from rocky Jia Yu Jiang Zemin humans so good night 1st inning organizers story I’ve used to tell you about the studies within the document is last about 15 years in Barcelona and I’m going to talk about ayahuasca and besides some older data that’s already published I’m going also to prison seminole analysis with conducted on the EEG measurements measurements of brain electrical activity in humans and also results from painting styles so for those of you who are not familiar with ayahuasca ayahuasca is a is a client concoction is a psychotropic Plan C which was used up originally in the in the by combining two different plants it induces a transient modified state of awareness of plaster and on for hours it was used traditionally by indigenous peoples of the region cutshaw in recent years I always be used as spread worldwide this is because several some syncretic reason religions have appeared in Brazil which combine Christian beliefs with ayahuasca use and they have spread their activities too many foreign country countries in North America and in Europe so contact with ayahuasca is but easier right now he was like 20 years ago many people are attending these sessions shaman’s are coming to Europe and organized sessions and many Europeans and Americans are enough members of this related so the plants that are is to prepare RF ayahuasca are in this instance I’m going to tell you about the first is very serious caffeine is a vine a climbing plant and that was described gotten laid in the in the 19th century and for many years it was thought that was in his plant were the anterior principles of the Iowas group would be found so many and ask is that were conducted on home on ayahuasca were actually conducted on tika ayahuasca vine on when history of cisco and although it contains of some physiologically active compounds the main visionary compound is not present here it was other investigators like what mr. Richard show this who discovered or or recorded that many other plans were added to the group in combination with when is your sis copy especially the leaves of his miss Bush Secretary knees and it’s in this bush the main visionary compounded by Alaska is around so initial analysis on the alkaloid content of the of the violence versus copy found an Altoid which was tentatively named red pin and the beginning of the 20th century later an independently another researcher at isolate an ipod boy he called yeah hey this is because Iowa space known as he acted in in other countries in South America like Colombia and later another researcher and isolated what he called an history and mystery was used for many years in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease until dough go west was available so it was later in the nineteen thirties that they found that all these compounds were no other than for me which was an Altoid that had already been I found in the scenes of another plaintiff over europeanization by foot peg on Burma so in manager see Scotty those are mean but there was also far balloon and that revised apartment so this this is three compounds are known generically as ireland’s on the leaves of psychotic rabies contain this other compound two different compound is dimethyltryptamine this is a psychedelic it’s 5-ht 2a I was so in a typical iOS roof will have the empty which is a powerful psychedelic but that interesting Lee is not a la active when it’s taken orally because it get gets degraded image out by the enzyme enzyme wanna meet up two days but this alkaloids between the carbons present in ayahuasca are potent monoamine oxidase inhibitors so what we are going to have here is an interaction in the empty were to be taken orally alone it would be destroyed in the gut on the liver but if it’s taken with arming on the other bed gardens in ayahuasca the princess systemic

circulation the central nervous system an interesting effects appear so we decided we want to study ayahuasca and ayahuasca as it was being taken by all the people who were getting involved in the ayahuasca religions and all these ceremonial practices so we didn’t want to use the pure compounds let’s say like DMD combined with pure harming so what we is trying to develop a formulation that would allow us to administer ayahuasca in control designs measuring gazebos in active or inactive placebo or practical Sybil’s and inaccurate doses so what we did was we freeze dried ayahuasca we measure the other web content we encapsulated I’m going to go up this formulation that we afterwards venues in our clinical trials so here you have the average volunteer with is about to ingest the capsules in a clinical study so we’ve already conducted like three or four acute administration studies of actually prescribe ayahuasca we compared it with gazebo with active towns with measure subjective effects for durability and vascular variables many different things but what I’m going to tell you about here today is what we’ve found the measuring a spontaneous very electrical activity first so here what I’m showing you is the results or an is a statistical comparison this service here represent the head the white dots are the places where electrodes are placed on the scalp so we measure our spontaneous electrical activity and we calculate the energy what’s called the power spectrum in a different frequency bands so this is a multivariate analysis of all frequency bands combined and what we see here is that we [ __ ] we find a clear dose-dependent effect so at different time points holding five planes one hour one and a half two hours two and a half hours after ayahuasca administration we see that the effects after a high of those three point 85 milligram DNT by per kilogram body weight exerts more potent effects than this threshold load this lower knows only the most intense effects the the higher significance the warmest colors we find between one half an hours after administration which coincide is the concentration the ending in blood and also with the big subjective effects so after doing this global initial analysis to be to see where the most intense effects be found in time and at which those we wanted to study the changes or the effect i was on the different frequency bands and try to localize these changes on ray in the break so by measuring the what we hold on to Prague raphy the scalp distribution of the changes in voltage we can compute changes in current density inside the brain by means of these techniques called loretta and by the by doing so we were surprised to find widespread decreases in power in different frequency bands so here what you see is the results we obtained for the Delta pan is slow activity so we found areas where it’s low activity was clearly decreased these areas were predominantly posterior in the parietal occipital and temporal log so here we found decreases in the middle temporal gyrus in the superior temporal tires in the perfidious in the fusiform giant so no one had looked at 80 for 25 years or more when we did this so we were surprised to find that decreases rather than increases it fit well where we found the decreases with changes the subjects were reporting but not with the brain imaging results that have been obtained using methods for step with sila sahin or court mastery when you save the theater ban what we found we’re also decreases here in the in the middle temporal lobe in the park ocampo tires and some changes in interior brain regions mainly anterior cingulate in the medial frontal gyrus and finally this neither one man that will between 13 and 16 hurt also found decreases and this were located in everett unix systems to your signal so this is we published in the 2004 and basically how interpreting these results was that we were seeing changes in current density in areas that were associated with the with the processing

of information that comes from specific sensory modalities so we have here what’s called the visual too much sensory and nugatory association cortices being involved in these changes and also what’s known as trans mode of areas so these are areas that bind the information from different century without we have the temporal parietal and frontal intramuros or si Jin cortex and also limbic regions interior cingulate and the party comes of jars but as i said as i said this result did not fit with the data that had been published with a better expect following silicide enormously administration soon when we need next was a neural imaging study usually using SPECT and here we basically found increases in blood flow williams we didn’t find decreases anywhere in the brain and this increases were located in the frontal cortex i mean dear cingulate in the insulin and in the park campo charts and diagrams so there’s only partial overlap between the results we are painting using man technique and the other so we don’t see by using expect any effects on unimodal Association cortex but we do find an overlap hilarious basically front of the promoter Association cortex and the limbic regions the anterior cingulate and the market random chives so later more recently with an ugly day what we call a repeat dose administration study with ayahuasca with given to those of ayahuasca within a four hour interval so after the first time was closed we also measured ET we calculate this current density distribution at all these different time so here’s is the first I was the dose administered and again we replicate this posterior decreases in her and SB this affects is a year after four hours and we won with means they’re technically I was close we again see this change so with replicated in several studies his decreases we see with ET as I said no one had done this with side of Alexa until until Robyn studying this with Max oh I was also glad to see that he found in Greece is using this technique which is related to our electrical ography and to see that perhaps this is these changes are our robust and bubble to most cycles so if we have to compare what we find analyzing for indents or spect we see that we have changes in Association cortex pertaining to the visual and auditory sensory modalities and this could explain the perceptual modifications that persons report when they are under the effects of ayahuasca using also on the analysis of current density we see these increases in intermodal Association cortex which could explain phenomena like seems easier the changes in limbic areas that you see with both techniques for intensity analysis inspect would explain the memories that are typically reported live subjects also the effective modifications and the increases in blood proteins we see in the insula on the front of neocortex and that we always see using spec could explain all these effects that are also are reported by participants in studies which is this increase interception all the insights they they happen to the effects of ayahuasca is sensation of understanding or of a better understanding of reality of reality habit meaning and sometimes even this can be quite intense and we experienced in the formula for regulation so there’s a partial overlap some technique one technique ET analysis shows shows basically changes in posterior brain regions we have the state studies showing affects mainly frontally and now what we have just recently started is doing another kind of analysis of the EEG data what we are still trying to establish here is partial relationships between the signals we measure at the at one leave and the signals we measure Halloween so we are using here we are doing a functional connectivity study here and the measure we are using is called transfer entity so what we see here have under the effects of ayahuasca is that there’s the decrease in the in the connectivity or in the information transfer between anterior and posterior brain or anterior and posterior leads so this is recorded at scalp level and we

can identify what we call the source areas involved in this decrease and the target areas that are involved in the decrease so there’s less connectivity between the frontal and posterior regions and this can be interpreted as a decrease in the in the information transfer between these regions so in a way we could also speculate here that perhaps top down regulation is being increased under give text by Alaska and using this technique to see that both regions interior atmosphere that can appear together in a single analysis in combination with this decrease we we we also saw increases in posterior got to interior penalty so here the source areas involved in this increase would be posterior on the target areas involving the increase would be anterior so there was a decrease of top-down regulation under hipsters in in bottom-up regulation or information transfer and all these results have shown you our obtained in the in the administration studies but we have also started started assessing long-term users of ayahuasca with if conducted psychiatry interviews with administered battery of neuropsychological tests to all to a series of of long-term I was the users around the between 60 and 100 the memory is that number now and we didn’t see any deficits in this population and we also did some MRI style with functional MRI with eti and post what we did was analyzed struck the structure of the of the audience at home so here with it was studying cortical thickness in these subjects and what I’m showing here is the result of a statistical analysis between the long-term ayahuasca users and the controls and what we see is that there are some reason reasons some regions sorry especially medial posterior regions which show the decrease in cortical thickness another other regions that are that are located immediately in the frontal lobe that show increases so again these two areas emerge as being related to ayahuasca huge knot I abhyudaya was the effect but long-term ayahuasca use and additionally what we see what we need when we check was whether there was any relationship between changes at this level under lifetime exposure to ayahuasca so the number of times he had taken ayahuasca and we do find a negative correlation here in the areas in the posterior cingulate cortex or we see this increased and the positive correlation in the area where we see this is Ingrid so by using this this new techniques is Alan functional connectivity analysis and also this studying or confirm users again is two regions emerge interior single and posterior cingulate tab vertex that perhaps if we take it that piggy results together with with what’s been reported for Scylla Simon is mainly due important ups of activity for the effects of of psychedelics and to finish I would like to thank my collaborators in Barcelona the polytechnical university the functional value analysis and we also have a collaboration with the University in Brazil and thanks to you question can you elaborate more about the UN study because it is quite interesting to study and Robinson well they found the activation in the visual cortex when subjects were were asked to remember an image they had they had shown previously if I remember correctly that was the study they they conducted and they found that under the effects of ayahuasca is the primary visual cortex was more activating them than and a noticeable but yes it’s always difficult to draw a general

conclusion because I in our study in the specs that we didn’t we didn’t find any activations in the driver visual cortex but we didn’t impose any tax from the subjects they just had to remain with their eyes closed both on the day they received to see what they didn’t receive that the ayahuasca and this is again is again at odds with what’s been found for sale Simon in the universe that memorized time so I don’t know what the truth is I knew the numbers I saw their long-term users but are you thinking about being instance comments I captain we screen them to rule out dependent aggression or any psychiatry said I tricked or neurological swirl and I it was 20 volunteers who participated in the mrs so we will take screen yeah we interviewed them and they’re very anybody we’ve had we didn’t we only exclude people if i remember correctly but we are because of some neurological condition is one big wave of course there’s always a basic selection bias because you say you want to study long-term ayahuasca users and then people should walk you don’t chase them around so it’s level who wanted to participate once you you are able to study so perhaps if someone had had a I don’t bad experience with ayahuasca the first time they took it they never went on taking ayahuasca swear they are not available for assessment 20 years later so there’s there’s a bias a question is should discover which we’re trying to start a new study in which we are going to eat people who are going to get involved in iOS religion people who so we are emotionally members of Santa expand and anytime anyone will apply for membership or for participation we will interview that and we will follow follow them for fritters relations of any personality trait measures personally with relative changes follow we have a look at that yet so this is preliminary data the question remains last questions going outside only my answer so if you have a compound which work lots of banks are kinetics you seem to decrease oscillation power group and decreases that’s great you can see decreased blood flow all that in other studies have found increased because of tablet I scribe open up to anyone he might appear to solve that because I can’t that you will see a if you get a drop in you know singing in the cortex yet seen an increase in because metabolism my attention haven’t that’d be impossible I also did this probably mapping between special moments in such consistent regions in the drops diversity in blood flow that’s mysterious secret cortex and you say drops in s electric power there as well and that makes a lot of sense to me but I wouldn’t get my head around is how he has its effects and have increased metabolism of a make sense of that could happen I wonder if there’s everyone good in secret to influence this pregnancy to results the different teams of them well I guess we should be happy that at least the same the same region shaw Living End studies even though in some studies we see decreases in bowlin in others we see increases in blood flow but yes previous speaker said this is still work on the way to try to understand better or respond more consideration I have lots of measures are kind of summaries over time in and that’s what I quite like these is functional activity measures especially like areas at the time because in a way then more war state agents this going to lose a lot of information by making some real over

time this exchange over a chunk quite a large chunk a time when we get in and see what’s fluctuating yeah I did in this functional connectivity at us with that we’ve analyzed their at different time points over time and the relationship between the frontal posterior regions keeps changing the direction of the information group but it’s those regions which are involved me so the one difference between an ayahuasca and anything else is it you’ve built on nevelocity inhibitor present to Christians what is it that particular enzyme blocker does it get into the brain we didn’t see in systemic circulation we didn’t find harmony most of our volunteers and what we found was armel which is the degradation product of harming so it gets very quickly metabolized at least army with we could measure that are higher permanent man hard because I mean so if you getting the brightness point sound effects aluminum or journals yeah yeah of course inside one me nowadays in pewter so we yeah ayahuasca it’s not a computer compatible you see a combination hero a logical effects we you see me the effects of TNT plus the mom unix based on individual my question to you is how yield or anyone harming or harming our most our leaders as the control and harvey in itself is a support fascinating drug yo in acquisition system yeah we would like to do that because our farming and the other winter gardens were studied in the 1960s and different our researchers published in delivering results and that we will really like to look at that until of weight with float that ayahuasca the beaches in activities like in not active in safe rest might be partly due to that and if stimulating activity activity in our studies we control vigilance when we report we recorded et we did not allow subjects cool fall asleep you can control this by measuring the Alpha and in the specs cuz they had to remain with eyes closed for like 10 minutes the injection which is the time it takes for the tracer distributed brain but they were not there we’re not doing any active that’s realistic we run has stimulation well answers there’s this study Travie oh and the brazilian group of conducting in natal and they had an active task and also resting resting and I think represent the resting results in the problem and they also saw decreases involved but in the in the active task in which they hacked into remember this you insisted can have been presented they they found greater activation of the visual cortex I really don’t know that that really is this participants were not damaged from a psychological perspective they even scored better jobs in all the tests as a sweep we administer but as I say there’s also this selection bias we only test people who evolved you participate and have been using ayahuasca for many years perhaps they did not find a pipe thinking I was detrimental Consultants economy

many years ago a patient who lived in South America very bright no man who taken my ass so the most mattered and he said they’ll be interested what they were looking for was the near-death experience he’s affected every six months to a year and be very yield for about a day and he said he found that very helpful psychologically in the long-term ass today and said that is it to be something along the lines that we can’t really live to keeping their death was looking at the bottom toast google x was for these drugs i’ve seen people passing out into during my possessions in field studies everyone that’s for the understand under near-death experiences but daddy what the there’s so many different individual approaches to ayahuasca people are there for the visions the insights the members of the ayahuasca bleeding to say that ayahuasca provides them with micah helps them either life path and traditionally the many many shaman’s in used ayahuasca to fight each other so and also do to treat patients so there’s many different approaches and they’re now the site that ayahuasca has become an even more more popular and many more people are getting access to where I was for the approaches and experience can be as varied as the individuals simply passed away the totality in ayahuasca experience is very much about the drug also the ceremony environment which is katelyn because any work done any bank must be super control studies in which they give people deceivers work still have the same phone ringing expect to see to what extent it’s the time not that I’m that I’m aware of but of course we could not reproduce lee yeah lee i have us a session in the laboratory that the most participants the experience was very introspective and they could do like concentrate on the inner experience and simply forget about us and the other surrounding so they were less bothered by a sedate the day they had the iowa secondly they had a gazebo and we were constantly drawing blood or measuring blood pressure or temperature whatnot so no one has conducted a study but i don’t think the thinking I was being the largest that disturbing the participants situation if we be cover subjects are you can get increased glucose metabolism and not see change my sister urging control well this so if your eyes are usually you can see the situation where you after lovest and free with a decrease is a bit more to say in my case I builders because this causes constriction you could have raised a constriction which is possibly reason tablet the last problem is important examples condense the data a long grind on my way to support produce very helpful passage see direction for your defense so we’ve loads of time for some of the schools our first column and row are a project which generation another thing that’s interesting is you know looking at the excitation five cram

themselves to us expedia to mix back I think one thing that I would not advise caution so i would say one thing and we shouldn’t think too much this activity go down things are really crude sort of description of a change productivity with it it’s a little much more very networks and interactions and things like with a little swelling influencer regions or other pages influences networks and other networks in this country that’s why we don’t have a killer features more dynamics final question up in the back watching the front i would like to ask balances it doesn’t matter because of now i still have a better does matter but Robin has seen relationship between get two effects and the decrease in the front of our brain that you related to get to effect to the changes in Teresa optic will respect nor any winters because everything together pivot I mean if it’s related to speak to affect them in the opposite direction unity server believe they also found sorry i moved here i mean the the study published in the air plasma lands they place so an increasing serotonin transporter in indy platelets and i’m not sure how they interpreted this results may be housebroken say something what we made but yeah of course it is a car like the point was very hard it acted kinda pointless extrapolated to the plane into you I mean anything i would say is if you continually taken a motivating our today’s able to you will add more serotonin in your right because its metabolism will be issues another question he had most most studies that have been conducted today on our long-term users haven’t found any deficit populations so i was to receive quite thank you you you

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