“And that is a symbol of the power of humanity… A full-metal challenge to the Nature… It has no fear… It is colossal, magnificent and invincible… It shows us the path of the era of boundless prosperity and there is no power in the world that might stand in its way.” TITANIC In the spring of 1909 another huge iceberg broke off from the Ilulissat glacier in Greenland Greenland. March 1909 It was about one kilometer long and had a displacement (i.e. approximate weight) of 2.5 million tons At the same time, on 31 March, 1909, a new vessel was laid down in Belfast, Ireland, 3,000 miles away from Greenland Ireland. March 1909 She was huge too — 269 m. long, with the displacement of 52,300 tons Her creators decided to call the unique ship the Titanic As of the time, she was the largest moving object ever created by man Her overall length of 296 metres equalled to two London blocks If placed vertically, she would be twice as taller as the Great Pyramid of Giza or Saint Peter’s Basilica of Rome, 100 metres taller than Cologne Cathedral and 20 metres taller than New York’s Woolworth Building Her beam breath was 30 metres Her height from the keel to the top of funnels was almost 53 metres Her mean draught was over 10 metres with the upperworks as high as 14 storey building In the spring of 1911 the iceberg left the Ilulissat fiord for the open sea, was caught up by the West Greenland Current and started sailing north Greenland. May 1911 The same spring, on 31 May, 1911, the Titanic was solemnly launched Special postcards and souvenirs were issued to commemorate this event Many celebrities and journalists all the time treated with expensive champagne were invited to the launch ceremony 23 tons, a record quantity of oil and liquid soap was used to lubricate the slipway along which the Titanic was sliding down accompanied by thunder of fireworks But the Titanic was not sanctified according to naval traditions No bottle of champagne was broken on her bow The owners of the shipping company believed in the technical advance and considered old naval rites to be superstitions and survivals of the past The sale of the tickets to the Titanic started in Belfast and Southampton in the winter of 1912 Canada. January 1912 At this time the iceberg carried by the West Greenland Current turned south and started drifting along the North-Western coast of Canada at the speed of 19 km. per day By the beginning of the spring it reached the island of Newfoundland where 99% of Greenland icebergs stick and thaw out On 3 April, 1912, the Titanic arrived at Southampton The liner and her crew were ready to set sail, when an unexpected hindrance occurred — quite a usual event in England of that time An all national strike of miners started So, the departure of the Titanic was under threat She simply lacked coal to set sail It was at that moment that White Star Line management took the decision that was the first in the row of accidents,

coincidences and misunderstandings and played its role in the destiny of the ship By persuading captains and ship owners and overpaying, the company bought up all coal available in storehouses and on other ships And then there was a kind of chain reaction — many voyages were cancelled Many passengers returned their tickets to the ticket offices trying to get onboard the Titanic – perhaps the only ship that should have been better to stay in the port Isle of Newfoundland. April 1912 In the beginning of April the iceberg passed the Newfoundland shallows and entered transatlantic routes At the same time approximately, on 10 April, 1912, the Titanic solemnly set out for her maiden voyage She was supposed to reach New York in seven days “Wednesday, April 10. It’s a real babel…” Well known journalist William Stead was among the passengers on the Titanic He headed to the USA to attend a peace conference on personal invitation by US President William Taft William Thomas Stead, 63 A first class passenger, cabin C87, ticket No. 113514 A journalist, writer of political essays, public worker He was the first to start a crusade against child prostitution He advocated principle “Peace Through Arbitration” and campaigned against The Second Boer War He developed the project of the “United Stated of Europe” a hundred years before the European Union was created He was the founding father of investigative journalism and the first one to introduce interview method into the regular journalism practice A nominee for the Nobel Peace Prize 1912 “It has been very funny on the doors: ladies of high society wearing hats of a carriage wheel size force their way past emigrants inspected by the quarantine physician, with countenances as if it’s for the first time in their lives that they see workers However, this may well be true… And their luggage! It’s really wondrous that some need so many things for living!” The Titanic could hold 46,328 tons of cargo including coal and food According to the adopted classification, the Titanic was considered Royal Mail Ship Mail compartments were located in the lower fore part of the liner There were 3,500 bags with mail stored there, including 300,000 letters and cargo of various types — from a Renault car to the portrait of Garibaldi bearing an autograph and a marmalade machine owned by Mrs. Edwina Trout 10 April, 19:00. The distance between the Titanic and the iceberg is 3,500 km “Thursday, April 11 The second day of the voyage I have made an acquaintance of a very interesting young man Richard Morton, or, in American, Dick Morton Poor young man! Together with his wife Florence he left his home in Boston hoping to make a scientific career in the Old World Dick dreamt of a position at the Applied Mathematics Department, Oxford University, while his wife to become part of the British high society But… They are heading home with nothing in their pockets They were very fortunate to find money to buy second class tickets…” Travelling across the ocean has always been an expensive treat,

especially on board a ship like the Titanic However, the third class tickets were quite affordable even for common workers It was thousands of poor people that provided super-profits to shipping companies A cheapest third class ticket cost 2 pounds, a two-week salary of an unskilled labourer The most expensive third class ticket to a 4 bed cabin with all conveniences cost 6 pounds sterling, or 342 US dollars in modern money The second class tickets cost 10 to 40 pounds (2200 US dollars in modern money) A first class ticket cost 26 pounds for a cabin to 512 pounds f or a suite, that would equal US$ 28,000 today 11 April, 11:00. The distance between the iceberg and the Titanic is 3,200 km “The study of one’s fellow travellers is highly advisable They are all masters of life and lords of the world.” Among the passengers of the first class were: John Jacob Astor IV, big industrialist and founder of hotel Astoria, with his young wife Madeleine; Isidor Straus, co-owner of the “Macy’s”, the biggest department store chain in the USA, with his wife Ida; Benjamin Guggenheim, millionaire and playboy; Lady Lucy Duff-Gordon, owner of the “Maison Lucile”, a biggest fashion house in London; Major Archibald Willingham Butt, a military aide to the US President; Washington Roebling II, president of a construction concern that built the Brooklyn Bridge in New York and others “Almost all of them are American millionaires pretending to be British ladies and gentlemen Mrs. Brown of Denver is perhaps the only exception…” Margaret “Molly” Brown, 45. Descends from a family of Irish immigrants She started working as a shop girl when she was 18 and soon married to a miner A gold mine was found at his plot soon After they acquired great wealth, Margaret involved with charity, became an activist of women’s suffrage movement and attended the Carnegie Institute After 23 years of the family life she divorced her husband and set out to travel around Europe “Yes, she is a bit vulgar and tiresome on the whole But she shows no of those perpetual grimacing She is worrying about her grandson whose illness caused her urgent return to Denver It’s interesting that her daughter, the mother of the sick boy, preferred to stay in London… But in general, they all are much-talked-about elite of our replete society for whose sake the liner was turned into a real floating palace.” The first class cabins were placed not aft, as on other vehicles, but in the centre This allowed to separate the first class passengers from the noise of the propeller and even almost completely relieve them from rocking There were water supply system and steam heating in the first class cabins Stewards were called with help of electric bells Large windows, like in a palace, were mounted instead of portholes Fireplaces instead of heaters The furniture and the suite interiors were designed by best designers Italian restaurant “A la Carte”, the “Café Parisien” and the first class saloon were designed and served by British company Ritz-Carlton There were several music saloons, an excellent library and a reading room A winter garden with exotic plants, a gym, a 9x6m tennis court with a gallery for viewers, as well as a 10x5m swimming pool and a complex of Turkish baths with restrooms There was an excellently equipped hospital with an operating room instead of a usual ship medical station Hairdressers with full sets of equipment and cosmetics were available to all class passengers Those fond of photography could develop films and print photographs at a special room There was also a saloon for valets and housemaids only and a special compartment for first class passengers’ dogs “I met the Mortons after the lunch

Young Dick, beyond any doubts, is a talented mathematician He intends to disprove Laplace’s theory of predictability of potential future events using a method of simple equations! In general, he seemed interesting to me, unlike his wife Florence Though, I have to admit she is very pretty She knows it and likes when men pay attention to her I saw her recklessly flirting with a young telegraphist while Dick was there, only few steps away, exploring the equipment of the radio cabin.” The Titanic’s radio equipment was supplied by Marconi Company There was nothing strange in it It was Marquis Guglielmo Marconi, winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics for his invention of the wireless telegraph who was the leader and monopolist in radio engineering in Europe Each large transatlantic liner was equipped with the Marconi transmitters But the Titanic’s equipment was very special: it was for the first time in history that one could send a telegram right from the ship This was an unheard-of luxury at that time “Telegraphists Phillips and Bride are dandyish and well-mannered young men It’s obvious they feel to be special here It’s interesting that Mr. Phillips works and makes conversations with equal zeal I’ve counted — he writes with average speed of 18 words a minute.” John George Phillips, 26, telegraphist Has been working as a telegraphist at a post office since he was 15; later he entered the Marconi Company college in Liverpool Sailed as a telegraphist onboard the liners Lusitania, Mauretania, and Adriatic Harold Sydney Bride, 22, telegraphist He started working as a post telegraphist after he graduated from school; later he became a staff telegraphist for the Marconi Company onboard the liners Haverford and Lusitania The primary mission of the telegraphists on the Titanic was to serve the VIP passengers There was no end to those wishing to send telegrams “Tell Mom that Countess of Rothes is sailing with us Let her tell it to aunt Elisabeth and aunt Agatha.” “Darling, remember to take the collar for Lord Wilberforth from Flintstone.” “We are out in ocean. What breathtaking scenery — sunset over the Atlantic! The vessel is sliding on melded gold toward the bloody disk of the sun…” 12 April, 9:30 a.m. The distance between the iceberg and the Titanic is 2,500 km “Friday, April 12. The third day of the voyage. The weather is fine Nevertheless, I’m still in the state of worry, and I always trust my intuition When I shared my worries with the Mortons, Dick positively opposed: “All these premonitions and other sort of mystic stuff are absolute nonsense A man is the master of his own life, and everything depends on him.” Florence changed countenance: “And this is Mr. Looser saying, able to do nothing but hold a knife and a fork in his hands only!”, said she and left us Dick was obviously confused The awkward situation was solved by the sound of the steward’s bugle — it was time to change for the dinner.” 6 to 10 thousand meals were daily cooked on the Titanic, most of them consisting of 4 courses The ship’s kitchen was equipped with two stoves, largest in the world, with 19 ovens each There were 75,000 pounds of meat, 11,000 pounds of fresh fish, 35,000 eggs, almost 3 tons of tomatoes, 40 tons of potatoes, 50 boxes of grapefruit, grapes, lemons, 5 tons of sugar, various cheeses, oysters, asparaguses, artichokes stored in the refrigerators, as wellas fresh flowers in special compartments There were 45,000 table napkins with monograms and 50,500 towels

“I’m impressed They even have plaids for the deck chairs There is no deficit of anything at all Except for the lifeboats. I’ve counted There are only 20 of them Isn’t it too few?” One lifeboat was meant to hold 65 people There were 2,200 people onboard the Titanic, which means there should have been at least 60 boats However, according to the British Merchant Shipping Acts, the number of boats was to be calculated according to a ship’s displacement The Acts were adopted in 1894, when the largest ships had the displacement of around 10,000 tons, with the number of boats corresponding to that tonnage being 20 The Titanic’s displacement was 4.5 times as much 20 lifeboats would have been enough to save only a half of people aboard at that moment Moreover, no compulsory lifeboat boarding drills had ever been conducted on the Titanic And there was no position of officer for rescue operations provided on the staff list “I searched out Mr. Bruce Ismay: who else but the director of the shipping company was supposed to be responsible for the safety of the passengers?” Joseph Bruce Ismay, 50 A first class passenger, cabin B52/54/56, ticket No. 112058 Chairman and managing director of the shipping company White Star Line He was trying to make the company’s ships attractive for rich passengers, for which purpose he launched the construction of luxurious liners over 50,000 tons of displacement in 1907 The first ship in this family was the superliner Olympic, the second the Titanic The company merged into the International Mercantile Marine Company in 1909, and Ismay became president of the company “Mr. Ismay said with all confidence that the lifeboats on Titanic are nothing but a mere formality They would be needed if we meet a wrecking ship.” At that time it was impossible to even imagine circumstances under which Titanic’s passengers could need the lifeboats She was designed and created absolutely unsinkable The Titanic was made of high-quality steel; her decks, bulkheads, beams and ribs were exceptionally strong Her sides were sheathed up with 4mm thick steel plates (2,000 plates for the whole hull) that were joined up with rivets made of forge iron (a triple row of rivets for each joint; 3,000,000 rivets in total) But a special system was provided in case of potential wreck: the ship had a double bottom and was divided into 16 waterproof compartments with special bulkheads that were locked with sealed doors Those doors were usually left open but could be closed and locked in a few seconds: after a signal coming from the captain’s bridge, electromagnets automatically released latches and all 12 doors went down simultaneously They could be unlocked after the electric drive was off All bulkheads were so strong that they were able to bear considerable pressure in case of a hull’s breach According to the calculations by designers, the Titanic could remain afloat when any two or three or even four of her first five bow compartments were flooded It was impossible even to imagine a disaster when all five bow compartments could be breached “It seems to me that all these gentlemen of White Star Line are extremely arrogant Just look at the title — the Titanic But they overlooked the fact that the Titans of Greek mythology who had imagined they were more powerful than the gods themselves had been thrown to the dark abyss of the Tartarus…” 12 April, 23:10. The distance between the iceberg and the Titanic is 2,000 km

“Sell when it reaches 76. Guggenheim.” “Tomorrow is the name day of aunt Rosemary Sent her a dozen roses. Amalia.” “I’d learned that there was a rich library on board the ship, so I couldn’t resist the temptation The first book I laid my eye on was novel pompously titled “Futility or the Wreck of the Titan” The librarian told me that the book belonged to some of the sailors who suddenly quitted the ship’s crew right before her departure.” A science fiction novel “Futility or the Wreck of the Titan” by Morgan Robertson was published in 1898, long before that tragic journey The Titan was the name of a large ship whose description astonishingly resembled the Titanic: it was the largest, the most comfortable and unsinkable Even main technical characteristics of the two ships were almost identical The fictional Titan sank in the middle of the Atlantic after it hit an iceberg “I think it was no coincidence that this book came to my hands It was a warning A sign of destiny at last! That fictional liner hadn’t have time enough to make a turn because of the high velocity at which it was pursuing the world record What is the speed of Titanic, I wonder?” By 1912 the usual speed of transatlantic liners was 18 knots (33 km/h) The full speed of the Titanic could be 25 knots (46 km/h) that equalled the speed of the fastest navy destroyer of the time “Saturday, April 13 The fourth day of the journey First thing in the morning I talked to our captain, Mr. Smith As far as I remember, it was him who was captain of the Olympic, Titanic’s sister ship, when the Olympic was holed during the collision at a full speed with the cruiser Hawke Edward John Smith, 62 Captain of the Titanic and Commodore of White Star Line Served on the transatlantic liners Republic, Adriatic and Olympic Participated in The Second Boer War as the captain of a transport ship During his service in peacetime gained reputation of captain of the safest ships His salary in the company was unprecedentedly high: 1,250 pounds a yea rplus a bonus of 200 pounds in case of trouble-free voyage “Mr. Smith assured me that the Titanic is travelling at a speed of 22 knots, and this is no limit: two more boilers are still idle He doesn’t intend to lower the speed of the ship, otherwise Titanic shall arrive at the New York harbour out of time I’ve found out that the captain has chosen a route that is a little bit longer that the usual one but safer…” There existed only two transatlantic routes at that time The first one was Short or North Route: a ship made a turn towards New York quite near the island of Newfoundland, and this allowed an approximately 300 km long “cut” The second one was Long or South Route The turn was made further south to avoid the floes The winter of 1912 was very mild, consequently, there should be more icebergs there than usual Captain Smith calculated a special route for the Titanic — even further south than the South Route to avoid icebergs for sure “You just can’t stay indoors during such great weather The evening sun sinking low and the west wind are so exciting… Every moment should be remembered forever.” “Florence Morton was strolling on the deck alone until she noticed me So, I had to feign conversation I had vague suspicions in 5 minutes 10 minutes later they proved: Mrs. Morton was flirting with me, manifestly and openly With me who is old enough to be her father! Does she want to make her husband jealous? But Dick was seen nowhere around I felt extremely uncomfortable An old and worn mushroom beside a young and charming lady However, one could extract useful things even from her chirp — the point is in some extrasensory perception, an intuition substituting intellect in most ladies

Florence suddenly asked: “Are the sailors not supposed to have binoculars? I have always imagined them having binoculars…” I froze. She was absolutely right! I left Florence to rest in the deck chair and headed to the captain’s bridge I met Mr. Lightoller on my way there.” Mr. Lightoller was supposed to be First Officer during Titanic’s maiden voyage However, Captain John Smith made a sudden reshuffle in the ship’s staff right before the departure The captain himself served on the RMS Olympic before and decided to take his Chief Officer, Henry Wilde, from there For this purpose the original Chief Officer William Murdoch had to move to the position of the First Officer instead of Charles Lightoller Lightoller in his turn had to become the Second Officer to replace David Blair And Blair to his much regret had to leave the crew of the Titanic Three days later, when the Titanic was already out in the sea, Blaire found in his pocket the key to the safe where the binoculars were kept 95 years later the key was sold at an auction for 90,000 pounds sterling (180,000 US dollars) 14 April, 8:45 a.m. The distance between the iceberg and the Titanic is 900 km “Sunday, April 14. The weather is fine, but my spirits are not I was making by morning walking exercise when I got trapped by restless Mrs. Morton It seems to me that she intends to lay siege to me, like to Sevastopol. Why? There is a place in some of Dr. Freud’s work, saying “Some young ladies prefer mature men.” “Mom, meet me in New York on the 17th I’m leaving Richard. Florence.” “Olivia wishes to have a cocker spaniel as a present. Make no confuse. Bertie.” An ice warning came to the Titanic’s radio cabin from RMS Caronia Phillips was receiving and sending telegrams at that time “Masters’ Service Gram. Ice warning Floes were seen in latitude 42. N, longitude 49 to longitude 51 W. Caronia.” On receiving the warning, the captain didn’t consider it important: floes are usual in these latitudes Over 32,000 transatlantic voyages were known to have been made from 1892 to 1912 And only one vessel suffered considerable damage with no casualties during this period “Masters’ Service Gram. Ice warning We passed icebergs and vast floes in latitude 41.51 N, longitude 49. W. Baltic.” Having read another message, the captain ordered to thoroughly watch the course and left for lunch A message from the SS Amerika to the Hydrographic Office: “Amerika passed two large icebergs in latitude 41.27 N, longitude 50.08 W on the 14th of April.” “I decided to see the accommodation of the third class passengers To my unpleasant surprise, they turn out to have no direct access to the boat deck. It’s disgraceful!” The third class cabins were separated from the first and second classes by the gates placed in different parts of the vessel This was stipulated by the US Immigration Act for the purpose of preventing a potential spreading of infectious diseases 14 April, 17:50. The distance between the iceberg and the Titanic is 460 km “Masters’ Service Gram. Ice warning I see a vast floe in latitude 42.03 N,

longitude 49.09 W. Californian.” “Stake on Hairy Joe in the second race And on Nan the Beauty in the third race.” “Our congratulations to Lady Chuffnell and Mr. Rochester on their engagement Ida and Isidor Straus.” “By the evening the weather has changed dramatically But there are still lots of strollers on the upper deck Mrs. Margaret Brown has explained in her usual informal manner that everybody wants to work up appetite for the holiday dinner I’ve completely forgotten about Easter.” 14 April, 21:40. The distance between the iceberg and the Titanic is 84 km “Mesaba to Titanic Ice report in lat 42.N to 41.25N, long 49W to long 50.30W Saw much heavy pack ice and great number of large icebergs also field ice Weather good, clear.” “I met Florence Morton on the 1st class deck So sad and lonely she was that I couldn’t find a better thing than to invite her to the Easter dinner She became so beaming as though I made a proposal of marriage to her.” “Florence created a little furore in the saloon A quite revealing outfit of hers was appraised perhaps by all present gentlemen, to the displeasure of the present ladies It’s interesting, that I was absolutely forgotten by the end of the dinner — there were cavaliers much younger than me It’s disappointing, but it is a fact: Florence flirted with me only to get to the first class saloon.” “To Mr. Guggenheim. Went down to 74 Shall we sell or wait?” Stanley Lord, captain of the SS Californian, experienced sailor, decided not to take risk of making his way among the ice floes at night The Californian heaved to at the fringe of the ice field 14 April, 22:00 Californian, 20 miles away from Titanic The crew might take a rest, except the watchmen Just in case, the captain instructed telegraphist Evans to send the ice warning to all ships in her vicinity once again “Californian to Titanic Hi, buddy, we stopped Ice all around. The coordinates…” “Shut up! I am busy, I am working Cape Race!” The last and most important of ice warnings were ignored — Titanic’s telegraphists were busy sending private telegrams About 250 in total that night Radiograms of health of passengers, future meetings and engagements, congratulations and business messages were coming to Cape Race from the liner Tranquility and comfort reigned in the cabins and saloons of the Titanic There was not a slightest wind on the deck The world’s greatest ship was crossing the Atlantic on a quiet spring night 14 April night, 1912, was quiet and moonless in the northern part of the Atlantic Ocean The air temperature was 0 degrees Celsius, the water temperature 0.56 A perfect calm “A surprisingly quiet night No wind at all Nobody wants to sleep, so we make our evening walking exercises From the upper deck I can see the watch officer drinking his tea…” In the crow’s nest, 29 meters above the waterline, two lookouts are on the watch Even in a moonless night they were able to spot an obstacle from the distance of 3 miles (5.5 km.), but only if having binoculars 14 April, 23:38. The distance between the iceberg and the Titanic is 900 m

Lookout officer Frederic Fleet sees a huge dark mass about 30 m. high in 650 m. dead ahead Two weeks ago this iceberg was caught by the Labrador Current and started melting and turning round This caused his surface to become translucent and reflecting the night sky This is why it was almost impossible to spot the iceberg even from a close distance Lookout Fleet strikes the bell three times, which means “An obstacle dead ahead” The signal is received by First Officer William Murdoch Murdoch instantly gives an order: “Hard astarboard!”, hoping to bypass the iceberg on the left And right after it: “Stop the engine now!” and “Full astern!” For the liner not to hit the iceberg with her stern, he immediately gives another command: “Hard a-port!” But the ship was too large to make a quick maneuver As soon as the motion of the propeller stopped, the speed of the turn decreased The inertial distance of the Titanic was approximately 650 m This equaled the distance to the iceberg right at the moment it was spotted The underwater part of the iceberg tore up a 90 m. length cut in the Titanic’s hull on the right side Thus, a line was drawn beneath the colossal liner’s waterline at the long row of accidents, coincidences, misunderstandings and human ambitions on 14 April at 23:40 Could it be avoided? Hadn’t the captain undertaken the reshuffle in the staff right before the departure and David Blaire forgotten to give the key to the safe to his successor, the lookout would have had a binocular and could have spotted the iceberg 3 miles ahead Hadn’t telegraphist Phillips been so busy sending private telegrams, he would have paid attention to the last warning from Californian mentioning the precise coordinates of the dangerous area Had Captain Smith lowered the speed after entering the dangerous area, the Titanic would have had time to make the maneuver Hadn’t the iceberg turned over short before the collision, its glittering surface could have been seen at a mile’s distance Hadn’t there been dead calm, the location of the iceberg would have been marked with whitecaps on the waves around it Had that night been moonlit, the lookout could have spotted even a dark iceberg 15 seconds earlier Hadn’t First Officer Murdoch commanded “Stop the engine now!”, the ship could have added several more degrees to her turn And then the Titanic could have continued her travel, safe and sound

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