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welcome to introduction to programming my name is Steven and my name is Sean over the next 90 minutes we’ll be taking you through this series consisting of 21 different segments that hope to cover the basics of computer programming which can apply to any and all programming languages you might want to learn we’ll be starting with the simplest question of what is programming and from there we will be working our way up as we talk about common features of computer science such as loops and arrays will discuss how to read and write code debug code that you’ve written some strategies to help you plan out your code and much much more the complete list of topics that are going to be covered in this lecture style video are shown on the screen now additionally there will be timestamps in the description so feel free to skip around if you are already proficient in some areas of computer science or just want to know about a specific topic we will be covering hopefully by the end of the series you’ll have a basic understanding of what computer science is along with an armoury of useful skills that will help you unravel whichever programming language you decide to learn first we’ll only be covering the major key points that apply to all programming languages so we’ll be shying away from topics such as object-oriented coding and command-line navigation as those are things which are language specific additionally there will be no software required for you to download in order to follow along with this tutorial as we won’t be writing any code in an IDE to keep things simple and concentrated this video is meant for those who are interested in computer science and programming but have no idea where to start and have little to no background information on coding and so if that sounds like you then strap in as Sean and I work our way through the wacky world of computer science starting with the biggest question probably on your mind which is what even is programming well the dictionary defines it as the process of preparing an instructional program for a device but that’s a really confusing definition so in layman’s terms what exactly does that mean essentially it is attempting to get a computer to complete a specific task without making mistakes imagine this for example you want your less than intelligent friend to build a Lego set except he has lost the instructions and can only build based on your commands remember though your friend is far from competent and so if they are not given very specific instructions on how to build the set there are many mistakes that they could make if he thinks like a computer then if there is even one piece that you have not told them specifically where to place and how to place it the entire Lego set will be ruined and you will be left to suffer a complete mental breakdown causing the whole goal of of the project to be corrupted giving instructions to your friend is very similar to how programmers code instead of a less than intelligent friend you have a less than intelligent computer and instead of instructions on how to build a Lego set we are feeding it information on how to complete a program like a game or a web application an important thing to note is that computers are actually very dumb we built them up to be this super sophisticated piece of technology when in actuality a computer’s main functionality comes from how we manipulate it to serve our needs now programming isn’t as simple as giving your friend instructions since in a programmers case the computer doesn’t speak the same language as you the computer only understands machine code which is a numerical language known as binary that is designed so that the computer can quickly read it and carry out its instructions every instruction fed to the computer is converted into a string of ones and zeros and then interpreted by the computer to carry out a task going back to the Lego example this process would be like if he was not only less than intelligent but to make matters worse he could not understand English and only speaks in Mandarin Chinese in order to speak with him you have to convert the instructions that you understand in English into the language that your friend understands this process is essentially what you must do for your computer in order to make it understand the instructions that you give it the big difference between the two examples however is that it is very difficult for people to understand machine code in binary directly translating what you want the computer to do into machine code is extremely difficult in fact almost impossible and will take a very long time to do it if you could each program is composed of millions upon millions of those ones and zeros so how exactly are we supposed to translate our instructions into machine code this is where programming languages come into play programming languages are fundamentally a middleman for translating a program into machine code these languages are much easier for humans to learn than machine code and thus are very useful for programmers going back to our Lego example a programming language would sort of be like an interpreter that’s able to take the instructions you give them in English and translate them into instructions your non-english speaking friend can understand this makes programming languages extremely useful and the backbone of any good program think of programming languages as not

English and not machine code but somewhere in the middle there are many different programming languages out there that each have their own unique uses languages such as Python and Java act as general-purpose languages that can perform a variety of computational tasks while robot C or HTML or CSS our language is designed for more specific purposes such as moving a robot or constructing a website languages can also vary in how powerful they are for instance javascript is a scripting language that is designed for smaller tasks or Java or Python and carry out much more computationally taxing processes we can measure a programming languages power or level by how similar it is to machine code this series of zeros and ones we talked about earlier low-level programming languages such as assembly or C are closer to binary in a high-level programming language such as Java or Python the basic idea is that the lower the level of your programming language the more your code will resemble what the machine can interpret as instructions aside from the different purposes that each language fulfills choosing a language typically comes down to a matter of preference as are usually many languages that can accomplish similar tasks try different languages and decide which ones rules interface and level of simplification you like best so now that we know what programming is how do we actually write code it’s not like we can simply type words into a text document and automatically assume that the computer can translate it into machine code read it and carry out a task like opening up a browser and additionally we can’t just write down rubbish in certain programming languages mentioned in the previous segment and expect the computer to understand so how are we supposed to write code then well the answer is with an IDE an IDE which stands for integrated development environment allows the facilitation of code by a computer i des provide a graphic interface on your computer in which the programmer can easily write run and debug code without having to worry about problems with complication or interpretation of the program think of an IDE as any other program on your computer such as a game a browser or even the File Explorer except we’ll be using it to write code IDs are able to turn your code into machine code and run it through the computer to produce results in addition to providing a place for programmers to develop their code IDs provide some extremely useful tools for programmers to ease the job of writing code such as built-in error checking because as we’ll talk about later code doesn’t always run correctly auto-filling for frequently used words or phrases and a project hierarchy which will help you organize and manipulate the files within your project back in the olden days before I des Code used to be written on punch cards and then fed into computers which would take hours and cause a lot of pain IDs nowadays act as sort of a fast-track to writing code and make things a whole lot easier for programmers an example of a specific IDE can be seen on your screen now in the center you can see the program that is currently being written and right below it is the console which can print out useful information for the programmer this specific IDE is used to write Java code IDs are extremely powerful and will be used in almost a hundred percent of your programming projects so through these ideas we are finally able to write and compiled code smoothly without worrying about the computer not being able to understand it the next problem we run into then becomes how do we write this code in the IDE because it’s not like we can just type random words from a certain programming language and expect the computer to understand this is where a programming languages syntax comes into play now just as if you were learned in a real language learning a computer language can be very similar some have different style that may seem odd some may make you use weird or abstract concepts which may be confusing and like all languages programming languages have a set of rules that you must follow when writing code in that language and at the forefront of those rules is grammar programming grammar is referred to as syntax and is very similar to real-world grammar each programming language has its own syntax or rules that you have to follow to a tee if you want your program to run correctly just as if you were speaking in real life these can be things such as how you type out certain functions what you put at the end of the line of code and how you set up certain functions each language is unique in its syntax and while some may share similar rules all will have some quirk which makes it stand out from the rest syntax is something that catches a lot of people off-guard since many expect every programming language to follow the same set of rules but as we spoke about in the last segment because each language is specialized for a specific task each needs its own set of rules to function breaking or disregarding these rules will result in an error just how breaking or disregarding rules in real life will result in an unintended message as an example if you wanted to do something simple such as initialize a variable which is something that we haven’t covered yet but the example is still relevant in Java you’ll notice how we have to specify what type of variable we are defining in this case an integer and also at a semicolon after the

statement in Python we don’t even need to define that we are trying to create a variable and just have to type what we want to create and in JavaScript we just specify that we are making a variable but we don’t include what type of variable we want to make like in Java even in this simple example you can see how much of syntax matters when learning a new language since while the goal of our program remain the same which was to define of the integer with the value 3 all the programming language is shown took different approaches all these languages require that you follow the syntax because remember computers are extremely dumb if you forget one semicolon or misplace a character the entire program will not run and send you back a syntax error which is something we’ll talk about later think of this as if you forget a comma in a sentence and the entire context of what you’re trying to say gets misinterpreted for example and the sentence let’s eat grandma if you were to forget that comma while it may seem like a small mistake it changes the entire context of the sentence making it sound like you’re going to eat your grandma the same rules follow for programming if you forget a semicolon the entire context of your program could be corrupted and misinterpreted by the IDE now another thing which makes IDE so useful is that they will let you know if and when there are syntax errors in your code syntax errors of course being in parts of your code which do not follow the same rules what we talked about previously the IDE will tell you where in your code the errors and also won’t let you run your program until the error has been fixed because of how important syntax is to writing code and learning a new language it’s recommended that you learn the rules and syntax of a language before beginning to write complex programs in that language most of the rules are tedious to learn but easy to master and as soon as you can do that you’ll be able to easily identify syntax errors and take care of them easily and be writing code in no time that covers the basic gist of syntax and programming rules so now that we know how to write code and the where to write code we next need to cover what happens after we have typed out a program and run our code because writing a piece of code for a game or for databases is cool and all but after the computer interprets the program how will we know what’s happening and whether or not is working well programmers do this by looking at the console the console is a text interface within your computer that US programmers can use for a variety of different purposes if you remember a short while ago we showed a picture of a basic IDE and one of the main parts of the picture was the console the main use of the console is to output text from the program this is usually done by using a print statement a print statement is a command that does exactly what it sounds like it prints text to the console the print statement is the first piece of actual code we’ve talked about in this series and it’s about as simple as a kiss the purge statement despite its simplicity is one of the most important functions in programming and exists in some form in just about every programming language the most basic thing you can ask the press statement to do is to just simply make it say something this is done by instructing the console to print and then include wherever you want to be printed inside the parenthesis for example in Python the segments of code print hello world will cause a message reading hello world to appear out to the console pretty neat the print statement is also vital for view interpreting the computer’s output from program for instance if you could tell the computer to run a simple calculation for example to determine what four plus three is it will run the program internally and compute and answer however what is the purpose of having the computer run this program if you were not be able to tell what the result is instead of simply tell them the computer to perform this calculation instruct the computer to print the output of the program to the console and prime the program’s completion seven will appear on the console as you can see the console loves to easily print information out to the developer for a variety of uses it is important to note that the print statement varies depending on the programming language being used for example in Java there are multiple versions of the print statement depending upon whether you would like a line break after the project text or not as well as specialized print statements which make your code run more efficiently also the general syntax of using a print statement and certain nuances of its function contains between languages however you can generally rely on it to carry out the same overall function as it is foundational statement for programming in general all of its functionality makes the print statement along with the console a very useful developer tool however it is important to remember that that is all it is in the developer tool the console is not really meant to be viewed by the end user of your program it tends to be hidden away behind the scenes and other methods of displaying information such as displaying text graphics or images are used to convey information to the user instead think of it like this when you are using your phone you see the console and none of the programs you use so while you can use the console to give yourself information about how your program is performing don’t try to implement it in the final product because it fundamentally just isn’t meant for that overall remember to use the console to its fullest extent when writing and fixing problems in your programs as it is a great tool to use to tell how your program is performing behind the scenes so now that we know a bunch of information about programming languages and how and where to write them along with the print statement under our belts let’s go over some intuitive things that the computer can do all by itself

without you having to tell it how to more specifically we’ll be covering some basic number mathematics as well as string math starting off with basic mathematics the computer already knows how to do simple arithmetic this includes addition subtraction multiplication and division all of which are represented by the symbols shown on the screen now in any IDE that you may install you’ll be able to print out the answer to simple math problems using the print statement which may seem counterintuitive because why would you use the computer to do math when you have a perfectly good calculator on your phone if you have to remember that computers are dumb and anything we want a computer to do we have to build up from scratch basic arithmetic while simple helps out in almost any program you may write for example if we wanted to build a basic calculator app we’d need to utilize this functionality in order to correctly display the answer to an arithmetic problem when our user tries to add subtract multiply or divide two numbers now in addition to the four basic math equations most programming languages include an additional operator known as modulus if this is your first time hearing this word don’t worry since it’s not usually taught in math classes modulus allows us to get the remainder of a divisional operation for example when we take 10 modulus 3 we are essentially telling the computer to take 10 divided by 3 ignore the actual answer and just give us the remainder of the operation in this case 1 since when we divide 10 by 1 the answer is 3 remainder 1 the 1 in this case is what gets printed out to the console if there is no remainder say in the case that we take 50 modulus 2 since the remainder is 0 the function would return 0 if we were to print it out to the console this can be extremely useful in many cases the most obvious being if we want to determine whether or not a certain integer is even or odd if we take a certain number modulus 2 and ever turn 0 then we know that is even because any number divided by 2 will always result in a full answer without a remainder but if the system returns one then we know that the integer is odd you will find yourself using the basic math operators a lot more than you think so it’s good to keep them in mind when writing your program now not only can our computer work with numbers but it can also work with strings strings by the way are just another way to say texts for example hello world is a string the letter A is a string and anything enclosed by quotation marks is denoted as a string in programming languages we’ll cover more about strings in a bit when we talk about variables but for now let’s continue we already talked about printing strings to the console well let’s say we’re making a game and we wanted to print out the statement game over for was your final score now while we could just make a string that says that exact phrase and print it out to the console in some cases it would be more useful to print out the actual integer value especially in the case of a game where the score can change each time you play because score definitely isn’t always going to be 4 well we’re also able to print out multiple strings of text and even integers by adding them together in the print statement this is known as concatenation continuing with our scorer example if we wanted to print out the statement game over for was your final score using 4 is an integer rather than a string we could do this by breaking down the statement into two strings and an integer like so print game over plus four plus was your final score we of course begin with the print statement which again will be different across all languages but in this case we’re using Python inside the print statement we start off by printing the string game over now here comes the important part from there we use a plus sign and add four to the print statement just like if you were adding two numbers then we can repeat this process with another plus sign for the final string was your final score and we’re able to print out the entirety of our statement easily doing this we can easily print out multiple different strings and integers together in one print statement we could also combine the two lessons we’ve learned thus far and do something such as game over plus four plus four plus was your final score in the case let’s say where you have a which gives you a base score and then four points for a certain task that you completed this demonstration also displays another important part of programming which is that oftentimes to get your program to be the most efficient you have to combine aspects of code now it’s important to note that the computer will take whatever you put in the parenthesis and print it out character for character so oftentimes programmers will forget to add a space onto the end of their strings this can result in a small mistake in which the string from the previous example would be printed out as if to say game over for was your final score which isn’t that appealing when displayed on the screen to the user so it’s a good practice to always put a space after and before your strings to make sure this doesn’t happen and your string doesn’t end up like that another important thing

to note is the difference between four in quotation marks and four without quotation marks now four in quotation marks is treated as a string rather than a four without quotation marks which is treated as a number this may not seem like a big deal but again computers are dumb and if you try to do math with a number in quotation marks it will return an error because the computer doesn’t understand that you’re trying to perform the operation on a number and it thinks you’re trying to add an integer to a string which is a big no-no in programming when you’re adding numbers so when you’re programming make sure to make a mental note of whether or not you want to make something an integer or a string because that type of stuff it makes a big difference all right that concludes our segment on the base power of computers now next up we’re going to be covering one of the most important components of computer science so make sure you pay attention because next up we’re going to be discussing variables what they are and how we use them first of all what exactly is a variable a variable is simply something that can store information and can be referenced and manipulated think of variable is like a cardboard box cardboard boxes a service means to store items in them which can be change that replaced and modified variables are like cardboard boxes that store information for the programmer to reference or manipulate each variable simply has a type a name and a piece of information stored inside of it the type of piece of information will be covered next and the name is simply a name for the variable think of it as writing out a label on the cardboard box in sharpie now there are many different types of variables that a programmer can use but right now we will just be covering what are called primitive variables which include integers bullying’s floats and doubles strings and characters we’ll start off by talking about in integer an integer or int for short is as simple as it sounds a variable that can store an integer value this includes all whole numbers from negative 2 billion 147 million 480 3648 to 2 billion 147 million 480 3648 notice how I said whole numbers entered values can not and will not hold any decimal values so keep that in mind when using variables secondly is a boolean a boolean is very primitive variable which can store a value of either true or false boolean variables can only hold these two values and are extremely useful for conditional statements which we will cover soon the next two types of variables are floats and doubles both of these variable types are floating-point data types which essentially means that these variables can store numbers with decimal places where as integers values cannot hold decimal values floats and doubles can the main difference between the two is that a float variable can store numbers of our precision up to 32 bit while doubles can store numbers with a precision up to 64 bit essentially a double can store more decimal places than a float so it all comes down to how precise you want the variable to be up next we have string variables which are like the strings we’ve talked about beforehand except store somewhere in a value string variables can store strings of letters which are just words and sentences strings are useful for displaying text and storing input information strings can also be concatenated together to form combinations of string variables and pre-written strings this can be very useful for outputting information in a readable format for the user and for example imagine we have a string called name the code asks for input and stores that string of text in name to output this information to the user rather than simply displaying their name you can add the phrase your name is and make it into a sentence by concatenating your name is plus name plus a period this makes it easier to read your code while also adding variability to your code which always makes things more interesting for the end user finally we have char variables our stands for character and just as the name suggests they can each hold one character this is useful when a programmer wants to read one button press or one character in a string without using a string variable a specific example is being a game that is controlled by the keyboard the program needs to recognize the character that is pressed and translate that into carrying out some function now strings can also hold one character but chars can’t hold more than one character so keep that in mind when defining variables now why are variables so useful well being able to store information in a format that can be easily referenced later is essential for any good program oftentimes in code you’re going to want to keep track of things such as a user’s name or score and so by creating a variable called name or score you can store this information in the variable and then reference it add to it or modify it also many times the program will want to take input from the user which cannot be pre-programmed into the code and thus a variable is required to store the information a program may also rely on factors that will change as the program progresses in which case a variable is once again required also taking these variables and manipulating them is quite necessary for carrying out many of the tests you want a program to carry out for instance multiplying in variables or concatenating string variables over all variables are the backbone of any good program and you’ll find yourself using them often if you want to clean an efficient code so it’s best that you learn what types of variables you need to use and win so now that we know all

about the different variable types and we’ve talked about them a little bit we’re gonna delve further into what happens when we actually define create a variable how we reference them and how we can manipulate them for our programs to start let’s go over what happens when we actually define a variable now when we write a line of code which initializes a variable and that code is executed the computer essentially creates a little space in memory that stores your variable name and its contents so that it can be referenced later going back to our cardboard box example from the previous segment think of this as if you had your own storage facility and you make a new cardboard box labeled name and inside of it you put a piece of paper with the word nullpointerexception on it now anytime you want to know the contents of your name box you could simply look inside and see that it has the contents nullpointerexception this is what the computer does except this storage facility is the memory your computer the box is a variable and the contents of the box are whatever the variable is set to be equal to anytime you want to know the contents of the name variable you can simply call it and the computer will pull the information that is stored in that variable and use it how the users see fits another thing to note really quickly is that you can actually make a variable without putting information inside of it this would simply be like if you built up a new cardboard box gave it a label with a sharpie but just didn’t put information inside of it you’re simply saving that space in your storage facility for later this can be maybe because you want to store information in it later down the road or if you’re going to use it to store information given to you by the user in which case you can’t give it information since you don’t know what the user will input just a note that if you try to reference or point to a variable which does not have any information in it you’ll get what’s known as a nullpointerexception which despite being an amazing name for a youtube channel is something you generally want to avoid when programming now programming languages allow us to do some pretty cool things with these boxes that we’ve created for example let’s say we created a second variable called channel name and instead of setting it equal to null pointer exception we instead set it equal to our already created named variable this doesn’t create a space in memory for this new variable however it simply points the same location of memory we have already created for the name variable going back to our storage facility example this would be like instead of creating a whole new box labeled channel name and storing a sheet of paper with the word nullpointerexception on it we instead simply added another label below the name box entitled channel name now we have two variables which point to the same contents that being the string nullpointerexception we usually do this to save space in our code for things that we know are going to have the same value variables can also be updated throughout your code for example let’s say you add an age variable and inside of it was the integer 17 then you celebrated a birthday and wanted to update your age all you would have to do is reference the variable and set it equal to whatever new integer you want the to hold in this case 18 this would be the same as having a box labeled age with a sheet of paper reading 17 inside of it and then taking that piece of paper out erasing 17 replacing it with 18 and then placing it back in the box doing this we are able to easily update the contents of our variables throughout the code as things dynamically shift as another example if you are making an RPG your character would likely have stats such as attack defense mana etc as a game progressed you could continuously update the variables so that the player could get more powerful the further along that they went through the game and you wouldn’t have to create new variables you would simply need to just keep grabbing that box from your storage facility erasing and replacing the numbers on the piece of paper and then continue along with your code just keep in mind that these variables are nothing more than places in memory and which a certain value is stored so we can easily update the numbers and their place will remain constant after the code has run its course the place in memory is deleted until you run the code again and the program dedicates space for the variable again each time you run the code you’re making new boxes in your storage facility and at the end of the code you destroy them all to make room for the new boxes next time another cool thing you can do with integer float and double variables is add them subtract them divide them multiply them and even modulus them for example if you are making a calculator app and you store the first number the user entered as number one and a second as number two you could then multiply num1 and num2 together and now they’re print them or soar them in a new variable entitled the result then each time you run the program the user could input new numbers into the num1 and num2 variables and they would simply be set to those new integers that the user inputted and

returned the result that corresponds to those specific numbers this allows you to keep easy track of which numbers are which and what’s going on in your program which is extremely useful also while you cannot subtract multiply divide or take the modulus of strings you are able to add them like we said previously let’s say you add a string str1 with the contents hello and a string str2 with the contents there you could add str1 and str2 to create a string that the head the contents hello there either storing it in a third variable or printing it out to the console the last topic we’ll be covering on the topic of variables is the naming conventions of variables which albeit may seem odd but it’s extremely important when trying to read your code so we’ll be covering it now now variables have to be one continuous string and so if you wanted to make a variable that stored the players score you’d have to find some way to combine the words player and score since you can’t have the phrase player score be the name of a variable all programmers have their own personal preference when it comes to naming variables but the one we’ll be using in this lecture is called camelcase which is the process of not capitalizing the first word but capitalizing every word that follows it going back to the players core example using the camelcase method the variable would be called player score this allows us to easily see and identify each word and becomes really useful for long variable names like the player’s score before the final boss whereas if we just type it out without camelcase it would be really confusing and hard to read this will help you out a ton when we start finding bugs in our code and need to quickly scan through our program to figure out what is wrong and adds to the overall readability of the program other programmers might use different naming conventions like using underscores to separate the words in a phrase but for now in this series we’ll be sticking with camelcase next we’ll be moving on to conditional statements which at their core are statements that change the path of our code depending on certain conditions for the sake of keeping things simple for this section red lines will connote that our code will not be following the specific path in green lines will mean that our code is following the path the main type of conditional statement that programmers use is the if statement and this will show up countless amount of times in any program you write it is as simple as it sounds if some condition is true and usually that condition will be enclosed by braces then carry out the instructions located within the if statements brackets else do another thing now brackets are used in most programming languages to indicate a segment of code which will run it works like this if the condition in parentheses is true then all of the code contained within the brackets will run and if the condition within the parentheses is not true then it will skip over all the statements within the brackets a quick note is that while this is the case with most programming languages some like Python use columns and whitespace to determine where a piece of code starts and ends but for the sake of this series we’ll be using curly braces now the condition within the parentheses can take on thousands of different forms such as if the value of the string variable name is equal to Steven or if the player’s score stored in an int variable is greater than 5 the list goes on and on each of these statements is evaluated as a boolean which you will remember from when we talked about variables is either true or false if the boolean is true we run the code inside the curly braces if it’s not we pretend everything inside the curly braces never existed and move on with our code the if statement comes with two more additional statements that can go with it else if and else else if is a conditional statement used directly after an if statement and carries out mainly the same function as an if statement however the else if statement will only be evaluated if the preceding if or the preceding else if the statement is bypassed due to each condition being false so we would run through it like so if something is true we would run the code inside of that statements curly braces helps if that something is not true but another statement inside of the parentheses is true we would then run that code segment and if neither of them are true we would skip both segments of code and move on in our program this can be a hard concept to wrap your head around so do an example if we had a program that evaluated the if statement if age is equal to 10 we could then have a statement under that which stated else if age is equal to 12 now if the age variable was 10 which we can see from the example that it is then the code immediately following that conditional statement in the brackets would run the ELSA statement we made will not even be tested since we know that it is going to be false and thus the print statement inside of that conditional statement Break its will be ignored and the code will move on to the rest of the program now for example let’s say we change the age variable to be 12 instead of 10 now instead of the

first conditional statement being true it actually evaluates as false since age is no longer equal to 10 so what we do now is first skip over the print statement which prints out that ages 10 since it’s not and then we evaluate the else if statement we check if age is equal to 12 which again it is and so now we run with all the code inside of that conditional statement before finally moving on to the rest of our program so as a review we check the initial if statement if it’s good then we run all of the code within that if statements curly brackets and move on with our program if the initial if statement is not true we then move on to any else if statements and evaluate if those conditional statements are true where you have as many else of statements as we want although this could lead to clutter amongst your code so we’ll talk about some alternatives later to help this out now that takes care of the if-else statement so now we’ll move on to the else statement the out statement once again it comes after an if or an out if statement and we’ll carry out its instructions no matter what as long as the preceding statement / statements are evaluated as false if we went back to our previous program we could add an else statement which would only have the code in his brackets run at the age Virgo wasn’t 10 or 12 this will catch all cases of the program that didn’t fit into our parameters it’s a good practice to always have an else statement at the end of your conditional statements to catch any weird cases that make him up in your program now remember back to the fact that we could have thousands of else’s statements after a while that can get pretty cluttered and so another very useful conditional statement which helps circumnavigate this problem is a switch statement a switch statement is functionally similar to many if and else if statements together you write a switch statement in the form of switch variable and then below that you write out how many cases the variable could be for instance if we were to switch var and then under way to write out five cases that the variable var could be and the the instructions listed under each case will be carried out if the very variable would be equal to that case now switch statements are different since instead of using brackets they use a column to signify the start of a set of instructions and a break statement to end them this is very useful because you are able to essentially use many if and else if statements without having to write nearly as much in switch statements you just always have to remember to include a default case at the bottom of the expression to denote any and all cases that don’t meet the above requirements this simply catches all the inputs that don’t fit within the program’s main cases it’s very similar to read out case at the end of an MPhil chain now why are these statements so useful well many times programmers want their programs to function differently depending on different conditions for instance a program could function differently depending on the information that the user inputs such as allowing user to use the program or not use a program if they are above or below 18 years old respectively or in say a video game if the users experience is above a certain threshold we might want to get them harder a punch to battle another example could be a program which changes the color scheme depending on the time of day or even more simply if a user presses a button that is meant to move on to another screen in an app the programmer would only want that app to change screens if the user clicks that button a program without conditional statements will do the same thing every time and would be very primitive compared to one that can change depending on some conditions so now that we know how to make and use variables how to compare them and what we can do with those comparisons let’s move on to another foundational concept of computer science and that is arrays now we’ve already talked about variables and how great they are for storing singular bits of information for making our code more simplistic but one of the biggest drawbacks that comes with variables is their inability to hold more than one piece of differing information for example let’s say you’re making an app which allows a user to create a grocery list well there’s no real easy way to create lists using variables because it’s not like you can have one variable store the names of 6 or 7 different food items remember we can only put one piece of paper in our cardboard box no more and besides even if you were able to add multiple items to one string variable you would still have a lot of trouble doing simple tasks you might want from a list such as searching through it splitting it or even deleting items from the list when you’re done with them this is the problem that using arrays solves for us an array is as you may have guessed by now a list you can have an array of integers and array of strings and even an array of other arrays which is something we’ll cover in a minute programmers use arrays when they want to store a lot of variables containing information that is all related to each other such as a grocery list or a high score list in a game think of arrays is a column in Excel or Google sheets you have the title at the top and then below it are a bunch of bits of information which all relate back to the title arrays are super useful when programmers want to store a lot of information that can be easily searched through because programmers have developed methods of breaking down and using a race to find specific information in arrays full of thousands of different variables I have an example to show just how useful arrays are let’s say you’re a startup company that owns an app that has a hundred thousand users every time a user wants to create a new account they input the username they want and then your program will have to check to make sure the account name hasn’t already been taken doing this requires you to search through the information of all 100,000 of your users to see if that username has it account with your service an array would be able

to contain all of this information and make it easy to search through and find out if the account name has already been taken with little to no delay now the single most important thing to note about arrays is how you reference each element of the array within them let’s create a basic array called numbers and inside of it put the digits 1 through 10 now when we want to refer to each cell in this array we would call upon its index in index is just a fancy way of saying that numbers placed within the array now you would think that the first integer in this array would be the first index the second would be the second index and so on but that’s simply not the case in computer science programming languages refer to the first cell as the zeroth element in the array this means that if we were talking about our new array of numbers we just made the number four would actually be in the third index five would be in the fourth and so on so instead of starting our count from one we start from zero it’s extremely weird and confusing but it’s one of those programming quirks you’re gonna have to memorize and commit to memory if you were to not follow this nomenclature and refer to the last element in this ray as the tenth you get what is referred to as in a ray out-of-bounds error since you’re trying to reference the tenth element but there is no tenth element or you’re actually trying to do is reference the ninth element another extremely important thing to note about arrays has to do with their size when you initialize an array you can do it at either one of two ways you can either populate it with the elements that you want contained in the array right then and there creating and filling the array at the same time or you can define how many elements you want the urate to hold essentially the arrays size and then populate it with elements later this is because when we initialize an array it creates a space in memory that has the size of exactly what you give it no more and no less this is great for when we want to access elements in the array because we can do so incent aeneas ly because the computer knows exactly where in memory the array is stored but the one downside is that we can’t increase the size of the array later on all array sizes are final think of this like setting up a bookshelf with books by populating a bookshelf with a certain number of books and then moving on and filling the next shelf with different books we have no way to go back and add books to that first shelf without shifting everything over once we decide how much space to dedicate for an array in this case there’s no way to add more space once again because this is extremely important to remember this means that once an array has been defined there is no way to change the size of it if you have an array titled names with a size of 8 then you try to add another name to the array you will receive an error so be careful when messing around with array sizes of course you can always go back to the start of your code when you initially make the array and allocate more space to it increasing its size if you find out that you need more space to hold items but once it’s defined you cannot change its size through conventional methods another small thing I want to touch upon really quickly is that when you initialize an array you must determine which type / array it is right then and there for example you have to specifically say it will be an array of strings or integers when defining it and also you’re not allowed to mix and match meaning that you can’t have an array full of integers with a few strings and summed up was thrown into the mix they all have to be the same type now the last thing we’re going to cover on arrays is a little funky and that is the practice of putting a raise inside of a raise if you make an array of a raise it is referred to as a 2d or two-dimensional array think of these as matrices if you have taken in the algebra class before now if you haven’t think back to our Google sheets example but instead of using columns we would add rows as well so now each element in an array would simply just be a string variable or an integer variable but an entirely new array with its own set of values and elements the way we index these is mostly the same except we would have two numbers two index instead of one we start with the row and then the column so a number in the position 0 2 would be in the first row 3 columns down in this case the name Clint a number in the position 1 1 would be 2 rows down and 2 columns across in this case the name Chris you get the idea now you can also make 3 dimensional arrays by putting an array inside of an array inside of an array but that’s a little above what we’re going to be covering so I’m going to cut it off there next up we’re going to be talking about loops so what exactly are loops next up we’re going to be talking about loops so what exactly are loops next up we’re going to be talking about loops so what exactly are loops next up we’re going to be talking about loops so what exactly are loops next up we’re going to be talking about loops so what exactly are loose well as you could probably tell by that statement right there a programming loop is a statement that is used to run certain instructions repeatedly just like how the opening statement of this topic was repeated five times loops are very useful for a variety of reasons for instance imagine

you want to print something 15 times sure you could just copy and paste a print statement 15 times but this is really annoying to have to do it becomes even more unrealistic when that number goes up to say 100 or so now what if instead of rewriting the same instructions over and over again you would simply place the print statement inside of a loop and it will occur as many times as you would like now that’s the power of loops with loops were able to repeat parts of code multiple times now there are three different types of loops that we will be discussing today and that first is the for loop a for loop is very useful for situations like the one described above where you would like to carry out a sort set of instructions in numerous times the syntax for a for-loop varies depending on the language however it usually consists of three parts an integer value a condition which the integer value must meet in order to exit the loop and an operation to modify the integer value at the instructions inside of the loop are completed each time the for loop runs the operation you said will be performed on the integer as long as that integer still meets the condition you set usually being greater than or less than a constant value the for loop will continue to run eventually when the integer has been modified by either increasing or decreasing it to the point where no longer meets the condition the for loop will terminate and the code will continue to run for example the Sarah integer value is I and we set it equal to zero then we set the conditional statement as I being less than three so basically we’re saying that as long as I the variable we just created is less than three continue running the instructions contained within the loop finally we make the operation I plus plus meaning each time the loop runs we will increase it by one and inside of the loop let’s just put a simple print statement now let’s run through the for loop we start with I equals zero zero is less than three so we enter the loop and pronounce I’ll world now that the instructions are done we add one two I’m making it one moving on one is again less than three so we want to get into the loop and print out hello world again we had one two I’m making it two now two is still less than three so we headed the loop again in print out hello world finally we add one to it once again and it becomes 3 3 is not less than 3 though it is equal to 3 and so we don’t enter the loop and it terminates moving on to the next segment of code this is a simple example but you can extrapolate it across the programming to fit your needs now we’re using a for loop you have to make sure to set up a condition that given the initial integer value and operation well at some point not be met to avoid creating an infinite loop and crashing your program an infinite loop occurs when you give a for loop a condition which will always be met given the parameters of the program and so the software it crashes for example a for loop beginning at 10 and checking if I is over less than zero and then adding one two I at the end of the loop will never terminate since I will suggest increase infinitely after the for loop is the very similar for each loop a for each loop or a for in a list loop in Python is used for iterating through arrays or lists essentially though it will go through each element in the array and carry out some set of instructions for each value if you would like to read all of the elements in an array and compare them to some value or perform some operation on them a for each loop is extremely useful so for example we could have a for each loop which iterated across an array and simply printed out the value of each array location next up we have the while loop a while loop will continually carry ops instructions while conditional statement given to it is true this can be as long as a certain variable is true as long as it numbers less than another number or while a value is still equal to another value for example while loops are different than for loops and that the loop is not contained within one statement but stretched out and will continue to run as long as this condition is true like a for loop you could make the condition such that it will eventually return false and exit the loop however while loops will not crash your computer should you create an infinite loop in fact it is very common for while loops around infinitely as for certain programs you would like the program to continually be iterated through instead of running once all the way through until you exit out of the program when programming a game for instance a while loop would be used to iterate through your code continually refreshing the screen as the game runs from there you can perform operations on the screen to make the game playable creating an infinite while loop could be done by simply using the syntax while true as the condition true will always be evaluated as true finally I’d quickly like to cover the extension of a while loop the dowhile loop do-while loops are very similar to while loops except they will carry out their instructions at least once even if the condition is false and then will carry on like a basic while loop essentially the conditions inside of the loop will run at least once and then if the condition is still met they will run again and function as normal while loop would as you can see loops in there many varieties has some extremely useful functions using them you’re able to perform an operation many times in a row you can iterate through arrays and lists and overall decrease the clutter of your code next up we’re gonna be taking a break from learning about common programming statements and dive into what happens when the code we write doesn’t work more specifically we’ll be covering the different types of errors that can occur when you’re programming and what causes them now when you’re writing code you have to understand that things aren’t always going to go the way you expected them to and sometimes the program doesn’t always work as you hadn’t

intended it to we programmers call these errors and while annoying they’re always going to come up in computer science and so it’s best to learn what they are and how to deal with them often referred to as bugs errors and scripting languages can be narrowed down to one of three types syntax errors runtime errors and logical be covering in today’s video to kick things off let’s talk about syntax errors these are usually the easiest of the three to solve since they are oftentimes something that can be fixed within seconds if you remember back to earlier in the video when we talked about syntax and programming rules we said that if you were to break the programming rules or syntax that it would result in an error well that’s what syntax errors are parts in your program where you failed to meet the programming rules and so the computer doesn’t know how to interpret your code this can be anything from forgetting a semicolon at the end of a statement in Java accidentally defining a variable with two words instead of one or even just misspelling the word string when you’re trying to define a string variable lucky for you guys these errors are extremely easy to fix since you just need to figure out where the error occurred and what the syntax rule you broke was now thinking back to IDE s we mentioned that IDs are so useful because they do precisely that they underline the syntax errors and usually provide helpful hints as to how to fix them think of syntax errors as small misspellings or grammatical errors in an essay you’re writing annoying yes but not the most infuriating things another useful thing about IDE s when it comes to syntax errors is that the program will actually restrict you from running the code unless all syntax errors are cleared making them even easier to identify and fix the second type of error we will be covering is the runtime error these errors don’t show until you actually run the code hence the name runtime error runtime errors are usually caused by statement in your code that seems logically sound but the computer physically has no way of computing it in a reasonable amount of time the most common of these errors is one which we’ve already talked about the infinite loop as a refresher or an example think of an infinite loop like this say you cite your friend down in front of the TV put on the office and told him he could leave as soon as Michael made it that’s what she said joke seems pretty simple right wrong because instead of putting in the office you put in friends on blu-ray no Michael no an appropriate joke meaning your friend would be sitting there for the rest of his life this is basically what happens with the computer you give it some condition that it has to complete before the program can terminate however you give it no feasible way to finish the task this puts the computer in error mode and most likely will crash your program as a computer desperately tries to complete the condition you gave it as a computer example if we try to have a program terminate when integer AI is no longer greater than 99 but AI is initially 100 and only ever increases the loop will never terminate and the program will crash to avoid these you generally want to think through the flow of your code before running it especially with loops to make sure that all of your statements can be completed by the computer carefully planning out your code before you begin writing is an extremely useful practice and something we’ll be covering towards the later part of this video the final type of error that we will be covering is a logic error this error is also pretty self-explanatory a logic error occurs when the code runs smoothly without any runtime or syntax errors but the result that you get just isn’t what you wanted for example let’s say you had a calculator app and you wanted to instruct the program to add two numbers except it multiplied them because you use the multiplication symbol on accident this leads to the sum being 36 instead of 13 nothing went wrong with the code syntax or runtime wise the code runs just fine it just doesn’t work as you had and it headed it – these are often the hardest types of errors to debug since most of the time you’ll have no idea why the code isn’t working and certainly not any idea of how to fix it this is why it’s a good idea to test your code incrementally don’t wait until you’ve been programming for an hour before testing your application where else you’ll run into a lot of logic errors logic errors can be extremely Fury aiding and could cost you a lot of time making them a huge pain but if you know how to effectively debug your code you’ll be just fine speaking of debugging your code that brings just straight into our next topic which is how to debug your program now let’s say you’ve written a program you think it’s ready and you’re ready to test it you’ve been working hard on this and you’re deciding to see it in action you run the program and wait for it to run smoothly and efficiently only it doesn’t work you’ve encountered one of the three errors we just mentioned you really want this code to work but how this is where debugging comes into play if the code is giving you an error and the first thing you should do is read the error oftentimes for syntax and runtime errors the IDE will print an error message out to the console see what line or lines it points to since those are the lines that the

error occurred and see if you can understand and fix what the problem is if the error isn’t clear or you’ve never heard of it then try googling it as there are many websites out there so just Stack Overflow which service forums to ask and answer problems with code chances are if you’ve had a problem someone else’s have the same issue and there’s likely a tested solution usually when the syntax or a runtime error pops up you should be able to find a fix for it fairly easily however as I said before the issue may arise from some loophole or oversight in the code you hadn’t planned forward beforehand maybe you did something as simple as multiply two variables instead of adding them these are logic errors we talked about previously these problems usually won’t have Fred Tex show up to explain what went wrong you’ll have to figure it out yourself now there are a few different strategies that you can use in order to track down and fix a logic error first you could use print statements and the console in order to determine where the code is going wrong imagine you have a conditional statement that will run one segment of code if an integer X is greater than 5 and will run another segment of code if not if in your program X is supposed to be greater than 5 when the program reaches this conditional but for some reason the program is still printing out X is small you can use the prints they meant to help for this problem specifically you could place the print statement before the branch of the can that would print the value of X now when you run the program you know exactly what the computer is thinking printing out the value of X just before the F out statement let you know if the variable has the value you wanted to have and if it doesn’t you know that somewhere above that conditional something went wrong and X was set to a value you didn’t want it to in this case X is equal to 2 which is why X is small is being printed out now that we know what the problem is we can track down where and when in the code we modify X in order to solve it use print statements to determine where your program goes wrong and then try to track down the cause of these issues and solve them if you use this strategy make sure you end up deleting the print statements afterwards to avoid clutter in the console the situation described above could also be solved using a break point a break point pauses your program when the line you place the breakpoint at is reached if say you would like the program to run through a certain conditional and set a variable based on that conditional but you are unsure if this actually happens in your code you can place a breakpoint inside the conditional path that you expect to run upon the breakpoint being reached the program will pause and wait for you to continue it through a button press this signals that the spot in the code where the breakpoint was placed in this case the correct conditional path has been reached by your program you can then continue the program knowing that this was or wasn’t where the error in your code occurred breakpoints can be used in conjunction with print statements in order to both pause the program and perhaps view the values of your variables at the moment in time to give yourself all the information you could want you can also have multiple breakpoints to help slowly work your way through your program and determine where an error has occurred a combination of these two strategies will help you easily determine where in your code you have incurred a logic error next let’s go over what to do if you think you have tracked down the section of code that causes the problem you may think you should delete it but it’s likely you put it there for a reason and you don’t want to lose all that work if you don’t have to firstly try commenting it out comments are used to mark up code and explain their surrounding sections they can also be used to debug anything that is designated as a comment will not be read by the program as code and will be skipped over essentially it becomes something that is only there for you the programmer to read the syntax varies from language to language but it usually involves placing some symbols before or around the code you would like to be commented examples of how to comment in different languages can be seen on the screen now also when you come in something the IDE will greyscale that line of code making it extremely easy to determine what’s commented and what’s not commenting code deletes it in the computer’s eyes without actually deleting it if a problem is present before you come in a section of code but it has gone afterwards then that section of code is the culprit if you comment part of the code out and there are still issues and move on to another section until you find the culprit once you do you can tweak it until it works as intended or delete it entirely and you’ll have a fully functioning program once again now that we’ve talked about what to do if you’ve encountered an error and if strategy on how to find and fix it I like to talk about some strategies you can use to avoid errors in the first place firstly back up your code frequently in the event of the code completely bugging out and you being unable to fix it you’ll want the ability to revert to a previous version where the code was still working if you save frequently enough then you will probably not lose too much work version managers like github or subversion can help with this as they backup code to an online cloud surface in which you can easily pull previous versions of the program from at any point also on top of saving running your program frequently to ensure that the current version works as intended this accomplishes two things first of all it prevents you from saving a backup that

doesn’t work secondly if you encounter a problem it will be easier to find if you have only made a small number of changes since the last time you ran and it worked and thus you will only have to look through the new code for problems if you’ve spent five hours coding and hadn’t run it during that time period it’s going to be likely that at some point during that five our code session you messed up and it’s going to be even harder to figure out where you went wrong errors while annoying and extremely frustrating are a fundamental part of making you a better programmer alright now that we’ve covered errors for a bit let’s hop back on the programming statement train and talk about one of the most important concepts in computer science they’ll function now you may not know it but we’ve actually been talking about a few functions this entire series print statements for loops and even the basic math operations we’ve talked about are all examples of functions which of course begs the question of what actually defines a function well a function is a segment of code that can be easily run by calling the function name and depending on the type of function we’ll do something in return functions can be called numerous times and in numerous places in your code essentially they are like wrapping up a segment of code into a nice present and giving it a name which when called will unwrap the present and go through the code that you’d wrapped up for example the print statements we’ve been using this series allow us to print something to the console anytime we want those are functions you see we just call the print function and enter in what we want to be printed to the console into the parentheses and the computer does it for us behind the scenes there’s actually even more complex code that is in charge of taking your text and translating it to the console to be printed the developers of almost all programming languages realize that you don’t want to program something that manually has to print something to the console through the use of complex programming and so they implemented the print statement to reduce the stress and complexity of code on the user abstracting it to the single line of code that is print all of that code that is used to print something to the console is wrapped up like a present and given to us in the form of one line this is actually the main theme of all functions and the backbone of any good program often times in your program they’re going to be sections of code which are repeated and serve the same purpose or equations which you want to allow different inputs of and so you can use functions in order to condense these down into singular lines of code to save both time and reduce clutter on your code as you will see soon functions are extremely powerful and will definitely be something you utilize all the time in your computer science journey the print statement is just one example of functions in everyday code there are thousands of function that are available to you through the IDE s however because we won’t always use all the functions that are available to you in a single program you have to import these functions from packages found in the IDE which is something that we’ll be covering later on now there are four main types of functions in most program languages and they are separated by two defining features whether or not they take in arguments and whether or not they returned values let’s start by separating them by whether or not they take arguments but first we have to cover what arguments actually are arguments are essentially variables that we pass into the function in order to be manipulated and then either returned back to us printed to the console or used in another operation think of functions with arguments like this if you walked up to your local five guys and told them that you wanted to get food without supplying a type of food they would probably look at you confused in order to get the food that you want you need to tell them exactly what you want to order so that they can give it to you in this case getting food is the function and what you order in terms of food is being passed in as the argument based on what you tell them or the argument that you pass into the get food function they will do something different you should also note that the argument can be many different things it could be fries burgers sodas really anything on the menu and such as the case with arguments and programming arguments can be strings integers arrays pretty much anything as an example of a function that takes in arguments let’s look at the max function which takes in two integers as arguments and returns the maximum number between the two now for this function if you don’t input two numbers or variables for it to compare it’s going to throw you an error just like the five guys employee he doesn’t know what you want to eat since you didn’t provide him with any arguments and the computer doesn’t know which two numbers you wanted to compare and return since you didn’t provide it with two integers arguments are a way for programmers to have one function that can do many different things depending on whichever variables can be passed through arguments add variability of programming and can help diversify your code think of it like this a restaurant that only allows one type of food to be made regardless of what you order isn’t going to be very useful

or diversified but if we’re able to pass in arguments and tell them what food we want our experience can be heightened and more options can become available to us which is exactly what happens when you start using arguments in your function now that we’ve talked about functions that take in arguments let’s move on to functions which do not because functions can also be created and used without taking arguments in and still be incredibly useful to the programmer for example let’s say you are making a text-based RPG game and one of the options you give your player is the ability to view their stats at various points throughout the game now every time you come upon this option and they choose the view stats button you don’t have to type out six different print statements for every statistic they may have your code would get cluttered and messy very quickly instead what you could do is you could package the six different print statements in a simple function called print stats you don’t need to pass in any arguments into the function since the function will do the same thing no matter what the statistics on the player are now every time the user wants to view their stats you could simply call the print stats function and voila the user stats are printed for them to view this allows you to save a lot of time writing code but also a lot of space which is extremely important when your programs begin getting into hundreds and thousands of lines of code and you want to easily search through it to maybe debug okay now that we’ve separated functions into those that take arguments and those that do not let’s again split these up into those that return values and those that do not now the thing you have to understand is that when you’re making your own functions which is something that we’ll be covering very soon you have to choose what your function will return if anything at all functions are able to return values back to the user whether they be in the form of string variables integer variables or even arrays now the thing to note about returning variables is that calling the function alone won’t do anything you have to return the value into something or print it out as an example the max function we talked about previously would return an integer back to the user but in order to do something with it we would have to either set a new integer variable equal to the result of that max function or we can print out the result of the function which in this case which is print out the maximum value between the two integers using functions which return values don’t do much on their own you have to pair it with something in order to gain the use from it let’s do another example let’s say you had created a function which took in two string variables as arguments and combined that using that fancy string math we talked about earlier and then returned them as a singular string this combined string function could then be used to create new string variables since what it returns is basically a string the variable would simply be set to whatever is returned from this combined string function the last type of function is one that does not return anything and these are known as void functions oftentimes these are like the print stat functions that we created earlier simply use to condense large amounts of print statements that appear often in your code these can not be set to variables since they don’t return anything and just get the code that’s within them run through so there you have it the four types of functions ones that taking arguments and return something ones that take in arguments and don’t return something ones that don’t take in arguments but still return values and ones that take in arguments and don’t return anything each of these four types of functions are useful and unique in their own way and you will probably find yourself using each of them through your programming journey so get used to the different types of functions and know how to make the most of them as they are all extremely powerful finally I’d like to talk about one of the major benefits of functions which is that it makes it super useful to make large changes to your code without having to go through the entire program each function call is essentially just a copy of that functions original code and so it’s very easy to make changes to that initial function and have a translate across your entire code let’s go back to our print stats function and say that you wanted to go back and add in a new statistic that the player could level up and through experience in the game without functions you would have to go back into your code and find every instance that you’d printed out the user stats and create another print statement to display the new statistic however if you had created a print stats function like we did just a Lyle go all you would need to do is find out where you define that function and add in a print statement which displays the new statistic and you’re done now every place which you had previously called the print stats function will now also print the new statistic as well you can see just how powerful functions can be if used properly and we haven’t even scratched the surface yet now up next we’re going to cover how we can import other people’s functions that they’ve

written and use them in our code now before we get technical close your eyes and imagine you are trying to build a house sure you could grow your own trees chop down your own wood make your own tools and nails and build from scratch but why do that when you can simply go to your local Home Depot and buy these materials that others have already made ready for you that’s the main idea behind importing functions into your code importing functions allows you to gain access to libraries of functions that other people have already made for you this is just as useful as it sounds there are so many functions that are super useful for any given program that it will take you forever try them all yourself luckily other people already done most of this for you in each programming language you were able to use an import statement to import libraries of functions into your program that you can use as you write it a library is simply a collection of functions that all have the same theme and may be a math library a data analysis library a library which translates texts or anything you can think of really there’s such a variety of libraries for any given language that most functions you require that are not hyper specific to your program can likely be found in some library in fact a good portion of any programmers job is looking online for packages which can make his or her job easier instead of hand writing functions now I can hear you saying wow that’s sick how do I do it well it’s quite simple an import statement in most languages an import statement consists of three parts the library you would like to import from the package you would like to import from that library and then which class from that package you would like to use for example we can load up the java library and from there import the you tow package short for utilities and then from that utilities package import the scanner class a class which allows us to read information from the user a package is simply a smaller set of functions and methods differentiate between the thousands of methods contained in a library and a class is even more specialized than that now if you don’t know what specific classes you’re going to want to pull methods from you can use a start import all classes within the package you like however it can be beneficial to be more specific and only import the classes you would like as it helps with the efficiency of the program in the long run for instance in Python the syntax to import a library is import followed by the library name however importing an entire library is more computationally taxing than importing specific functions from a library imagine you would only be using the factorial function from the Python math library it would be a waste of computing power to import the entire library and it would increase the load time for your program for smaller programs this isn’t a big deal but it really starts to add up when dealing with larger projects therefore you would instead use from math import factorial or the Java equivalent import Java math dot factorial and now have access to that one math command only this limits the functions that you can use however it saves programming runtime if you decide you want to use another function that you hadn’t planned for you can always go back and import that too many times if you try to use a function from a common package and you have not yet imported it the IDE will prompt you to do so if you’re trying to figure out which libraries you want to import think what the functions you’re going to need in your program perform a simple google search and you will probably run into a package or library that already exists in your IDE that you can use and if you can’t there are ways to download and import additional projects to fit your needs but what if after all that you still can’t find a library that contains the function you’re looking for well that’s a perfect segue into what we’re going to talk about next which is the basic structure for writing your own functions so at this point we’ve talked about both what functions are and how we can get some very useful functions by importing them through packages but they’re definitely going to be moments in your programming career where you’re going to want to make your own functions because you won’t want to be made specifically to your program and code luckily making your own functions is extremely simple there are just some basic rules that I want to cover now well we’ve previously used making functions as an example for other topics such as the player stats function from a little bit ago they were extremely abstract and didn’t go into depth into what is needed for an actual function to operate so right now we’re going to be covering a skeletal system of everything that needs to be included in a function in order to get it to work now think back to the four different types of functions that we talked about previously functions that do and don’t return values and functions that both do and don’t take in arguments for creating your own functions we’re just going to have to go down the list and talk about how to approach creating each one of them starting with the most basic of the bunch one which takes in no arguments and returns no values but before we start that there are a few small things I want to note about function naming conventions the variable naming conventions we talked about previously

also translate over to function names so you can’t have two word functions and you can’t use special characters like periods or commas generally you’re going to want to follow the same camelcase style which we talked about in the variables video which is not capitalizing the first word but capitalizing each word after that alright so in general for making functions each language differentiates on how you tell the computer that it’s actually a function in Java you have to define the function scope which is something you don’t really need to know unless you’re going to become more invested in Java but basically it tells the computer which parts of the code can use the function and which type can for this series all of our functions that we make are going to be public from there you then determine which type of function it is so in this case since it won’t be returning any variables we’ll just put void to signify this type of function will not be returning anything finally you put the function name after those two identifiers x’ along with the set of parentheses after it like so the parentheses are where your arguments would go if you were making a function that took in arguments but since for our first type of function we’re not incorporating arguments into this function let’s just leave those blank all of that is just for Java Python on the other hand all you have to do is put the word def short for define and then the function name with a set of parentheses so as you can see each language is going to be a little bit different in how you make functions but the main thing we want to remember is to always add parentheses from there we just type what we want our void function to do within the confines of the function and close it off and we’re done in Java the confines of the loop would be whatever is contained within the curly braces and in Python it would be until you are no longer indented at its core this is the most primitive type of function we’ve made something which takes in no arguments and returns no values quite similar to the print stats function from early on moving on to the next type of function creating a void function that takes in arguments now this process is going to seem very similar to the previous except for one small adjustment remember the parentheses that I mentioned earlier well we put any variables we want the user to pass into the function into these parentheses and then when we call that specific function it will be required to have those variables passed into it for example in Java let’s make a function that takes in two numbers and prints out the product of those numbers we start with the public void plus name of function setup again since we won’t be returning any values and here comes a new part inside the parenthesis you define which type of variables you would like to pass in as arguments in this case an integer and then a name for that variable this name is what you will use to refer to the integer that the user passes in for example let’s just call it num1 then if we want to add another argument we simply add a comma in between the two and we can make another integer variable num two to hold the second number we can do this for however many variables we want to pass into the function but for now let’s close off the parentheses and just print out the product of num1 and num2 as you can see we refer to the two numbers that the user will input into the function as num1 and num2 whatever numbers that the user passes into the function will be converted into num1 and num2 now whenever we want to call the multiply numbers function we just have to make sure that we are putting two numbers in as arguments in this case the number 5 becomes num1 and the number 8 becomes num2 from there we simply run the code and the number 40 is printed to the console it’s pretty important to note that you can also mix and match variables when making arguments so you can have some function which takes in a car an integer and two strings all within one function the last thing I want to mention about arguments is that when you call a function you have to follow the variables you defined when making the function so for our multiply numbers function you couldn’t put in a string and then an int it has to be two integers because that’s what the computer is expecting to be passed into the function so now that we’ve gone over how to make functions that don’t return variables we have to cover those that do and we’ll start with ones that don’t take in arguments now the main difference between defining functions that return variables and defining ones that do not is that in some cases you have to specify that you want this function to return an integer variable this is most common in Java where you would replace a void with int to tell the computer that you want this function to give you something back to you in the form of an integer this works the same as if you wanted to return a string care or even in an array you simply replace the word after public with whatever variable you want to be returned by that function the most important thing to remember about making functions that return variables is that no matter what path your code takes it

must return a variable no matter what what does this mean well let’s say you had some string function in a game and inside of it there was an if statement where if the player score was above 10 you returned a congratulatory message this works fine if you printed the result of this function and the player score is above 10 but if the player score was less than 10 then you don’t enter the if statement and then you don’t have something prepared to be returned to the user and so the function is going to throw you an error you have to have all your paths covered which may seem simple but if you’re making a function with a switch statement in it containing high amounts of cases then this can get out of hand very quickly something I like to do to make sure this doesn’t happen is put a return statement at the bottom of a function with a string or an integer so unique that I’m able to tell that the code is not running properly and can fix it also usually an IDE will let you know if there’s a path in your code or in a function that does not return a variable when it should the main point I’m trying to get across however is always cover your exits and make sure you have a return statement prepared for any case the user may throw at you another small thing to note is that you can’t return one type of variable if you’ve already defined the function to return another type for example you can’t return a string and an integer function or vice versa the return statement must always match the type of function no matter what the final type of function is one that returns variables and also takes in arguments and for these all you need to do is combine we’ve learned from the previous cases first you assign your arguments in between the parentheses making sure that you have also defined what type of variable you want to return and then ensure that no matter what path the code takes that you’re always returning that variable type that concludes our discussion on functions as you can probably tell functions are an extremely vast subject area and require a little bit of practice to fully understand which is why later on in this series will recommend some websites you can use to practice those more difficult topics now I’d like to switch gears a little bit and continue our discussion from earlier on our race arrays while useful aren’t the only way to store and manipulate information in fact there are a multitude of different ways to store data in computer science including linked lists stacks queues maps trees and many others too right now though I’d like to talk about two cool wacky and zany ways to store data that we haven’t previously covered array lists and dictionaries but before we get into those let’s get a little review and reinforcement of arrays as you may remember arrays are basically lists of values that are stored together when you initialize an array you give it a size and this size is fixed you won’t be able to increase the size of the array so when you make an array it’s length is final to access the values and an array you reference them using the index four starts at zero what this means is that the first item of an array is not at position one it is at position zero and its position is commonly referred to as its index location so to find the nth item in an array you would refer to it as index location n minus 1 however as the size of an array is fixed you have to be careful to not reference a position that’s beyond the total size of the array or to append too many items to it as this will return an error we also have what are known as two-dimensional arrays which is an array containing an array in each of its indexes or you could have an array containing arrays containing arrays containing arrays containing a raise depending on what you’re trying to do multi-dimensional arrays can be useful in more advanced programs for organizing a wide volume of related values if that’s confusing at all just give back to earlier for our full discussion on arrays the time stamp will be in the description now that we’ve reviewed arrays let’s go over array lists array lists or just lists in Python can be thought of as a growing array earlier we mentioned how you have to be careful to set an appropriate size of your array and to make sure that you only reference and append values such that you remain within the size however with array lists this isn’t a problem after you initialize an array it instinctively has the size of 10 but if you append values such that the size of the array list goes beyond 10 elements an ArrayList will grow itself meaning that the computer will allocate more memory to the array to increase its total size so that the new values can be appended this is quite useful when you don’t know the exact number of values that the array will need to store or you want the ability to store more values to your heart’s content such as when you’re making a database with an unknown amount of users that will sign up there is a lot more to uncover when regarding a write lists but for this surface-level series that is all you pretty much need to know so let’s move on to dictionaries now when we’re talking about dictionaries we’re not referencing that thick book you probably have lying around your house which has thousands of definitions in computer science dictionaries are like arrays in that they store multiple

values however their dragons are stored very differently rather than being referenced by their linear position within the dictionary each value is tied to another value that is used to reference it or it’s key because of this we need to throw away all conceptions of dictionaries as a linear way of looking at data since in actuality it is much more fluid than interchanging basically we say that each position in a dictionary holds a key value pair when referencing a value in a dictionary you would use its unique key and the dictionary will tell you the value that it is tied to think of it like this each time you add an item to your dictionary your computer creates a handcrafted box to store the data and also a custom makes a jewel key one of a kind no other like in the world this way there is only one key that goes to the box that stores a certain bit of information because each key must be unique we’re using the key in a dictionary will result in an error being thrown because having two keys that are exactly the same would confuse the computer as to what box or piece of information that key leads to however you can store the same value in multiple key value pairs since the keys would all be different now like I said dictionaries are more fluid making them easier to organize than arrays as everything is set up in a more logical manner that is to say it is easier to find the value you are looking for when you’re using keys rather than simply referencing their positions let me explain what I mean imagine you have a dictionary of prices at a store where the key is the name of the product and the value is the price of the item maybe apples cost $1 mil costs $2 and bread costs $3 you can see that in the dictionary each key is the name of a product and each value corresponds to the price of each product so to find the price of bread all you need to do is simply call the dictionary using the key bread this makes it extremely easy to track values through your code since you’re working with tangible values rather than numbers which don’t mean anything to you you can also manipulate dictionaries and many of the same ways you can manipulate arrays and array lists you can iterate through a dictionary and perform many operations and comparisons on the values if you want to find the product with the highest price for example you can iterate through the dictionary to find the value that is highest amongst the grocery store items arrays array lists and dictionaries are useful in their own right as are the mass amounts of other ways to store data and each boast certain advantages over one another we already covered the basics of these three but since there are so many we don’t have time to go in-depth into each and every one of them and so in order to help you grasp the basics of storing information we’re now going to talk about one of the most important functions needed to understand arrays which are searching algorithms now just as there are many ways to store information in computer science there are even more ways of searching through lists searching algorithms at their core are ways in which we can look through a list of values stored in an array say a patient named list or a high score list and find a particular piece of data the goal of a searching algorithm is simply to give the algorithm a string or object you want it to find and have it return the index of the array that contains that string or object as fast as possible now while this may seem simple lots of software runs on the backbone of being able to search through lists extremely quickly making searching algorithms and in particular efficient searching algorithms an important topic to cover additionally this is the main functionality that arrays are used for and it’s the backbone of many of the methods used within array lists as well as many other storage methods so knowing them will take you a very long way typically searching algorithms are used to return the index of a particular data point so that it can be used modify I updated or checked on for example if you’re about to check into a hospital run on an array system for patients the staff must search through your name in the database and by returning index of where your name is they now have a quantifiable number that they can use to easily check you in rent out prescriptions schedule you for checkups update your personal information etc without having to search through the list for your name every single time you may think that there’s little difference between searching algorithms since computers nowadays can perform millions of calculations per second but when you’re a huge multi-billion dollar corporation trying to find a certain data point in a list containing thousands or even millions of data points small differences in efficiency are going to make or break the user experience even a 1% improvement in efficiency can mean a big differences in the amount of time that a user is waiting for a simple task now Before we jump into different types of searching algorithms we must discern between the two states that a razor list can be in either sorted or unsorted a sorted list of information is characterized by some sort of rank able value whether that be a patient ID credit card number or even by alphabetical values like usernames or legal names an unsorted list is just some random assortment of related information not sorted by any particular

order or reason some searching algorithms only work for sorted lists usually the more efficient ones and some work for both sorted and unsorted lists although these are usually less efficient if you end up pursuing computer science further you’ll have to deal with both sorted and unsorted lists so it’s good to know a common searching practice for both another thing to note is that we would determine the efficiency of searching algorithms based on both the worst case scenario and the average number of items that must search in order to find the index we call this Big O notation in which each searching algorithm has an equation which takes in the size of the array as an integer N and will output a worst case scenario efficiency value that we can use to compare with other searching algorithms we can then also look at how long on average it takes to find an element in a list using these two methods allows us to easily compare how efficient two algorithms are all right now that we’ve got some background on searching algorithms they’ll top right into it the first type of search we’ll be talking about is called a linear search and Eve honestly probably uses multiple times throughout your life every time you have to search for your name on a list of people you probably follow the same pattern you start at the top check to see if the first name on the list is yours if it is great if not you move on to the next name on the list until either you find your name or you don’t in which case you leave a linear search works in the same way you start with the first element in the list compared to the value that you’re trying to find and if they’re the same you found your match and you return the index of that element and if not you move on to the next element in the list until you either find the thing you’re searching for where you run out of list to check pretty simple right this is because linear searches are pretty bad when it comes to efficiency especially in the worst case scenario if the item you’re searching for in the list is the last element you’re going to have to check the entire list of items before you find the one you’re searching for on average however you’re going to get it about halfway through the list this makes the linear search o of n worst case scenario since in the worst possible case it will take the entire length of the array or n to find the correct value the linear search on average will return the correct index in oh of n divided by two we’re halfway through the list now while the linear search isn’t great it can work with both sorted and unsorted lists because of the fact that it will eventually cover every element in the list the other search we’re going to cover requires the list to be sorted which may seem like a drawback but having a sorted list allows you to use algorithms that are far more efficient than the linear search so overall the linear search is a good basic searching algorithm before if you have an unsorted list but if your list is sorted there are way more efficient options out there for you such as the binary search which we’ll be talking about now the binary search uses a recursive process to break the data in your list down into more and more manageable bites taking advantage of the fact that it’s sorted in order to find the item you’re looking for faster this one is much harder to wrap your head around so let’s start with an example let’s say you have a list of 10 names sorted alphabetically like shown on the screen now and you wanted to find your name within that list in binary search you would look for the middlemost name in this case the one at the 4th index just a quick aside since there is no true middle since the list is ten names long the computer automatically uses the next one down as the middle value now once you find your middle value you first check to see if the name you’re searching for at the index you’ve chosen is the name that you’re looking for if it is you simply return that index but 99% of the time it’s not going to be including right now so let’s keep going if the value at the middle name is not equal to the one you’re searching for you check to see if the value you’re searching for comes before or after the middle index for example if you were looking for the name Brendan and the value at the middle index was Carl Brendan obviously comes before Carl alphabetically and since we know that the list is sorted what we can now do is ignore the entire bottom half of the list and just focus on the top since we know that if Brendan is even in the list it’s going to be in that top half now we simply treat the top half of the list as an entirely new entity and repeat the process over again again we would find the middlemost element of this new list of names and again compared to the name you’re trying to find if it’s the name we’re trying to find we return that index but if not we compare it to see if it comes before or after the middle index going back to our example let’s say the middle index of this new list is AJ now we know that Brendan comes after AJ alphabetically so what we can now do is ignore the top have the list since we know that if Brendan is in the list it’s not going to be in the top half of our list now we again repeat this process again and again until we find the name we are

looking for so for our example the middle index is time is Brendan and that’s what we’re searching for so finally we would return the index to in binary search eventually the index we were compared to our search term will be the same and once it is we can return the index and move on now if we don’t find it which happens after we have eliminated the entirety of the list without finding our search term the algorithm will simply return a no value to let you know that the item you’re searching for cannot be found in the list the binary search is way faster and more efficient than the linear search since we are drastically cutting down the amount of elements we have to look at making the program run faster in almost 99.9% of cases in which your list is sorted the binary search is going to return a result faster than the linear search so if you have a sorted list your best option is to go for binary as for efficiency the binary search is a log n for the worst case scenario which could be confusing if you don’t fully understand logarithms but all you need to know is that it is way more efficient than the linear search it’s average scenario is actually also o log n as well which again is infinitely times more efficient than the linear cases now while there are other types of searching algorithms you can use these two are the most common for both unsorted and sorted lists so we will stop there for now up next we’re going to be covering one of the most confusing and important topics in computer science recursion let’s start with the most important question what exactly does recursion mean in programming recursion refers to functions that repeatedly call themselves meaning that in the instructions that occur within a function one of the instructions will be a call to that same function you’re already in in the extremely primitive example on your screen now you can see we have some function which in the confines of itself calls itself a recursive function we usually take into account some integer as an argument and we’ll use this to carry out some instructions modifying the integer that was entered before calling itself again with a new integer as its argument to better understand these functions let’s discuss the basics of how we go about programming one of them a really good and easy example of a recursive function is one which sums up all numbers from 1 to n so let’s make a recursive function that does just that the first thing we need is the actual function and we’re going to make it an integer function which takes an integer n as its argument the reason we do this will be explained later but for now let’s move on to the base case a base case is simply a definite value which all recursive statements the ones that are being repeatedly called as we go through the function try to get towards had to be any of the function we test a value that was passed in by the argument against the base case to see if it is satisfied usually these base cases are some requirements like if n as I described before which is a certain value or is equal to a certain value it is extremely important that the base case is set to some requirement that n will eventually meet for the same reason that it is important to avoid an infinite loop we do not want a stack overflow error to occur for example if our base case was to stop calling the recursive function when n was greater than 100 and if it is not we will call the same function again but with n minus 1 and we started with n as say 99 we would never reach the base case and the recursive function will repeatedly call itself over and over again subtracting 1 from N and hoping that somehow it will eventually be greater than 100 until your computer crashes not fall so anyways back to our recursive some example let’s make our base case when n is less than or equal to 1 this way we can start at some positive integer n and subtract from it until it is less than or equal to one in which case we can exit the recursive statement cool now if n is not less than or equal to one what we want to do is return the sum of both N and then the returning value of our recursive sum method minus one why do we add and end the function call well let’s actually go through the function as if we were the computer and see why we start with a call of recursive sum with N equals 3 we know that 3 is not less than or equal to 1 so now we tried to return a recursive sum of n which is 3 and the returning value of recursive sum with an N of 2 we don’t know what the returning value of recursive sum with an N of 2 is so we have to go through the function again only this time n is 2 again n is not less than or equal to 1 and so this function will go through the else statement in return 2 plus another recursive statement in this case the returning value of recursive sum with an N of 1 so once again we have to go through the recursive sum function to get that value that will be added to 2

and then returned and add it to 3 and then return hang in there we’re close now in this function and is less than or equal to 1 and so we return n which is 1 now we take that n which again is 1 and that is what gets added to 2 in the previous function call and then return so this would return 3 now this 3 is what gets added to the first function call which is 3 and so it becomes 3 plus 3 which is 6 and finally after all that time we get 6 return from the function which if you’ve been following along at home 3 plus 2 plus 1 is indeed 6 now this may seem like a waste of time since 3 plus 2 plus 1 is not a hard operation but to those of you saying that I asked you to please give me a sum of all the numbers from 1 to three thousand 567 Godspeed now recursion is a very difficult concept to wrap your head around so if you’re not 100% comfortable with it at the moment feel free to rewatch this section of the video in order to better familiarize yourself with it all right cool now that we have a little background on recursion let’s talk about why it works so well now to understand why and how recursion works we must first understand what a stack is a stack is a data structure that contains all of the tasks you instruct your program to complete based on a certain method your program will then carry out the tasks you give it it’s called a stack because if we start another process before the previous one completes the process is stacked on top of the other one such as the animation on your screen is showing now programs we write will follow the leaf o structure for those unfamiliar with the counting leaf o means last in first out or the last item put on the stack will be the first one removed from it essentially every time you ask your computer to complete a task that task is added to the stack and will be the first one to be resolved think of it like a stack of stones you can keep adding stones on top of your pile but in order to get to the one at the bottom you must first remove all the rocks on top of it now when your function continually calls itself without end without a base case like in our infinite loop example then the stack will never be resolved as items will be continually added to the stack without any of them ever being completed in this case the memory allocated to the stack exceeds the maximum allowed and a stack overflow error occurs resulting in your program crashing think of this as if you’re doing chores and before you complete one chore you get called to do another chore and then before you can complete that one you get called to do another one since you keep stacking tasks or shores on top of one another the stack of tasks will never be completed and you will probably die before ever finishing all of your chores this is the same logic that makes infinite loops crash your program recursion works on these same principles the initial call makes a second call which is added to the stack and now that one must be taken care of first but in that one another function is called which gets added to the stack and so on until you reach the base case in which you slowly start going back down the stack in conclusion recursion in general is extremely useful because by calling the same functions repeatedly it breaks down the problem into smaller sections and results in the program being more efficient small parts of problems are easier to solve and less taxing to compute than the entire problem at once and the computer can combine these small solutions into the whole solution at the end now as we wind down our introduction to programming series we want to take some time and go over some of the soft skills needed to be a successful computer scientist since it’s not all about writing code in fact many professional computer scientists will tell you that the majority of their job is spent thinking about code rather than actually writing it this is because much of programming boils down to problem solving how do we optimize the system how can we make this feature for our app what type of movement do we want for our game and how can we program it the harsh truth is that no good program has ever been written simply from the program are getting the prompter idea sitting down hopping on an IDE and starting to write code there are many tasks we should go through beforehand in order to plan out our code so we ensure that when the time comes to program it’s a clean and easy process and not riddled with mistakes and bugs this is where pseudocode comes into play think of pseudocode like this if you wanted to take a family trip to the Grand Canyon would you simply hop in your car and drive off and figure out things later no because I would be ridiculous instead you would spend some time planning out the trip what sites or places do you want to visit what hotel reservations are you going to have to make what kinds of things are you going to do when you get there what routes are highways are you going to take and why all of these things must be

determined before you can even think about hobbing in your Ford Explorer so how does this translate to pseudocode well think of our family trip to the Grand Canyon as a program programmers use pseudocode sudo meaning not real and code meaning code as a means to plan out their programs before they write them just like how we planned out our trip before going they throw away syntax and naming conventions for variables and just focus on what they want the program to accomplish and how they plan on doing that pseudocode is very similar to constructing an outline for a paper that you’re writing you write down the main topics of the essay and plan out your major talking points but you don’t worry about the nitty-gritty details of it all such as word choice grammar conventions and proper formatting by doing this we allow ourselves to think freely and not worry about stressing the small stuff at least not yet all right now that we know what pseudocode is let’s talk about how we write pseudocode you see the best part about pseudocode is that it can take the form of many different things for many different people each computer scientists has their own methodology for planning out their code and there are probably hundreds of different methods of writing pseudocode that are out there today today however I’d like to focus on three popular ones that I think you might find to be extremely useful the first of these is known as flowcharts and mainly they can be used to think through the process of a particular function a flowchart is fundamentally a graphical representation of a function and how it might flow many programmers do this and lay out the conditional statements and loops that they want as different blocks in the flowchart connected by arrows and charting out every path of their function from there it’s extremely easy to create test cases and follow them through the flow of the function through the different blocks and arrows for example we could have a flowchart that goes something like this a user enters in a number and if the number is 8 I want the program to return true however if the number is not 8 then I wanted to return false it’s a great way to visualize what the functions overall purpose is and also look for any errors that you may have missed when thinking about the function such as a missing path it also abstracts the programming statements up to simple blocks making it easier to modify or change completely the best part is that when you have finished testing cases you can simply convert the blocks into programming statements and you have a well written function without any debugging another popular pseudocode technique that is often used is to simply write out what you want your code to do chronologically don’t necessarily think about what programming statements and functions you want to use just jot down from start to finish what it is the program you’re writing is going to do step by step for example let’s say you’re making an app that takes in two numbers and divides them the pseudocode for that would look a little something like this first I want to prompt the user to enter a number and then I want to wait for the user to enter in that first number after I get the first number I want to again prompt the user to input a second number once they do I complete the operation by dividing the two numbers entered and returning the result back to the user this all seems like it would be common sense but remember that oftentimes we’re not going to be working with simple multiplication or division functions we may be working with full-scale games algorithms or user interfaces with many different options this method allows you the programmer to not get bogged down with the syntax and conventions that you have to follow you’re simply making a note of what the program’s ultimate goal should be as if you were explaining it to a friend of yours this method really lets you plan out everything that needs to happen in your program in order for it to run smoothly it also ensures you don’t forget about a piece of an algorithm or a certain function that you need to write in afterwards and the final pseudocode strategy that I’d like to talk about to you today is writing out the main features you want the user to have when using your program and what functions or smaller programs you’re going to need to complete these features let’s do another example say you’re making a banking interface and on startup you want the user to initially have two options they can set up a new account or log in to an existing account from there if they log into their account then you want them to have the functionality to withdraw money deposit money take out a loan or pay back a loan if they decide to set up a new account you want them to be able to create an account store their information in a database and then access all of the features that a returning member would have this may look very similar to the flow chart method the only difference being that this is abstracted one level higher over an entire program rather than just a single function if you really wanted to you could also create a flow chart that would go through the functionality of all the four methods described above setting up a hierarchy like seen on your screen now makes it easy and clear to see every function in interface you’re going to have to this prevents you from having to try to shoehorn a function or feature into an already finished program at the last second which is not a very fun

experience in the slightest so there you have it three pseudocode strategies you can use to plan out your code before you even start writing any the flowchart method which is good for thinking through the flow of a certain function the write up method which is good for getting the general idea down for a program or the functionality planning method good for listing out the functions of a certain program you can use all of them none of them a mixture of them or even disregard these and find and create your own pseudocode methods the main goal here is to drastically minimize the amount of errors that occur during your program and relieve a lot of stress on your head the importance of pseudocode cannot be stressed enough and if you don’t believe me I urge you to try to complete a large project without it ok so if you’ve watched the series up until this point you’ve gotten a pretty good understanding of many aspects of programming and also how to plan out your programs now it’s time to go out into the real world and write some actual code but what kind of program I can hear you asking me and the answer is truly whatever you want really as I’m sure you know by now you can program just about anything you have on your mind anything from simple games to complex software this video has equipped you with the basics that are going to need to be used in pretty much any program you decide to write but that doesn’t mean that every programming language is perfect for every application each language has its own strengths and weaknesses and choosing the right one is very important for making it easier and sometimes just even possible for you to program what you want so that’s what we are going to be talking about now choosing the best language for what you want to accomplish now we talked earlier about low level versus high level programming languages in case you forgot let’s do a quick refresher higher level programming languages have a higher level of abstraction from machine language that series of zeros and ones from way back when while lower level programming languages have a low level of abstraction from machine language for example block programming where you can drag and drop programming statements together like 2d Legos would be a high level language as it does not take a high level of understanding of the inner workings of a computer to program it the theoretical highest level of a programming language would be if I could just write down what I wanted the computer to do in simple English and it would just work but sadly that doesn’t exist yet on the other side of the spectrum the lowest level programming language would be just feeding zeros and ones into the computer at supersonic speed which would be almost impossible and extremely absurd so how do you choose what type of language is best for your needs well it depends on what you are trying to do as sometimes you need very specialized languages to get done what you want the world of computer science is vast and contains many fields so trying to cover everything in one language would be impossible this has led to the creation of hundreds of different programming languages each designed for a specific task right now though we’ll cover some of the most popular languages and their uses now if you are trying to design a website using HTML and CSS is probably your best bet HTML is a markup language that is designed for writing the content of a web site while CSS is great for designing the style of the website you interact with HTML every day and you can even see it right now if you right click and hit inspect element this will truly show you how complex HTML and CSS can be maybe it would be best for you to use a scripting language a scripting language is a language that has many comments for you to use and that can also be run without needing to be compiled scripts can be faster to write in most programs and tend to be easier to port between operating systems allowing for cross-platform support scripts can also be used with websites oftentimes adding to the overall user experience of the site if you want to go into web design this might also be a path for you to go down examples of scripting languages are Perl PHP Ajax and JavaScript for most programs you could probably use a general-purpose language general-purpose languages as they sound have a wide range of applications usually these should be your go-to languages examples of general-purpose languages are Java plus plus in Python they each have their own different benefits over one another Java is very useful for developing games and interactive web pages Python can act as a scripting language for web programming as well as writing applications and data analysis and C++ tends to be used for writing applications and system programs they all have a variety of packages that you can import and use to achieve the functionality you need from them while selecting the right general-purpose language for your big projects is very important for most of your programs any one of them will work it really comes down to preference get to know each language and decide which one’s syntax rules you like best and find most comfortable if you get to know one general-purpose language really well and

enjoy programming with it you can apply to just about any of the programs you plan on writing personally I tend to use Python for most of my projects this is mostly not due to any functional difference between Python and any other general-purpose language though there are a few but it is mainly because I find its syntax rules most convenient and easiest to write programs with overall either you could consider the product you plan on doing and research and see which language boasts the most advantages for your purposes or you can simply become comfortable with a language and use it from most of the programs you decide to write we’ll now be looking at our final topic of this introduction to programming miniseries you now have the basic knowledge of programming which will take you far in any language that you decide to learn you know some good pre-programming pseudocode strategies to help you design your code from the ground up and you might already have a good idea as to the type of programming language you might want to start with so what’s the next step how can I learn that language and what applications can it be used for well that’s what we’re gonna be covering now so let’s just jump right into it starting with the biggest question which is what is the next step well now that you might know which type of language you might be interested in research that language and find out whether or not you truly want to pursue that programming language most languages like Python or C++ will have either an official website where you can read up on the language or a Wikipedia page which will provide you with useful information in deciding whether or not you want to pursue that path from there the next step is to actually learn the language which can be done right here on YouTube while we have taught you the basics of any programming language each specific language is going to expand upon these concepts and so watching tutorial videos on a certain language is going to be very beneficial I would start with an introduction series like the one you’re currently watching but for the language you have chosen and work your way through that series picking up on the syntax and rules of that language until you become comfortable with it once you do that you come to a crossroads you know how to program in a certain language but you may be completely clueless as to what to make in that language programmers block can leave you uninspired and not want to continue programming so I’d like to give you a few websites to help out first is coding that a completely free website which has hundreds of coding challenges in both Java and Python to help you refine your programming skills and even learn some new programming shortcuts and tips this is great if you want to get better at improving your efficiency and need something to hone your skills as a developer the next is coder bite which offers over 200 plus challenges that you can complete in over 10 different languages something that is sure to help you improve the final website I’d like to talk about is hacker rank which not only provides programming challenges keep you on your toes but also provide support for you using your programming skills to find jobs or internships these and many more websites exist solely to keep you interested in code and work on refining your skills to become better now if you’re a teenager watching this series in high school I also encourage you to take programming classes in your high school ap computer science principles and AP Computer Science a are both amazing courses which can help you greatly in the future and are also incredibly informative and important to colleges your school might also offer other classes in the fields of computer science including ones on key data structures game design and data science any in all classes you can take to help expand your knowledge of programming and help you find your niche is going to be extremely helpful as you can see the world of code has now been opened up to you these are just a few examples of where you can go from here but there are many more we didn’t talk about you could get into github and start contributing to projects you could work on your own projects and collaborate with others the possibilities are endless the next step is up to you this concludes our introduction to programming mini-series we hope you enjoyed watching it as much as we enjoyed making it if you enjoy the series as a whole consider subscribing to our Channel a null pointer exception which will be linked in the description for more content like this coming soon thank you so much for watching

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