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EXPRESS IS PROUD TO JOIN THIRTEEN IN CELEBRATING THE HISTORIC HERITAGE AND CULTURAL DIVERSITY OF STATEN ISLAND HISTORIC PRESERVATION HAS LONG BEEN THE HALLMARK OF AMERICAN EXPRESS’ INVOLVEMENT IN THE COMMUNITY WE ARE PROUD TO SUPPORT A WALK AROUND STATEN ISLAND, A CHANCE TO DISCOVER AND EXPERIENCE STATEN ISLAND’S UNIQUE HISTORY AND CULTURE >> male announcer: AND BY RICHMOND UNIVERSITY MEDICAL CENTER >> male announcer: RICHMOND UNIVERSITY MEDICAL CENTER ON STATEN ISLAND’S NORTH SHORE IS PROUD TO SPONSOR A WALK AROUND STATEN ISLAND OFFERING THE HIGHEST QUALITY OF CARE, R.U.M.C. SERVES THE MEDICAL NEEDS OF OUR GROWING COMMUNITY RICHMOND UNIVERSITY MEDICAL CENTER: WORKING HARDER TO SERVE YOU BETTER >> male announcer: AND BY PUBLIC FUNDS FROM THE NEW YORK CITY DEPARTMENT OF CULTURAL AFFAIRS >> ♪ I’LL TAKE MANHATTAN, ♪ ♪ THE BRONX, ♪ ♪ AND STATEN ISLAND TOO. ♪ I KNOW, DON’T QUIT THE DAY JOB >> HAD TO KNOW WHAT I WAS THINKING >> YEAH, THANKS A LOT ANYWAY, BARRY AND I DIDN’T TAKE THE OTHER BOROUGHS, BUT WE DID WALK ‘EM–BROOKLYN, BRONX, QUEENS, MANHATTAN–AND NOW IN THIS LOVELY FREE 25-MINUTE FERRY RIDE, WE’RE FINALLY HEADING OUT TO STATEN ISLAND STATEN ISLAND, LEAST POPULATED OF ALL THE BOROUGHS, JUST SHY OF 500,000 PEOPLE IT’S THE MOST RURAL BOROUGH, THE MOST REMOTE IT’S GOT THE HIGHEST PERCENTAGE OF ITALIANS OF ANY OF THE NEW YORK BOROUGHS AND THE HIGHEST PERCENTAGE OF REPUBLICAN VOTERS, EVEN THOUGH A LOT OF THEM ARE REGISTERED DEMOCRATS GO FIGURE >> WELL, SOMETHING ELSE STATEN ISLAND HAD WAS CORNELIUS VANDERBILT, THE VANDERBILT OF THE VANDERBILTS IN THE EARLY 19TH CENTURY HE MAKES HIS MONEY ON THE STATEN ISLAND FERRY LATER ON IN THE 19TH CENTURY, HE INVESTS THAT MONEY IN THE NEW YORK CENTRAL RAILROAD AND WILL BUILD GRAND CENTRAL TERMINAL SO EVERY TIME YOU’RE IN GRAND CENTRAL, JUST REMEMBER, THE MONEY FOR THAT PLACE, IT WAS MADE ON THE BOAT WE’RE ON NOW >> STATEN ISLAND: HENRY HUDSON, ON SEPTEMBER 11, 1609–WHAT A COINCIDENCE–SAILED INTO WHAT IS NOW NEW YORK HARBOR FOR THE DUTCH THE DUTCH NAMED THIS ISLAND STATEN EYLANT, WHICH IS DUTCH FOR PARLIAMENT IN THE NETHERLANDS IF YOU LOOK AT A MAP OF STATEN ISLAND, IT’S ABOUT 14 MILES TALL AND ABOUT 7 MILES WIDE THE NEW YORK MARATHON STARTS HERE ON THE ISLAND THE RUNNERS RUN ACROSS THE VERRAZANO-NARROWS BRIDGE INTO BROOKLYN THE PEOPLE OF THE ISLAND ARE REALLY PROUD AND THEY’RE INDEPENDENT, EVEN TO THE POINT OF, AT ONE POINT, TRYING TO SECEDE FROM NEW YORK CITY HOW SURPRISING IS THAT? >> WELL, YOU KNOW, DAVID, IT’S A COMPACT LITTLE ISLAND AND, OF COURSE, BEING AN ISLAND, IT’S SURROUNDED BY WATER, SO THAT MAKES IT INSULAR ON THE NORTH SIDE IS THE KILL VAN KULL BETWEEN IT AND BAYONNE; ON THE WEST SIDE, ARTHUR KILL BETWEEN IT AND NEW JERSEY BY THE WAY, “KILL” IS A DUTCH WORD FOR “STREAM” OR “RIVER.” IT HAS NOTHING TO DO WITH THE SOPRANOS AND ON THE EAST SIDE OF THE ISLAND, BELOW THE VERRAZANO BRIDGE, IT’S WHAT STATEN ISLANDERS CALL THE SOUTH SHORE, FACES LOWER NEW YORK BAY AND THE ISLAND ITSELF, BY THE WAY, THE MOST INTERESTING TOPOGRAPHICAL FEATURE IS THE BACKBONE OF HILLS THAT RUNS FROM ST. GEORGE DEEP INTO THE CENTER OF THE ISLAND IT’S STATEN ISLAND’S PART OF THE TERMINAL MORAINE, WHICH RUNS THROUGH BROOKLYN AND QUEENS, AND INCLUDES TODT HILL, WHICH IS THE TALLEST SPOT ON THE EAST COAST BELOW MOUNT DESERT ISLAND AT 410 FEET I’M GETTING VERTIGO STATEN ISLAND, BY THE WAY, HAS SOME BEAUTIFUL VICTORIAN NEIGHBORHOODS STRETCHING ON THE NORTH SHORE FROM ST. GEORGE WEST TO NEW BRIGHTON, WEST BRIGHTON, PORT RICHMOND AND THEN ON THE EASTERN SOUTH SHORES, JUST FOLLOW THE STATEN ISLAND RAPID TRANSIT–STAPLETON, ROSEBANK, WHERE THE ALICE AUSTEN HOUSE IS–ALL THE WAY DOWN TO TOTTENVILLE–PEOPLE CAN’T BELIEVE HOW BEAUTIFUL SOME OF THOSE HOUSES ARE–AS WELL AS HILLTOP COMMUNITIES BACK IN THE 19TH CENTURY, WEALTHY NEW YORKERS–WEALTHY SOUTHERNERS, BECAUSE THEY DID SO MUCH BUSINESS WITH US–BUILT THEIR HOUSES THERE IN THE HILLS THOSE HILLTOP COMMUNITIES ARE ACTUALLY BUILT ON THE BACKBONE OF THE ISLAND, WHICH IS SERPENTINITE–SERPENTINE? >> KRYPTONITE? >> IT SOUNDS LIKE THAT, RIGHT? WELL, IT’S GREEN >> YEAH, IT IS >> AND ACTUALLY, THAT’S THE SAME ROCK WE SAW IN HOBOKEN >> HUH AND AS BARRY SAID EARLIER, THERE IS SO MUCH TO DO HERE THERE’S THE STATEN ISLAND MUSEUM IT IS A WONDERFUL MUSEUM SOME 65,000 ADULTS AND CHILDREN GO THROUGH IT EACH YEAR IT’S ARTS AND NATURAL SCIENCES MUCH OF THE LIGHTHOUSE TECHNOLOGY OF THE LAST 150 YEARS WAS ACCOMPLISHED HERE SO EVENTUALLY, THEY’RE GONNA BUILD A MARITIME MUSEUM >> AND IN BACK OF US IS BOROUGH HALL, 1906 >> WITH A MANSARD ROOF >> HEY, DAVID >> HOW AM I DOING, TEACH? >> I’M IMPRESSED I REALLY AM IMPRESSED >> THANK YOU SO MUCH. THANK YOU >> CARRERE AND HASTINGS, WHO DID OUR NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY, DID THIS IN 1906 THE INTERIOR WAS RECENTLY RESTORED IN THE LATE 1990s YOU HAVE THESE MURALS INSIDE FROM THE W.P.A. ERA OF 1940 FREDERICK STAHR DID A SERIES OF

HISTORICAL MURALS DO YOU KNOW, ABOUT 3/4 OF THOSE MURALS ARE SITES WE’RE GOING TO VISIT JUST UP THE STREET FROM US IS THE 1929 ST. GEORGE MOVIE PALACE, 2,800 SEATS YOU KNOW, THOSE GREAT MOVIE PALACES, THAT KIND OF OVER-THE-TOP STYLE THAT JUST KNOCKS YOUR EYES OUT 1972, BY THAT TIME, THE MOVIE PALACES WERE OUT IT CLOSES UP ROSEMARY CAPPOZALO AND HER DAUGHTERS IN 2004 FORM A NONPROFIT ORGANIZATION THEY HAVE DONE A REMARKABLE JOB OF RESTORING THAT INTERIOR FINALLY, THE ST. GEORGE AREA OF STATEN ISLAND, STATEN ISLAND ITSELF HAS A WONDERFUL VENUE FOR ALL KINDS OF LIVE ENTERTAINMENT >> FIRST STOP IS SNUG HARBOR AND THIS IS THE FIRST OF OUR STATEN ISLAND SURPRISES, MORE THAN 25 BUILDINGS IN A STUNNING ARCHITECTURAL COMPLEX WHAT IS THIS? >> DON’T YOU FEEL LIKE YOU’RE ON THE TOP OF THE ACROPOLIS WITH THESE GREAT GREEK REVIVAL TEMPLES IN FRONT OF US? WELL, WHERE ARE WE? WE WERE JUST AT ST. GEORGE, WHERE THE FERRY LANDS NOW WE’RE JUST A LITTLE WAYS DOWN THE NORTH SHORE OF STATEN ISLAND AT SNUG HARBOR AND THIS IS A STORY THAT GOES BACK TO 1801 CAPTAIN ROBERT RICHARD RANDALL DIES IN THAT YEAR HE LEAVES IN HIS WILL HIS LAND IN WHAT IS NOW GREENWICH VILLAGE AND MONEY FOR THE FOUNDING OF A HOME FOR RETIRED MERCHANT SEAMEN CAPTAIN RANDALL UNDERSTOOD IT WAS HARD GETTING OLD WHEN YOU’RE A MERCHANT SEAMAN YOU KNOW, YOU’RE ALL ALONE, AND YOU DRINK AND ALL THAT SO HE LEAVES HIS MONEY AND HIS LAND HIS FAMILY FIGHTS THE WILL FOR 30 YEARS BOY, THAT’S AN OLD STORY FINALLY, THE FIGHT IS SETTLED IN THE EARLY 1830s BY THAT TIME, CAPTAIN RANDALL’S PROPERTY IN GREENWICH VILLAGE IS WORTH A FORTUNE FOR LUXURY TOWN HOUSES, WHICH THEY BUILD AND STILL THERE ON THE NORTH SIDE OF WASHINGTON SQUARE THE TRUSTEES OF WHAT THEY CALL SAILORS’ SNUG HARBOR BUY THIS PROPERTY–MUCH CHEAPER LAND ON THE NORTH SHORE OF STATEN ISLAND >> HOW MUCH IS HERE? >> 83 ACRES AND THEY BUILD THESE BUILDINGS WE SEE AND BY THE EARLY 1830s, THE SAILORS START TO SHOW UP DO YOU KNOW, BY THE EARLY 1900s, THERE WERE 1,000 RETIRED SAILORS LIVING HERE >> WHAT WAS THIS PLACE LIKE WITH 1,000 SAILORS IN THE SAME TERRITORY? >> I THINK TODAY WE’D MAKE A REALITY SHOW OUT OF IT, BECAUSE YOU HAD THE SAILORS AND YOU CAN IMAGINE THOSE JUST HARDSCRABBLE SALTY DOGS AND THEY WERE LORDED OVER BY THESE PRISSY TRUSTEES, VERY RESPECTABLE AND THEY WERE APPALLED BY THE BEHAVIOR OF THE SAILORS >> WELL, I SHOULD HOPE SO >> OH, GOD THEY HAD REGULATIONS THIS LONG AND THE SAILORS SAID A FEW THINGS TO THEM THAT I CAN’T SAY BECAUSE WE’RE ON FAMILY TELEVISION WELL, EVERYTHING CHANGES WHEN SOCIAL SECURITY CAME IN IN THE 1930s IN A SENSE, SAILORS’ SNUG HARBOR WAS NO LONGER NEEDED BY THE 1970s, THE SAILORS ARE OUT OF HERE AND IN 1976, THIS BECOMES THE SNUG HARBOR CULTURAL CENTER TODAY IT SHARES THE LAND WITH SEVERAL OTHER INDEPENDENT CULTURAL ORGANIZATIONS AND IN FACT, WE’RE GONNA SEE ONE OF THOSE RIGHT NOW HERE ON THE SNUG HARBOR GROUNDS, THERE ARE OTHER INDEPENDENT CULTURAL INSTITUTIONS LIKE THE NOBLE MARITIME COLLECTION, WHICH HAS AN ENTIRE HOUSEBOAT INSIDE THE BUILDING; THE STATEN ISLAND CHILDREN’S MUSEUM, WHICH LOCALS SAY IS WONDERFUL FOR THE KIDS >> YES, VERY GOOD >> YES AND THEN THERE’S THE STATEN ISLAND BOTANICAL GARDENS, BEAUTIFUL IN THEMSELVES BUT AS PART OF THE GARDENS, THERE IS THE CHINESE SCHOLAR’S GARDEN, WHICH WE’RE IN RIGHT NOW IT’S THE ONLY ONE OF ITS KIND IN THE UNITED STATES THIS ALONE IS WORTH THE TRIP TO SNUG HARBOR AND STATEN ISLAND WHAT AN AMAZING PLACE THIS WAS BUILT IN 1998, DESIGNED BY ONE OF THE LEADING GARDEN DESIGNERS FROM CHINA 40 ARTISANS AND CRAFTSMEN CAME OVER FROM SUZHOU, WHICH IS A CITY WEST OF SHANGHAI, TO DO THIS GARDEN AND THEY LIVED HERE ON THE GROUNDS WHILE THEY BUILT THE GARDEN WITH PREFABRICATED ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS MADE IN SUZHOU THE CHINESE GARDEN GOES BACK ALMOST 2,000–MORE THAN 2,000 YEARS BUT IT REALLY CAME INTO ITS OWN IN THE MING DYNASTY, ABOUT THE 14TH TO 17TH CENTURY IN OUR CALENDAR THESE GARDENS WERE BUILT BY SCHOLARS WHO, IN THE CONFUCIAN SYSTEM, WERE HIGH UP IN THE COURT THEY WERE BASICALLY COURT OFFICIALS, UNDER A LOT OF PRESSURE ONE THING WRONG, OFF WITH YOUR HEAD SO WHEN THEY RETIRED, THEY WOULD RETIRE TO A HOUSE AND WE ARE ACTUALLY WITHIN A HOUSE IN WHICH PART OF THE GARDEN IS AN EXTENSION OF THE HOUSE BEYOND THE HOUSE, OTHER PARTS OF THE GARDEN FOR WALKING, CONTEMPLATING IN A CHINESE GARDEN, THERE’S ALWAYS A SENSE OF VARIETY THERE’S ALWAYS A SENSE OF SURPRISE THERE’S ALWAYS A SENSE OF MYSTERY IT’S FASCINATING THERE’S A GARDEN LIKE THIS IN THE OLD CITY OF SHANGHAI, MUCH BIGGER, OF COURSE, BUT

EXTRAORDINARY HOW MUCH THIS RESEMBLES GARDENS IN CHINA NOW, SOMETIMES THE SCHOLAR WOULD TAKE OFF HIS SHOES AND WALK BAREFOOT THROUGH THE GARDEN TO FEEL UNDERFOOT ALL THE DIFFERENT– >> MASSAGE >> YES, YOU’RE RIGHT HE WOULD ALSO GET A RELAXING MASSAGE WE NEED THIS KIND OF THING IN THE 21ST CENTURY ISN’T IT AMAZING WHAT YOU FIND ON THE GROUNDS OF SNUG HARBOR? >> SO IT’S A BEAUTIFUL NIGHT FOR BASEBALL, OVERLOOKING NEW YORK HARBOR, RICHMOND COUNTY BANK STADIUM AND IT’S A MINOR LEAGUE BASEBALL TEAM, A FARM CLUB OF THE NEW YORK YANKEES THEY CALL THEM THE BABY BOMBERS IT’S THE STATEN ISLAND YANKEES >> WELL, I SAW THE REAL YANKEES WHEN I WAS EIGHT YEARS OLD >> YOU DID? >> THAT’S RIGHT AND IT WAS MY ONE AND ONLY BASEBALL GAME >> YOU MEAN THIS IS NUMBER TWO? >> THAT’S RIGHT >> I AM HONORED I AM HONORED >> I REMEMBER THE FRANKS >> YOU MEAN THE HOT DOGS? >> YEAH >> THE FRANKS, OKAY >> THE HOT DOGS ACTUALLY, MY FATHER WAS A BASEBALL NUT HE HAD THE BASEBALL GAME ON THE RADIO IN THE CAR ALL THE TIME AND YOU KNOW SOMETHING? I TOTALLY ZONED IT OUT I DON’T EVEN REMEMBER WHO HE ROOTED FOR >> THERE’S ANOTHER BASE HIT FOR THE YANKEES OH, THEY’RE GETTING TO THIS PITCHER >> YEAH, THEY ARE >> THEY’RE GETTING TO THIS PITCHER EARLY AND IT’S ONLY THE SECOND INNING BEFORE THE TERM “PHOTOJOURNALIST” WAS EVEN COINED, THERE WAS A GREAT PHOTOJOURNALIST HERE ON STATEN ISLAND, SPENT HER WHOLE LIFE HERE YES, HER, AND HER NAME WAS ALICE AUSTEN, AND SHE WAS AWESOME >> SHE WAS DIFFERENT OH, DEFINITELY ALICE AUSTEN IS BORN IN 1866 TO A VERY COMFORTABLE FAMILY HERE ON STATEN ISLAND HER GRANDFATHER, BACK IN 1844, BOUGHT THIS HOUSE IT WAS A 1690s DUTCH FARMHOUSE HE TURNS IT INTO A BEAUTIFUL PICTURESQUE GOTHIC REVIVAL COTTAGE, PERFECT FOR THE SITE WE’RE IN AND WHAT A SITE IT IS HERE ON UPPER NEW YORK BAY–MY GOODNESS, COMING OUT OF THIS HOUSE EVERY DAY WITH THIS VIEW, MM WELL, ALICE’S MOTHER MARRIES AND HAS ALICE, BUT THE FATHER ABANDONS THEM ALMOST IMMEDIATELY SO THE MOTHER MOVES BACK WITH HER OWN FATHER, AND ALICE IS BROUGHT UP IN THIS HOUSE, CLEAR COMFORT >> WITH HER GRANDFATHER >> YES, AND SHE WAS THE ONLY CHILD IN A HOUSE OF ADULTS AND THEY ADORED HER WE’RE HERE, DAVID, HERE AT THE ALICE AUSTEN HOUSE JUST NORTH OF THE VERRAZANO BRIDGE, JUST DOWN THE COAST OF STATEN ISLAND FROM THE ST. GEORGE FERRY TERMINAL AND THIS IS THE ROSEBANK SECTION OF STATEN ISLAND AND BY THE WAY, CLEAR COMFORT IS NOT THE ONLY THING INTERESTING IN ROSEBANK RIGHT NEARBY IS THE GARIBALDI-MEUCCI MUSEUM ANTONIO MEUCCI WAS AN INVENTOR WHO MIGHT HAVE INVENTED THE TELEPHONE–IT’S POSSIBLE AND HIS GUEST, GIUSEPPE GARIBALDI, OH, HE’S THE GEORGE WASHINGTON OF A MODERN UNIFIED ITALY HE LIVES HERE IN EXILE BEFORE HE GOES BACK TO ITALY IN 1854 AND GETS THE WHOLE COUNTRY TOGETHER AROUND THE CORNER FROM THAT, BY THE WAY, IS A WONDERFUL LITTLE GROTTO, AN OUTDOOR GROTTO IT’S OUR LADY OF CARMEL GROTTO BUILT IN THE 1930s BY A GRIEVING ITALIAN FATHER WHO HAD JUST LOST HIS FIVE-YEAR-OLD SON AND I’VE SEEN GROTTOES LIKE THAT IN ITALY; I NEVER WOULD EXPECT ONE HERE IN NEW YORK CITY COMING BACK TO ALICE AUSTEN, MM HERE SHE IS AT 22 YEARS OLD >> RIGHT, AND LOOK AT HER >> WASN’T SHE GORGEOUS? AND THAT DRESS, IT TELLS US SO MUCH ABOUT THE AGE SHE GREW UP IN SHE WAS A RESPECT– >> PART OF A GENTEEL SOCIETY >> A RESPECTABLE YOUNG LADY, BUT SHE WAS A RESPECTABLE YOUNG LADY WITH A DIFFERENCE >> RIGHT >> SHE HAD A LOVE FOR PHOTOGRAPHY THE FAMILY SUPPORTED HER AND EVERYWHERE SHE WENT, SHE WENT WITH HER CAMERA HERE’S A PICTURE OF CLEAR COMFORT BACK IN THE 19TH CENTURY WHEN SHE KNEW IT WHEN SHE WENT WITH HER FRIENDS ON PICNICS, SAILING–THIS IS A WONDERFUL PHOTOGRAPH DO YOU KNOW, THEY–THEY THINK THAT DURING HER LIFETIME, SHE PRODUCED 9,000 PHOTOS, AND THERE’S ABOUT 3,500 OF THEM STILL LEFT >> NOW, HERE’S LOWER MANHATTAN, EAST SIDE >> THE OTHER ISLAND SHE LOVED BESIDES STATEN ISLAND WAS MANHATTAN ISLAND AND WHEN SHE WENT TO THE CITY, SHE WAS INTERESTED IN THE LIFE OF THE CITY THIS IS NOT THE KIND OF THING PHOTOGRAPHERS TOOK BACK THEN >> NO, BUT THAT’S THE PHOTOJOURNALIST ASPECT AND ALSO THAT HER WORK REFLECTS A PERIOD, RIGHT? >> YES, YES, AND, YOU KNOW, 50 YEARS LATER, THERE’S ANOTHER PHOTOJOURNALIST WHO DOES THE SAME THING HER NAME IS BERENICE ABBOTT >> THAT’S RIGHT >> YOU SPOKE ABOUT HER IN THE VILLAGE VIDEO AND HERE IS A WONDERFUL PHOTOGRAPH OF HER MAID AND THE DOG ON THE STEPS OF CLEAR COMFORT RIGHT OVER THERE WITH– YOU NOTICE THERE’S A SAILBOAT IN THE BACKGROUND AN EXTRAORDINARY, EXTRAORDINARY CAREER NOW, SHE SPENDS HER ADULT LIFE WITH HER LOVE, PHOTOGRAPHY BUT BY THE 1920s, THE FAMILY

FORTUNE IS DWINDLING 1929 STOCK MARKET CRASH, SHE LOSES EVERYTHING BY 1945, SHE’S IMPOVERISHED SHE LOSES THE HOUSE HER PHOTOGRAPHS, THE PLATES, THE PHOTOGRAPHS ARE TAKEN OVER BY THE STATEN ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY, BUT ALICE HERSELF HAD TO GO INTO THE POORHOUSE OF STATEN ISLAND UP ON THE HILL NEXT TO SEA VIEW TUBERCULOSIS HOSPITAL >> HOW TRAGIC >> SAD >> TRAGIC >> BUT IN 1951, STATEN ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY MOUNTS AN EXHIBIT SHE BECOMES KNOWN AND FROM THE MONEY THAT SHE WAS ABLE TO MAKE THROUGH THAT EXHIBIT, SHE WAS ABLE TO LEAVE THE POORHOUSE AND GET INTO A NURSING HOME AND SPEND THE LAST YEAR OF HER LIFE IN COMFORT SHE DIES IN 1952 AN AMAZING LADY WHAT I LOVE ABOUT HER: A VERY COMPLICATED PERSON SHE WAS BROUGHT UP TO BE A FINE, GENTEEL YOUNG LADY OF THE UPPER CLASS, BUT SHE NEVER MARRIED SHE NEVER HAD A VICTORIAN HUSBAND TO SAY, “ALICE, COME OUT OF THE DARKROOM AND MAKE ME DINNER,” NOT ALICE >> ALSO A FABULOUS ATHLETE SHE WAS A GREAT TENNIS PLAYER >> YES >> AND RODE HER BIKE INTO NEW YORK >> AND THIS WAS AN AGE WHEN WOMEN WERE FINALLY BEING ALLOWED TO DO THAT KIND OF THING ALICE WAS IN THE FOREFRONT OF IT ALL >> HERE WE ARE IN THE MIDDLE OF FORT WADSWORTH AT WATER’S EDGE, LOOKING TO NEW YORK HARBOR WITH THIS MAGNIFICENT VIEW OF BROOKLYN, OF MANHATTAN, AND JERSEY CITY, STATUE OF LIBERTY BUT MORE THAN THAT, WE’RE STANDING IN ONE OF THE MOST SIGNIFICANT HISTORICAL SPOTS IN AMERICA, WHEN YOU THINK MILITARILY >> WELL, AND ALSO IN TERMS OF ECONOMY, IN TERMS OF HISTORY WE’RE AT THE NARROWS THE NARROWS ARE LIKE A PINCER THAT PINCHES NEW YORK HARBOR IN TWO, THE LOWER HARBOR FACING THE OCEAN, THE UPPER HARBOR FACING THE CITY THAT MEANS THAT ALL THE SQUALLS OF THE ATLANTIC WERE KEPT OUT IN THE ATLANTIC AND THAT MADE NEW YORK HARBOR SAFE FOR COMMERCE, FOR TRADE THAT’S WHY NEW YORK BECAME THE GREAT CITY IT BECAME >> AND STRATEGICALLY, IT’S SAID THAT WHOEVER CONTROLS THIS GROUND CONTROLS NEW YORK CITY >> THAT’S RIGHT AND DIDN’T THEY ALL KNOW IT FROM THE AMERICAN INDIANS? >> STARTED, YEAH, WITH THE NATIVE AMERICANS, THEN THE DUTCH, THEN THE ENGLISH, THEN THE AMERICANS, THEN AGAIN, YOU KNOW, THE BRITS, AND THEN FINALLY THE AMERICANS AGAIN, ABSOLUTELY, HISTORICALLY, RIGHT ON THROUGH BUT WHAT’S THE HISTORY OF THIS PLACE? >> WELL, ACTUALLY, THE AMERICANS FINALLY GOT SERIOUS ABOUT FORTIFICATIONS HERE IN ANTICIPATION OF THE WAR OF 1812 REMEMBER, NEW YORK WAS OCCUPIED DURING THE REVOLUTION WE DID NOT WANT THE BRITISH BACK FOR THE WAR OF 1812 WE BUILT CASTLE CLINTON OVER IN THE BATTERY, CASTLE WILLIAMS ON GOVERNORS ISLAND, AND THE TWO FORTS HERE THAT WAS FORT RICHMOND, WHICH IS NOW FORT WADSWORTH, AND FORT HAMILTON ACROSS IN BROOKLYN WELL, THE BRITISH STAYED OUT OF NEW YORK THEY WENT TO WASHINGTON, AND THEY BURNED WASHINGTON NOW, OF COURSE, PEOPLE GET A LITTLE CONFUSED THE WHOLE AREA IS FORT WADSWORTH WE’RE IN BATTERY WEED UP ABOVE US IS FORT TOMPKINS, WHICH ACTUALLY WAS BUILT TO PROTECT BATTERY WEED BASICALLY, THE FORTIFICATIONS WE SEE RIGHT NOW DATE FROM THE 1840s AND ’50s, DESIGNED, BY THE WAY, BY JOSEPH TOTTEN, FOR WHOM FORT TOTTEN IS NAMED IN QUEENS THIS IS AN AMAZING PIECE OF WORK, SO MINIMALIST AND SO MODERN IT’S ALL GRANITE IT’S A BATTERY WITH THREE TIERS OF CASEMATES THAT’S THE ALCOVES FOR THE CANNON AND WHEN THIS WAS IN OPERATION, MORE THAN 100 CANNON COULD BOMB TO SMITHEREENS ANYTHING COMING THROUGH THE NARROWS >> AND IT’S ONLY A MILE OVER TO BROOKLYN, WHICH IS NOT FAR WHEN IT COMES TO CANNONS >> BETWEEN FORT HAMILTON AND WHAT IS NOW FORT WADSWORTH, YOU COULD SMASH ANYTHING OUT OF THE WATER >> YOU MENTIONED ROBERT E. LEE WHEN HE WAS A YOUNGER OFFICER, HE WAS INVOLVED IN MAKING DECISIONS ABOUT THESE FORTIFICATIONS SO 20 YEARS LATER, IN THE CIVIL WAR, THE CONFEDERACY DID HAVE SOME SHIPS SITTING OUT AT SANDY HOOK DID THEY COME THROUGH THE HARBOR? NO, LEE KNEW: DON’T EVEN TAKE A CHANCE >> HE KNEW BETTER WELL, IT’S INTERESTING HOW FAST TECHNOLOGY CHANGES BY THE SECOND HALF OF THE 19TH CENTURY, ACTUALLY, MILITARY TECHNOLOGY HAS ADVANCED SO MUCH THAT THIS WAS OBSOLETE IN TERMS OF MILITARY DEFENSE BUT IT MAINTAINED A MILITARY FUNCTION RIGHT THROUGH THE 1960s YOU KNOW, UP UNTIL 1966, THIS WAS THE CONTROL CENTER FOR THE NIKE DEFENSE MISSILE SYSTEM FOR NEW YORK CITY >> RIGHT AND IN 1994, WHEN THE BASE CLOSED, IT WAS THE LONGEST CONTINUOUSLY HABITED MILITARY BASE IN THE UNITED STATES >> WELL, THANK GOODNESS THEY GAVE IT TO THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE IT’S ONE OF THE MOST EXQUISITE PARKS IN THE GATEWAY RECREATIONAL AREA– AND TODAY, ON THE HEIGHTS ESPECIALLY, THE MOST MAGNIFICENT VIEWS OF NEW YORK HARBOR BUT SINCE 1964, ONE OF THE GREATEST VIEWS FROM HERE IS OF THIS SPECTACULAR BRIDGE, THE VERRAZANO >> announcer: WE’LL RETURN TO A WALK AROUND STATEN ISLAND WITH DAVID HARTMAN AND HISTORIAN BARRY LEWIS AFTER THIS SHORT BREAK @ú

>> announcer: MAJOR FUNDING FOR A WALK AROUND STATEN ISLAND IS MADE POSSIBLE BY RICHMOND COUNTY SAVINGS FOUNDATION AND AMERICAN EXPRESS >> FROM A DISTANCE, THE BRIDGE IS EXCITING TO SEE AND BEAUTIFUL AND ALL THAT BUT WHEN YOU GET DOWN UNDER IT, IT’S OVERWHELMING IT’S MAGNIFICENT >> ISN’T IT A BEAUTIFUL PIECE OF CONSTRUCTION? THE MAN WHO DESIGNED THIS, OTHMAR AMMANN, NOBODY KNOWS HIS NAME TODAY, BUT HE WAS ONE OF THE BRILLIANT BRIDGE DESIGNERS OF THE 20TH CENTURY HIS FIRST GREAT WORK WAS THE 1931 GEORGE WASHINGTON BRIDGE THAT’S STILL CONSIDERED ONE OF THE MOST BEAUTIFUL BRIDGES IN THE WORLD HIS LAST GREAT WORK WAS THE VERRAZANO-NARROWS, WHICH IS RIGHT IN BACK OF US IN BETWEEN, HE DID THE BRONX-WHITESTONE BRIDGE, A BEAUTIFUL BRIDGE HE DID THE THREE BRIDGES THAT CONNECT STATEN ISLAND WITH THE MAINLAND THAT WOULD BE THE

OUTERBRIDGE CROSSING, THE GOETHALS BRIDGE, AND THE BAYONNE WE JUST DROVE UNDER THE BAYONNE IT’S SO BEAUTIFUL WELL, IN 1964, WHEN THE VERRAZANO OPENED–OF COURSE, WE ALWAYS CALL IT THE VERRAZANO WE NEVER USE ALL THOSE SYLLABLES AND IT’S INTERESTING: IT WAS NAMED FOR GIOVANNI DI VERRAZZANO, WHO WAS THE FIRST EUROPEAN TO SAIL INTO THE HARBOR BACK IN 1524 >> AND BY THE WAY, HIS NAME HAS TWO “Z”s IN IT >> THAT’S RIGHT, BUT WHEN THEY BUILT THE BRIDGE, THEY MADE A TYPO AND SO POOR VERRAZZANO IS IMMORTALIZED WITH ONLY ONE “Z.” WHEN THIS BRIDGE OPENED IN 1964, MR. AMMANN WAS 85 YEARS OLD, WHICH MEANS HE DESIGNED THIS IN HIS 80s >> AMAZING >> AMAZING, RIGHT? I REMEMBER WHEN I CAME BACK FROM EUROPE AFTER TWO YEARS BEING IN PARIS AND IT WAS 1965 I SAILED ON THE QUEEN MARY I IN THE LAST YEAR OF ITS OPERATION AND WE CAME IN AT DAWN UNDERNEATH THE NEW VERRAZANO BRIDGE, PAST THE STATUE OF LIBERTY IT WAS ONE OF THE MOST THRILLING EVENTS WELL, WHEN THIS BRIDGE OPENED, NEEDLESS TO SAY, IT COMPLETELY CHANGED STATEN ISLAND >> WE’RE REALLY LUCKY, BECAUSE WE HAVE A YOUNG WOMAN WITH US WHO WRITES FOR THE NEW YORK TIMES AS IMPORTANTLY AS THAT IS, SHE’S A NATIVE STATEN ISLANDER AND SHE IS MAUREEN SEABERG AND WE’RE GLAD TO HAVE YOU WITH US >> GENTLEMEN, THANKS FOR COMING OUT TO SEE US WELCOME >> B.B. AND A.B., WHICH I’VE HEARD BEING OUT HERE IN STATEN ISLAND: TELL US WHAT THAT MEANS >> WELL, BEFORE THE BRIDGE, IT WAS SOMEWHAT AGRICULTURAL THERE WERE STILL WORKING FARMS IT WAS BUCOLIC AND LOVELY IN ITS WAY BUT NOT VERY MUCH A PART OF THE CITY, NOT SO MUCH A PART OF THE WORLD, PERHAPS A LITTLE ISOLATED THEN THE BRIDGE OPENED IN 1964, AND WITH IT, THE WORLD ARRIVED ON OUR DOORSTEP >> SO WHAT HAPPENED HERE IN STATEN ISLAND AS A RESULT OF THE BRIDGE, PEOPLE BEING ABLE JUST TO DRIVE OVER HERE? >> OH, WHAT HAPPENED IS, WITH JOHN F. KENNEDY AIRPORT BEING THE ELLIS ISLAND OF MY GENERATION, THIS BECAME A GATEWAY TO AMERICA AND MANY PEOPLE FIRST SETTLED HERE >> SO WHAT HAPPENED TO THE POPULATION? >> IT–IT EXPLODED IT EXPLODED WE WENT FROM AN AGRARIAN SOCIETY TO SOMEWHAT SUBURBAN AND METROPOLITAN >> TO WHAT EXTENT DID THE ITALIAN POPULATION INCREASE AS A RESULT OF THE BRIDGE BEING HERE? >> IT INCREASED MARKEDLY, MANY OF THEM COMING FROM BROOKLYN AND THE OTHER BOROUGHS WE ARE NOW, I BELIEVE, AT 37.4% ITALIAN PEOPLE SO IT CONTINUES TO GROW EVEN NOW BUT WHAT’S HAPPENING IS, WITH THE GREATEST–THE SECOND-GREATEST WAVE OF IMMIGRATION SINCE THE TURN OF THE CENTURY HAPPENING AS WE SPEAK, IT’S NOT JUST EUROPEAN FOLKS ANYMORE IT’S EVERYONE >> WHAT ARE SOME OF THESE OTHER ETHNIC GROUPS THAT HAVE MOVED IN? >> WELL, A COUPLE OF THE REALLY INTERESTING ONES–BECAUSE I CONSIDER THEM PERHAPS NOT GREATEST IN NUMBER BUT WORLD-CLASS IN THE SENSE THAT THEY ARE THEIR NATION’S LARGEST DIASPORAS IN AMERICA LIVING HERE–ARE THE SRI LANKANS AND THE LIBERIANS IN FACT, TO SRI LANKANS, THEY JUST CALL STATEN ISLAND “AMERICA.” THIS IS WHAT THEY KNOW THEY CALL IT AMERICA AND I’VE STARTED TO CALL IT “LITTLE LANKA” BECAUSE THERE ARE SO MANY OF THEM, WHICH IS TERRIFIC >> GO BACK TO WHEN THE BRIDGE WAS BUILT YOUR PARENTS WERE BOTH FROM STATEN ISLAND? >> NO, MY FATHER IS A NATIVE STATEN ISLANDER FROM CASTLETON CORNERS AND MY MOM’S AN IRISH GAL FROM ASTORIA AND I LIKE TO THINK THAT WITHOUT THAT BRIDGE, I WOULDN’T BE STANDING HERE WITH YOU TODAY, BECAUSE I DON’T THINK SHE COULD HAVE CONTINUED DATING HIM WERE IT NOT FOR THE CONVENIENCE ONE OF THEIR FIRST DATES WAS TO DRIVE ACROSS IT ON OPENING DAY >> SO THEY WERE IN FAVOR OF THE BRIDGE? >> ABSOLUTELY [laughs] >> I WONDER HOW MANY OF THE SOME 19 MILLION PEOPLE THAT LIVE IN METROPOLITAN NEW YORK KNOW THAT THERE IS NOT ONLY A BEAUTIFUL SAND BEACH HERE, BUT YOU CAN REALLY SWIM IN THE WATER >> THAT’S PROBABLY WHY THE FIRST EUROPEAN SETTLERS SETTLED HERE ON SOUTH BEACH JUST NORTH OF WHERE WE ARE BACK IN 1661 THEY SET UP A LITTLE SETTLEMENT AT THE FOOT OF OCEAN AVENUE, WHICH IS JUST SOUTH OF FORT WADSWORTH, BUILT THEMSELVES A LITTLE VILLAGE CALLED OUDE DORP EVENTUALLY >> DUTCH? >> DUTCH FOR “OLD TOWN.” AND BY THE WAY, THEIR LEADER, PIERRE BILLIOU, HE BUILT HIS FARMHOUSE UP ON WHAT IS NOW RICHMOND ROAD IN THE DONGAN HILLS SECTION OF STATEN ISLAND THAT HOUSE IS STILL HERE SOME PEOPLE KNOW IT AS THE PERINE HOUSE IT’S ONE OF THE OLDEST HOUSES NOW IN NEW YORK CITY NOW, OUDE DORP FLOURISHES, AND THEN THE ENGLISH TAKE OVER IN 1664 THEY TAKE OVER ALL OF NEW NETHERLANDS, INCLUDING NEW AMSTERDAM, WHICH IS, OF COURSE, NOW NEW YORK, STATEN ISLAND AS WELL THEY EXTEND THE SETTLEMENT SOUTHWARD THEY BUILT A NEW PART OF TOWN, AND THEY CALL IT NEW DORP MAYBE THEIR BUILDINGS AREN’T HERE ANYMORE, BUT NEW DORP IS

STILL ONE OF THE FINE COMMUNITIES HERE ON THE EAST COAST OF STATEN ISLAND INTERESTINGLY, BY THE 1690s, THE DORPS LOSE OUT TO RICHMOND TOWN, WHICH WE’RE GOING TO SEE TOWARDS THE END OF THE WALK, WHICH BECOMES THE GREAT 18TH-CENTURY CENTER OF STATEN ISLAND LIFE NOW, THIS SOUTH BEACH THAT WE’RE ON, THIS BEAUTIFUL BEACH, THIS WAS A QUIET BACKWATER BEACH OF A RURAL FARMING COUNTY UNTIL THE 1880s AND THEN FERRY SERVICE WAS SET UP FROM NEW YORK, WHERE THERE ALREADY WERE A MILLION PEOPLE, AND BROOKLYN, WHICH WAS THE FOURTH-LARGEST CITY IN THE STATE >> JUST LIKE WHENEVER YOU ESTABLISH TRANSPORTATION, STUFF HAPPENED >> AND PEOPLE CAME OVER HERE IN DROVES BY THE 1890s, SOUTH BEACH RIVALS CONEY ISLAND AS AN AMUSEMENT CENTER, SHOOTING GALLERIES, DANCE HALLS, BEER HALLS, FERRIS WHEELS AND BY 1906, SOUTH BEACH GOT ITS OWN VERSION OF A CONEY ISLAND AMUSEMENT PARK IT WAS CALLED HAPPY LAND >> HELLO, HAPPY LAND BUT CONEY ISLAND LASTED FOR DECADES >> YES, IT DID HAPPY LAND BURNED DOWN IN 1917, WAS NEVER REPLACED AND THERE WAS A REASON FOR THAT, BECAUSE THE WATERS THAT EVERYONE CAME HERE TO SWIM IN BY THAT TIME WERE GETTING TOO POLLUTED AS A MATTER OF FACT, IN 1917, THE CITY FORBADE SWIMMING HERE AT SOUTH BEACH THAT’S HOW BAD THE WATER WAS NEEDLESS TO SAY, SOUTH BEACH GOES DOWN THE TUBES BY 1935, UNDER THE W.P.A PROGRAM–SAME ERA, SAME PROGRAM THAT CREATED ORCHARD BEACH IN THE BRONX– THE CITY TAKES OVER ALL OF SOUTH BEACH, RIPS OUT THE DERELICT OLD BUILDINGS, BUILDS THIS BEAUTIFUL BOARDWALK, CALLS IT THE FDR FOR THE PRESIDENT IT’S ONE OF THE LONGEST BOARDWALKS HERE IN NORTH AMERICA OF COURSE, IT DOESN’T BEAT OUT ATLANTIC CITY, BUT IT’S VERY CLOSE TO THE ROCKAWAY BOARDWALK, WHICH WE SAW ON THE QUEENS WALK >> WHAT IS GREAT KILLS HARBOR? >> WELL, THAT’S INTERESTING TODAY IT’S A WILD, RUSTIC PARK PEOPLE THINK IT WAS THAT WAY FOREVER NOT REALLY USED TO BE LANDFILL, WHICH IS A NICE WAY OF SAYING A GARBAGE DUMP 1949, THE CITY TRANSFORMED THAT GARBAGE DUMP INTO THAT BEAUTIFUL PARK WE KNOW TODAY IT’S NOT ONLY PEOPLE THAT ENJOY THAT PARK, IF YOU KNOW ANYTHING ABOUT THE MONARCH BUTTERFLY >> TELL ME YOU KNOW >> WELL, THEY USE IT AS A MOTEL ON THEIR WAY SOUTH >> THE MONARCH MOTEL >> TO THEIR WINTER HOME IN MEXICO I SAY YOU SPEND SUMMER IN THE NORTH, YOU SPEND WINTER IN MEXICO; IT’S NOT BAD BEING A MONARCH BUTTERFLY >> YOU KNOW, YOU HEAR ABOUT A PLACE AND THEN FIGURE, “WELL, YOU KNOW, HOW GOOD CAN IT BE?” DENINO’S? OH, THIS IS GOOD >> ISN’T THIS FABULOUS? >> GREAT >> WELL, WHEN PEOPLE KNEW WE WERE DOING STATEN ISLAND, THEY SAID, “YOU HAVE TO DO DENINO’S HERE IN PORT RICHMOND.” AND THEY’RE ABSOLUTELY RIGHT THIS IS SO STATEN ISLAND, BECAUSE THIS PLACE HAS BEEN HERE SINCE 1937, RUN BY THE SAME FAMILY >> AND BACK IN THE CORNER, RIGHT, ARE TWO WOMEN, 91 AND 88, AND THEY’RE PART OF THE FAMILY AND THEY’RE STILL AT THE DESK AT NIGHT TAKING NAMES >> SURE AND WHEN YOU FINISH AT DENINO’S, YOU GO ACROSS THE STREET, AND YOU HAVE DESSERT AT RALPH’S, RALPH’S ICES, BEEN HERE SINCE 1928, SAME SPOT, SAME FAMILY NOW, IT’S INTERESTING THAT THESE TWO PLACES DATE BACK TO BEFORE WORLD WAR II WHERE DID THEY SET UP SHOP? BUT IN THE PORT RICHMOND AREA OF STATEN ISLAND, IT’S RIGHT THERE AT THE FOOT OF THE BAYONNE BRIDGE IT WAS THE DOWNTOWN OF STATEN ISLAND TILL THE VERRAZANO OPENED UP THEN THE NEW POPULATION LIVED INLAND, NEW SHOPPING MALLS PORT RICHMOND HAD THE SAME PROBLEM ALL THE OLD DOWNTOWNS DID NOW YOU HAVE A MEXICAN POPULATION OPENING MEXICAN STORES THEY’RE ON PORT RICHMOND AVENUE SO THESE AREAS ARE COMING BACK >> AND ROOTED IN PLACES LIKE THIS THAT HELP MAINTAIN THE COHESIVENESS OF THIS COMMUNITY >> THAT’S RIGHT >> IT’S WONDERFUL >> AND I’LL STAY COHESIVE AROUND PIZZA ANY DAY >> AND YOU’RE DOING A GOOD JOB FARM COLONY, SEA VIEW HOSPITAL, NOW REHABILITATION CENTER WHERE ARE WE ON THE MAP? >> WELL, WE’RE RIGHT HERE, SEA VIEW AND FARM COLONY, RIGHT ON THE BACKBONE OF STATEN ISLAND ACTUALLY, WE’RE ON TODT HILL >> AND HERE IS A DRAWING, A SKETCH OF WHAT THIS PLACE LOOKED LIKE MANY DECADES AGO >> WELL, WE’RE IN THIS BUILDING RIGHT HERE SOME OF THESE BUILDINGS HAVE BEEN DEMOLISHED FOR THE GERIATRIC CENTER THAT NOW OCCUPIES THE SITE BUT SOME OF THESE ORIGINAL BUILDINGS ARE HERE IN DECAYED STATE >> AND HERE WE ARE TOM MATTEO IS A DOCTOR OF EDUCATION HE IS THE HISTORIAN FOR THE BOROUGH OF STATEN ISLAND AND A FORMER DIRECTOR OF THE SEA VIEW HOSPITAL REHABILITATION CENTER TOM, IT’S NICE TO HAVE YOU WITH US >> HI, TOM >> HI >> TOM, LET’S GO BACK TO THE FARM COLONY WHAT WAS THE FARM COLONY? >> FARM COLONY WAS ACTUALLY THE POORHOUSE FOR STATEN ISLAND THE VERY FIRST POORHOUSE IN NEW YORK CITY WAS BUILT ON THE SITE OF CITY HALL

NOW, STATEN ISLAND’S DEVELOPMENT WAS NO DIFFERENT THE ONLY REAL DIFFERENCE WAS, STATEN ISLAND WAS THE FIRST ONE TO HAVE WORK THERE SO THE PEOPLE WHO LIVED THERE WORKED THERE TO HELP SUSTAIN THEMSELVES IT WAS A REAL, LIVE OPERATING FARM >> FOR HOW LONG? >> IT STARTED IN THE 1800s, AND IT LASTED UNTIL THE 1960s, ALTHOUGH THE WORKING OF IT AS A FARM STOPPED JUST BEFORE THE DEPRESSION >> NOW, GO BACK TO SEA VIEW HOSPITAL WHEN WAS SEA VIEW CREATED AND WHY? >> TUBERCULOSIS WAS KILLING 10,000 NEW YORKERS A YEAR IT WAS CALLED CONSUMPTION, THE WHITE PLAGUE THIS IS THE ONLY SECOND SANITARIUM BUILT SPECIFICALLY FOR TUBERCULOSIS IN THE ENTIRE COUNTRY THE CONSTRUCTION STARTED HERE ABOUT 1908 AND CONTINUED AS THE POPULATION GREW THROUGH 1938 AND AT ONE TIME, THEY HAD OVER 2,000 PATIENTS AND ALL THE SERVICES THEY NEEDED: LAUNDRY, BAKERY, KITCHEN–EVERYTHING THEY NEEDED >> HOW SUCCESSFUL WAS THIS PLACE IN HELPING THE PATIENTS? >> WELL, AS YOU KNOW, THE VERY FIRST CURE THAT PEOPLE BELIEVED WAS GONNA WORK FOR T.B. WAS FRESH AIR AND SUNLIGHT AND THAT’S WHY THEY PICKED THIS PLACE IT’S ON TOP OF A HILL, ONE OF THE HIGHEST POINTS ON THE EASTERN SEABOARD IT WAS DESIGNED TO MAXIMIZE AIRFLOW AND SUNLIGHT WE ARE STANDING IN THE WARD AND THE WAY THIS WAS CONSTRUCTED, ON BOTH SIDES, WE HAVE PORCHES SO THAT ALL THE RESIDENTS COULD BE OUTDOOR AT THE SAME TIME, GETTING FRESH AIR AND SUNLIGHT >> WHAT ABOUT THE TILES THAT WE NOTICED ON THE TOP FLOOR? >> ACTUALLY, WE HAVE TILES AROUND THE BUILDING, BUT SPECIFICALLY AROUND THE TOP, JUST UNDER THE EAVE ARE SOME GORGEOUS DELFT TILES MADE IN HOLLAND OF SCENES OF NURSES, DOCTORS, CHILDREN IN FACT, ALL EIGHT BUILDINGS HAD THOSE TILES UP THERE AROUND 1950s, DR. ROBITZEK AND HIS COLLEAGUES STARTED PLAYING AROUND WITH A CHEMICAL THAT WAS MADE AT RUTGERS UNIVERSITY BUT THEY DIDN’T KNOW WHAT THE MIXTURE WAS, SO RATHER THAN WAIT FOR CLINICAL TRIALS, THEY DECIDED TOO MANY PEOPLE ARE DYING AND THEY WENT FORWARD WITH EXPERIMENTS RIGHT HERE >> CRITICIZED, PROBABLY, FOR THAT >> ABSOLUTELY BUT THEY FEEL THAT THEY SAVED 2 MILLION TO 3 MILLION LIVES BY NOT WAITING FOR THE CLINICAL TRIALS TO BE OVER SO THEY FOUND A CURE ACTUALLY AROUND 1956, 1957 AND THE LAST PATIENT LEFT IN, I THINK, 1973 AND PEOPLE WERE LEAVING HERE IN DROVES IT WAS JUST LIKE A MIRACLE CURE [bell tolling] >> WE ARE BASICALLY IN THE MIDDLE OF STATEN ISLAND ON TODT HILL MORAVIAN CEMETERY IS THE LARGEST CEMETERY ON STATEN ISLAND IT CONTAINS APPROXIMATELY 200,000 BURIALS AND IT IS A NONSECTARIAN CEMETERY THE CEMETERY IS 114 ACRES IT CONTAINS TWO FRESHWATER LAKES IN 1776, THERE WAS 20,000 BRITISH TROOPS STATIONED HERE ON STATEN ISLAND THEY NEEDED WATER, SO THEY CAME HERE TO THE MORAVIAN POND ONE OF THE OLDEST GRAVESTONES IS OF COLONEL NICKLOS BRITTEN, WHO PASSED IN 1740 OUR SECOND-OLDEST STONE IS OF RACHEL, THE FIRST WIFE OF THOMAS DONGAN, WHO WAS THE SON OF THOMAS DONGAN, WHO WAS THE FIRST COLONIAL GOVERNOR OF THE NEW YORK STATE WE ALSO HAVE THE FIRST VANDERBILT MAUSOLEUM THAT WAS BUILT IN 1865 WELL, I LIKE TO VISIT GEORGE PARKER HE DIED IN THE CIVIL WAR HE HAS A UNIQUE WHITE BRONZE MONUMENT THEY CALL IT WHITE BRONZE THE NAME SOUNDS MORE APPEALING, BECAUSE IT’S ACTUALLY MADE OF ZINC WELL, I BELIEVE IN PROMOTING LOCAL HISTORY AND THIS IS MY WAY OF KEEPING HISTORY ALIVE, BY TELLING OUR RESIDENTS REAL-LIFE STORIES >> FOR SOME 200 YEARS, RICHMOND TOWN, WHERE WE ARE NOW, WAS THE CENTER OF GOVERNMENT AND COMMERCIAL LIFE HERE ON STATEN ISLAND WELL, IN 1898, WHEN STATEN ISLAND BECAME PART OF NEW YORK CITY, THE DECISION WAS MADE: MOVE THE CENTER OF GOVERNMENT AND COMMERCIAL LIFE UP TO THE NORTHEAST CORNER OF THE ISLAND AND THIS, RICHMOND TOWN, WAS ESSENTIALLY DESERTED WHAT DO YOU DO WITH A DESERTED TOWN? >> WELL, I THINK, IN A CITY WHERE ANYTHING THAT’S FIVE MINUTES OLD IS CONSIDERED TOO OLD AND KNOCKED DOWN, I THINK WE

NEED TO PRESERVE THIS AND SHOW PEOPLE HOW WE LIVED 200 YEARS AGO, 100 YEARS AGO AND THAT’S WHAT THEY’RE DOING IN RICHMOND TOWN TODAY WELL, WHY IS RICHMOND TOWN WHERE IT IS? YOU SEE FROM THIS OLD MAP, IT’S IN THE GEOGRAPHIC CENTER OF STATEN ISLAND, WHERE EVERYBODY COULD ACCESS IT EASILY IT STRADDLED TWO OF THE MAIN ROADS CRISSCROSSING THE ISLAND YOU CAN STILL SEE THESE ROADS IN MAPS TODAY BY THE 1890s, COMMERCIAL ACTIVITY IS MOVING UP TO PORT RICHMOND ON THE KILL VAN KULL, RIGHT OPPOSITE BAYONNE DO YOU REMEMBER DENINO’S? >> SURE >> WELL, THAT WAS PORT RICHMOND AND THEN, AS YOU SAID, IN 1898, THE MANHATTAN-CENTRIC CITY HALL DECIDED TO TAKE BOROUGH HALL OUT OF RICHMOND TOWN– THIS WAS THE COUNTY CENTER– >> WE’RE IN NEW YORK CITY >> AND MOVE IT UP TO ST. GEORGE WELL, THAT KILLED RICHMOND TOWN I MEAN, AFTER 1898, THIS PLACE BECAME PRACTICALLY DESERTED BUT IN THE 1930s, VOLUNTEERS FROM THE STATEN ISLAND HISTORICAL SOCIETY COME IN, AND THEY START TO TRY TO RESTORE SOME OF THE BUILDINGS IN THE TOWN THEY START WITH, IN THE 1930s, THE VOORLEZER’S HOUSE, WHICH WE’LL SEE IN A MOMENT; THE 1837 COURTHOUSE, WHICH IS RIGHT IN BACK OF US; THE 1848 COUNTY CLERK’S OFFICE, WHICH IS JUST ACROSS THE STREET BY THE 1960s, THEY MOVE 11 OLD BUILDINGS HERE TO RICHMOND TOWN THAT WOULD HAVE BEEN DEMOLISHED IF THEY HADN’T BEEN MOVED >> FROM OTHER PARTS OF THE ISLAND >> THAT’S RIGHT. THAT’S RIGHT AND TODAY THERE ARE 27 BUILDINGS IN TOTAL 15 OF THOSE BUILDINGS HAVE BEEN RESTORED >> SO YOU CAN REALLY COME HERE AND EXPERIENCE ESSENTIALLY A LIVING HISTORY OF 300 YEARS >> IT’S AMAZING, ISN’T IT? >> YEAH >> AND WHAT’S EVEN MORE AMAZING: DO YOU KNOW, EUROPEANS– NOT NEW YORKERS BUT EUROPEANS–COME HERE? AND THE REASON IS THE HOUSE WE’RE GOING TO SEE NEXT, THE VOORLEZER’S HOUSE FROM 1695 >> VOORLEZER, WHAT DOES THAT MEAN? >> THE VOORLEZER WAS IN THE DUTCH REFORMED CHURCH HE WAS A LAY MINISTER AND A TEACHER VOORLEZER, HE’S THE MAN WHO STANDS IN FRONT OF THE CONGREGATION OR THE STUDENTS AND READS TO THEM–DUTCH, VOORLEZER WELL, THIS HOUSE WAS BUILT AROUND 1695, MAYBE 1696 IT WASN’T JUST A HOUSE IT WAS A SCHOOL IT WAS A CHURCH ON SUNDAY AND IT WAS WHERE THE VOORLEZER LIVED HE LIVED IN THE ROOM IN BACK OF US IT’S A SINGLE ROOM WITH ALL THE FURNITURE PUSHED UP AGAINST THE WALLS >> SO HE COULD USE IT FOR OTHER STUFF >> THAT’S ABSOLUTELY RIGHT AND THERE’S A SECOND ASSEMBLY ROOM UPSTAIRS AND THERE’S A KITCHEN IN THE BASEMENT UNDERNEATH US >> FIREPLACE HERE TOO, THOUGH >> OH, OF COURSE, BECAUSE THIS– A FIREPLACE WOULD BE THE MAIN SOURCE OF HEAT >> SO WHAT’S THE DESIGN OF THIS BUILDING THAT TELLS YOU WHAT IT IS? >> WELL, FOR ONE THING, IT’S A VERY SIMPLE WOOD-FRAME BUILDING WITH PLASTER WALLS, EXPOSED BEAM CEILING BY THEY WAY, DUTCH ELEMENTS INCLUDE THE DOUBLE DOOR YOU CLOSE THE BOTTOM DOOR TO KEEP OUT THE ANIMALS–THE GOATS, ET CETERA–BUT OPEN THE TOP FOR AIR BUT WHAT I FIND FASCINATING ARE THE DUTCH-STYLE CASEMENT WINDOWS THE DUTCH USE CASEMENT WINDOWS THAT MEANS A WINDOW SET IN A CASE THAT YOU OPEN UP LIKE A SHUTTER >> THESE LOOK REALLY OLD >> WELL– >> THE GLASS DOES >> THEY MIGHT LOOK OLD, BUT THEY AREN’T THIS HOUSE UNDERWENT RESTORATION BEGINNING IN THE 1930s BY HISTORIC RICHMOND TOWN BUT IN THE 1980s FURTHER RESTORATION, THEY PUT BACK THESE DUTCH-STYLE 17TH-CENTURY WINDOWS AND FOR THAT PURPOSE, THEY USED A BLACKSMITH JUST DOWN THE ROAD AND HE’S STILL IN OPERATION TODAY CAN YOU IMAGINE A BLACKSMITH IN NEW YORK CITY IN THE 21ST CENTURY? THAT’S SO STATEN ISLAND >> announcer: WE’LL RETURN TO A WALK AROUND STATEN ISLAND WITH DAVID HARTMAN AND HISTORIAN BARRY LEWIS AFTER THIS SHORT BREAK >> announcer: MAJOR FUNDING FOR

A WALK AROUND STATEN ISLAND IS MADE POSSIBLE BY RICHMOND COUNTY SAVINGS FOUNDATION AND AMERICAN EXPRESS >> TWO STATEN ISLANDS, AS MAUREEN SEABERG SUGGESTED, B.B., A.B., BEFORE THE BRIDGE, AFTER THE BRIDGE AFTER THE BRIDGE WITH THE EXPLOSION OF DEVELOPMENT AND BUILDING, THE PEOPLE WHO WANTED TO PRESERVE THE HABITAT OF THIS PLACE CAME OUT OF THE WOODWORK AND ALLOWED THIS GREENBELT, IT’S CALLED, TO BE A REAL THING AND IMPORTANT HERE >> AND WE’RE RIGHT IN THE MIDDLE OF IT ON ONE OF THE HIGHEST POINTS IN THE GREENBELT THE IRONY OF IT IS, THE ENTIRE GREENBELT IS NATURAL EXCEPT FOR THE SPOT WE’RE ON WE ARE ON WHAT IS COLLOQUIALLY CALLED “MOUNT MOSES” OR “MOSES MOUNTAIN.” AND THE REASON IT’S SO HIGH: ACTUALLY, WE’RE STANDING ON THE DEBRIS FROM WHAT ROBERT MOSES HOPED TO BE THE RICHMOND PARKWAY >> IS THAT WHY IT’S MOSES, BECAUSE IT WAS– >> THAT’S RIGHT THAT’S WHY THEY CALL IT MOUNT MOSES, BECAUSE HE’S THE MAN WHO CREATED IT LIKE HE CREATED SO MUCH OF NEW YORK CITY LUCKILY, HE DIDN’T GET HIS WAY WITH THAT PARKWAY, AND THE GREENBELT IS STILL HERE FOR US TO ENJOY >> RIGHT ADENA LONG IS THE ADMINISTRATOR OF THE GREENBELT AND IT’S NICE TO BE ON YOUR MOUNTAIN, THANK YOU >> WELL, THANK YOU FOR HAVING ME

>> HOW DIFFICULT, HOW CHALLENGING, HOW TOUGH WAS IT FOR ALL OF YOU TO NOT ONLY MAINTAIN THIS PLACE BUT MAKE SURE IT WOULD BE MAINTAINED FOR A LONG TIME? >> IT’S EXTREMELY DIFFICULT THE PARKS DEPARTMENT OVERSEES ABOUT 2,000 ACRES OF THE GREENBELT BUT ALL IN ALL, IT’S NEARLY 3,000 ACRES SO THERE’S BOTH CITY, STATE, AND PRIVATE LAND THAT ENCOMPASSES WHAT IS THE GREENBELT

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