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I’m talking about for the title of political revolution black rights and squelched secessionists thanks to Rebecca we’ve had some nice libations and a repast which reminds me of a earlier time back in 64 up at Red Bluff California this of course is 1864 you got this secesh walked into a saloon and he ordered the bartender to make him a Jeff Davis cocktail as he is ready to enjoy it one of the troops and blues such as my good friend sergeant over here from the 7th West Virginia infantry would you stand up so they may say you’re full height he drew his revolver and told the bartender to make an Abe Lincoln cocktail for the success to keep Jeff Davis down and that’s what the civil war in California was was keeping Jeff Davis down the state had a population of about 400,000 or about half that are in San Francisco today this is nine Indians of which about a hundred and thirty thousand were voters of course all male in those days 50,000 from the free states 50 thousands from Europe mostly Ireland in Germany and 30,000 from the slave states so essentially California resembled a border state it was the most diverse state in the Union and luckily for us it still is during the 1850s the first decade of statehood Southern Democrats ruled California especially with Senator William M Gwynn but when he wasn’t a California Senator owned a plantation and a couple of hundred slaves in Mississippi so you know where his thoughts were and of course this Party controlled all the federal patronage and the state government it had two party principles white supremacy and state sovereignty Gary Kurtz mentioned John Fremont the first presidential candidate of the new Republican Party in 1856 this party had as its goal equality under the law for all as Senator Edward Baker said democracy meaning the party in United States means equal rights to all sections that is the South could keep its peculiar property where Republican is Ament equal rights to all men so when the war came what you had was each side would sacrifice the other side’s most sacred beliefs to prevail Democrats supported an independent Confederacy to protect white supremacy and slavery Republicans would preserve the Union and emancipate slaves by force or as a loudmouth politician once said in 64 in San Francisco the issue of slavery first and Union afterwards or Union first and slavery never more in 1859 after the election the Democrats held all state officers and as a measure of their strength 72 of the 80 people in the assembly however the death of United States Senator David Broderick who is busted over here in this corner by Supreme Court Chief Justice David s Terry was the beginning of the end of

Democratic dominance the 1860 election the Democratic Party split and the Republicans this minority party in 56 won here in San Francisco the Sacramento Union reported that the Republicans were joi Singh at the success of the Cooley ticket those two eminent Celestials Lynne Kahn and ham Lynn this was not the sort of joke that Democrats would have made about the same time newspapers began asked why is the new president like an owl during the daytime I’ll wait and see if I get any answers 1861 leland stanford a name which i hope all of you know became governor and of course got the state patronage and in 1864 the unionist had the same majority in the assembly the democrats did in 1859 a complete switch oh why is the president like an owl he’s always a blinken this was in the newspapers i didn’t make it up of course the southerner said the federal government had no power to do anything like build railroads during the southern democratic ratification meeting in san francisco in 1860 when the they came up with their railroad platform the entire audience laughed they knew it wasn’t gonna get built republicans were different on July 4th 1862 the sacrum annual Union shouted praise the Lord as President Lincoln signed the Pacific Railroad bill I’m not sure where it happened to that railroad after that needless to say it was built by Sacramentans founders of the Republican Party in California such of course is leland stanford the to Crocker’s Charles and Edwin B Cornelius Col Mark Hopkins tell us B Huntington whatever’s been said about the big four they did it there’s a great comparison between them and the incompetent and corrupt San Francisco Democrats who tried to use the Sacramento Valley railroad to build by a Placerville also in 64 Giancana’s California is sober senator the other one was a drunk talked to Congress and President Lincoln who signed the bill making Yosemite into a part First National Park actually it was under state control in 64 so if you look at the California State Park seal earliest one of any state in the Union 1864 so essentially what happened was the Rebs either left or got shoved out the Articles that Bill Anderson brought concern the secession winter so I’m not going to say that much bill where are you wherever bill is he’s way back there caught the causing trouble now bill is an old guy like I am and when you get old your muscles get weak bill doesn’t want to carry any of those home so if one’s not enough take ten after the election Charles T BOTS late of Virginia who’s been a Sacramento Superior Court judge and a newspaper editor here on November 11th five days after the election called for a convention to establish in California an independent Pacific Republic so you had some of these Southern Democrats following up on this it didn’t get very far San Francisco and February 22nd they had a mass meeting with 14,000 people in attendance which equaled the number of voters in the city may 11th there were 25,000 people pledging California to the Union so of course unionists promptly formed Union clubs and secured the

militia now known as the National Guard southerners left California for the Confederacy seven of the 35 in the 1861 California Assembly that’s 20% left for the Confederate Army why one of them wrote about it Senator Henry Harry Thornton of Sierra County he wrote Sierra is like the whole state loudly for coercion and war under the pressure I see southern dirt eaters humbling their cringing spirits at the knees of their enemies and looking the hand that smites them for one I shall keep erect and maintain my opinions and pride at every cost besides revolution is abroad in the land and constitutional freedom is waging a great war of self-defense glittering visions and military glory are before my eyes and my native land of not California but Alabama is in the great struggle Thornton went back served through the entire war unfortunately as he put it with the Western armies and he regretted he never reserved with robert e lee well Sacramento of course is the site of a citizen citizen soldier museum and during the war the military generals had a lot to say there was General Edwin D Sumner George Wright and Irvin McDowell kept vigilant and worked closely with civil authorities they stationed companies where the success were the loudest as write wrote with a judicious posting of US troops I can comprehend but little danger beginning in the summer of 1861 California began recruiting ultimately 16,000 men and of course the federal government was very appreciative of this Jerry Brown wants some money well the federal government has never paid the state of California it’s 2.5 million spent in the 1860s for equipping the troops the legislature in 1997 sent a resolution to Congress but nothing happened to it so all of you with a who want to treat Jerry though tweet him and see if he’ll pick up the claim there are eight regiments of infantry and the first battalion of California Mountaineers up in Humboldt County fighting Indians and the second cavalry and then four companies of native California cavalry mostly in Southern California General Patrick Edward Connor was on the central route watching secesh keeping the Overland Trail open the the Daily Mail and especially watching the Mormons probably had his eye on myth all the time James Henry Carlton was on the Butterfield route and had troops going into Texas then there was the California hundred and battalion at the end of 1862 through some shenanigans well because let me back up the War Department would not pay for men from California to be sent east that transportation was too it was too much however some got under the quota of the state of Massachusetts and joined that the 2nd Massachusetts cavalry and they fought through the Shenandoah Valley particularly against John s Mosby’s Raiders like the 7th West Virginia there are many reenactors in the California hundred so look for them likewise because the government wasn’t paying individuals both black and white paid their own way back to the scene of the fighting in California there were enough troops but this ended the Indian Wars here wasn’t much afterwards so in 1862 came we have a change of the guard there was suppression of the Democrats and redemption through giving as your unit said they were fighting for the Constitution but not by it

there was also social pressure and the major Democratic newspapers of the 1850s did not last through the 1860s no one would buy them dead papers on August 8 1862 Lincoln was in a quandary he had already shown a draft of the Emancipation Proclamation to his cabinet he called for 600,000 more men and he threatened the draft well as I mentioned white supremacy and slavery were the cardinal principles of the Democratic Party and here the president is going to abolish slavery in the Confederate States this could lead to an insurrection what to do he talked to his buddy Secretary of War Edwin Stanton it was a crusty old coot if there ever was one disagreeable is normally the kindness thing said about him Stanton issued an order August 8th authorizing arbitrary arrests and the suspension of habeas corpus you’re familiar with habeas corpus if you were arrested NBS corpus produced the body the government has to give you a reason on why you’ve been arrested it can’t be a secret arrest these of course orders were very important to California War Department dropped them in the mail they arrived a month later the Overland Telegraph was completed so you know they could have telegraphed them but now they came in a month later General George Wright commanding the department the Pacific was in charge he was an old Indian fighter from the Pacific Northwest and in November 1862 while the headquarters was in Sacramento General Wright who had asthma moved to the city of the plane general Wright has still here he was lost on the brother Jonathan in 1865 the steamer and is buried in your Pioneer Cemetery as Wright said open mouthed traitors are beyond the reach of civil authorities and quibbling attorneys the army rested a half-dozen band a half-dozen newspapers and the newspapers from the male’s to cut their circulation it was not too effective but it could let people know it could be done and there were really no papers or people of political importance except EJC Kurtz whose picture is over there they’re both from Southern California and Gary was getting a bit secesh earlier on his real names queuing got sent out the Alcatraz for a while in fact the first prison building on Alcatraz was for these political prisoners it was just behind the sally port they had a frame building one of those arrested was George P Gillis of a city which is not a hundred miles from here he was a perpetual office holder and on the Democratic State Central Committee from Sacramento and he was indulging in as usual he was cheering for Jefferson Davis president of the Confederacy he got quarters out on Fort Alcatraz as the B said his political friends were happy to get rid of this clown anyway Stanton ordered the release of the prisoners on November 22 again through the orders in the mail so they arrived a month later Andrew let go for newspapers so the troops usually took care of those by mob action oh good I’m glad I’m the only one who has chair so you guys don’t have a problem as you know sometimes governor’s need help and Leland Stanford needed help an editor by the name of long Primmer Hall decided to rewrite Stanford’s Thanksgiving proclamation he worked for the Visalia Equal Rights expositor he came from Mississippi and had fought in the Mexican War under Jeff Davis if this gives you any clue to his leanings there’s his prayer to be reverent Oh Lord we thank thee for letting the rebels wallop us at the Battle of Pittsburg Landing for letting them smite us hip and thigh even unto the destruction of 9600 of our good loyal soldiers and for giving speed to their legs through the awful swamps of the Chickahominy ed O Lord most especially do we thank thee for the looking they

gave us at Bull Run ii and assisting our flight from that fatal field needless to say he applied similar remarks to a company of the second California cavalry stationed at Visalia and on March 5th long primer primer just had a bunch of pie pie being scrambled pipe smashes press through his type out the street on April 22 1863 20 soldiers from Camp Union visited Brier Browns California Republican published in whatever city happens to be the state capital I’m sure you figure that one out no one really quite knows why they did it but Brown had a big mouth and he’d get into trouble later the sacramental union and the be of course denounced the button the mob and called for punishment but then Brown Briah Brown got rabbit and he accused the Republican Party of being the instigators of this mob which they were not and of course lost any sympathy turned the union protest against him as a rabid paper in Sonora called the American flag headlined lynching a traitor legally wrong but morally right or if the general said if the papers make themselves obnoxious they must blame themselves only if they suffer the positive of course was the United States sanitary commission it has a peculiar name but as you know disease killed more troops than did bullets so what this commission did that came in through effect in June 1861 was to augment the Army Medical Corps essentially it was a forerunner of the Red Cross they published hygienic studies they distributed fresh fruit and vegetables they cared for the sick and wounded and they designed and outfitted hospitals hospital ships and hospital railroad cars foremost in this action in California was a Reverend Thomas Star King whose statue used to be in the US Capitol until it got Reagan Aidid out to your garden over there so if you haven’t seen the King statue in the garden that’s where it is and Gary has a case on Star King over here in August end of August 1862 Star King declared the country demands great sacrifices and he shamed San Franciscans on September 14th 62 there was a monster meeting which and the money started coming in and King told the San Francisco Commission that the money would go to the u.s. Sanitary Commission so on September 1962 San Francisco telegraphed the virtually bankrupt Commission saying we have a hundred thousand dollars would you guys like it well the bloody Battle of Antietam on September 17th had occurred two days before there were 23,000 casualties and while you’re meditating on the dead I see a water fountain over there let’s hope it works Henry W bellows a president of a sanitary Telegraph back your gift dropped as it were from heaven Thank You Stacey into our unexpected hands we incidentally telegraphed our agents on the battlefields of Maryland to spare nothing your mercy will be launching wounds and feeding and cooling parched lips before this reaches you ultimately by the end of 1862 California contributed $400,000 this is an gold coin gold incidentally was $20 in 67 cents an ounce and that’s what coin was coined that so essentially a $20 gold piece would have close to an ounce of gold let’s say it’s worth $1,500 today as bello said your magnificent

contribution will electrify the homes of the nation California’s contributions slacked off in 1863 but then resumed with monthly stipends in 1864 following star Kings death in March of 64 Henry bellows himself came out to California to collect California ultimately gave 1/4 of the five million dollars that the Sanitary collected and this is from a very small population Sacramento County gave $6,500 where the east gave and food and supplies California’s hard money paid for their collection and distribution and kept the sanitary commission running so during the Civil War California made a humanitarian difference for soldiers both north and south because the sanitary cared for captured Confederate troops also how we do it on time I hear nothing we have at least another two hours I didn’t tell you in my former life I was a southern senator anyway there were sons of some of these settled secession California you started you know they wanted to get back they went back to the war or fighter they started plotting locally one of the articles in the bill anderson magazine of which bill they’re all taking 20 each right we’ve upped it deals with the chapman affair and gary has put out an illustration here essentially three nut cases led by Asbury har pending outfitted a small schooner with a small battery of brass guns and they were going to capture one of the Pacific male steam ships well there was an Overland Mail by stage you couldn’t put much in a stage and they were very slow California’s contact where the rest of the world was by these twice-monthly wooden paddle wheelers and they would carry on each trip one to two million dollars in gold this is you know 2067 an ounce so this was the sea was California’s lifeline and the Chapman was going to capture these things well of custody her big mouth and the customs officials nabbed them on March 15th before they could get out of the harbor so guess what well San Francisco customs was good capturing the Chapman what do you think was going on in Sacramento March 15th 1863 any ideas guys the legislature was in session they had to do something so you had all of these dead bills suppressing treasonable activities loyalty oaths and everything else that had been lying there discarded they were through the legislature in a week California became the first state in the Union to pass loyalty oaths and it passed them for attorneys to practice law for plaintiffs who wish to sue in civil courts and for school teachers essentially what it was as attorneys and politicians then as now was a usual combination so Democrats either had to sign an oath supporting the government war to suppress the south and free slaves or give up their profession Todd Robinson a Sacramento attorney since 1850 who had his son in Terry’s Texas Rangers and his wife collected money to aid Confederate prisoners and Union camps so you can get some idea what his sentiments were and he was a Democratic candidate for the state Supreme Court declared no Democrat can take the oath without being an apostate in fact the Sacramento County District Attorney Virginia and James Siegel would not take the oath on the play of sole judge Edwin Bryant Crocker a name

which I hope changing in the guard which I hope is familiar to all of you he was some sort of Artie guy and the Crocker museum is wonderful Crocker Road is judge he was on the Supreme Court if a citizen aids the enemies of the government he forfeits all rights to use its courts of justice there was an interesting case in 1863 congressman ban would of New York City editor the New York News and a very rabid piece Democrat and a thorn in the side the Lincoln and a few others foreclosed a mortgage in Sacramento County well the attorney for the defendant sent off the plaintiffs of to would and of course he returned that unsigned because it would have ruined his political career with remarks unfitted to ears polite as a newspaper put it and of course the case was dismissed due to the loyalty of the plaintiff however what did these attorneys do they became attorneys this is the boom time of the Comstock Lode was there one ledger were there two ledges or how many ledges were and were you encroaching on my property so they all went over to the Comstock and handled the cases they included of course Todd Robinson AP Crittenden Charles T BOTS and former governors John Bigler and John Weller all who used to hang out in Sacramento school o’the Democrats saw the schools as nurseries of fanaticism licentiousness and all sorts of bad isms out of New England a nun Napa teacher said yeah well ignorance makes constitutional Democrats and the schoolmaster abolition eise’s them so the 1863 loyalty oath which John’s sweat instituted the teachers had to swear teach those under my charge to love reverence and uphold the Constitution and the government so what happened in the schools well you had Democrats you might send their kids of the schools and they came home singing what song do you think they sang to their parents John Brown’s body lies a moldering in the grave as you remember Brown led a failed slave insurrection at Harpers Ferry in 1859 and was hanged well Democrats weren’t very happy about this so they kept their children at home or set up private schools you look at the statistics and there’s a 20% drop in public school attendance in 1863 then they strengthen the militia same legislature same weak absentee ballots ballots to let troops of the field vote for the county officers so while they were out the Democrats wouldn’t get the offices the results who at $2 military poll tax the normal poll tax was $2 this was an extra $2 which doubled the number of militia companies to 123 one year and these guys were all unionists and they had access to training and standardized arms which took standardized ammunition then there was the Union League which was secret it was a shadow military civil government within the government to give you an idea of who was on it’s Grand Council there was governor Frederick F lo of Sacramento room Aldo Pacheco state treasurer a couple of congressmen a Supreme Court justice the general commanding the state militia San Francisco included the chief of police the postmaster and if you’re really screwed up the federal tax assessor and Richard C Drum the adjutant to the Department of the Pacific headquarters was in San Francisco and drum was running that general Wright was here in Sacramento it also included the Grand Council Thomas Starr King William C Ralston a banker AP Stanford he was an oily guy his brother was Leland Stanford had one of the first oil refineries in California and then for

Gary there was Joseph W Wynans a trustee of the State Library for ten years there are a hundred and Ted councils around the state James McClatchy of a certain buzzing newspaper headed the Sacramento Council and they formed militia companies so the unions with the unionists were the ones with the guns with the Emancipation Proclamation preliminary September 22 62 permanent July 1 63 making this a war aim the war became a referendum referendum in fact on the place of African Americans in American society so we’re going to see Republicans fulfilling their pledge of equality under the law and we see that the Irish working men are really becoming solidly Democratic the Irish does not like either blacks or Chinese in particular because they were used as strike breakers and to lower wages I mean all through California history you’ve had capitalists importing cheap labor you know first the Chinese then the Japanese and East in the ends then Filipinos and then Mexico and in this corner you have a copy of the Emancipation Proclamation done by a San Francisco printer it’s a very fine piece so Unionists when they got finished with the Irish in 1866 California got its first registry law to keep these illegal voters from casting ballots african-americans in California for about only 1% of the population we’re talking about perhaps 5,000 people that’s not very much but they had virtually no legal rights I’ll start with the federal first because the state is more interesting in 1858 is the land register in Stockton used the Dred Scott decision of the Supreme Court of the United States which essentially said a black man has no rights that a white man is bound to respect to say that blacks could not preempt public land California had similar laws for preemption but California Supreme Court to its credit with Southern Justice aboard in 1861 says hey her laws don’t say anything about race or anything sure blacks can preempt public land and from California and this was a case from a black family from Shasta 1863 the General Land Office in Washington reversed the former precedent and said on a case from Marysville said of course blacks couldn’t cramped public land in the United States and they had the benefits of the Homestead Act blacks now could also serve as soldiers and many paved their way back east the Navy on its rush the fleet the Pacific Fleet ships of the Pacific Fleet it had groups of Maryland freedmen say of 25 each on its main ships out here on the Pacific coast so yes you had black sailors on the Pacific and of course in 1871 the Fifteenth Amendment the right of suffrage where state and local 1863 came the right of testimony in the courts a key victory California and its southern Democratic wisdom and I am being sarcastic ‘old in 1850 declared that persons that had 1/8 or more Negro blood could not testify in any criminal case involving a white person in the next session for civil cases they changed it to 1/2 so the old southern one drop and you’re a black person did not apply in California but essentially removed the courts from the african-american citizens of this state of course you had the early Republicans and other friends

of justice working to free people held as slaves and everything they could help and if they this barrier started cracking in 1859 there was a Supreme Court case that involved a Turkish witness and the court unanimously remarked that you know we cannot presume that all persons having Tawney skins and dark complexions should be excluded so in other words the defense no had to this to establish that the witness was Negro which had some very interesting and powerful ramifications in 1861 a Democrat Custom House employee or ex employee stole some money from a black-owned millinery shop and when george gordon a popular barber complained to the police this guy Rodney shell walked into Gordon’s barber shop and shot him immediately the Republican Attorney General elect Frank Pixley rushed to aid the prosecution of this it unhuman and most inexcusable of murders the Reverend Thomas Star King officiated at Gordon’s funeral and friends donated money to begin the long lasting black newspaper in San Francisco the Pacific Appeal Republicans introduced bills in the Senate and Assembly to remove the ban flooding in this in Sacramento sent the legislature to San Francisco at the time this trial came so the defense had to prove that the chief prosecution witness who declared he was a portuguese jew was actually a negro the guy wore a wig so two doctors at the Pacific Appeal said two doctors both from the sunny South removed his wig examined his shaved scalp with a microscope and pronounced they had discovered a certain kink in his hair and believed he had one-eighth Negro blood so the court excluded his testimony as the paper this new science of hair ology as the paper put it shocked the legislators and the major newspapers as I said it was degrading to a white man to submit his hair to my courage microscopic examination the bill failed by one vote in the Senate in 62 in 1863 the bill was back again and it passed so after 13 years this indignity was ended blacks in San Francisco immediately used this new right of the courts just sooo to ride the street railroads and the cases continued over several years five more minutes five more minutes no no no Gary mentioned clambered him so it was ten more minutes then there were the public schools which they got and marching in the July 4th parades since Rebecca has gotten after me with a sharp stick I guess I’d better hurry up California stayed on a gold standard this is when greenbacks depreciated a 40 cents on the gold dollar so if you’re a federal employee you weren’t happy being paid in paper the Democrats in 64 got a little rambunctious on July 1st General Erwin McDowell as Democrats called him his bull run ship from the glorious Union quote victory at first Manassas in July of 61 took charge and you had Charles L Weller chairman of the Democratic state central Central Committee saying Democrats I do not believe you will be allowed to go to the polls I counsel brute force to defend our liberties we must form secret societies and form them now to resist the high armed and military tyranny in California the very rabid American flag had a reporter there the Secretary of the Union League notarized at the speech you know no collusion here and off the

Alcatraz when Charlie Weller if he of course wanted to get out and general McDowell wrote well you know he wasn’t sure whether the public safety will admit mr. Weller’s released to join his or will acquire his friends to be sent to join him the Union League and the police mobilized the police at the Provost army Provost guard was a hundred and sixty the police goosed to 200 with new muskets and there was a volunteer police of three hundred three thousand essentially a revival of the old vigilance committee needless to say the election was quiet April 9 1865 California celebrated General Lee’s surrender on April 15th the news of the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln reached San Francisco by telegraph this was the first riot to destroy property and they destroyed a half dozen newspapers Democratic Irish Catholic British and Imperial French first as you might have gathered was Brian’s democratic press the old California Republican from Sacramento so after the mob was dispersed that evening in San Francisco you had 2,000 militia and troops guarding the main thoroughfares and bonfires blazing at all the street corners Sacramento was calm General Wright says you know enough is enough keep the cool however various unionists here went around visiting known secessionists and told them they better put out morning or else some of them left town and there’d been enough exulting thought on April 17th general McDowell’s said that anyone so infamous as to exalt of the assassination of the president would be arrested by the military and confined and between April 17 and June 1st they arrested 68 nearly 40 of them were at Alcatraz how many of you guys have been to Alcatraz good you know where the boat lands right behind it is what they called the case mated barracks there’s going to be barracks on top with gun emplacements below in the brick well these prisoners with 24 pound balls on their legs we’re excavating for that barracks and they had to tell their woes so they sang about it what a sad sight to see six and thirty men ones free imprisoned for expressing an opinion and when this noble band are made to shovel sand there’s cursing in the happy land of Canaan then hole boys Oh to shovel sand you go your muscles and your patients are in training to brave you are to cry you know that by and by you’ll be welcome to the happy land of Canaan and June they were all out the union was preserved Republicans have been incorporating non-white Californians into the body politic the war was over and so am I

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