hi guys welcome to Eduemaster this is priya SAS Trainer and also working as a SAS programmer or in one of The M.N.C s from past 5 years today we will discuss about clinical SAS training like if you want to become a Clinical SAS Programmer in clinical Sector you must learn Base and advanced SAS programming along with CDISC. Eduemaster provides you complete clinical SAS training with real-time Projects once you have done with the course you can clear your SAS certification immediately and finally you can apply for the jobs for this process you must know three things the first one is the training process in Eduemaster like how we deal with the students from day 1 till they get placed successfully. And the next one is about SAS like what is SAS about SAS software and its uses and functionality or about SAS files workflow like that, everything we are going to discuss AND third one is about certification in this video we will discuss about different types of SAS certifications and also advantages of getting SAS certified credentials and its procedure finally job opportunities people learn different different courses right but why finally to get a job so in this video you will get all the information about job opportunities for SAS Skills it’s all these things will be shared with you today in this video now let’s see actually what is the difference between SAS training and clinical SAS training because many people used to say we will provide SAS training and some people used to say about the clinical SAS training actually what is the difference between these two it’s nothing but SAS training is nothing but you’ll get your training about base SAS and along with the Base SAS programming you’ll get a training in advances SAS also sequel some sequel queries we can do that using SAS everything we are going to discuss that in SAS training and reports as a SAS programmer we have to generate different kinds of reports all those reports how to generate those reports and all will be covered in this training and finally you’ll get a project about all this SAS training and then what is going to be there in Clinical SAS training the name itself is telling right clinical and SAS training so along with the SAS training you can get some additional information additional knowledge about the CDISC because these things are not enough to work in a real-time along with this we should require some other additional knowledge that is related to the clinical side so in the clinical SAS training will give you base SAS training it bought advance SAS programming SQL reports and also CDISC training CDISC is nothing but when we are submitting data to FDA we have to submit in this standard so we will teach clearly about SDTM mapping and how to create an analysis data sets what are the ADaM requirements what kind of domains and what are the variables present in SDTM how to create SDTM data sets everything clearly we are going to teach and finally we’ll give you a project if you are interested you can attend free demo and now let’s see the training process in Eduemaster training will be there for 35 days daily 1hour class and class timings depends on the student availability both week days and also weekend classes are available and daily after class i’ll mail you notes along with the videos during class if you concentrate on writing notes there is a chance to miss few points right? that’s why don’t write running notes we will provide you with notes and videos and one more thing after each class there will be a small test and also on every friday i’ll give you one more test on Monday to Friday what are the topics we are covering those topics i’ll give you as a weekend test the reason behind this tests is so many people are learning SAS but they are not practicing so for the sake of answering these tests at least you’ll practice SAS right! that’s why we are giving you these tests and also remember one

thing we won’t demand you to pay at the Day1 you can listen the 1st few classes for free because if you pay at Day 1 and later if you’re not feeling comfortable your money will go waste right! that’s why you can listen 1st few classes for free if you’re comfortable then you can go for the payment and once you’re done with the payment we will give you all the SAS materials like all that 35days notes videos and all the tests along with that we will give you some study materials to refer SAS. and also we will provide you sample C.V’s frequently asked questions everything we will mail you at a time of course daily i’ll mail you the notes if you get confused to refer all those things okay after training what is the next step once we’re done with the training i’ll give you a project a real-time project will be given to you which makes you easier when you go for a job right! that time you won’t feel difficulty because already have done with one project that’s why we are giving you with one project and finally the last day of the training I give you a final test in that test if you scored 25 out of 30 you’ll get your 50% money back the concept behind this fifty percent money-back is as I told you already many people are learning SAS but they are not practicing so at least for the sake of money you’ll practice SAS and you’ll try to attend this test right! and that’s why so finally you will get your money along with the SAS knowledge okay… after training what is the next step we have to apply for jobs right so to apply for jobs what is required you need a CV right so we’ll provide your sample CVs and also i will help you in build your resume once you have your resume what is the next step you’re going to do you will apply for the jobs and then you have to attend an interviews right! so that’s why before that I will take mock interviews i’ll give you tips and i’ll guide you what kind of questions generally they will asking telephonic interviews and what kind of questions they’ll ask in face-to-face interviews okay once we are done with this mock interview then we’ll show you the placements we will forward your CV to consultancies and those people will contact you and they will arrange interviews so finally at one point of time you’ll get job right. so after job if you need job support then also we are available so all the time 24/7 we are there for you to give your job support and also if you have doubts even after training you can mail me at any time it’s not like only during training only during those 35 days or 40 days will care about you it’s not like that okay i hope you’ve gotten enough picture about the training process in Eduemaster right. now let’s see about SAS in this video we are going to see about the overview of SAS and SAS competitors and why it is so popular and also its uses or the key features and SAS role in various industries particularly in the clinical industry and i’ll explain you how is programmer is related to the clinical trails and what happens in the clinical trails everything i’ll explain you and let’s see the work flow of SAS also and SAS user interface and also its program structure and we’ll see some examples for that and what are the default nature of the SAS and finally I told you three things we should remember right one is training process already we have seen and the second one SAS where we are going to see about all these things and the third one is certification so I’ll tell you what are the different certifications we are having for SAS and what are the SAS the certification benefits and then job opportunities and who can learn SAS so many people had doubt that to learn SAS they should have some in programming language knowledge and all right! but everything I’m going to tell you okay what is the full form SAS that is statistical analysis system or software and it was doveloped at North Carolina State University and mainly for the agricultural purposes during 1966-76 it was developed and mainly used for the advanced analytics and business intelligence data management

and predictive analysis and later during 1980s and 1990s it was further developed by adding new statistical procedures and also some additional components along with the introduction of JMP is there are verity of software tools and packages available across the globe right among these SAS is classified as a data management tool and also a statistical tool now let’s see what are the competitors we are having for SAS and why it is so popular. SAS is used for the data management and also for statistical analysis right! so data management or data warehousing is nothing but it is used for reporting and ETL process that is extract transform and load so now see about some competitors if you take cognos and tableau these are the reporting tools but they cannot perform eaither ETL or statisctical analysis similarly data stage and informatica they can majorly perform ETL process but neither reporting not statistical analysis similarly there are many other statistical packages available like spss quantum statica R like this so these can perform only statistical analysis but they’re not used for reporting or ETL task but SAS is the one which can perform all these three tasks that is nothing but reporting ETL and statistical analysis that’s the reason why SAS became one the outstanding analytical software across the globe now let’s see the uses of SAS how it is used okay SAS is used for data warehousing just now we have seen that it can perform reporting and ETL process right and also it is used for data cleaning data cleaning is nothing but if any duplicate records are there we can delete the duplicate records using SAS and also used for data analysis so we can calculate some descriptive statistics like mean average standard deviation like that and also using SAS we can make better decisions and it is used to generate different kinds of reports like tables listings and figures are graphs and it is used to generate output in various formats like CSV or XL or PDF or rtf any format we can generate the output using SAS and also it can able to process unlimited rows and columns it has many built-in Statistical functions to perform analyis it contains several human character functions for data manipulations and also intracts with multiple database and operating system coming to the SAS role in various industries it is used in various industries like health care and pharmacy financial industries and in retailing we can use SAS and in the telecom sector also it is used. now see how SAS is useful to each industry if you take clinical sector SAS is mainly used in clinical trials to perform statistical analysis like calculating descriptive statistics like mean standard deviation median values like that let’s take a small example here in clinical trials so many subjects are involved right so for each subject several visits will be scheduled to take their values for BP your heart rate sometimes to pick your blood samples like this so as there are many visits finally they will taken one value either that is an average or the minimum value or the maximum value depending on the requirement as it is easy to deal with the larger data SAS is being used as this video is completely about clinical SAS online training will discuss about the clinical trial process or what happens in the clinical study and how SAS programmer is related to clinical trials what kind of data he’s going to deal with everything will discuss clinical trials why we are calling them as clinical SAS programmer what is meant by clinical trial or a clinical research is nothing but a study conducted on a new drug before releasing

that in to market why this clinical trials are conducted have you heard about clinical trials? oh yeah do you have an idea what is meant by clinical trials testing of a drug yes and it has four phases yes ok but in this clinical trials where SAS programmer is related let’s see that yeah to strat a clinical trial what are the required things initially . initially 1st there should be a sponsor and with him he should have some new drug right or new medicine anything so if he wants to release that new drug into the market what he required he has to go to the FDA and get approval from FDA right as he having a new drug he cannot directly release that into the market right! so when he approaches FDA , FDA will question him why should i approve your drug ok ok suppose think that he’s new drug is for headache to cure-headache already market we have so many we are having so many drugs right which cure headache so then FDA will question him already market there are so many drugs why should i again approve your drug then sponsor has to prove FDA that his drug is more efficient than the already existed drug right think suppose the already existed one is curing headache in 5 hours old one but this new drug has to cure with in 5 hours right or it should take 5 hours then only FDA will approve if it is taking more than 5 hours then there is no use right to release in to the market though Sponsor has to prove his efficacy his drugs efficacy that it is more efficient than the already existing drug and also it should not contain side effects right only acceptable side effects should be there so for that he has to do some trail research process he has to conduct some study so for that what he required actually he required some set of people right we’ll call them a subjects for that subjects who will give treatment who will administer the drug as it is new drug we don’t know whether it will give side effects are not if it is giving again who will create them in general if we are getting any abnormality or disease to who will go we’ll go to the doctors yes so he required some doctors also we will call them asa investigators ok like this some set of people are required for the sponsor to conduct a clinical trials let’s see step by step ok the first one is approved protocol what is meant by protocol? protocol is nothing but a outline of the clinical trial right or a plan in general protocol means nothing but a plan right yeah so here also he should have one plan that in that protocal in this document sponsor have to mention each and every minute detail about the clinical trial like how many days it is going to happen where it is going going to happen in which hospital whether the hospital having all the laboratory equipments are not on what kind of blood he was going to do that research or kind of subjects he is going to recruit about investigators about what kind of reports for these programs have regenerated everything should be mentioned in this once he prepared his protocol he have to send that to the FDA. FDA will check whether his plan is everything correct or not and then it will approve his protocol once he gets his approval from the FDA then only he has to start clinical trial process he should not start as if he want whenever he want okay to start a clinical trial also he should require FDA approval ok FDA approves his protocal then the next step is investigater selection okay see based on his drug also it is mandatory based on that specialty if the drug is about gynic drug then he’ll recruit more of gynecologist right then

other specialists like that also he has to do some investigator selections and then the next step is patient recruit not patients actually subjects they’ll recruit healthy people and also a non healthy people also why if the drug is about the cancer drug then if they recruit the only cancer patients then it will be enough right then why again healthy people also to test on one side effects are how the drug is working because cancer patient directly to Cure disease but we don’t know like yes because yeah I’m see cancer patients has they are disease to more susceptible to more side effects right okay someside effects may get because of the cancer also but if they recruit only cancer patients then according to that study for that drug there are more side effects right which is not true to compare the results they’ll recruit healthy people also suppose if the cancer patient has died after taking the treatment , how sponsor can prove whether he died because of the cancer or because of the drug if the healthy patient is alive then he can say right have given drug to both of them and he’s alive so for comparison studies they’ll take both helthy people and non healthy people also ok now this process will go on like that subjects will come to the investigator they will you drugs and again if they’re coming if they’re having any side effects then again they’ll come back to the investigators ok but all these data FDA should know right so this data has to be captured who will capture all this data there will be another team called clinical data management team okay in this team data entry persons and also data managers ok what these data entry people will do the name itself is telling right data entry though they will enter the data where they will enter will they enter on pepper they’ll enter on yes CRF case report form again this case report forms are of different types one is paper CRF another one is eCRF electronic CRF Now a days we are not using paperCRFs okay because as many people are involved thousands of people we may not say that each CRF will contain only one page or two pages right it depends on the study because if it is containing 50 pages than those many patients how many pages it will take and they should not miss each single page also right without missing single page they have to send it to FDA suppose trial is going on in India sponcer wants approval from FDA. FDA is U.S organization so he has to send all these papers to US. so which is difficult so they’re preferring electronicCRFs this is also looks like a paperCRF the format will be the same but in our system say software will be installed for directly data entry persons will enter there and then they’ll convert into Database tables okay okay instead of entering in eCRF converting into database tables now a days they are directly entering in database that is called electronic data capture what is this what is the advantages of this EDC because it can take as this is the database it can take large number of data if you enter more data in your XL what will happen will it open fastly no right if will get hang it won’t open soon but as it if you are in giving more data but EDC it can take this database can take large number of data also we have to maintain this data confidentially right!. that security is very much important so using this EDC we can secure our data and it is very safe also and then next advantage is it can be accesble anywhere in the world if they are having website sponcer website details and internet connection they can login anywhere right! suppose if you entered in your eCRF’s and it will be stored in your system

right if you are not available at that time then how can other people can access the data is difcult right! but EDC as if they are having login details they can log in and they can check so and also it is very easy to send data to FDA right! so FDA people will also login in that site and they’ll check ok somehow we are done with the data entry persons they entered the data and they’ll store in the database or EDC They will enter ok the next one is data managers what these managers we do. these managers they will validate our data whatever the data entered by data entry person they will validate this data why this validation is required because we may not enter data entry persons may not enter the data correctly right! they may or may not sometimes some type of errors will be the right invalid data they may enter so these data managers they’ll do validation how they’ll do validation? they’ll do by edit checks what is meant by edit check edit check is nothing but when creating the database codes are written at the back-end so if you enter any Data wrongly it won’t take it will pop up some error messages if you enter your Gmail id wrongly what will happen it will give us some error right! username and password wrong like how your system is knowing that gmail ID is wrong, because when you creating your ID it is stored in the database right so whenever you are entering it will double check cross check whether that matches with your new one whatever you entered the same way here also codes will be written at back-end i’ll just give you an example suppose there is a gender or column called gender okay in that column they have to enter eitheir famale or male only these two values by mistakely if entered some other characters other then these two values okay because of some typing errors what will happen it wont take it will pop up some message it will shows some error or worning messages so that they can identify they can rectify it right! so using these edit checks they can minimize their address so like this data managers will do validation all this is the work of the clinical data management meeting team ok now the next one is then these people Data Manager validates the data he will lock the database and from there what is the next step data analysis right in this step bio statisticians and SAS programmers are involved okay okay what SAS programmers will do what biostatistician will do let’s see statisticians will have their own document called SAP means stratistical analysis plan okay okay so according to in his plan based on the protocol he will writes his plan ok in this plan everything will be mentioned what kind of reports SAS programmer has to develop ok so he’ll say SAS programmers to generate different kinds of reports as a SAS programmer we have to generate reports what kind of reports will generate will call them as tables different kinds of reports are there listings and then graphs.. graphs or figures eaither way we can call them simply will call it as TLF’s or TLG’s okay okay even if you check for any SAS programmer role they will say they should be efficient doing TLF’s or TLG’s really other than certain table something like that ok because this is the work of the SAS Programmer ok whatever the data given by the data manager validated by the Data Manager that data will process will analyze the data and then will create some reports like this ok now our part is done after generating then after we generated the reports what will happen to those reports see again will submit to the statistician he’ll check if there are any changes to be made he’ll

tell to us after that if we made changes then he’ll finally approve our reports that it’s fine according to who have now it is a basic thing to know that right here so after that there is a medical writing team okay these medical writing people they will write synopsis for the reports what kind of synonyms means like what happened in the trial and what are the side effects or how drug is working something like this some synopsis they’ll write and again they’ll submit this to statistician finally this statistician will creates CSR clinical study report this is the final report of the trial .okay this CSR and the data entered by the data validated by the Data Manager this data and the reports generated by sas programmers these three with up with everything ok ok that if it depends on the sponsor requirement if he wants to get approval from US he will submit to the FDA from the European countries EMA European medical agency if you want to approval from india drug control general of india like this each and every country we have their own organization yeah so depending on that sponser will submit is this clear yes yes it’s clear okay now coming to the financial services like banks in banks SAS is used to generate reports for customer loans are for each customer how many loans sanction and about to deal with their amounts something like this so it is used to generate reports all for doing productive modeling of data mining like this many uses many uses are there for SAS where as in retail SAS is used for marketing analysis or to generate reports like for which product the sales are more or to generate graphs for the products were based on the product sales based on the year something like this here also so in retail sector also there are many users like forecasting product management data mining like this and coming to the telecom sector it is used for customer management like what services are mostly used by the customers or for different networks something like this and also it is used for to generate statistical analysis to generate different kinds of report for forecasting and datamining now we’ll see how SAS software will look like ok so if you open SAS it will look like this it contains five windows called editor window log window output window explorer window and then the results window these are the five windows that SAS contains so whatever the work we want to do we can do using these5 windows let’s discuss about each window separately 1st coming to the editor window editor window is used to write the programs see if you want to write or if you want to execute any program we have to type that in the editor window see here some small program is written and also if you want to do some changes in the already existed program we can edit that program using editor window this is the only window where we can type and we can submit that program using an editor window and it is used to customize keyboard shortcuts for most enhanced editor commands and also creates shotcuts for typing in text using abbreviations so this is the editor window and a small program is written here finally remember editer window is used to write a program and we can edit some already existed programs and we can submit the program in editor window next coming to the log window what is the use of log window suppose if your program is having some errors how you will understand it has to display somewhere right! so whatever the information is there regarding to your program all that information will be give Shown in log window so it will show whatever the syntaxs you have written previously in any editor window we have

written this code right there is a small code that is data sample A=10 B=20 like this small code is there and the same code if you execute that code it will show here like this in a log window and also it will show you some execution details like what is the total time it took to process that see here some total process time and all and along with this it also display you the errors basically log window will display you 4 colours see here blue in blue we can see the note means how much data it contains and what how much time it took to process the code and it also this place black color in black color we can see the codes what we have written in an editor window all the codes will be shown in a black color and in blue execution details along with this to it will also display you green color in green color it shows you some warnings if there are any warnings all those warnings will be displayed in green color here is an example for that see warning here it is saying the data set work.sample may be incomplete because of some mistake it couldn’t able to run the program so it is giving us the warning and the final one is red color in red color it will show you the errors suppose if your program is having any syntax error that will be displayed in a red color we can understand by reading this thing where we have done mistake or what kind of mistake we’ve done these are the four colors that we log window displace show you next one is the output window output window is used to print your results whatever the report you are generating that will be displayed in the output window this is the only window that opens by default like if you want to generate any report when you executed that report in an editor window if it is not having any errors by defaultly the output will appear in an output window next one is the Explorer window explorer window contains four folders thy are libraries file shortcuts favourite folders and computers like how generally our pc’s contains all these 4 okay it is used to browse the data so whatever data you are saving in SAS they’ll save only in these libraries so it is used to browse the data are we can store the data in this and the next one is the results window and see this is that fifth window that SAS contains so what is the use of this results window so in this results window all the programs what you have executed will be shown in a tree like manner like this see here yeah there are printed 2 times that’s that’s why it is showing you print two times suppose if you execute some twenty programs and after executing 20th program if you want to go back to the second one then how to check that second one definitely it will be difficult to scroll in an output window like suppose if our program is having or a 2 2 3 pages report then definitely will feel difculty to run here right it’s called that’s why results window used to navigate your output window here 2 are there if you want to open the1st one you can double-click on this if you want to open the second one you can double-click on the reports will be shown like this here this is about the windows so remember whatever the work we are going to do we can do that only in these five windows next let’s see the SAS program structure means whatever the programs we are going to write in SAS will write only in two steps one is called data step another one is called proc step what is meant by data step.. data step is nothing but it starts with the keyword data and ends with run so this is one example for the data step here also it is starting with data and ending with run so this is also an example for the data step coming to the proc step…proc step is nothing but a procedure step in shortcut will say it as proc .start with the keyword proc and ends with the run this proc step will contain many

procedures like print contains frequency like that so many procedures are there here totally 3 programs are there in those three two are examples for the data step see these are starting with data and ending with run so these two are an example for the data step and this is an example for the proc step now let’s see in detail suppose see here this is a data step here what you are having this data step contain some values like A=10 B= 20 and C=15 this is an another example for data step here we’ve doing addition of all these three right! 10 plus 20 plus 15 and we are creating one more column called X so these 2 are a examples for a data step ok next one is the proc step, proc step is nothing but I told you it starts with keyword proc and ends with run it is used to process a data set i tell you what is data set don’t worry if you submit this program in editor window so what will happen in the log window it will display you like this these are the codes that will display in black color and these are the execution details which shows you in blue color ok and once you execute this proc step the report will appearing in an output window like this so what are the values for A B and C and also for X this is the total value the same thing everything will be displayed in an output window.now let’s see about the sasfiles so SAS stores the data in the form of datasets ok they look like a table like this this is called a dataset so when you run any program SAS stores the data like this in theform of dataset if you open this one if you double-click it will show you like this whatever the data we are having here the complete data it will show you here A is having a value of 10 B 20 and C 15 right so in table what will have will have tables and sorry columns and rows right remember in SAS we should not call it as a table we have to call it as a data set so here three columns are there right A B and C so we should not call them as a columns we have to call them as variables so here three variables are there are A B and C and 1 row is there right we should not call them as a row we have to call it as a observation so now in this data set we are having three variables 1 observation right that’s the difference instead of calling it as a table call it as a dataset and rows or called as observations and columns are called as variables next let’s see the workflow of the SAS as a SAS programmer what is a work for us we have to generate reports right from where will generate reports will have some data that is called raw data and that data will get maybe from in the form of xcel sheet or in the form of note pads or in the form of datasets are directly from the database with metric so we can have the raw data in any of these forms that raw data will process that using a data step so using data step will process that raw data and will create some data sets using a data access or by data management once we create these data sets will process these data sets using proc step and after processing these datasets we can generate some analysis datasets by doing data analysis from that analysis datasets we can generate the reports as i told you reports are of three types like tables listings and figures or graphs is a clear in a simple word from a raw data we’ll generate data sets using a data step and will process these data sets using a proc step and we’ll do some data analysis and will create some analysis datasets and then finally will generate a reports this is the workflow of the SAS now let’s see some naming convention rules for variable

name or dataset name whenever we have creating variable names or a dataset name we should keep in mind a few points ok they are see that should be only upto 32 characters it should not accept the 32 characters long and it is a it is not a case sensitive we can give those names either in uppercase or in lower case or in mixed case and also they should start with eaither letter or under score(_) the first position should be eaither a alphabet or an under score(_) and numbers we should not give it a 1st position subsequent characters can be either letters or underscore(_) or numbers doesn’t matter but the first position should be either and under score(_) or it should be a latter like this and no special characters i used except under score(_) special characters are nothing but all these symbols signs even blank space is olso special character remember except underscore(_) we should not use any other special characters if you take an example see here all these are the valid sas names right here it is starting with under score(_) so if the particular name is satisfying all these four points then that is valid here also only underscore(_) is there and starting with the letter and no other special characters right so and also it falls below 32 characters this is also valid one all these are an examples for a valid sas names but if you take this these are not valid right because here hyphen is used if you take here also and here it is starting with number but numbers should not be at 1st position right and also blank space is there some special characters are used so we should not use any other special characters except under score(_) that’s why all these are a invalid sas names now let’s see about libraries where we have seen these libraries before we have seen in an explorer windowk right see these libraries are the storage place for the SAS files whatever the data you are saving they’ll save in the form of datasets in these libraries there are different types of libraries like permanent and temporary SAS user and SAS help comes under permanent libraries these are the examples for permanent libraries and an example for the temporary libraries work so when you install SAS you will get these three libraries by default SAS help SAS user and work why I am calling these are permanent and this is temporary what is the diffrence between them nothing but so whatever the data you are saving in the permanent libraries they’ll store forever until unless you delete the yourself the data won’t get deleted but the data is saved in the temporary library like work it will get deleted once you close the SAS that’s why we are calling this is a permanent and sorry this as a temporary and these are a permanent libraries so if you want to work with the same data in future also you can save in permanent libraries like SAS user and SAS help and also is it necessary always is it mandatory to save data only in this three libraries no.. if you want we can create our own libraries also let’s see how to create we can create libraries using a LIBNAME statement this is an open statement so the syntax for the LIBNAME statement is write LIBNAME and just give one library name if you have many folders so you cannot identify what is that library and what data is present in the right so for every library name for every library we should give some name like SAS user SAS help and work the same way you can give your own name and link that library to some way to your system so just given file location where you want link so what is the use of this because what are the data you are saving in that particular library will also get saved in this path suppose if you create a temporary library and if you save some data that data will be saved in that temporary library along with the file location what you’ve given but once you close the SAS what will happen all the data will get erased right but the data will be saved in this file so whenever you want you can use that data and also we can use the Create a new

library by clicking new library button ok this button will be present on the SAS at the top so once if we click that one we can create a new library also and to write a library name we are having some rulesthe rules are nothing but all the rules are same as a data set name or a variable name what we have seen before except this 8 characters it should library name should be 8 or less than 8 characters it should not exceed 8 but previously when we have seen for data set name or variable name see here there we have seen 32 characters right by coming to the library names it should be only 8 characters and it must begin with either letter or underscore and must it may contain numbers at any other positions except at first position subsequent letters characters maybe letters or numbers or under score but the first position should be only later or underscore and also we should not use any other special characters except under score is it clear let’s see about variable types when you text SAS values data values there are of two types one is a character variable and another one is a numeric variable what is the character variable character variable is nothing but it can take either letters numbers or mixed but the numeric variable can take only numbers how to differentiate character and numeric variable so next to the variable name if we are giving a dollar sign SAS will consider that as a character variable if you’re not giving dollar sign it will think it has a numeric variable and by default it can take only eight characters length so if your name is more than if your values more than eight characters then it cannot read that value it will truncate the data if you want we can increase the length up to 32 767 bytes using a length statement and one byte = one character same way for the numbers for the numeric variable also the default storage is eight bytes but it can take up to 12 characters 12 digits normally if again your number is having more than 12 it will read in an electronic format character values are represented by using a blank space and if you have any missing values for the numeric variable it will be represented by (.) now let’s see the various components in SAS, SAS has contain more than 200 components right so let’s see some of them they are SAS base,SAS SQL,SAS macros,SAS ODS, graph, stat ,access like this so many components are there ok don’t worry we are going to learn about all these components and now let’s see about SAS software and how it runs on different operating system we know that SAS runs an in operating system right so today there are many operating systems like Windows ,Mac, unique right like this so many operating systems are there different platforms and also there are many versions if you take all these the current version is 9.4 and these are all the recent versions if you take 8.2 and all these are the all old versions so we can install SAS in any operating system and also we can install whatever the version you want the next one let’s see about the certification there are many certifications for SAS Actually it is a globally recognized certification and it currently offers 11 certifications across five different categories the categories are nothing but foundation tools advanced analytics BI and analytics data management and administration these are the five different categories under these categories we are having if you two or three certifications for each category so totally actually 11 certifications are there .so on under foundation base SAS certification advanced SAS certification and clinical SAS certification are included all these three

certifications comes under foundation if you take advanced analytics it includes predictor modeler certification and also a statistical business analyst certification these are the two difference certifications that comes under advanced analytics like same way BI is also having two different certifications like bi content developer and also a visual business analyst certification data management also contains three different certifications like big data professional and data integration developer data quality steward for SAS 9 these are the three different certifications that contains in data management and also in administration we had SAS certified platform administrator so like this these are 11 different certifications now let’s see about that certification uses actually now we have seen what are the different certifications and what is the use of doing a certification if anyone get SAS certified they details are listed in the directory of SAS certified professionals because if any Employee wants to check or validate the credentials they can access that directory and also if you earn SAS certification it quickly leads to the compensation increase of twenty percent and more the most important one is confidence yes when you set your goals and work hard definitely you can reach them right which gives your confidence next one is the competition when employer are interviewing 2 diffrent candidates definitely the competition is stuff right and if you the person is having a certification and the other one doesn’t have definitely the person having your certification definitely they’ll have an advantage right and if you have certification it increases the marketability you if you are looking for jobs and also it establish issue as a continuous learner and employers always looks for people who never stops learning right and the most important one is the talent and skills if you have certification you are in a better position to evaluate talent and skills of others right it also gives you tools to draw upon when needed having gone through all of the hard work and study you have mastered a new body knowledge like there are many uses if one get SAS certified credentials and now see who can learn SAS? right so to learn SAS there is no need of any programming language or a programming experience even a lay man can also understands SAS easily and it is very simple and user-friendly any graduate or postgraduate we have completed they B.tech or B.phormacy or any graduation like nursing, m.ba, m.s anyone can learn SAS ok an academic background is needed and now see what the job opportunities we are having for SAS in the analytical world SAS analytic skills are the most valuable skills in the todays job market actually analytical technology plays key role in solving today’s business problems evidence of this is how SAS has grown to have a strong and stable global presence check out the wide variety of job possibilities in many areas like sales and consulting research and development marketing tech support finance and human resources in all these sectors we are having many job opportunities right and SAS was developed in early nineteen seventies but till date we are using means from past 50-60 years we are using SAS and day by day the scope is also increasing right because many companies are using SAS as many companies are using we’ll have more job opportunities right so it is playing a major role in industries SAS as offices in more than 135 countries across America Asia Europe and Affrica etc… and SAS software is used by the over 90%of the fortune 500 global companies to make important decisions everyday year after year SAS ranks high and variety of

lists for best places to work not only in the US but around the world top most 100 global banks are using SAS because they help in marketing and many insurance companies and banks like CITI Bank RBC HSBC like this many companies on many banks are using SAS it is best place to work and if you’re looking for a higher pay and better opportunities what are the carrier skills you should seek to acquire you might think only leadership or the communication skills would top the list right but as for the recent study one should need even strong analytical skills also around on 2300 skills are correlated with higher pay advancement and carrier opportunity with an average pay boost of 6.1 % SAS was the most valuable one according to the massive study done by money and payscale.com this SAS Skills are the most valuable skills to have in today’s job market do you know SAS is the largest market share holder in data analytical sector with the share of 36.2 % and fifth largest for business intelligence software the study analyzed that 54 million employee profiles across 350 industries with 15,000 job titles from entry-level to top- level so SAS skills are equal to the higher pay if you have more skills you’ll get high pay okay i hope you get a enough knowledge about SAS and its job opportunities and if you go for your certification what are the uses we are having and what are the difference certifications we are having like and how a SAS programming is related to the clinical trials and what kind of data we are going to work and how the SAS software will be I guess everything we’re covered in this video if you have any doubts please comment thank you please subscribe for more videos

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