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you’re talking about a society that for until quite recently its marginal existence you couldn’t get a cold or you die and you couldn’t be in the water you get an infection you die like everything killed you dog bites you you die step on a nail you die that’s the way it was it’s like imagine raising a little kid like he good chance he’s gonna die getting to age five would be I think it is your benchmark like there would there wouldn’t be that strong attachment I think they’re just there wouldn’t be it was quite calm and like yeah you just spread your kids out you left some here and there yeah you couldn’t feed them most of the time it was relatives and stay for a while maybe you’d think it was temporary you’d stay with your cousins and that sort of thing the execution of mrs. workman an honest industrious and pious wife and mother took place in the jail yard here by in public view on the morning of Thursday 19th of June the deceased who lived in more town never made what could properly be termed a confession but never disguised or attempted to disguise the fact that she had beat her husband with a stick which he had seized hold of for the purpose of beating her which she wrenched out of his hands she held in her right hand a white pocket handkerchief and a bunch of white flowers and these continue to be held by the hand when the body dropped after hanging about 20 minutes she was buried in a grave prepared immediately under the scaffold into which the body had previously descended to give it the necessary for Ontario was and largely arguably remains the British colony of Upper Canada engineered in the manner of Georgian England then scarcely emerged from feudal times to rest on the backs of a lower class who knew and understood their place and a ruling class to determine to what that would be the immigration scheme started in 1869 with Maria Rai and they officially ended in Ontario in 1939 the only reason they were bringing children to Canada was to put them out to work they weren’t here to be loved not here to be a family member they were disposable the vast majority these children came from families in need families that had fallen upon hard time for any reason be it a death of a you know apparent illness a loss of job they were feeling like they were doing the best that they could do for their child and in times of need they were turning their children over to an organization that would look after the child only to find out that their child had been shipped out of the country and they had no idea where the children were all the way from toddlers up until the age of 18 but you can’t put a two-year-old out to work so what they would do with the younger children is they would foster them out until they became old enough to work and then when they were old enough to work say five or six years of age they would then either charge the foster family a fee for having that child in their home or they would remove the child from the foster care and then indenture them out to work they were disposable if they didn’t work out if the farmer didn’t want to pay the money if they got sick they were sent back to the receiving home history does not vanish dwell in monuments or precincts of bone and stone it accumulates where and to whom we are born advantaged or disadvantaged loved or unloved is the running some of our ancestors the imperatives of their survival in times rife with injustice hardship and death passed down like christening gowns and pieced into what we call social norms the documentary you are about to see is a social history an introduction of past to present in the name of the future undertaken in the names of those still trapped in historic cycles of injustice and despair and inspired by the staff of Bernadette McCann house a woman shelter and support service at Pembroke Ontario before multinational corporations ruled the world empires were the business of kings who competed for raw resources and labor acquired by plundering territories occupied by unwary indigenous peoples or First Nations who in the case of Ontario

had lived here peaceably as five distinct nations of and by the land for over nine thousand years in the mid 1700s arch-rivals French King Louis the fifteenth and George the third CEO of the British Empire were locked in a deadly competition for control of North America the British had long established colonies along the Atlantic seaboard while the French had small settlements along the shores of Lake Ontario throughout new France or Quebec and Nova Scotia but both wanted more when the French lost a bloody battle here on the plains of Abraham at Quebec City the British set about claiming their newly won territories turning to the south to raise funds by imposing massive taxes on their own colonies provoking a revolution which Britain lost leaving countless soldiers and families who had supported them known as Empire Loyalists fleeing through hostile territory to safe havens from the Maritimes to Ontario where 20,000 would settle carving new beginnings out of expanses of wilderness along the st. Lawrence River at Kingston the Bay of Quinte and the Niagara Peninsula wealthy families and British military officers ranks bought and paid for by the aristocracy many later to be employed by the crown to ensure strict social order in a new British colony Upper Canada to be engineered by this man Lieutenant Colonel John Graves Simcoe Ottawa writer Valeri Knowles is the author of this definitive history of Canadian emigration I mean there was a great fear on the part of the French Canadians of course that their settlements would be overrun by english-speaking Americans and so he was encouraging Protestant english-speaking immigration into Upper Canada that’s why you have the creation of upper and lower evolved into Canada Eastern Canada West English Protestants to be assembled in the form of a society in simcoe’s words forever free of any spirit of democratic subversion a soldier born into minor gentry Simcoe had financed his own rise through military ranks to lead troops in the American Revolution winning his first promotion shortly before being invalid at home at age thirty where his star had ascended through marriage to Elizabeth Willem a 16 year old orphan and heiress of immeasurable wealth accompanied by his wife two children military staff and a legion of household servants Simcoe arrived naval headquarters at Newark or niagara-on-the-lake in the summer of 1792 with considerable ceremony he struck a parliament and imposed the rule of British law before moving on to fort Toronto a military garrison he renamed New York to organize district courthouses in jails appoint magistrates and proclaimed statute labor laws obliging all future settlers to contribute to annual road building projects simcoe’s plan was to persuade the wealthy to serve as administrators and magistrates in exchange for vast grants of land in area’s richest in resources particularly standing timber a vision he pursued in the face of growing opposition for four years until being recalled in 1796 leaving behind a home in York and a system of laws descended from a medieval belief in the Divine Right of Kings and king makers which has endured for two centuries and Counting setting ancient antithetical and foreign principles in Ontario stone the underlying purpose of the British legal system was to protect the king and his inner circle or patriarchy from the masses by enacting economic and social levers designed to ensure ongoing flows of wealth and benefit to those at the top indeed so-called common law offered little in the way of rights to the common man even less to women and none to children beyond being abandoned in or near a swamp or public roadway a detriment to the public purse a reality women’s shelters deal with on a daily basis I do think I mean I’m being Frank here but I do think that they’re considered property and and that’s horrible I think no human being as property veteran domestic violence support worker and councillor Leanne is the manager of Bernadette McCann House women’s shelter there is family court there’s Criminal Court and the two sort of don’t cross paths so you could have an abuser who’s

in criminal court he has charges of assault he could have been charged as a result and that doesn’t matter in family court University of Ottawa criminal law professor Elizabeth shiki there’s not much by way of custody or access law that in any way can guarantee a woman that that child will not be forced to have visitation with that father even if he’s been violent to the mother and sometimes even if he’s been violent abusive to the child you know some things are beyond their control and court is one of them so it’s it’s just it’s hard to watch and I know it’s hard for the workers I know it’s really hard to see that because their hands are tied and and the best they can do is you know sometimes you can go back and revisit the order Bernadette McCann house executive director Lee Sweeney you know one of the interview questions we ask when we’re hiring staff is you know Joey goes to his dad’s place his dad lives in the country and dad is always asking about mom what is mom doing and the child has told you that they don’t like that so what do you help the child with how do you how do you help the child not answer those questions and not put the child at risk so we safety plan with the kids and we chat about you know who where is there a safe place that if something happened do you know how to call 9-1-1 you know is there a neighbor closeby is there can the access happen at at an exchange center where it’s safe to do so that’s all part of safety planning and we will bring the police in to do that training for us and it’s good for the kids to know that the police are good good people sometimes they are not portrayed that way and kids are afraid they’ve been told many things you can imagine if the if the parents been told those things what the kids been told why do women stay well there’s your number one reason my children are gonna have access alone with that person who’s abusive to me they don’t have me to abuse who are they going to abused emotionally that whole custody access you know supervised Dax s process needs to be looked at you know it’s so hard to share custody with someone you’re afraid of you don’t want to be around and I and I appreciate that supervised access provides you know someone to come drop off their child come back but it’s the texting it’s the communication it’s it’s you know and it’s that kind of viciousness that people are subjected to because they still have to have contact Sharon a child and youth worker is employed in an innovative program she works with teens seeking help and children identified by mothers and schools to help them understand the dynamics of domestic violence giving them tools to survive and also reject behaviors which all too frequently go back generations we talked to the kids we talked to the kids about the fact that it’s not their fault this is an adult situation adults are all responsible for own behavior and the adults in your life are responsible for their behavior it’s not okay to hurt someone even if you’re angry it’s okay to be angry we anger is one of the topics we talk about help them go through it and say help them understand that you know there’s tools to deal with your anger because a lot of that is love it is based on well they are angry or whatever so we teach the kids that there’s things you can do with your anger that’s not okay that’s not an okay way to to display your anger to hurt yourself or hurt others social worker Rick Goodwin has been working with abuse of men for 30 years the last 20 as co-founder of an Ottawa agency helping men motivated to control their own anger rage and violence supporting children isolated in homes plagued by domestic abuse is significant he says from the perspective of boys in particular so if we look at what the conventional messages are to our boys and young men well you got to kind of tough it out in this life on your own and there’s lots of evidence to show that men that’s part of it you know you don’t ask for directions you don’t go to our counselor you need help you know you tough it out on your own you’re a lighthouse keeper in the core of many men’s experiences of rage and violence that there is a fundamental issue of emotional dysregulation that these men have not had particularly of how to regulate their emotions often

because of problematic or abusive childhood that they wouldn’t have the experience or witnessing family violence in the home conventional masculinity in the lives of boys and young men is it’s there are elements of that that is relatively shaming don’t cry can’t do that don’t ask for help can’t do that expressible in a roll motion no no no that’s not good either we can all experience shame victims of violence victims childhood abuse of course are much more points feeling Jimmy called referred to Sheamus a master in motion we will do anything to escape from this experience and so here’s an amour psychodynamic understanding of why someone that’s assaulted to someone they love is that their shame prong why are they shame prone to severe chances are they were abused okay he’s with her after sex for a couple in the kitchen coffee’s too strong coffee is too weak doesn’t matter conflict builds conflict builds is someone whose shame prone the worst feeling all certain point the shame is then transferred on to the other person you know projection and the psychological expression understanding of the word she now is the notion of all badness you know shame means behind that okay but there’s a projection where now the partner is the source of all badness which gives then the fellow we’re talking about a guy a relative shame pre-holiday much of Sharon’s work with vulnerable children is focused on countering feelings of shame and helplessness a growing challenge in an age rife with violent images language and bullying offering cover in many ways to the insidious effects of family violence I worked in the classroom as an EI and when I look back now I can see that through what I’ve learned to working here is that there may have been a lot of children who were misdiagnosed with attention deficit or mild learning disabilities that that may have been suffering from the effects of witnessing domestic violence people don’t understand that children see everything you may think that you’re yelling that night is not being heard think again those kids those kids hear that they’re scared and they they pick up on things that that people just think oh they didn’t see that you know they didn’t see dad you know slam is fist on the on the on the fridge you know they didn’t see the fact that mom was crying you know or that they could hear her crying and he wasn’t around in marked contrast to children British law was crystal clear and deliberate in regards to women from the outset explicitly directing the shame frustration and despair of oppressed men or those who reasoned themselves so toward women a convenience surely contrived by larger ruling class interests and framed misogyny as a self-evident feature of the human condition directing the shame frustration and/or despair of oppressed men or those who reasoned themselves so onto women University of Ottawa criminal law professor Elizabeth sheets at common law husbands had the right to beat their wives with a stick that was no larger in diameter than their thumb so this was called the rule of thumb it was a common law principle that allowed men the authority to use violence against their wives in Ontario in 1826 and a case called Holly and ham the Ontario Court adopted that rule and said that a man was entitled to engage in moderate chastisement and and therefore use violence against their wives sanctioned by law generations of battered and abused women would find no refuge in the courts of Upper Canada Canada West or Ontario for over two centuries giving shade to the ongoing notion that cruelty behind closed doors is a private family matter and myths about domestic abuse based on victim blaming mental illness substance abuse imported social values or above all else poverty in a province with the highest rates of domestic murder per capita in all of Canada myths belied by provincial police statistics showing one in four violent crime calls in 2018 were to private residences

across the social spectrum one in three the Canadian average two homes with annual household incomes over $100,000 the majority involving female victim 30% of whom held university degrees or college diplomas leanne blames much of that carnage on gaps in public education a perspective born of 16 years of experience working with terrorized women of disparate backgrounds most manipulated into blaming themselves for their own abuse i think that’s a huge myth I think all walks of life access services from you know nurses to teachers to you know doctors lawyers and I think I think for for those women who who are in this it can almost be a little more difficult because they carry this shame you know I should know better or you know I’ve I’m am employed so what am i what am I worried about what are my concerns because at least I’ve got a job you know and and why did I wait this long I think years ago abuse was defined as physical violence abuse is way more than physical violence as you know we we do see physical violence but we also see a lot of emotional violence financial abuse control a lot of intimidation tactics and threats certainly talked about that you’re not seeing as much of the physical because people have clicked into that right so you’re seeing more of the emotional more of the mind games more of the the internet more of that tight that’s that’s not and when I say emotional it’s you don’t see it and I think the the old myth of well if she doesn’t have a bruise or you know you know he’s he’s got a mark on him that it doesn’t really exist I think that that I think we have done work in that area for sure studiously ignored by politicians Canadian laws addressing acts of terror ranging from relentless bullying and emotional abuse to physical assault broadly defined as domestic violence have not advanced since 1982 when the late NDP MP Margaret Mitchell was jeered in the House of Commons when she rose to address domestic assault then commonly referred to as wife-beating or battering prompting a public backlash which even then forced the House Speaker to issue an apology to Mitchell followed grudgingly by the passage of a law making it a crime for the first time for a husband to rape or sexually assault a wife or partner while leaving in place sentencing guidelines which to this day treat domestic or partner murder as a lesser offense than the killing of a stranger professor Sheehy explains so in British law and Canadian law wife killing was seen as really a form of chance medley which was really a form of manslaughter accidental killing that characterization of wife killing as essentially manslaughter not murder goes hand in hand with a man’s right to use violence to control or discipline his wife in 1976 Library and Archives Canada compiled a comprehensive record of homicides committed between Confederation in 1867 and 1962 the year capital punishment or execution was officially abolished the study captures names of both victims and killers motives means and outcome or disposition of each case it includes the names of a hundred and twenty seven men hanged for the murder of a spouse expose girlfriend or lover among 231 others 110 of them in Ontario whose automatic death sentences for the murders of spouses ex-spouses girlfriends and would be girlfriends or lovers commuted to prison terms including WH Harvey of Guelph a sensitive fellow according to this report who upon being charged with embezzlement in 1899 returned home to lineup and shoot his wife and two school-aged daughters before fleeing a momentary act of madness the Toronto Globe reporter

speculates inspired by a misplaced desire to spare them future disgrace and George k√∂ppen of Seton Street in Toronto who responded to a petition for financial support of his four-year-old son in 1919 by bludgeoning his estranged wife Fanny make open with an iron bar dousing her with an accelerant and setting her alight spared the noose after his lawyer a man with connections successfully argued that her death might well have been an accident and finally the case of James McQuillan of Madoff Township east of Peterborough and habitual abuser driven to murdering his wife in May 1876 the most shocking cold-blooded murder was committed in the township on Sunday James McCrone who had lived unhappily with his wife from whom he separated in March had returned to their home near the village of Bannockburn about three weeks ago but his wife did not after sending his father to negotiate for a return she promised to meet him at his brothers and set out from a neighbor’s with her children aged 2 and 1/2 and 1 and 1/2 years at about 10 o’clock being seen in company with her husband her carrying one child and he the other while four hours later a dead body was found lying by the roadside horribly mutilated the victim Mary Ann Lynch the horror of whose death was added to by the fact that she was far advanced in pregnancy was aged about 19 years she had been married to McQuillan for about four years McQuillan even without an influential lawyer had his sentence commuted to imprisonment at Kingston where he appears aged 38 and in good health on a census two years later an historical accounting which stands in sharp contrast to the fate of abused way dared to defend themselves the hanging of Elizabeth workman at Sarnia in 1878 detailed in the opening of this documentary had no public support every male of age in sarnia-lambton had signed a petition for clemency presented to conservative Prime Minister Sir John a McDonald by liberal leader and arch rival Alexander Mackenzie politics aside McDonald would find cover by consulting the judge in the case and in doing so ordered the execution to proceed a contradiction explored in this legal text by Professor XI wife killing was which was really a form of manslaughter accidental killing husband killing has historically been viewed as the second most serious crime known to humankind the first most serious crime is treason you know killing or plotting to kill the king petty treason is killing or cloning to kill the little king a woman’s husband and master and so petty treason as the second most serious crime in England historically carried a very severe and public form of execution law and order firmly entrenched George the third would all bid ignore Upper Canada leaving his son and heir another George to respond to the burning of York by marauding Republicans as Americans were then known in March 1813 and in doing so by new purpose for a British colony as British monarchs concentrated on empire building nine million souls on the island of Great Britain had subsisted as tenants on massive rural estates granted by a royal grace and favour – titled and entitled peers of the realm or many kings set to farming 20 foot strips of land known as Ron rigs and spinning thread for their lords and masters while the fates of six million Irish mostly Catholic and thus disqualified from owning property by previous order of King Henry the eighth relied on the whims of greedy absentee English and Scottish landlords a feudal structure upended by the introduction of a workable steam engine the computer of the 1700s and the dawn of the Industrial Revolution giving birth to factories mills mines large-scale farming practices and by the early 1800s a nation of potential immigrants mechanization had done little to improve the prospects of the majority so you have the abolition of run rig agriculture which is these separate strips of land that are going to be consolidated you have farms being consolidated and for pasturage because raising sheep for wool and mutton will

bring a far higher return to landlords then rents from small tenant farmers the crofters prompting widespread evictions or clearance of tenant farmers a ruthless process characterised by the Duchess of sutherland residence of done Robin Cassel who notoriously evicted 15,000 tenants from her 1.5 million acre Scottish estate burning out those old and young who had resisted homeless and starving tenants had migrated to towns and villages where they met a new ruling class of industrialists eager to capitalize on their plight by employing women and children where possible over men at pitiful wages women to operate machine ten hours a day seven days a week children as young as four often secured from orphanages and prisons set to work in coal mines throughout northern England crawling under heavy moving looms at Scottish linen and cotton mills at Paisley and Glasgow and Manchester England a constant risk of death by crushing mutilation amputation or suffocation workplace conditions are betted by British law which held poverty to be a crime punishable by hard labor in prison work houses deliberately made even crueler workhouse prisons deemed to be the responsibility of municipalities or parishes built and operated by way of taxes on small property owners scarcely removed from poverty themselves and public donations by 1776 2000 work houses had been erected on the island of Great Britain alone housing populations of over 100,000 including children incarcerated under the guise of the religious concept of original sin 9 of 10 dying in agony parents stripped of hope and humanity equally doomed workhouse conditions varied according to locale however the starvation death of James eaves his wife and two of their three children in 1759 three weeks after an illness likely flew forced them to seek shelter at Dutch worth workhouse in England had little impact on anyone but the poor facing a Hobson’s choice between death by workhouse mine mill or factory or prison sentences for offenses ranging from begging to minor theft growing populations of families driven into slums rife with misery filth despair and disease live day to day peddling random goods and services wherever they could leaving orphaned or abandoned boys like Dickens composite character Oliver Twist and young girls pray to the depredations of those ostensibly further of the social scale this obscene guide to young prostitutes published annually over the last three decades of the 1700s typifies social contempt for the poor and children in particular miss Bea is a very genteel agreeable little girl and is distinguished more by the elegancy of her dress than the beauty of a person which might perhaps have been ranked in the list of tolerable x’ that not the smallpox been quite so unkind she is nevertheless a desirable well tempered piece and one that does not degrade herself by her company or her actions in the war of 1812 as harking back to high school was a near run thing the American should have won what is now Canada should have lost historian susan code is a descendant of Irish immigrants settled at Perth in 1817 upper Canada’s first and only permanent military settlement Brittany realized that she had been lucky and knew that she would not be so lucky of the next time so she asked the Duke of Wellington who is writing a bit of a political high with his defeat of Napoleon to come up with a defensive strategy for all of British North America Wellington advocated fortifications at Kingston an inland supply route on the Rideau River linking to Ottawa with a series of canals protected by soldiers gathered in a trio of proposed military settlements starting at Perth Britain’s got people all around the world soldiers and the last thing she wants to do is bring these people home so the surveyors came in in 1815 and laid out a town one mile square the next spring you start getting the discharged soldiers and half pay officers and their families and by the end of that summer you have several boatloads of civilian settlers from the Glasgow area in Scotland so Perth was an instant town by the end of the summer of 1816 there were a couple of thousand people living here assembled ironically

in the very image of British society that Simcoe had planned 20 years before and strictly maintained by officers empowered by transplanted wealth while holding Scottish Weaver’s and stonemasons Irish immigrants soldiers and other ordinary folk landed without advantage obedient to their own survival under the watchful eyes of frontier judges and administrators drawn from interconnected families untroubled by issues of social justice or equality and justifiably feared a reassuring template acutely aware of the French Revolution and the bloody fates of rival King Louie the fifteenth wife Marie Antoinette and Frances ruling class King George the fourth and his prime or primary minister started to see a new use beyond resources for Upper Canada you have rampant unemployment you have William of course when you have rampant unemployment you have wages plummeting and you have a lot of poverty as a consequence and you’d also had a lot of poverty in parts of Scotland especially the highlands and of course Ireland I mean there was this lurking fear that there could be a sizeable uprising on the part of the Irish well they had the problem of overpopulation in certain areas and rampant poverty and on this side you had the need to secure an infant colony in Upper Canada it became incumbent on the British government to try and promote the settlement impoverished people’s incumbent expedient and strategic inspired by the loyal reliable inhabitants of Perth King George studied the reputed successes of Thomas Talbot the son of a friend directing settlement of the North Shore of Lake Erie and opted to subcontract out the settlement of Upper Canada to private developers dispensing five thousand acre townships or estates to men of pedigree willing to quit Britain to oversee emigrant settlements in exchange for adventure and opportunities to grow their own fortunes the whole to be overseen by an exclusive Protestant patriarchy or cleek based in York soon to be infamously known as the family compact riven by profit and greed the scheme would inevitably lead to widespread and justices countless tragedies and unspeakable hardship giving rise to coping strategies still haunting Ontario families and social values specific if not exclusive to the province or what British Lord Durham would conclude was the most corrupt colony in North America settlers themselves would be drawn first from the densest most troublesome corners of the kingdom encouraged by financial incentives calculated to thin the ranks of the most desperate disaffected and rebellious passage offered in whole or part subject to occupation class and location with three 200 acre parcels of land for those willing to abandon extended family friends and the familiar for the promise of a new life in the colonial wilds some of the poor and dispossessed were sent here by charitable institutions to and by working-class societies who helped offset their their passage expenses there I think there are a fair number of those that were sent over fair number of people who were sent over by this means by there’d be a Weaver society who might pay to to have some unemployed Weaver’s sent over and and you know various Church has helped out so the British government assisted the immigration of some of the poor from London for example compelled by hope and fear courage and despair over two hundred and seventy-five thousand refugees half of them Irish would set out for Upper Canada between 1829 and 1851 you have individuals who came over on their own I guess you’d call them

middle-class today because and they had the means to do this because they felt that with a stratified British class system they felt there their prospects were would be better in the new world I think they were in a minority but it was incredibly risky proposition to get on a ship and lots of them went down and crossed the Atlantic and come to Bush and start a new life I don’t think we appreciate the guts that it took to undertake that Mary Campbell’s ancestors an innovative cooper or barrel and stave maker and his wife crossed the Atlantic in 1825 preserving a rare detailed account of their journey from Scotland to the South Shore of the lower Ottawa River it was a relatively new ship and it was its cargo was coal so it would have been a lot of coal dust you got allocated your family got and I think there were a hundred and thirty-four maybe people 80 families and you got allocated year bunk so to parents and the two children had one bunk against the hull of the ship and you know was all chamber pots and yes there would be a communal fire where you could cook something if you had something cramped in holds rife with human and disease for weeks to months tens of thousands of migrants including the Campbells infant daughter would die at sea leaving newly orphaned children widows and widowers to disembark frequently amongst the ailing at Grosse Ile a barren island south of Quebec City fitted with sheds posing as hospitals and rocky graveyard leading many particularly during Ireland’s potato famine in the mid 1840s the failure of a loan crop amidst a harvest of Plenty to refer to emigrant vessels as coffin ships while those who arrived alive often found themselves completely stranded private developers were ostensibly bound by government terms but in reality frequently acted in their own best interests most immigrants fuelled by varying combinations of hope and fear would find themselves alone at Quebec City 600 miles removed from Upper Canada the culture shock would have been absolutely gut-wrenching I guess as a way of saying and some people survived and some people did not you would have left a place where first of all you probably never went further than the next parish where everything is developed here there’s nothing there I should say nothing there’s it’s it’s trees its rivers it’s it’s rock Mary’s first cousin Duncan Campbell picks up the story of their ancestors who had accepted a loan financed by the cousin of a bankrupt Laird or Lord Archibald McNab to journey to his self-named Township at the eastern tip of Renfrew County but it was gruesome it was there was nothing they came up the creeks they came from Montreal and then they came to our prior than they yeah you had to work your way up to your claim you’re your allotted land and then you got up and you tried you made a camp they all cut into the banks of the creeks and and then they made a wooden roof and they dug in into the soil and then I was we had to spend your first winter so the the deal was when you came you got a location ticket for your your lot front half of we’re sitting here at the the front half of lot 12 on concessions wealth and you had you had to do so many improvements you had to clear three acres and build a 12 by 18 foot cabin I think there was the creeks were full of these minnows they were vote oh there were good sized middle there five six inches long they’re there they’re quite fat and there’s millions of them so you just you could easily Indy didn’t starve but a lot of them had like they never saw this kind of cold like from Scotland like serious frostbite so there were stories of my grandfather or my uncles they’d have to cut their fingers off like a frostbite right see tough to cut your own have you take it as a rule you had three years to fulfill the obligations in order to get full title and if you did not fulfill those obligations or then you had lost everything an eccentric misogynist

Thomas Talbot with royal connections through his wealthy father an Irish Lord ultimately controlled six hundred and fifty thousand acres of land encompassing 130 miles of Lake Erie shoreline and the fates of tens of thousands of immigrant families issuing imperious edicts over the title father of the settlement marooned in a landscape carpeted in primeval forests emigrants said about felling trees seeding potatoes and turnips between stumps unsupported if not obstructed by tyrants the lack of Thomas Talbot and Archibald McNab McNabb showed up at a farm and and set fire to the barns and the woman would the mother was going crazy because her kids of course liked to play in the barns and thought they were hiding in there well he was looking for the husband because the huh cuz she weren’t supposed to leave the township without permission for McNab and of course the men frequently had to work elsewhere to get enough money to keep their families together so her husband was absent and McNab went up to get him to arrest him and and the mother he hauled back he couldn’t find the husband’s so she was upset about her kids who were okay but they hauled her back he took the cattle as payment because he figured he was owed and brought her back to kennel Lodge from White Lake without a code or anything in the middle of the winter so it was this kind of nonsense they’d have to work in the field of husbands were gone all winter they went to the shanty they’d be gone the entire winter you’d have to do the chores raise the kids and keep it all together she’d definitely have to have a garden yeah and pigs and I know my great grandmother she’d guard the pigs all night like there was wild animals back then a little more wild life like rose bears and they everybody wanted to eat pig so she had she has she set up her chair on top of the Pigpen the Pigpen was low like it was a little building and then you’d set your chair on top and she’d sit there at night they didn’t have a gun they know they guns there was not too many guns around at that time so she had an axe unlike the daughters of aristocrats British working-class women had had the option of staving off marriage until their mid even late twenties trading love or at least deep affection for assuming the very real risk of death by childbirth leading to narrower windows of fertility which combined with the frequent deaths of children had led to smaller families in many corners of Great Britain an unsustainable approach to life in Upper Canada children I mean I mean you needed them you basically you needed them there there wasn’t the luxury of you know they had to haul water you needed somebody to haul we didn’t have running water so somebody had to bring the water somebody had to look after the smaller children there’s no birth control or very unreliable birth control so it comes down to necessity you know just cooking alone is a full-time job laundry takes a whole day water drawing water like all of these things it takes a community to do it often malnourished worn down by work indoors and out many women felt driven to risk annual pregnancies Nerra continuing past World War one in Ontario where three out of four babies died before the age of one and children were lost to every malady imaginable dad had a story I forgotten the name of the family but while a husband was away the kids got cholera and I have a location in my own family of cholera but it was rife during the 19th century and all the kids died one by one and she kept the bodies in the creamery frozen in the creamery because she couldn’t dig the graves and waited for her husband that came home come home so he came home to find this whole family other than his wife gone well yes I thought hey I think dad said that there were six kids tragedies weathered or not by those whose own survival depended on relentless toil without time or space for grief tenderness soon became a liability rupturing bonds between mother and child and creating a layer of families in the exquisite words of Irish novelist Maeve Benjy too poor to afford affection a social order accepted by more educated and advantaged female immigrants indomitable botanist and writer Catherine part rail author of the popular female emigrants guide and hints on Canadian housekeeping circa 1855 sums up the thinking of the era best I have observed with a much surprise that there is no class of immigrants more discontented than the wives and

daughters of those men who were accustomed to earn their bread by the severus toil in which they too were by necessity obliged to share often with patience and cheerfulness and who should feel the difficulties of a settlers life far less keenly than any other born into struggling households teenagers particularly girls were encouraged to move on you were either a housekeeper or you got married raised with little in common beyond endless toil and barren childhoods many couples had no idea of how to recognize her Kait feelings lives driven by relentless toil sacrifice and unspent grief men and women throughout the 1800’s coped as best they could men conditioned to stoicism or frustration exercised in the form of violence behind closed doors women urged to endure improve do more sufficient to merit commercial exploitation or amongst more discrete families home remedies born of desperation like a good instrument like it was a big bar like a wooden box and there was electrodes and I think they’d look like this long as us I think you put your fingers on and then you cranked her and then I think that I think I think they used a lot of shock therapy back then for depression I think there would have been a lot of depression Leifer for women so-called common law offered little in the way of rights to the common man and none to children a calculated historical posture relied upon by the British and Canadian governments to support the for-profit trafficking of over 120,000 indentured British children or slaves here to Canada between Confederation in 1867 and the eve of World War two 10,000 of them to farms and villages here in Ontario a joint scheme originally conceived to relieve Britain of growing numbers of impoverished children and free up Canadian farm children to attend schools initially supported but soon opposed by men like psychiatrist Charles Clark founder of the Clark Institute in Toronto who did not object to importing child labour per se but soon insisted on what he referred to as a better class of child arguing that the importation of impoverished children bearing quote the stigmata of physical and mental degeneracy would end in the pollution of Ontario’s gene pool and that was a common thought throughout Canada so started way back in the beginning it never it never stopped up until the very end of these programs these children were still able that way Laurie of cesky is the head of British home children research and advocacy a Resource Centre for Canadian descendants of those children searching for answers to family mysteries dating back generations and in the process she hopes restoring dignity and meaning to the lives of their ancestors in 1897 in Ontario here there was a law that was put into place and that law was to protect us against these children and they were restricting the types of child that could be brought into this country initially founded as an alternative to work houses in the 1860s by compassionate individuals like dr Thomas Bernardo and William Quarrier British children’s homes had grown to offer shelter and sustenance to children whose parents had nowhere else to turn in times of trouble in England they built institutions that were used to house the poor and the workhouse conditions you know they were made to be worse than the worst living condition possible so where these institutions that were immigrating children to Canada where they got their little edge on the whole thing as they built institutions that housed children that were far better than the workout system and they all boasted like a never open door policy they didn’t want to turn away any child in need but in order to keep that policy up I mean their and their organisations got so overcrowded with children that they had to create a back door they had to they had to alleviate that overburdening of children in their institution that back door led to Canada now when we go back to the organization such as benardos and quarry ours and Fagen house and and Middlemore it was written in their contracts that they had the right to emigrate these children that was the parents consent I’d have to say that the average parent wouldn’t understand the child care laws and I don’t think that half the parents that returning their children over were literate they couldn’t read children transported to nearly 50 so-called receiving homes between Ottawa

Hamilton to be distributed by age and gender and without regard to siblings to any adult willing to sign a contract agreeing to keep them under unspecified conditions until or if they reached 18 in parkland Cemetery in Toronto we discovered the bodies of 75 children and in 2016 we put a monument up did to mass graves of children their graves that were meant for 25 bodies the 75 children crammed in there 75 children that were discarded abandoned buried forgotten we have suicides we have medical deaths and we have babies and we have unwed mothers sexual abuse of these children the girls was rampant it was a huge problem so big that dr. Bernardo had to open maternity homes in Toronto my aunt Mary who came to Peterborough was moved 20 times in eight years one farmer left her on the side of the road she gave birth to a stillborn baby on the farm yeah the terms of the indenture would really depend upon the age of the child I mean if you have a child coming over at the age of 7 they’re going to be indentured until they’re 18 leaving adult survivors alone many mute with shame seeking some degree of normalcy by establishing families of their own I think that I think that what we have to remember with the home children is the vast majority these children went on and made good lives for themselves in Canada the vast majority married and had children it’s now estimated that we have about 4 million descendants of home children in Canada we talked to the survivors and we talked to their you know their 1st and 2nd generation descendants I mean those are the things that is the most common is the difficulties that they had and raising their own families I mean when you’re told that you’re a nobody that you’re garbage and you’re treated that way it’s a cycle of abuse and you see the cycle of abuse in today’s women I mean when you’re abused and when you’re beaten and when you’re told that you’re garbage and when you’re told that you’re no good when you’re told to get out nobody wants you here you begin to believe that the problem isn’t you and that you’ve done wrong and that you deserve this and that you need to try harder if you try harder things are going to get better and it just doesn’t because you’re not the fault I think children live what they learn and I think if they’re taught I don’t want to I don’t want to I don’t want to say it’s crossed the board because not all children who who live with abuse become abusive or become victims in a in an abusive situation but it is an intergenerational cycle and we’ve seen it here we’ve had moms here you know 20 years ago and we’ve had their child here as a victim and also as an abuser so we’ve seen it so it is intergenerational for sure but I don’t think that’s their path that they have to you know they’re because you grew up in an abusive whole your going to be an abuser well there’s no question that our failure as a society to intervene and protect children costs us all in the long run you know those children’s lives are treated as expendable and infinitely irreparable which they’re not so there’s no question that there’s a serious issue there in terms of whether and how we intervene to protect kids and where whether and when we believe children you know when they tell us what’s happening Lee Sweeney is acutely aware of the historic origins of domestic violence supported by a progressive board of directors she has worked with staff for over a decade to develop and implement programs for not only women and children but men often in coordination with other agencies in 2018 staff answering Bernadette McCain House women’s shelter and support services Crisis Line responded to 1117 calls including 39

from men provided support to 316 women and 183 children through outreach programs worked with 19 men to improve their parenting skills through a program jointly sponsored by Renfrew County Family and Children’s Services admitted 74 women and 66 children to their residential shelter 70% of mental health problems begin during child or adolescence 17% of Ontario children aged 2 to 5 now meet the diagnostic criteria for mental health problems 62% of Ontario youth report ongoing problems with stress anxiety or depression 5 out of 6 will not get the treatment or support they need you

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