production thank you Dr Vance macGruber this is for me a very good opportunity to come up to a place where thought is being led not just within the Academy but also out of the field and out of the world and I think that this notion of the Academy in action the notion of diplomats not simply being the folks who are accredited by their government but diplomats being the people who are engaging in solving problems is I think the future of not only a foreign policy but I think in many ways the future of the Academy as well as this idea of taking these ideas and putting them in practice it gives me a lot of optimism when I see such enthusiasm on on a campus whether it’s in classrooms that are packed with students who want to take a course on human trafficking whether it’s activism that you see out of the campus whether in clubs or otherwise and it gives me optimism because a dozen years ago this just would not have happened the promulgation of the United Nations protocol what we call the Palermo protocol against trafficking persons in the year 2000 this just wasn’t something that governments would recognize certainly something that governments even wanted to acknowledge but also the advocacy community the foreign policy establishment the foreign policy think tanks the policy schools themselves didn’t even recognize as existing much less a topic of study or topic to be brought into the curriculum it was there and it was dealt with in many ways but it was touched on as part of other as the things whether labor studies whether women studies whether it was something that was most often perhaps dealt with in the history curriculum because of course this is where one should look at it because of course slavery no longer exists we took care of that problem well 150 years ago yes 150 years ago fall President Lincoln issued an executive order went into effect 150 years ago on january first is coming year saying that slavery was illegal and a few years after that we passed a constitutional amendment saying that neither slavery nor involuntary servitude should exist and those were events but none of those ended slavery they certainly withdrew the state approval of slavery they certainly said that slavery was a crime and that slavery should be abolished but slavery didn’t end that day and the promise that President Lincoln made 150 years ago the September was not a one-time event he was a promise that binds us today because just as slavery continues into the modern era so does or collective responsibility to address it and we have new tools and I’m going to talk a little bit about those new tools today but those new tools very much come from this UN protocol that I mentioned the Palermo protocol in the 12 years since Palermo was enacted and we updated our own post-civil war anti-slavery laws here in the United States the fight against modern slavery has trickled down from the multilateral fora like the UN the halls of government at the Nash level like the capital into our state health houses and city halls and even police precincts from an enforcement standpoint that’s great news fighting crime at the local level is essential and the fact that most states have gotten on board and committed to keep doing what we now know works is very much a step in the right direction but seeing the anti-trafficking movement reborn over and over on college campuses across the country tells me that we’re really thinking up speed when a crop of future lawyers say we want a class on human trafficking law the law schools have to respond we’ve seen that at NYU at Michigan Georgetown Kathlyn etc when policy students are building their theses and their dissertations on the

way that international standards are evolving when kids in the dorms start looking at the way that their consumer habits feed the demand for human trafficking and demand corporate accountability I don’t just see where the movement is today I see where this movement is being taken for the crime that victimizes up to 27 million people around the world we’re not talking about an overnight solution we’re looking for a generational transformation and I think that that’s one of the reasons why doing some work on not just in the policy schools not just in the graduate schools but at the undergraduate level is critically important because it’s that generation that’s going to be delivering on this hundred and fifty year old promise of freedom the generations that have gone before us too many times in 150 years since President Lincoln issued that challenge to all of us too many times generations have turned their back and said slavery is a thing of the past and then another group of workers are brought in indentured with debt bondage more women are beaten by pimps who don’t want to let them go more sweatshops happen and the same farms the exact same farms with the same crops were picked by people who were legally owned on in 50 years ago are picked by people who are in debt bondage 150 years later maybe the span maybe the Spanish as opposed to the English being spoken maybe the people are a little darker and a little shorter a little more Indian looking but at the same time a very similar economy economy built on exploitation so this notion of how we break that cycle how do we break the cycle of exploitation how do we break this dependence upon slave made good slave made slave provide services a sex industry fueled by trafficking whether in the United States or at home is going to take a generational shift because it’s not just moving towards better enforcement of anti-trafficking laws so that’s important it’s moving toward a rejection of the you know underpinnings of human trafficking but to do that to have that generational shift we have to understand what it is that we’re even talking about now if there’s one thing that the player mode protocol in full disclosure I worked on negotiating the Palermo protocol during the Clinton administration and for those of you who are taking notes is actually the protocol to prevent suppress and punish trafficking in persons especially women and children which is a supplementary protocol to the convention on transnational organized crime you’d say that where you can safely remote protocol so I’m the clermont protocol did some wonderful things it brought in this notion of prevention protection and prosecution an interwoven responsibility what we call the 3p approach the notion that you can’t simply prosecute the traffickers and not have programs to be ability and restore the victims the notion that you can’t simply have awareness raising campaigns if they’re not going to drive people towards apprehending the traffickers and bringing them to justice the notion that you can’t have an underground railroad type of system that is only non-government organizations providing shelter to trafficking victims only the nuns in some countries that are working on this if you don’t also have structural prevention mechanisms interlocking 3e paradigm and that 3p paradigm is a great thing and the fact that the trip that the palermo protocol for the first time held governments responsible for making it illegal to hold someone as a slave within their own borders as opposed to simply focusing upon the transnational movement of the people to be enslaved was a huge breakthrough it breaks the log jam put in place by the newly ascendant Japan in 1904 fresh from their win over Russia who locked an early attempt to address

this because they didn’t want to abolish the cultural practice of geisha and for a hundred years almost American community was limited to only focusing upon the trans nationality of the movement of the enslaved person nothing within national borders so the Palermo protocol brings the obligation on the international obligation into a country’s borders and says you have to make sure that people are not being enslaved and prostitution and domestic service in agriculture etc within your own country it doesn’t matter where they they move a thousand miles one mile or not at all so I’m a player mo protocol is a wonderful thing perhaps except for one thing and this is very much the original sin of the modern trafficking movement and we didn’t even get it out before and that is we call the traffic think about that what is trafficking sound like Captain sounds like movement doesn’t sound like slavery trafficking sounds like the very thing that Palermo needed to fix which was that old fixation on transnational trafficking especially in Spanish and Italian and French and Romanian and I guess probably Latin because that’s where they all come from I doesn’t even mean trafficking that I think oh the personas and Spanish means alien smuggling so the original sin of the Palermo protocol the trafficking protocol is that it is a traffic slaton protocol now it’s on my business card when I was sworn in his ambassador they said I was the trafficking ambassador so I can’t really get my back and yet I think we have to really interrogate this question this term needs to be questioned now the US government uses this term trafficking in persons as an umbrella term for all of the conduct involved in obtaining a person for or maintaining them in a condition of compelled service whether for sex or labor whether they’re male female adult or child whether they’re a foreign national or citizen of the of their own country what are they moved or not moved now as my boss so I think someone who I hope her name comes up a lot you know speaker series on women in foreign policy as Hillary Clinton would say let’s just call us what it is it’s modern slavery appearance of trafficking persons in many ways it’s just the latest euphemism for something that cultures and countries have been trying to hear from eyes for a long long now when it was at its worst when we’re talking about legal multi-generational chattel slavery of the african-american community in the United States the idea of saying the word slavery in public even though an entire photo system an entire legal system dependent upon it was so repugnant that any euphemism that can be grabbed plus and so in frederick douglass’s time though what he escaped from was slavery the way that people wanted to talk about it was the peculiar institution he wasn’t a former slave he had been a servant this notion of the euphemisms to make ourselves feel a little bit better because we don’t have to confront the fact of slavery the fact of the human rights violation the faster the crime and this is a crime first and foremost this is a human rights issue this is a development issue this is a women’s issue this is all of those things but at its heart this is a crime with a victim any criminal in the United States the 13th amendment as I said guarantees our freedom from involuntary servitude and slavery and it is enforced by the

criminal prosecutors in the Civil Rights Division in article 4 of the universal declaration of human rights in the international context article floor basically mirrors the 13th amendment almost verbatim and I think it’s some of that reflects the case law that was coming out of the Nuremberg courts as the Universal Declaration was being worked on this notion of the right to be free from slavery when that right is violated it’s the government’s responsibility to punish those who would violate that right it’s not for the victim it’s not for the survivor to insist upon their rights in court although they could and they should and they should be able to it’s not for civil society to deal with although they can and should call the attention to this at the end of the day only the government can arrest someone only the government can incarcerate the trafficker only the government can provide a legal status to their victims the victims are so often vulnerable because of their immigration status not always though they may be vulnerable because they are a member of a oppressed ethnic or racial minority or language minority or religious minor they may be vulnerable because they’re from a group that is not allowed citizenship in the country in which their families had lived for generations it may be that they’re vulnerable because of a mental illness a physical disability it’s often that they’re vulnerable because they were woman or a girl but one of the biggest vulnerabilities continues to be the lack of immigration status and only government can remedy that lack of status so this is I think why it’s so important to emphasize again that this is a crime problem and that governments have a primary responsibility in many other human rights areas we tend to think that the response is sunlight but the response is the right HRW report the right amnesty campaign the right intervention at the Human Rights Council and again all of these are important but at the end of the day someone who denies another person in their freedom should lose theirs to enslave someone you should go to jail now we look at this each year in the trafficking in persons report that the State Department issues and this is a good place to start to see what governments are actually doing it will fulfill that promise the promise of freedom it assesses nearly ever every government in the world and in the last couple of years has started to include the United States in that assessment what we’re looking for is this 3p paradigm and I mentioned earlier what we’re looking for is a victim-centered approach ensures that all actions taken to combat this crime focus on the people who have been exploited now this is something that folks who were involved in the domestic violence movement of the 1970s 1980s was a domestic violence woman to fight against domestic violence the fight against sexual violence those struggles taught us basic things about putting the victim central to the core processes central to the police processes just as they are moving from victim to survivor not having the clumsy direct examination or the offensive cross examination put them back into a tailspin re victimized them and so that requires training judges trained lawyers trained police officers Victim Witness coordinators often counselors within the police forces and this doesn’t mean that

the domestic violence movement for the sexual violence movement has triumph and that those are not problems for what it means is that we have a baseline of 30 or 40 years figure out what works and how can we incorporate these gains of the women’s movement into this new approach to this whole evil now sometimes by office and and I and get others in the trafficking movement are criticized for using the term victim because some interpreted as somehow infantilizing those who suffer this crime that somehow it is saying that the person who’s been abused or exploited by the trafficker is somehow helpless are pitiful relax agency or somehow is just waiting passively for a rescuer to come and get them out of their situation that’s our victim in this context means as we said earlier trafficking victims that’s a crime this is a crime with victims and perpetrators and we hope that victims become survivors we demand that countries move victims towards being survivors empower able to see their abusers brought to justice and be able to put this behind some survivors may want to become advocates many survivors want to simply go back into the anonymity that was taken from them by the trafficker and by the legal system but at the end of the day what we’re hoping to do give them the power to decide the very power that was taken away by those who are holding in slavery but I think that this debate about how we look at victims and survivors should be the thing that alumina illuminates our way forward because we talked about this victim-centered approach because this is not a crime that’s happening to statistics this is a crime that’s happening to people it’s happening people who wanted better lives for themselves or their families they want to maybe even love and respect they were willing to chance it to get an education for their little sister medical care for their grandmother a new roof for their parents house or simply were responding to a man who said I care about you I love you only to turn around and say now you need to do this for me the traffickers rd railing the lives that the victims are seeking and the victims are not powerless in fact they are often the most motivated I don’t know if its diplomatic term or not but as funkiest we often hear from governments in destination countries that say you know these trafficking victims are really hard witnesses to work for it because they’re so demanding they don’t just do what we tell them to they want things well think about a young woman who leaves her village in north eastern Ukraine and makes her way all the way to seattle washington looking for a better life she’s not helpless she’s certainly not the kind of girl that’s just gonna sit back and accept her a lot now what I find more endearing about the trafficking victims and sometimes how empowered they can be and how they’re willing to grab that themselves and how they express that spunkiness is in my previous life as a prosecutor when I would talk to the traffickers and of course any time you’re trying to derail the trafficking ring anytime you’re trying to undo an organized crime Network one of the things that you’re looking for is who is that trafficker in that group that you’re going to be able to colloquially we’d always a flip turn against their fellow traffickers and one of the things that I always looked for was the guy who almost seemed relieved that he didn’t have to deal with this anymore one of the reasons why it often become so violent is because the traffickers don’t

know how to control the people who they are enslaving because the people who they are enslaving are fighting back through what ever means they have and that can be that they’re hiding a little bit of money on Iran that can mean that they’re talking to customers that can mean that they’re trying to figure out how to get out traffickers do not rest well at night it’s not because they have to get guilty consciousness it’s because they know that they have people who they are holding in slaves who are just as smart as they are who are going to try to leave and so the notion if i could find that trafficker who was tired who is frustrated who didn’t know how he was going to keep these women under his control and offered him a way out of that now his way out that required to go to jail but there’s almost a palpable sense of relief on some of these guys because it’s tough work I’m not trying to excuse them but I think that’s at odds with what we sometimes think of when we’re thinking about the trafficking victim as someone who is sitting like in an episode of CSI Miami a few years ago someone who’s sitting patiently inside of a shipping container waiting for the brave detective to open the container and let the light shine in and free them trafficking victims are fighting for themselves and they need to be able to fight for themselves and we need to recognize that and give them voice now this has been the case forever and we’re lucky enough that sometimes we can actually hear those voices and we can remember those voices and I want to bring one of those voices back forgotten history thing thankfully the National Archives has kept at least one such strong willed survivors voice for us throughout the years and that’s the voice of Spotswood rice Spotswood rice escaped made it to the Union lines signed up and when he wrote in September of 1864 to the woman who owned his wife and daughter what he was saying is I’ve coming back I want you to understand that Mary is my child and she is a god-given right of my own and you may hold on to her as long as you can but I want you to remember this one thing that the longer you keep my child for me the longer he will have to burn in hell and a quicker you will get there for we are now making up about 1,000 black troops to come up there we think however that we have children in the hands of you doubles I want you to understand kitty digs that wherever you and I meet we are any means to one another i offered you once to pay forty dollars for my own child but now i am glad you did not accept it you call my children your property not so with me my children is my own and I expect to get them and when I get ready to come after Mary I will have a power and authority to bring her away and exact vengeance on them that holds my child I want you now to just hold on to her if you want to if your conscience tells you that’s the road to go go that road and what it will bring in Kim I have no fear about getting married out of your hands this whole government gives me cheer and you cannot help yourself that girl Mary was interviewed in 1937 why folks from the writers project of the WPA and in her interview marybelle by then in her 80s said I love an army man my father was an army man a husband my son I love anyone who will fight for what’s right I would suggest that despite our misconceptions despite what we often think about trafficking victims as someone who needs to be rescued as the women who wait patiently in the locked

shipping container for a man with a gun to open and let them out and to bring them freedom that most trafficking victims today have more in common with Spotswood rice they know something wrong has been done to them what they don’t have is a thousand others marching with them to go back for those who are left and we have to be those others governments have to give to them cheer as they fight for the freedom of themselves and their families and I think that that very much means restoring to them what their traffickers denied them freedom voice agents I think it’s appropriate to talk about this in the context of a speaker series on women and foreign policy because if there is anything that we have fought for in women swooning over the last 30 years it is the notion that powerless voices must be heard powerless voices must be incorporated into the solutions and when they are new solutions come up that have never been thought of I don’t just think about that young girl Mary wondering if her father was coming four and then eight sixty years later knowing that you have to fight for what’s right I think about other young where young women like Shania hall for years the only America that she knew was the California garage where crackers made her sleep after they brought her from Egypt the age of nine to be their domestic sir they went to jail she’s going to college and she wants to be a federal agent and so that she can free those who are still in bondage like she was one of her strongest memories which she’ll take to her grave was the way she was treated with respect by those federal agents couple of months ago Shania Hall walked into another Hortense not where she testified against her traffickers but she walked into another court house again she raised her right hand and this time she walked out as an American citizen because our trafficking laws allow people to stay in the United States and achieve their dreams she had the opportunity and now she’s living the life with the traffickers had stolen from I think if you have women like Britney who I met a couple weeks ago in Iowa she ran away from home when she was 15 and she was scooped up almost immediately by an exploitative pimp who saw her in a grocery store and walked up to her and asked have you ever thought of being a model three months later she was freed from a hotel in chicago by an undercover officer who recognized that she was a child on a criminal and last week she stood next to the governor of Iowa as he signed laws that will help the folks who are suffering what she survived now these two young women I think of them here on campus because they now they are both college students dedicated to fight against human trafficking just like some of you and these are two young women who you would not blink at all if you saw them walking on campus today and yet we need to figure out how to let their voices be heard how to incorporate them into policymaking as we work to meet another challenge not simply the promise and the challenge of freedom but the challenge nothing about them without them incorporating new voices incorporating women’s voices especially incorporating girls so how does this fit into the much larger framework a foreign policy which is so often designed to be able to have conversations that strip

away the emotion that strip away the individual suffering so that solutions can be found in the policy sphere well to begin with trafficking in persons as a women’s issue it’s a crime we’ve talked about that it’s a lot of other things it’s a human rights issue immigration labor agriculture food security health development you name it it’s it shows up human trafficking disproportionately affects women and girls with that disproportionate percentage of what they call this trafficking in women or children women and girls make up about fifty six percent of the trafficking victims in the world and yeah policymakers when they think of trafficking in persons they think of trafficking in women maybe trafficking in children regardless of whether someone is a woman or man a girl or a boy traffickers seek out the most vulnerable segments of our population and as long as women and girls are disproportionately vulnerable they will continue to be disproportionately affected by human trafficking whether they’re migrants or people who don’t have the same rights or status in their societies or they’re desperate for a better way to care for their family or their children they will be pray for the traffickers and unfortunately some of them will also contractures themselves too often do we see women committing this crime against other women and girls there’s been a false dichotomy in times in the discourse sex trafficking is a woman’s problem labor trafficking is a menace problem but for the fact that in many countries women make up certainly the majority of the farmers but even more so the majority of the migrants Indonesia is now seventy percent female in its outdoor work base titration flow seventy percent of the people can leave it in either for work in other countries our women and they’re not just workers they’re going into perhaps the most dangerous job the domestic servant the live-in domestic servant in countries that haven’t internalized to fight against slavery so this idea that labor trafficking is men sex trafficking is women the idea that this is simply an issue of prostitution policy simply an issue of Eastern European women ending up in Western Europe in the 12 years since the Palermo protocol we’ve seen countries around the world come to a greater understanding of what we’re dealing with and the context in which it operates because we know that when women have opportunities when we invest in women’s health and education and employment where women are full partners in government or more full partners than they have been it lifts societies quickly working to advance human rights for women isn’t just a smart thing to do it’s the right thing to do because women represent the enormous untapped potential that if it was only unlocked could build prosperity modern slavery perverts that and takes a step in the exact opposite direction because the traffickers unleash that potential they say I’ll get you a better job all gives you an education so that girl that woman the spunky one says I’m going to do that I want to be all of those things that these inspiring women have led me to believe that I can do and

then trafficking steps it it devastates communities of Tears countries apart by undercutting the rule of law creating a fertile breeding ground for corruption and the best innovation was the strongest partnerships the largest investments that we use to fight for women’s rights will just sit quietly on the launch pad if the population that we’re targeting is being deprived of their most basic freedoms now advancing women’s rights isn’t the only thing that can be derailed by human trafficking think of the other issues that we just food security if fishing boat captains are willing to enslave their crews as we’ve seen in reports out of New Zealand if the operators of the shrimp processing facilities in Thailand are willing to enslave women and children to process the shrimp for exports United States how can we possibly think that those fisheries are secure and stable we know in New Zealand that the enslaved crews were being told to dump the small fish in the middle of the night when the fisheries inspectors went to sleep but according to the enslaved crews on those boats the true catch in the New Zealand fishery in the Antarctic is almost twice as much as what’s being reported environmental degradation depletion of our fish nets the Amazon if traffickers are willing to enslave men and women in the Amazon to clear the forest turn the wood into charcoal so that they can make pig iron which they can sell to the car companies so that we can drive cars in the United States then how can we have a conversation about deforestation without thinking about traffic England when activists in Europe take to the streets to demand an end to the deforestation of orangutan habitat and samachar Java and yet fail to talk about the enslaved workers who are cutting down those trees the enslaved women who are brought in to provide prostitutes to those men we’re missing half the picture when we’re talking about environmentalism we can’t make progress on these priorities these other non trafficking priorities until we level the playing field first until we make sure that the people involved are actually free now there’s another part of this that has to do with women and women in foreign policy and it’s about the women who saw the challenge of modern slavery of human rights of inequality on a global scale last week I was in Seattle at the National Association attorneys general trafficking gathering and a researcher from Ohio presented the findings of the study that she had done where she looked at all of the states in the united states that had passed anti-trafficking legislation sometimes more than one piece of legislation over the last 10 years and cross-referenced it by who was in those legislatures now this is all states that had passed trafficking legislation or go figure the ones who only did criminal penalties for traffickers as opposed to rehabilitative services for trafficking victims a direct correlation between the number of women in the legislature and what policy response they had this should surprise no one who’s been working the policy area in the last 20 years but again this doesn’t just happened to statistics it happens to people and policy makers are not simply statistics those statistics can tell us about their behavior policymakers are also also perhaps first and foremost people and so just as I think about those two young women

chamiah hall and Britni I think about two other women got a woman in a quarrel suit standing behind a podium in Beijing 17 years ago and telling us what we should have already known that’s women’s rights are human rights such a basic concept the one that shook up long held notions about where women fit in to society where women fit into policymaking where women fit into the various structures that the world had set up it’s about a woman in a long pink dress kept under house arrest for 15 years because she demanded that a repressive government hear the voices of the Burmese people and it’s about millions of other women whose names we don’t know whose hairstyles our clothing we’re not going to talk about through we don’t recognize when we see their picture but those women who we don’t know whose voices will not be silenced until the people who make the decisions in the rooms of power realizing that counting out half the world’s population half the world’s voices is untenable because those efforts didn’t pay off those efforts do come together the summer of last year when Hillary Clinton and on Suzuki sat down around that table in the home where she had been her under arrest for so many years it sends a message a message to all of those who perhaps 17 years ago simply thought that women’s rights are human rights was simply a slogan for all of those people over the last 20 years who thought that the governing bourbon would never loosen its grip and allow councils hoochies place to be or and yesterday on some sushi took her seat in parliament and soon the united states will name our first ambassador to burma in 20 years when secretary clinton announced this step last week one of the factors that she cited between her behind the united states action was the adoption of new legislation in burma liberalizing many of their repressive policies and one of those laws a law that we were able to raise with the Burmese a law that I was able to discuss with on some sushi when I was there last month or two months ago one of the laws that was passed since secretary Clinton’s visit was a law passed signed into law two weeks ago by kensun ending the old barbaric practice of state-sanctioned slavery for government projects no longer in Burma is it legal for new municipal government government leaders or state governments to enslave their people from Road building pipeline construction or any other public for this type of commitment this kind of patients we see in the years that go by from the speech in Beijing from the years suffered behind closed doors in that house are the kind of patience and courage that it takes to bring around this sort of generational change that I’ve been talking about on human trafficking whether it by advancing the rights of women around the world in general or fighting a slavery in particular a huge amount of work remains to be done and I’m hopeful that as a new generation of foreign policy leaders emergence begins to rise to the rights that you will look to those people who started the conversation that we need to be having that you will understand the precious that it took to look past outdated systems and structures and see the international community not where it

should be excuse me where it is but where it should be and I’m proud to be able to work for one of those incredible women but I’m also happy that we have an opportunity to let those voices be heard once and for all and just as I’m optimistic the anti-slavery movement is making change around the world I’m equally optimistic about the rising generation of young women leaders of leaders who care about women regardless if they are one themselves of all of those who are going to make sure that our foreign policy just like our victim care just like very anti trafficking words rests on that one or principle nothing about them without them thank you um you know a few weeks ago we had the distinct honor of having Somali mom come skype right here and talk to us and uh you she she had mentioned what you were saying that the the traffickers themselves are not very organized but the people who want to prosecute are organized and you know you had said that there is this fear there’s this fatigue that these traffickers go through and it just totally shifted a paradigm in my mind just now what you said because yeah the the victims their victims themselves to a degree you know it’s not it’s not right what they do but they also serve they need to eat too they have families at homes at home you know and what not so the victims end up victimizing and they perpetuate this activity and I and I and I really see this of this fatigue and fear combo as a window of an opportunity to get into and and I see it as a potential Avenue for a big solution I mean my mind just going right now I haven’t thought of anything but is this something that you all do at the top is this something that you know ground forces work through very heavily and what can I do from here to to approach that Avenue and exploit that opening and tear it open because it’s a whole other way of looking at the entire issue in a very positive way in my opinion I think that you know one of the things that we’re very much seeing especially as we’re trying to lash up more directly with us d is the idea that development solutions that are looking to wear criminality is occurring instead of simply going in and arresting people after they’ve already committed a crime and that’s a little inchoate and in an area we’re at a time where we have some severe budget pressures it’s a little risky to be able to tell that to Congress and said we’re doing this so that these people don’t commit crimes you know we’ve done that in narcotics with trying to give people other options other than growing cocoa or coca we’ve done that in the United States a lot of youth gang interventions something as simple as giving them something to do after school and so they go in fact two houses where their parents are off working and so I think that it’s something that you know we haven’t necessarily been able to pin down exactly what is the way forward to identify who is the offender profile of a trafficker sudden that we can then go in with other options for them but it’s certainly something that we’re discussing there’s some places in the world where we just we know there’s trafficking having from because that’s what people have historically done if you think about flex kava in Mexico to town of tenant Zingo hasn’t always been a hotbed of trafficking because there’s just a whole bunch of families there that that’s what they do for them and when you talk to the Mexican police you realize that they’ve been doing that for years taking the girls and women to Mexico City and now they’re bringing them to New Jersey in New York the Union City to Southeast Manhattan over in Brooklyn but it’s not that it’s a new trafficking phenomenon simply a new phenomenon to the new york new jersey area and i think that one of the things that we’re looking at where i think not like skeletor instances for what other things are there that we should be

looking at in tenancy know we have to scoop up the bad guys the ones who are actually doing this do need to be funded but then what are the other things that people in tenancingo should be doing for a living other than preying on the misery of others so something you know we’re starting to try to address but I I’d be fitting if I told you that we had a well thought out way of dealing with this problem thank you very much and in the little reading exposure i fed towards this issue and especially it became unfortunately also very clear that some ft commercial entire any EU expert to tell you they straight going and unfortunately if they are combined with trading weapons or drugs they go on the same line on mutual by multiple directions so my question to your fascinating observation that the trader himself or herself is basically a big thing how does this square if they are hefty up to 30 billion who then eventually pulls straight its are we talking about organized crime on a large scale anybody who goes down highways from Vermont to the south is a rear of the buses which goes up marks there so what what is there the issue and how could one cut those lines which then I assume would make it easier to convert the trader I think what are the one of the problems we have especially around the organized crime is that the linkages between I mean this is why we call it organized crime instead of just cry because the linkages between organized crime and the licit business community there’s a lot of capillaries that overlap and of course I don’t know medical student so I’m not sure how the blood to one another but that’s kind of what happens with organized crime and innocent businesses that notion of you know the trash hauling it needs to be done the industrial sector they are those are legitimate businesses that need that done in the travelin in that case the Mafia is willing to come in and work with them and there’s a little bit of fuzziness real greatness and like the concrete industry in New Jersey exactly exactly and I think that that’s you know what other things that we see as well with the labour brokers you know one of the things that and I don’t know if Princeton having an overseas campus you might have one I don’t know about it but you know this is one of the things that the students up at NYU really came down hard on NYU we’re building their campus in Abu Dhabi it’s either Abu Dhabi or Dubai I can’t remember which one I think it’s Abu Dhabi but you know they and the Guggenheim use both building these beautiful new facilities that the students at nyu said wait a second the guys that are building these are all of these migrant workers from bangladesh from india and firming in a South Asia who’ve paid thousands of dollars to recruiters to be able to get the job thinking that they’ll be able to make enough money to support their family and yet when they get to the Gulf their passports get taken and the bosses remind them that they are in debt already to those recruiters they basically show up in debt bondage well one one can say to the big those giant construction companies are criminal enterprises and yet because they need someone to bring them the workers just like industrialists in Milan are willing to work with the Mafia as long as the toxic waste gets taken away in the night the same thing then happens I think that we see this in so many areas that the line blurs between licit and illicit I

think about a case that I did a few years ago and let’s take off to the side weather strip clubs are listed businesses or not they’re certainly legal businesses and i prosecuted a couple of guys who were in slaving up to six women which that’s when it started falling apart because they couldn’t manage all of them in strip clubs in the Detroit area some of these women were college students in Kiev that thought they were coming the united states on the summer work and travel program is supposed to be an educational exchange where you can see part of C American society and they suddenly then get put into a strip club in Detroit well the women that they were dancing with or next to were American citizens who were not being enslaved in this strip club because it wasn’t the strip club owner that was enslaving them it was these guys who were talent agents and they bring the women to the strip club in their Mercedes they dressed like Russian mafia the girls thought they were Russian mafia but of course they were lie and they dressed they were Russian but they were dressing like the mafioso certainly could scare the girls but here you had a sexually oriented business that already is kind of on the shadows of society but legal and then you had a couple of traffickers who then bring their traffic victim into that new year I think that there’s a lot of that fuzziness I think unpacking that because is very tough and it all depends to do put on to put leave you with it depends on the political will of both the business owner small p political will and of the local authorities too often the only place that police officers to see a trafficking victim in most places in the world including United States is a strip club or a problem and the police officer is not there to look for a trafficking victim to free they are customers in the strip club or the problem or they might even own mr Plummer the brothel in some places and so that notion of corruption than just flowing straight into that and undoing the political will but I tell you the owner of that strip club that I was talking about cheetahs which suspiciously brought it down during our investigation the owner of cheetahs was he was perfectly happy to have all of these beautiful Eastern European women dancing his club because it just brought in so much so many customers and so he wasn’t asking any question about these thugs and he wasn’t asking any questions as to why the women were working double shifts all the American women were working 6 hours six to six hours a day or so which is exhausting work the russian-speaking women were working 12-hour days and with a desperation that came from the fact that if they weren’t meeting their quota they dip eaten and the American who owned that bar he didn’t care because the money was up insert the word beauty salon and New Jersey for strip club in Detroit into that story and you’ve got the situation from a few years ago with the girls that were braiding hair up towards Newark you know the salon owner just knew that there was a bunch of African women who were really good at braiding hair and would work harder than anybody she’d ever seen I’m you know those be paid in mind as long as the hair drop rated two years one of the victims told us later that she had decided she was I think 13 or 14 when they when they brought her from total she had decided that if one of the customers asked her how she was doing that she would actually tell the entire story and hopefully get help because she knew that she could if somebody asked that they cared about her and for two years and you’ll have people in the chair for what Bowers likes to test you guys have great brain so I mean it takes six or seven hours right at six or seven hours every day of you know braiding and not over the course of your not one customer asked her how she was and so it’s not just that the business owner has kind of an incentive not to ask even the customer as long as the customer is getting the shrimp at the price they want or the customers getting their hair braided they’re not asking questions that girl stays quiet trafficking ambassadors to

the Baka I’ve read about the base within the Bush administration a few years ago as to whether India which has such a huge problem with this ought to be downgraded in the tip report to tier 3 and but I had I’m not up to date I know it hasn’t happened yet another report will come out but could you just discuss give us a little update on what you see is progress in India if there be progressing relative to what India should be doing well it’s a couple of things there’s progress here to where they work how they thin mission with the minimum standards Congress sense board and then where they should be another one of the biggest things back and this is under my predecessors but my understanding of the debate at the time over I think this was in basically two thousand seven ish was that India was officially denying the bonded labor was part of trafficking India and those who would support it were claiming that the government of india could not do anything at the central government level to address human trafficking because the Indian Constitution prohibited having an equivalent of an FBI or something like that because everything is devolved to the states and so the American insistence that there should be a national coordination function that there should be a specialized anti trafficking unit you know etc that the national level that would then drive things out the stock answer from you and from seven of American foreign policy establishment at the time was you can’t do that because Indian Constitution I only to really know what I’ve been working on with the Indians and and though they can be a frustrating government to deal with at times through the foreign ministry what we’ve seen in the last couple of years is a All Hands circular to to all of the police forces in the country the anti-human trafficking it’s set up around the country and then a circular going out saying in its first sentence the forms of what is human trafficking in the in its force labor bonded labor and sex trafficking so the first time ever we see the Government of India recognized bonded labor is part of human trafficking that was tectonic the other thing we see is that these anti-human trafficking and it’s been being out in all of the various regions but then the creation of a headquarters level anti-human at the very thing that we’ve been told was unconstitutional and we knew it was not constitutional because they’ve done it for narcotics they just didn’t want to do so what we’ve seen is real leadership on the part of the Home Minister and so that’s kind of like an agenda Paul town over here and I think that as we’ve seen the policy center shift in India perhaps away from the foreign ministry and over into the home ministry we’ve seen some real committed actors and it goes back I think to this issue of political will yes thank you for this excellent presentation I had two questions I think both of them follow on what you’ve just been talking about the first question and both of these by the way come from my capacity as a sociologist and professor of women’s studies so that’s from first question is methodological I’m wondering if you could state more generally about tip report and how its comprised on came up for me recently I supervise students who do research on trafficking all over the world there was the article new york times this weekend about women in spain coming from nigeria and the citation was to the US government the tip report and then you go to that and it just says interviews with media and politicians and spain’s so it’s not you know quite scholarly standards of attribution and then my student is helpless and can’t do much more with us i’m wondering as you could say a bit more about that the second question is definitional and it’s in my capacity as somebody who does pedagogical work around these issues when i try to explain to students well you know as you were doing trafficking is you know labor and it’s also sexual violence and how these two things come together and often will get a question why only sexual violence and prostitution what about for example child abuse within the child sexual abuse in the family is that not a form of slavery as well and of course is a rich feminist lineage which would say that it is so have you know how it gets to be called slavery and what doesn’t well let me address the rich feminist lineage because i often as i gauge on this i have to get my transcript out and see if professor McKinnon is retro actively adjusting my greater found the you know the women are taught me at

least the law school can certainly with professor McKinnon and the work the cheated with a nerd working I think we’re right to be questioning from kind of a conceptual framework and of where is where the outer edges of slavery and I think that if you look at then graduate law school and hang on you start doing the cases and you’re looking at kind of what is it that we understand to be slavery and as the kiss Pinsky case at the Supreme Court tells us we have to do that we have to go back to 1865 and look at what the framers were understanding to be slavery now what the framers understood to be slavery was not limited to commercial sexual exploitation because there was a lot of work and yield ital George did a wonderful piece I think it was when he was till he yelled in law school that was in the Michigan prostitution advocacy seminar issue of the journal of gender in law and 93 which is where some of Professor McCadden is cutting-edge work on this also hear what Neil found when he went back and looked at the legislative history of the 13th medals that there was a lot of discussion of this of the widespread and routine sexual abuse that was happening of the women who were enslaved so the notion man it was not simply that slavery was your day job as a field laborer or a house maid or a traditional healer or a midwife or any of those other things it was also the ownership right in the any of the men to the white men alone you to then use the woman century and this is certainly what I’ve seen as a prosecutor and now as a diplomat Iran the world is the number one predictor of whether or not a woman is going to be sexually abused in a trafficking situation is not but if she’s in the sex industry it’s whether or not she’s a woman so the knock on the door at night on the domestic servant was living in the house well you know I’ve done these cases in the field for long enough to hopefully be able to sing something for the outrageous from podium which is the sex trafficking victim has something that the domestic servant does not and that is then that come to have sex with them maybe a route to freedom the strip club case that I was talking about it was a guy who convinced himself that he was in love with one of the dancers and she finally because it was not roping her all the time she finally confided in him what her situation was and he ended up going getting on the internet and research in human trafficking and said you know there’s a program they’ll let you stay in the country you know come with me down to the walk and you know he was able to basically be her way out that’s never going to happen to a domestic servant who’s being raped by the maybe even the boy that she raised so you know I think that this is one of the things that we see is what I’ve been fighting for and what doing it the this administration up around sex trafficking is while on the one hand trying to make sure that we’re fighting the sexual abuse that happens within commercial sexual activity that we’re also fighting the widespread sexual abuse that happens in labor trafficking so whether it’s an egg farm whether it’s a domestic servant situation whether it’s the garment factory case that you’d mentioned for that garment factory case the only way that you could really get off the line and not be having to so getting beaten up by the cards down on the factory floor was to become one of the secretaries and you became one of the secretaries by becoming one of the mistresses of the trafficker now that raises a whole lot of other issues then as at what point is the survivor had the things that she does to survive tip over into being an accomplice but this is why this is fascinating work is we’re dealing with people we’re not dealing with labels and so I didn’t get that’s to me one of the things that I’ve always trying to do is to take what I learned from us one another’s and then take that out and apply it to the actual victims rather than to my theory for my assumptions about the victims on the

methodology we do have sources for all of those things that are and this isn’t going to help anybody in the non diplomatic world and we debate them healthfully amongst ourselves as we’re coming up with the ranking and even the narrow and then in order to shoot to shield our sources when it’s or otherwise we end up putting that kind of you know researchers indicate or an international organization indicates there is an international organization that has a research project going in a place that has a lot of trafficking in the context of a multi-country effort against trafficking and one of the countries that has billions of dollars at stake in its fishery is so offended by the truth of the research that’s coming out of this project that they are trying to disband the project entirely so that research doesn’t come forward so for us to be able to mask that research a little bit so that they’re not automatically saying you know we’re going to come after you especially with the non-governmental organizations you know we get a lot of our information from the NGO community and yet if it said in the report you know the NGO tonight i need that tells us that folks are put in jail when they run away from their abuser in malaysia you know then we just put a target on their head for the government malaysia if the government of malaysia wants to retaliate against then we can’t really do anything so a lot of what you’re seeing where we’re not sourcing as clearly as we could be is because of that but you know especially if you’re talking about I mean we can’t do it for every undergrad that’s working on this but especially if you’ve got graduate students who you know or working on the snare meals you know please give us a yell and we can try to help in a guide people’s research get them connections the other places we use what you do this is one of the things that I think perhaps because trafficking is in its latest iteration minus enough we very much hunger for the work that sociologists and anthropologists and victim ologist seeeeee criminologists and every other ologist that we can think of are doing on the field because it gives us more of an insight into what’s going on and so you know we can you know try to help out that way thank you any other questions or yes please so I went on a bridge our trip to Atlanta with a spring break just gettin child sex trafficking and we had the opportunity to speak to some law enforcement officials and you mentioned about how the process of rescuing these girls sometimes need to criminalize them and in there they hope they help right discipline different perspectives considering how to treat their girls because in Viet view incarcerate these girls is a way of holding them away from the themes ranging from running away and providing a pathway towards rehabilitation bye-bye in the view of some non-government organizations these girls it’s it’s more mentally damaging and scaring and does not give the girls their ages to that be a true victims a hindrance to what that could potentially become what is your view on that as to how good one person officials governments and people were working besides the government treat these grapes I mean this is one of the hardest questions privately youth prostitution when there’s been an identification with traffic this isn’t a problem with youth prostitution you know in any countries where you have brought those four girls sold when they’re tiny or whatever it’s a very much I think something that we see in the United States with the relationship between an underage girl who is in prostitution and a pimp who is moving or with promises of love and things like that and you know it’s very tricky I think that one of the things that we have to remember is that the guiding principle of work with child victims of crime needs to be just like it is with child victims of parental abuse or neglect and that is the first question needs to be what’s in the best interest of the child children aren’t

necessarily always the people who can decide that and so that’s why the guardianship satellite them look I’m so important somebody who’s appointed to basically stand-in in multiple Renta’s which may have to be in a place of their of their parents what we’ve seen is that sometimes there will be a runaway attempt to go back to the guy and when that happens you almost never get the back except for when you do and so one of these we’ve encouraging detectives and the social workers everyone else is to try to be as hands off as possible you have to get them into something where they have an adult that’s supervising them whether it’s foster care or back with their own parents but then at the same time making sure that they know that you’re going to be there for them so that if they do run off then go back to him for a few months when they are ready to leave they’ll come and we’ve had there’s an amazing juvenile court judge in Las Vegas who treats the young ladies with a lot of respect and not everybody but he’ll get calls from people who have ran off violated their terms of release everything else and four or five months later alcohol from some other state and say you’re the only person who treated me well in this entire process I want to come back and of course that has the judge he’s trying to make sure you know that they don’t run away again the next time so it’s really tough though because you know there are some instances where a victim of a crime or a witness to a crime needs to be held we do that through the material witness warrant not just in trafficking that in other areas as well so you know I think that as long as people are thinking about the best interest determination what’s in the best interest of the child that can guide us I think there are still be tragedies unfortunately but I’m glad you the Atlanta is a great place to go to to look at this because people are really thinking hard about this time okay well i think we are at the end of our time unfortunately Thank You ambassador for your lecturer you

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