYING NOT ONLY HERE IN FLORIDA, BUT ALSO AROUND THE WORLD, GEORGE, AND AROUND THE UNITED STATES AND I ASKED MARCO RUBIO ABOUT THAT THE OTHER DAY AND HE SAID HE WAS PRAYING THE FIRST THING HE WAS PRAYING WAS THAT THE HURRICANE WOULDN’T EVEN COME, BUT IF IT DID HIT, THAT THE DAMAGES WOULD BE VERY MINIMAL THEY WEREN’T MINIMAL THEY WERE SIGNIFICANT, BUT IT COULD HAVE BEEN MUCH, MUCH WORSE, AND MANY PEOPLE ARE SAYING THAT’S BECAUSE OF THE POWER OF PRAYER, AND PEOPLE WERE PRAYING >> ON THAT SUBJECT, HOW SHOULD WE BE PRAYING AND HELPING THE PEOPLE OF FLORIDA? >> Reporter: WELL, PRAY AND FIND OUT WHAT GOD WANTS YOU TO DO “OPERATION BLESSING” IS LOOKING FOR VOLUNTEERS TO NOT ONLY COME HERE TO FLORIDA, BUT ALSO TO TEXAS AND THEY WILL PAY YOUR LODGING, YOUR MEALS, THEY’LL MAKE SURE YOU HAVE YOUR WORK ASSIGNMENTS, BUT IF YOU WANT TO VOLUNTEER, YOU HAVE TO FIND YOUR OWN TRANSPORTATION TO COME DOWN TO FLORIDA, TO GO TO TEXAS, AND ALSO TO GET TO THE WORK SITE THEY’LL HELP YOU OUT WITH THAT THEY NEED MANY, MANY VOLUNTEERS I WOULD SAY THAT’S NUMBER ONE AT THIS TIME AND ALSO PRAY THAT PEOPLE WILL COME TO CHRIST THROUGH THIS EXPERIENCE >> TERRIFIC GARY, THANKS FOR ALL OF YOUR TERRIFIC REPORTING THIS WEEK GARY LANE, OUR SENIOR INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENT, WHO NORMALLY IS TRAVELLING AROUND THE WORLD, BUT FINDS HIMSELF IN JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA, COVERING THIS STORY FOR US THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR COMING ON THE SHOW >> AND HE HAS DONE A GREAT JOB, AS GEORGE SAID IN SOUTHERN MEXICO, CLEANUP IS DO SLOW GOING AFTER THE MASSIVE EARTHQUAKE THIS MONTH AS OUR CBN MEXICO TEAM DISCOVERED, THEIR NEEDS GO FAR BEYOND FOOD AND WATER CHARLENE AARON HAS MORE >> WALKING DOWN THE STREETS OF CHIAPAS REQUIRES A LOT OF IMAGINATION THAT’S THE ONLY WAY TO PICTURE HOW THIS LITTLE TOWN LOOKED BEFORE THE 8.2 EARTHQUAKE DESTROYED SO MANY HOMES IT IS NOT HARD TO IMAGINE THIS WOMAN’S FATE IF SHE HAD NOT LEFT HER BED IMMEDIATELY WHEN THE QUAKE STRUCK [SPEAKING IN SPANISH LANGUAGE] >> Through Translator: I WAS SLEEPING WHEN I FELT THE EARTHQUAKE AND I RAN OUT OF THE HOUSE AS QUICK AS I COULD WE HEARD A NOISE, AND WHEN I CAME BACK IN, I SAW THE ROCKS HAD BROKEN MY BED I COULD BE DEAD NOW >> WALKING DOWN THE STREETS, YOU ALSO HEAR MANY REQUESTS FOR HELP [SPEAKING IN SPANISH LANGUAGE] >> Through Translator: I’M LOOKING FOR WATER TO DRINK BECAUSE THE WELLS ARE EMPTY BUT WE HAVE NOT FOUND IT [SPEAKING IN SPANISH LANGUAGE] >> OFTEN THOSE REQUESTS TURN INTO DISPAIR [SPEAKING IN SPANISH LANGUAGE] >> Through Translator: WE AREED SAD WE NEED HELP THE CHILDREN DON’T HAVE FOOD WE HAVE NOTHING WE ARE SLEEPING ON THE ROCKS >> NICHOLAS HAS NOT LOST FAITH THAT HE WILL FIND FOOD [SPEAKING IN SPANISH LANGUAGE] >> Through Translator: WE LEFT HOME AT 7:00 TO LOOK FOR SOME FOOD FOR OUR CHILDREN, BUT WE HAVE NOT FOUND ANYTHING YET WE WELL KEEP LOOKING >> THEY SHOWED CBN MEXICO DISASTER RELIEF TEAMS WHERE THEY SPENT THE NIGHT AFTER THEY FLED THEIR HOME

AT FIRST SIGHT, THEIR HOME DOES NOT LOOK DAMAGED LOOK AGAIN IT IS EASY TO UNDERSTAND WHY THEY DON’T WANT TO GO IN THEY’RE WAITING FOR GOVERNMENT AID TO REBUILD THEIR HOME BUT IN THE MEANTIME, THERE ARE MORE IMMEDIATE NEEDS [SPEAKING IN SPANISH LANGUAGE] >> Through Translator: WE ALL HAVE PROBLEMS TO FIND FOOD BECAUSE THERE IS NO JOBS EVERYTHING IS PARALYZED >> BUT THANKS TO CBN PARTNERS, WE CAME TO THIS COMMUNITY TO INSTALL A SOUP KITCHEN WITH THE HELP OF VOLUNTEERS, WE STARTED PREPARING HOT MEALS FOR THE VICTIMS OF THE EARTHQUAKE, AND THEY IMMEDIATELY MADE A LINE AND, OF COURSE, NICHOLAS, ARCELIA, AND THEIR CHILDREN CAME, TOO >> I’M VERY THANKFUL FOR THIS FOOD, THAT CAME RIGHT ON TIME FOR MY CHILDREN >> FOR THEM, CBN PARTNERS GAVE MORE THAN FOOD, BUT SPIRITUAL COMFORT AS WELL [SPEAKING IN SPANISH LANGUAGE] >> Through Translator: THEY ALSO HELPED US THANK YOU SO MUCH I HAVE NO WORDS TO EXPRESS MY GRATITUDE >> AND THE LONG, HARD WORK OF RECOVERY HAS JUST BEGUN CHARLENE AARON, CBN NEWS >> GOD BLESS THEM YOU CAN FIND OUT HOW YOU CAN PARTNER WITH CBN TO HELP THE VICTIMS OF NATURAL DISASTERS GO TO OUR WEBSITE, cbnnews.com >> UP NEXT, SPEAKING TO THE WINDS AND THE WAVES DID PRAYERS LIKE THIS SPARE FLORIDA FROM AN EVEN WORSE FATE? >* * THE GREAT I AM * WHO IS WORTHY >> YOU ARE LOOKING AT A SCENE ON A JACKSONVILLE FLORIDA BEACH THE DAY BEFORE HURRICANE IRMA WASHED ASHORE DOZENS OF CHRISTIANS CAME TO WORSHIP AND PRAY IN THE FACE OF THAT STORM CBN PRODUCER EMILY JONES, AND PASTOR MAX LUCADO — SHE ASKED HIM ABOUT THE IMPACT OF SUCH PRAYERS, AND THE EVER-PRESENT QUESTION: WHERE IS GOD IN THE STORM? TAKE A LOOK >> WE SEE SO MUCH FLOODING AND DISASTER LEFT BY THE HURRICANES WHERE IS GOD IN ALL OF THIS? >> I THINK TWO OR THREE REMINDERS ARE REALLY HELPFUL DURING SEASONS LIKE THIS ONE IS THAT GOD NEVER PROMISED THERE WOULD BE A WORLD WITH NO STORMS IN FACT, WHEN JESUS GOT IN THE FLESH ON THE EARTH, DURING HIS LIFETIME, HE ENDURED MANY STORMS SO TO SUGGEST GOD IS ABSENT OR THAT THE PRESENCE OF GOD MEANS THERE ARE NO STORMS, THAT IS SIMPLY NOT TRUE YOU KNOW, THE FACT OF THE MATTER IS JESUS SAID, IN THIS WORLD YOU WILL HAVE TRIBULATION, BUT YOU CAN BE OF GOOD CHEER BECAUSE

I’VE OVERCOME THE WORLD >> AMEN >>> IN YOUR ARTICLE, YOU SAY THIS IS A TIME TO STAND UP AND LIFT UP ON THE SCREEN, WE’RE SHOWING AUDIENCES DOZENS OF PEOPLE ON THE BEACH IN FLORIDA, WORSHIPPING AND PRAISING THE LORD BEFORE EVEN THE HURRICANE HIT WHAT DO YOU THINK ABOUT THESE RESPONSES? >> I THINK THAT’S WHAT WE SHOULD DO ANYBODY CAN WORSHIP GOD WHEN THE SUN IS SHINING AND THE SKIES ARE BLUE, BUT TO WORSHIP GOD IN THE MIDST OF THE STORM, THAT’S WHAT REQUIRES FAITH OF COURSE, MANY OF US WILL NEVER FACE A PHYSICAL HURRICANE LIKE IRMA, BUT WE’LL ALL FACE FINANCIAL HURRICANES, OR HURRICANES THAT COME IN THE FORM OF A DOCTOR’S DIAGNOSIS, OR A FAMILY SITUATION, SO ALL OF US HAVE THE OPPORTUNITY TO LIFT UP OUR EYES AND TURN OUR HEARTS TOWARDS HIM HIS REQUIRES AN INTENTIONAL ACTION ON OUR PART THE PSALM MISIST SAID, MY HOPE COMES FROM THE LORD WHO MADE THE HEAVENS AND THE EARTH >> HOW DO WE SHARE OUR HOPE WITH PEOPLE WHO HAVE LOST EVERYTHING? >> THE BIBLE SAYS TO BE ANXIOUS FOR NOTHING, BUT BY PRAYER AND SUPPLICATION, LET OUR REQUESTS BE KNOWN TO GOD WITH THANKSGIVING AS WE TURN OUR HEARTS TOWARDS OUR HEAVENLY FATHER, AND WE PRAY TO HIM, WE REMAIN IN A POSTURE OF GRATITUDE, THE CONSEQUENSES IS A PEACE, A PEACE THAT SURPASS UNDERSTANDING I THINK WHAT THE WORLD NEEDS RIGHT NOW IS A QUORUM OF PEOPLE WHO ARE PEOPLE OF PEACE, WHO HAVE KNOWN THE PRINCE OF PEACE, JESUS CHRIST, AND WHO ARE WILLING TO CARRY A SENSE OF PEACE INTO THE WORLD >> MAX LUCADO, THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR JOINING US TODAY >> THANK YOU IT IS A PRIVILEGE >> INCREDIBLE WORDS OF INSPIRATION >>> THE MAN YOU ARE ABOUT TO MEET LEARNED FIRSTHAND OF GOD’S FAITHFULNESS IN THE STORM WHEN HURRICANE HARVEY HIT HOUSTON THREE WEEKS AGO, HE AND HIS FAMILY FACED A FORECAST OF EPIC FLOODING JOHN JESSUP TELLS US MORE >> Reporter: I’M JUST OUTSIDE OF HOUSTON IN RICHMOND, TEXAS, THE HOME OF JEREMIAH JOHNSON HE IS A PROFESSOR AT HOUSTON BAPTIST, AND HEADS UP THE CHRISTIAN THINKER’S SOCIETY WHEN HURRICANE HARVEY HIT, HE AND HIS FAMILY HAD SOME SCARY MOMENTS, GOING TO A MANDATORY SHELTER WHEN THEY WENT TO BED, TO WAKING UP TO A MANDATORY EVACUATION NOTICE AT FIRST LIGHT FORECASTERS HAD WARNED OF A NEARBY FLOODING IN A NEARBY RIVER, AND FORTUNATELY THAT DIDN’T HAPPEN THE JOHNSONS KNOW THEY’RE FORTUNATE THAT THEY HAVE SURVIVED AND SUSTAINED MINIMAL DAMAGE TO THEIR HOME, AND, MORE IMPORTANTLY, TO ALL STAY SAFE THEY’RE EVEN MORE GRATEFUL, AS FIRST-TIME HURRICANE SURVIVORS, FOR THE SUPPORT AND THE PRAYERS OF THE CHURCH >> THERE ARE VOICES THAT SAY CHRISTIANITY IS PASSE, AND GOD IS IRRELEVANT THE CHURCH IS SO IRRELEVANT, AND WE DON’T NEED THE CHURCH ANYMORE GUESS WHAT? NO ONE WAS SAYING THAT AFTER HURRICANE HARVEY THE CHURCH IS OUT-PACING EVEN THE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND IT IS ALL HAPPENING ORGANICALLY AND I MEAN PEOPLE OF ALL DENOMINATIONS >> JOHNSON IS RIGHT, WE’VE BEEN HERE FOR ABOUT A WEEK IN BEAUMONT, TEXAS, AND ROCKPORT, AND WE’VE SEEN VOLUNTEERS FROM ACROSS THE COUNTRY COME AND PARTNER WITH CHURCHES WE’VE SEEN THAT WITH “OPERATION BLESSING” AND OTHER ORGANIZATIONS, LIKE “SAMARITAN’S PURSE”, AND THESE PEOPLE ARE GIVING UP THEIR TIME AND RESOURCES SO THEY CAN HELP PEOPLE WHO HAVE SURVIVED UNTHINKABLE CATASTROPHE AND WE’RE SEEING THE HANDS AND FEET OF JESUS AT WORK HERE IN TEXAS THAT WORK WILL CONTINUE FOR SOME TIME I’M JON JES JE JON JESSOP REPORTING >> HE DEDICATED HIS LIFE TO MAKING AND SERVING COFFEE, BUT WHEN HE FOUND CHRIST, HIS PASSION TOOK A WHOLE NEW DIRECTION >> ALL RIGHT, FOLKS,

WELCOME BACK TO “CHRISTIAN WORLD NEWS.” YOU KNOW, COFFEE IS VERY POPULAR IN CHINA THESE DAYS, ESPECIALLY AMONG MILLENNIALS, AND MORE COFFEE SHOPS ARE SPRINGING ACROSS THE CAPITAL >> ONE COFFEE OWNER USES HIS LOVE OF COFFEE TO SHARE A LIFE-SAVING MESSAGE MUNG FE LI HAS MORE >> IF YOU COULD CHOOSE ONE COLOR TO DESCRIBE YOUR CITY, WHAT WOULD THAT? FOR B BEIJINGERS, IT WOULD BE YELLOW THESE BIKES HAVE BECOME THE HOTTEST ATTRACTION IN THIS MODERN CITY ONE YEAR AGO, WHEN THOSE BIKES WERE FIRST INTRODUCED TO CHINA, MANY CHINESE FELT STRANGE AND UNFAMILIAR TODAY THOSE BIKES HAVE BECOME THE MOST IMPORTANT AND CONVENIENT TRANS TRANSPORTATION FOR THE NATION >> Through Translator: EVERYWHERE I GO, I ENJOY RIDING THE BIKES AND THE BRIGHT COLOR MAKES BEIJING MORE ATTRACTIVE AND MODERN >> Reporter: AND THERE IS SOMETHING ELSE THE BIKES ARE BEING USED FOR: DELIVERING COFFEE IN BEIJING THIS WOMA MAN IS A NATIVE BEIJINGER FOR SO LONG HE WAS FASCINATED BY THE UNIQUE SMELL AND DELICIOUS FLAVOR >> Through Translator: THE FIRST TIME I TASTED COFFEE, I WAS DRAWN TO THE FLAVOR IT IS SOMETHING I HAD NEVER TASTED BEFORE STARBUCKS WAS STILL NEW TO CHINA BACK THEN CHINESE PEOPLE DIDN’T UNDERSTAND HOW TO APPRECIATE THIS WESTERN DRINK >> HE WAS >> DARYL: DETERMINED TO LEARN MORE ABOUT COFFEE HE LEARNED HOW TO MAKE IT AND CAME UP WITH HIS OWN RECIPE >> I WAS SO EAGER TO PURSUE MY OWN PASSION BUT IT WAS NOT EASY I KNEW I COULD DO IT, BUT SOMEHOW I COULDN’T MAKE IT RIGHT IT SEEMED LIKE SOMETHING WAS MISSING >> Reporter: HE BEGAN SPENDING MORE TIME AWAY FROM HIS FAMILY HIS WIFE FELT HE WAS NO LONGER DEDICATED TO THE MARRIAGE AND THEIR CHILDREN THEN ONE DAY HE MET A CHRISTIAN FRIEND AND SHARED HIS FRUSTRATION AND CONCERN AFTER A LONG TALK, HE REALIZED WHAT WAS MISSING HE BECAME INTERESTED IN GOING TO CHURCH AND HE MADE A DECISION >> THE SAME DAY, BEFORE GOING TO BED, I GAVE MY LIFE TO JESUS I WANTED HIM TO HELP ME TO BECOME A SUCCESSFUL COFFEE-MAKER I COULDN’T DO IT ALONE >> Reporter: HE TOOK THE OPPORTUNITY TO OPEN HIS OWN SHOP IN ONE OF THE MOST POPULAR AREAS OF BEIJING HIS BUSINESS GREW, AND HE STARTED RIDING A BIKE, DELIVERING COFFEE TO HIS COSTUMERS >> IT IS LIKE GOD SUDDENLY OPENED A FAUCET PEOPLE STARTED TO COME TO MY COFFEE SHOP I WAS OVERWHELMED BY BLESSINGS AND PROVISION HE TAUGHT ME SO MUCH OVER THE YEARS >> Reporter: BEING A COFFEE SHOP OWNER FOR MORE THAN 10 YEARS, HE WAS GRATEFUL ABOUT WHAT GOD HAD PROVIDED FOR HIM GRADUALLY, HE BEGAN TO INVITE HIS COSTUMERS TO LISTEN TO HIS STORY, AS WELL AS ENCOURAGING YOUNG PEOPLE IN CHINA TO KNOW ABOUT JESUS CHRIST >> PEOPLE ALWAYS ASK ME HOW I BECAME SUCCESSFUL TODAY IT IS IMPORTANT FOR THEM TO HEAR MY STORY IT IS NOT ABOUT ME GOD DID IT FOR ME >> Reporter: EVERY FRIDAY NIGHT, HE HOLDS BIBLE STUDY AT HIS COFFEE SHOP HE IS NOT AFRAID OF PEOPLE ASKING QUESTIONS HE IS PASSIONATE ABOUT

SHARING THE GOSPEL WITH EVERYONE WHO COMES IN >> HE IS A GREAT TEACHER HE IS VERY PATIENT WHEN EXPLAINING THE GOSPEL TO US HIS STORIES ABOUT GOD TOUCHED ME >> Reporter: TRYING TO MAKE A LIVING IN LARGE CITIES LIKE BEIJING AND SHANGHAI IS NOT EASY HE SEES MORE CHINESE MILLENNIALS ARE FLOODING TO BEIJING TO PURSUE THEIR DREAMS HE IS PLANNING TO OPEN UP MORE COFFEE SHOPS AROUND THE NATION >> THE PURPOSE IS TO INVITE MORE COFFEE-LOVERS TO HIS STORE AND GIVE THEM A CHANCE TO KNOW HOW GREAT GOD IS >> BEING SUCCESSFUL IS NOT EASY, BUT EVERYONE HAS THE OPPORTUNITIES TO ACHIEVE THEIR DREAMS BY KNOWING GOD AND FOLLOWING HIS PRINCIPLES * >> Reporter: MUNG FE LI, CBN NEWS, BEIJING, CHINA >> ACTOR JI JIM CAVIEZEL IS TAKING ON ANOTHER BIBLICAL ROLE ON THE BIG SCREEN HE DELIVERED AN UNFORGETTABLE PERFORMANCE IN MEL GIBSON’S “THE PASSION OF THE CHRIST.” I’M SURE YOU REMEMBER AND DEADLINE HOLLYWOOD REPORTS HE WILL PLAY THE ROLE OF LUKE IN A NEW FILM ABOUT THE APOSTLE PAUL, AND JAMES FAULKNER WILL PLAY THE ROLE OF PAUL HE WAS INCREDIBLE IN “THE PASSION.” IT WAS LIKE THE REAL THING HE KNOCKED IT OUT I CAN’T WAIT TO SEE THIS AS WELL >> WELL, FOLKS, THAT IS IT FOR THIS WEEK’S EDITION OF “CHRISTIAN WORLD NEWS.” >> THANKS FOR RETURNING FROM YOUR WORLD TRAVELS TO BE HERE WITH

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