– Good afternoon everyone (audience murmuring) Welcome to the inaugural Minner Distinguished Lecture in Engineering Ethics I’m Shankar Sastry Dean of the College of Engineering, and we are excited to be hosting today’s program, and our very special Minner lecturer Leah Jamieson, the John A Edwardson Dean of Engineering, and the Ransburg Distinguished Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Purdue University I’d first like to thank our student sponsors for helping with today’s event They are a new group called BEAM Berkeley Engineers And Mentors, and you’ll see some of them here So thank you again (audience applauding) Today’s event exemplifies Warren and Marjorie Minner’s commitment to maintaining ethics throughout the teaching curriculum They established the Minner endowment for engineering ethics and professional and social responsibility which supports the College of Engineering in its mission to educate its students on the principles and foundations of ethical responsibility We address this by teaching students foundational ethics to guide their professional activity This is doing the right thing for the right reasons One additional feature of this program is that the way they’re executing on the program is to select five or six Minner faculty fellows each year, and then we spend a couple of weeks working with them on developing modules that they integrate into their courses, and then we sort of track what they’re doing in the years that follow So the general plan is that every course will have an element of ethics in it, and this is a somewhat different approach thanks to Warren and Marsha who’ve been able to have this teaching the teachers methodology for bringing ethics modules, and the faculty director of the program, Professor Ahn, is Nuclear Engineering is here in the program And he’s supported by Fiona Doyle who is my partner in crime and there she is In pointing out this program we have a active competition I think just began this year for selecting the Minner fellows for the year, and it’s been a really wonderful program We are now in the third year of the program So, in addition, of course, we will teach our students about the skills of report writing, technical communication, public speaking, and public service I’m delighted to welcome the Minners extended family with us today including Bill and Sandra Minner, actually I’d love to recognize you Bill and Sandra Minner (audience applauding) Laura Turner (audience applauding) And Pam Stelmacher (audience applauding) And Bill and Sandra’s daughter Mara is an undergraduate in civil and environmental engineering in Berkeley here today (audience applauding) So there’s three generations of Minners at Cal here today so thank you very much for your support of Cal Warren and Marge, I’d like to present you with a memento to commemorate this inaugural event Would you please join me on stage? (audience applauding) (photographer murmuring) – Well, I could just say what I said back in the round table The reason I’m here is because of a professor that’s departed now He’s died, but his name is Wiskasil Clement T. Wiskocil, and he was one of the early, probably the earliest teacher of ethics for Berkeley I’m not sure but that’s my guess And I would suggest you add his name under the name of this particular chair, and say, quote, dedicated to Professor Clement T. Wiskocil, 1989 to 1952, and then I have copies of his history that’s on the Internet Marge got ’em off the, if you can’t find it or whatever you can get with me and I’ll see that you get one, and thank you so much for inviting me here And I’ve enjoyed this thing very much, so (audience applauding) – We’ll be glad to add the recognition so we’ll follow up on that Now it’s my privilege to welcome our speaker today, Leah Jamieson She’s the Edwardson Dean of Engineering, and Randsburg Distinguished Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Purdue

She’s a member of the national academy of engineering, and served as the President of the IEEE, the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers in 2007 She’s been on the faculty at Purdue since 1976, and her recent interests include speech analysis and recognition She has founded the engineering projects and community service program EPICS which is a multi university engineering design program that operates in a service learning context She’ll tell you a lot more about her award winning work with this terrific program Please give a warm welcome to Leah Jamieson (audience applauding) – Thank you (audience applauding) Thank you Shankar, and I want to extend my thanks also to the Minners, to Warren and Marge for endowing this program that emphasizes engineering ethics, social responsibility, and engineering It is an incredibly important topic, and I am truly honored to be the inaugural lecturer, and to be a part of this program this year So thank you from me as well I’m going to talk about societal contexts in engineering Broadly, societal contexts in engineering, but also then zeroing in on this notion of engineering in society as we think about engineering education I will talk with you about the EPICS program and then use that as a springboard to talk about ethics as a part of the learning experiences of our students and then step a fair ways back to just say a few words about a broad view of engineering education and what it is we are really trying to do as educators, and so let me start I think actually the simplest statement is that we don’t need to talk about the societal context for engineering, or we at least shouldn’t need to talk about it If you look at, this is a tiny sampling of pictures that that anyone could pull together that say that engineering has been fundamental to enhancing society, improving quality of life, changing the way people live, work, operate Ever sit for as long as we have recordings of towers, and big bridges, and buildings, and roads Engineering and society are in fact intimately connected This was driven home at the end of the last century when the National Academy of Engineering compiled an assessment of the 20 greatest engineering achievements of the 20th century, and challenge people to think about the world that existed without electrification, the automobile, the airplane, safe, abundant water and some of these we take for granted Some we taken for granted where we live, but perhaps are not taken for granted in other parts of the world, but it’s a remarkable century of change with engineering at the core of it, and then as its next act the National Academy challenged all of us to think about what those challenges that we would address would be in the first half of the 21st century Those areas that where engineering would have the greatest impact on human lives through energy sustainability, health care, security, but also the joy of living through the generation of knowledge The tools of discovery The ability for people to learn in personalized ways, and so as a premise why do we care about engineering society? Because it’s there It’s in front of us If I and there are a lot of definitions for engineering One fairly standard one talks about practical application, commerce and industry And that’s really familiar Design under constraint which is a fairly technical one, but then goes on to say scientific and technical knowledge to solve human problems I will say that my personal favorite we were talking before this started Neil Armstrong was in another Purdue University, and he gave a stunning speech about engineering, and said that engineering is about what can be And simply that encapsulation is that engineers imagine a future that’s different from where we are, and it’s about solving human problems There’s both a long history, but also a recent history for the context to connect engineering and society through our educational processes

and I would start with the moral act that during the civil war the creation of the land-grant institutions that said that there should be practical education accessible to the public in agriculture, and the mechanic arts, in other words, those things that would affect people’s daily lives, but also a lot more recent drivers The probably the least fond among academics the fact that ABET, in fact, has renewed their interest in broader characterizations of what should comprise an engineering education which includes professional and ethical responsibility, the broad education needed to understand the impact of engineering solutions in a global societal context, a knowledge of contemporary issues Kellogg Commission, the association of public and land-grant universities report on the scholarship of engagement So not what do universities do purely in research and education, but how are universities, in fact, connected to our communities? And then the National Academy weighing in with the engineer of 2020, and again the Grand Challenges One of the formal instantiations of connecting engineering and community through learning is through service learning, and it’s a term that has fair number of definitions, but fairly common components Connect community service with academic learning outcomes in the discipline built upon a principle of reciprocity that by connecting University and community that both are, in fact, benefiting And that reciprocity is essential to this partnership So if it’s a given that engineering and society are connected, and that we as educators, in fact, are helping our students make that connection what’s the problem? So this is a snapshot This is a report that was published by the American Society for Engineering Education a year or two years ago now, and one of the components of the report was a survey conducted in 2009 110 faculty committees from 74 different departments across the U.S exploring a whole bunch of aspects of what do you practice? What do you value? What is the state of the art and the practice of engineering education? 61 percent of the committee respondents said that service learning is not important, or only somewhat important, and is not practiced or practiced only somewhat in their department And so if these are so important, and so connected why is it not part of who we are? And there’s a long history of trends, and patterns in engineering education that suggests that we had 50 to 60 to maybe 70 years of engineering focusing on engineering science which wasn’t about the application of engineering That happened after you graduated, and the pendulum is swinging back to say no, actually engineering education is squarely rooted in both practice and in engineering science A total aside and I’m just doing this because it’s something I think is worth noting, and this is about ten year old data at this point, but there hasn’t been a newer poll Other reasons why it matters The public does not see the connection This was a Harris Poll US perceptions, public perceptions of engineering, people sampled were asked do engineers create economic growth? Do scientists create economic growth? Percents that agree and what you see for engineers is that, in fact, a fair amount of the public thinks that we do create economic growth, that we would make a strong leader, and then we get into things that have more to do with community, and well-being of society, and the numbers go downhill pretty quickly 37% think that engineers can care about the community 28% thought that we’re sensitive to societal concerns 22% percent thought we improved the quality of life 17% thought we protected the environment 14% thought we saved lives So we would immediately say that of course engineering is connected to society There’s a whole big populace out there that actually doesn’t see that, and so education, as with most things, is a pretty good place to start And so I’m going to talk about EPICS Stands for Engineering Projects In Community Service This is a program that was launched at Purdue in 1995 I was one of the co-founders along with Ed Coil and Hank Dietz Now there are EPICS programs at over 20 universities, and 80 high schools and continuing to grow

So to back up motivation for this Early 90s industry was being actually quite vocal about things that they thought the people they were hiring didn’t know That they were seeing engineers who could solve technical problems like whizzes, but then knew nothing about working on teams, had very weak communication skills, would not know a customer if they tripped over one in the hallway, didn’t understand project management, no experience with leadership, nothing formal about ethics, societal context, professionalism And industry was becoming pretty vocal, and saying you guys should do a better job At the same time this is the era when the notion of digital divide was getting a fair amount of prominence, and one of the places where the digital divide was at risk of playing out most dramatically was, in fact, with community organizations, not-for-profits, k-12 schools, human services agencies Who everything that we did was based on technology, and it was typically too expensive for community organizations to have access to that technology So inability to improve services, enhance their service, create new capabilities, and so EPICS grew out of trying to bring these two groups together with the additional observation that engineering will, in fact, be central to addressing global grand challenges, and that universities will be engaged in their communities both locally and around the world EPICS is a series of courses, but to make this real let me just quickly describe a few projects to give you a sense of what we’re talking about EPICS projects have fallen roughly categorized into four areas First in access and abilities, and so what’s shown on the left is a doll house that’s been constructed by group of students from a number of different disciplines working with an agency that provided services for families of children with disabilities, and in particular cerebral palsy The clinicians talking about these children would note that because they have very limited motor skills they don’t explore the world in the same way that normally abled two year olds, or three year olds would, and so they don’t get a sense of sensory stimulation They can’t vary the sensory stimulation because of the limitations in their motor skills They don’t get a chance to explore cause and effect I do something and it moves It makes a noise, something happens, and finally, that in playing with other children they are never, ever in control of the play, and so, the challenge to the team of students was to say build something that will give the multi sensory experiences, let them experiment with cause and effect, and every once in a while be in control of the play, and the EPICS students designed a series of doll houses This one is a bathroom module The subfloor, or the basement, is basically an electronics shop Micro controllers, controllers, motors, gears, everything to make it work The toilet seat goes up and down with the child hitting a very large format touchpad, and it’s only the child with the touch pad who can make the rubber duck go around the bathtub and sing And so it’s an access and abilities project Human services A number of projects The one shown here is a project that is continuing in partnership with Habitat for Humanity Students designing earthquake, and tsunami resistant low cost housing designs for use in in Haiti A lot of education and outreach projects This example it’s a model Mars rover that has been deployed in a local children’s museum, and finally, again with Habitat for Humanity, an environmental project An energy efficient, low cost house design in southern Indiana Habitat’s purpose in engaging students to work on this was to demonstrate that energy efficiency does not have to be expensive That, in fact, you can build this into affordable housing So these are the kinds of projects that students are tackling It is a track of courses They’re design courses built around long term partnerships in the community The students earn academic credit The projects are engineering centered, but they are also multidisciplinary

It’s hard to design a good dollhouse for young kids if you don’t have somebody on your team who knows something about young kids as an example And they’re vertically integrated so the close best analogy is it’s a sports team There are freshmen, sophomores, juniors, and seniors on the team They have different roles because they have different backgrounds, and know different amounts of engineering, but the projects go on The seniors graduate, the team continues, recruits new members, and so, you can create projects of significant complexity that actually span semester boundaries So there’s an emphasis on experiencing engineering, but also a dual emphasis on connecting with community It’s essentially a design firm The teams are fairly large, and this is partly to support the vertical integration so that, in fact, you have enough depth to be able to continue projects across semesters and years Long term participation Students earn academic credit for up to four years Low number of credits per semester because the emphasis was on participating over a greater time rather than immersing yourself in a project for one semester And although started in Electrical and Computer Engineering has evolved to be truly multidisciplinary This past academic year there were students from 70 different majors at Purdue participating on different teams, and it’s about design start to finish Define, design, build, test, deploy, support There’s an educational context that talks about multi-level learning, experiential education, active learning, problem based learning, inquiry guided learning It is certainly in the realm of design education, and on the service learning side tenets about engagement and community tied to specific academic learning outcomes So it’s not just doing community service There are learning outcomes that students are documenting For example, to fulfill outcomes for accreditation Reciprocity is central and some of this is language Talking with students Every opportunity that you are not doing something for the community You were just doing something with the community because although they are benefiting from the project that you’re working on you are benefiting in enormous ways from the learning that you’re gaining by this opportunity to work on a real project that is grounded in societal needs And finally a reflection component Think about what you’re doing Both the technical side, but also, what are you learning about these professional skills? Ethics? I will tell you that in 1995 when we started this, and had to submit a experimental course outline for what this was the word reflection appeared nowhere in that outline to present an engineering faculty something that said you’re going to have these exercises, and the students do this, and this, and then in weeks three, five, seven, and nine, will be reflection activities At that time there would have been a lot of laughing and jokes about mirrors, and it was not a part of the engineering lexicon to talk about engineering students reflecting and thinking about what they were doing One of the concepts really at the heart is that it’s human centered design which also was actually not such a big topic in 1995, but it is maybe an exemplar for human centered design What are human needs and then what is the cycle around which you try to meet those? There’s a service learning context I will tell you that when we started this as three electrical and computer engineering faculty we knew none of the service learning context We went to a conference because we had funding We went to a conference that was a gathering of people and service learning, and two things happen One we were the only group that used PowerPoint to present, or slides to present Everybody else just stood up and talk so we apparently came from a different culture, and the second is we actually got used to people saying you’re an engineer? Why are you here? And it was a very different world Since then an edited book by Edmund Tsang who really was one of the pioneers in engineering service learning, and then a book more recently by my colleague Bill Oakes and Mary-beth Lima to help provide some framework for this, for education Why are the projects long term? why does that matter? Because apart from the fact that it’s community based projects these are projects that extend multiple semesters, sometimes multiple years,

and that grew out of the curricular structure That actually enables some things that are unusual in academia The projects are delivered You know somebody created this project It grew out of a need, and you didn’t finish it by the last week of the semester Maybe it wasn’t realistic to finish it You had to have created a project map, a timeline, and you will be graded against that The hope is that you also, over time, get better at developing your timelines, but at the end of the day what really matters is that whoever your community partner is you will deliver a working, reliable, responsive project to them, and so being able to work across boundaries enables that You can keep improving it You can incorporate new ideas which are actually pretty reflective of what happens in real world projects There’s time for students to learn disciplinary depth, and multidisciplinary breadth If you don’t know something, but your project needs it you can learn it That’s getting easier because now you can find a MOOC about it somewhere, and learn it on your own And so that part’s actually getting easier with time, but there’s also time to gain some of the things that that are not typically taught in a structured didactic form You don’t learn social responsibility in a five week module where somebody explains to you what social responsibility is It comes from living the project, understanding the people whose lives you may be affecting with what you’re doing Self-awareness, and team awareness Teams evolve over time, and how you function on a team is something that changes, and you develop over time, and professional skills including things like communication Again don’t happen overnight They develop over time, and opportunities for long term mentoring, and much of the mentoring that goes on in EPICS is actually from the upper class students to the newer students in the program, and so the passing on that experience The ultimate, and I would say the Holy Grail in this, which I think is, you know, all of us are challenging ourselves to do is to say can you create a meaningful interaction between what students are learning in their disciplinary courses, and what they actually do in design courses? So that there’s not a disconnect between learning what a Fourier transform is, and building a microphone array to try to improve a hearing aid, and realizing that oh you mean there’s an analytical way of thinking about that? Because students tend to partition the knowledge This is what I do in my lab class This is what I do in my theory class This is an opportunity because you’re doing it over time in a virtuous cycle to make the knowledge go back and forth It’s hard to measure and it’s hard to achieve, but I think it’s one of the opportunities that does get created through vertical projects Second question why community-based projects? So when we were starting EPICS we thought that vertical structures were great, and then we ran into what we felt like a brick wall So where are the projects that are so interesting that students are going to want to work on them for multiple years? and in conversations with industry they actually weren’t particularly interested in having our students spend a few years working on a project And so this idea that the projects in the community because they’re solving real problems might, in fact, be able to capture students’ imaginations in a way that you would want to come back, and take this course over, and over, and over again bringing something new to it every semester that you register There’s a lot of learning Start to finish design Not only how to solve problems, but how to define problems because we talk about ourselves as problem solvers, but really the best engineers are also question askers What problems should I be solving? Specifications, version control, testing Also design for X You know design for whatever the project is Be it reliability, usability, aesthetics, manufacturability, to understand that We had a team that wanted to deliver a project written under Unix for a social services agency who had no tech support in house at all It wasn’t going to run for very long because they didn’t have a resident Linux expert to keep the project running, and so just exploring that whole space of how you match customer needs with not only your technical skills, but what’s going to match the needs of the customer But also the philosophical things The student as a citizen That you are an engineer

You can use your engineering skills to make a difference, and also take that up a level The university as citizen That the university can also contribute to the community A lot of educational outcomes It is mapped to accreditation outcomes, evaluated right and left, portfolios, and rubrics for doing this This is a self assessment by students that was accumulated over about 15 semesters of data so a fraction of the time that EPICS has been running asking students what was the impact of EPICS on your ability to work on a team? Communication skills? And what’s shown are the percent of the students who gave this a positive rating, an A or a B rating and at the top of the list every semester without exception is ability to work on a team And then it moves down to a lot of things that I’m going to come back to A couple I’m going to come back to the community, and the ethical issues We were always frustrated how can it be only 71% percent of your technical skills? You’re actually building really sophisticated things so we actually ran some focus groups with students to say could we delve into this technical skills? The simple explanation that we heard over and over is well nobody taught us anything (audience laughing) Which was true Very little technical teaching in the program Sometimes there’d be some skills sessions where TAs would dig into something We have a group of students who need to know Java They’re not up to speed we’re going to spend five weeks crash course on Java Somebody taught them something, but a lot of the learning played into the lifelong learning, and how do you do this? And so it wasn’t that they didn’t learn any technical skills it was that nobody had taught them the technical skills And that’s also for students to think about that difference and for us to think about that difference Before I come back to those specific components let me just mention three more examples because the heart of this is in what is happening in these projects both on the technical side, but on the teamwork, the communication, the learning, the community impact side Also in accessibility as recently a team that developed an iPad app called Speak All, and it’s for children with autism who can use icons, images on the iPad screen to then construct sentences that it will read out loud so that they get a translation of something to them that’s very easy which is pointing and looking at images, but also hearing the translation of that into language to be able to make clear what it is they want, but also to contribute some to continued efforts to learn language That human services The lower right picture was taken in Cape Town, and this is a partnership with IEEE students at University of Cape Town working with a local high school in Cape Town, also working with some professional engineers from the community, and in this case what they kept telling me is they built a geyser for an orphanage And I went, okay I’m not sure why an orphanage needs a geyser, (audience laughing) but I had the just uncredible fortune of then being taken to see this It’s a hot water heater An orphanage for children who were orphans because of AIDS in the townships outside Cape Town Electricity was too expensive for the orphanage to be able to afford to have hot water, and so group of students, university students, but then also working with the high school students And incredible entrepreneurship among these students to connect with companies in the community to make donations and work with them to acquire, and then custom design aspects of a hot water heater system Adjusting the system so that the solar panels on the roof are effective but not visible so they wouldn’t be stolen, developing a security system because this is certainly a one of a kind thing in the township, and unbelievable learning for both groups of students, and hot water for kids living in the orphanage And finally on the left This is an island outside Auckland It is isolated so everything they do they have to ship onto the island, or ship off the island And so they have been doing a series of environmental projects aimed at what can you recycle so that you don’t have to import and export as much stuff from the island? And in this case two projects One turning waste glass into sand for use in construction materials,

and the second there’s a fairly large tourism base Waste cooking oil converted to biodiesel as an alternative fuel, and so reducing the amount of goods and material that has to be exchanged from the mainland to the island So EPICS was started, as I said, in 1995 Started with 40 students from electrical and computer engineering They served on five teams The Dean, then Dean, who was a good friend, and is still a good friend reminded me on every occasion that we had better not be putting their ABED accreditation at risk by having such a different design course for some of the students A rough estimate talking with my colleagues Our experiences at service learning conferences scouring the literature is that at that time there were maybe between three and five engineering centered service learning programs in the United States This year, the Purdue program has 31 teams, consistently well over 400 students every semester They come from 70 majors It’s coming up close to 9,000 students to date There have been over 300 projects deployed in the community Purdue, just for its first time, adopted a university wide core curriculum This is an elective in the core curriculum fulfilling a technology and society requirement and in the last ABIT visit, and for the one that we hope will happen Well we don’t hope it will happen We know it’s happening in the fall, but we hope that the reaction will be the same That it was in fact noted by ABET as one of the highlights of their visit, and something that was, in fact, communicating engineering in ways that were valuable And globally over 20 universities and over 80 pre-university sites, and this is with the partnership with IEEE Most of the university sites with IEEE globally Africa and India in particular So, this talks about community engineering Where does ethics fit into this? And we’ve had some great discussions earlier this afternoon about what kinds of ethical issues do engineering students face? Do engineering faculty face? And how do we create conversations about ethics with our students that are, in fact, going to be meaningful? And so if I will point to in terms of this These are positive responses, but there’s obviously room for improvement These are what students were saying That their impact on their awareness of ethical issues So we have, since the beginning, on a continued journey to understand effective ways to integrate ethical both awareness and practice through this service learning experience Curriculum materials and assessment not only for EPICS, but in general for multidisciplinary team based engineering design courses At Purdue employing our staff and faculty, but also PhD students from sociology, and philosophy as some of the resident experts on this A collaboration, which is spelled in a very odd way, with three other universities in the Illinois Institute of Technology’s IPRO program, Michigan Tech’s Enterprise program, and Lehigh’s Product Development program funded at Purdue for an internal seed grant, but then the four universities through a National Science Foundation TUES grant, Transforming Undergraduate Education in Science, and this is a work in progress, and I think it will always be a work in progress And for us the focus is because of the service learning context because these students are designing, and then building things that will, in fact, if they’re done well, will be used It’s not only on awareness of ethics it’s actually practice of ethics because people’s lives are touching what the students have built And so I’m going to quickly just run through some of what this looks like, and our starting point was with some student reflections Four questions, you know, what are the ethical issues, or potential issues you encountered this semester in your work with EPICS? So you’re on a team You’re working on something What ethical issues have you encountered? What were possible solutions? which solutions did you choose? And why did you choose those solutions instead of the others? In talking about the the mentor program, and the Minner fellows this question not

only of making the right choices, but making the right choices for the right reasons So why did you do those things? And what would have happened if you didn’t address these? Did for over a course of a couple of semesters had the students doing semester and reflections, and in the context of these four questions the most common problem that grew out of this was actually identifying the ethical issues it wasn’t what did you do? How did you do it? It was like just looking at a situation, and saying there is an ethical issue in that, and this was something that the students struggled with enormously Also noted most of it, at least in terms of the projects, pretty narrowly focused on safety, and professional obligations Not broader issues of social justice It just is it safe? What does my profession say I should be doing? But also difficultly articulating when they could identify an issue Difficulty in articulating it This notion of an ethical language which simply was not part of their education, and so have continued to build on that with a focus on moral decision making How do you identify ethical issues? Awareness of multiple frameworks That there are, in fact, some formalism Some ways to think about ethical issues, and that there are levels of moral reasonings which get into this question of why And so structured around four frameworks Learning objectives, foundational models, curricular components, and assessment The objectives This is a long list but it really hits on those Can you identify issues? Can you identify stakeholders? Can you place them in a framework? And note that there are different ways of placing these in frameworks And then can you argue for a course of action? There are a lot of foundational models The two that we have found useful Kohlberg’s which basically says that there are different levels of ethical reasoning There is the baseline called pre-conventional which you do things out of personal interest, or because you’re supposed to obey or you’ll be punished You move up the scale and level of thinking that has to do with maintaining social norms which could also be professional norms for engineering students, but the post-conventional is where the ethicists will say you would really like society, and people in society to be is to be able to frame this in a context, also, that thinks about the greater good And with the individual maturity to think about the ethical principles in a way that you make a decision that is consistent with your own well grounded ethical standards And then, again, building on notions of sensitivity, judgment, motivation, and action The curriculum is obviously a place in a course where a lot of the thinking and work has been done We have introductory lecture for all students focused on ethics, but we’ve also now woven this into our design lectures, and so there’s a continuous thread This is a design course, and so, there are continually lectures about design which connect ethics in, and where does that play into the design process? Tied to human centered design Continuing to build a library, effectively, of short cases on some of them, real, or generated, or inspired by anonymized past projects because this is an area where making it real speaks in ways that the hypothetical situations appear not to Small group, what we call skill sections, around social context, around ethics, and then within each of the teams that is working on a particular project with a community organization an ongoing thread of case study discussions in the context of that team’s projects, both currently what they’re doing, but also looking back aways for hindsight to say okay, you delivered that project How’s it going? Are there things now that you’re looking at that maybe you framed as technical decisions, but with a little more distance there were some ethical aspects? So practice, and discussion, and just opportunities to connect the engineering with a sense of ethical reasoning Also absolutely critical in this TA training because our teaching assistants are, for the most part, coming to this without much formal education either And on good days I would also say faculty training

Sometimes that goes better than others And this is a snapshot of a case study just to give you a sense of what this looks like So it’s a team project They’re designing a database for local school districts The principal has provided the specifications Halfway through the semester they meet with the superintendent from the school district who gives them a different vision including some information that contradicts what the principal said At the end of the project, and they just keep going, at the end of the project they deliver it The IT technician for the school district says I can’t install this It was created in the wrong technology, and then tells the students you need to do this, this, and this, and then it’ll work, but it changes the functionality from what either the principal or the superintendent said This is a, realize that this happens Real customers, you know, (chuckling) all sorts of things happen, and so what do students do? How do they think about this? How does somebody in industry think about this? How are they going to think about this when they’re working? And then the work with them is to prove to pose a set of alternatives of what you would do, and why you would do it, and to get them to talk about which one of these would you do as an individual? Or as a team, and why would you do it that way? And then to connect that to the models, the Kohlberg in there and the rest models, the levels of thinking, and if they get it to the first one You build the principal’s ’cause he’s been the regular contact, and he might not be happy if you do something else This is kind of the punishment level That you know well something bad is going to happen if I don’t follow the rules Over time, if the students get to the last one that says you listen to everyone because they’re all stakeholders, and maybe your role in this is to be the facilitator of the communication that needs to happen to actually come up with a solution so that they will, in fact, have a system that’s useful, but that’s a higher level thinking, and it takes awhile to get there, and to see that And then the last part, I’ll just note, there is an assessment How do we know if our students are making progress? There are standard instruments out there There’s one from Minnesota There are a couple from Georgia Tech as part of the NSF funded project Also developing some things specifically zoomed in on engineering, both for individuals and for teams And a pretty rich set of mechanisms Pre post surveys, reflections, skill sessions where they’re writing assignments, and discussions and an observation in the classroom So the connections between service learning and engineering I mean we started with saying that engineering and society are obviously connected Nobody’s going to question that except for the general public that doesn’t quite see the connection, but the connection with learning, and engineering education, and community, and society has not been as clear I would say that based on the experiences we’ve had it is an incredibly rich learning environment that also, we think, is providing opportunities for our students to learn some things that are traditionally very, very difficult to teach in a traditional classroom via lectures The notion of experiencing and exploring would make a strong case that there is something even though our students are not, for the most part, going to go out and work in the public sector That the lessons learned for this, in fact, can enrich everything they do in the future Part of the end of semester evaluations there’s a bubble thing where you say how much you’ve learned in various things, but there’s also a comment part, and I think all of us who’ve worked with EPICS each of us has our favorite quote that comes out of the student assessments, and so I’m just going to close with showing you two of them One of them, I think, is one of the favorite quotes of my colleague Bill Oakes who is now the director of EPICS that no longer is engineering just a bunch of equations Now I see it as a means to help mankind And my favorite, my all time favorite, because I never thought that in an engineering course I would see a course student evaluation that said it opened my heart And so I thank you (audience applauding) – Take a few questions for the audience – Hi, my name is Carly I’m a second year civil engineering major My question is how does the EPICS program

pick the projects that get worked on? Does the community approach EPICS, and say we need this done? Or do the students go into the community, and pick something? – For the most part it’s done through the EPICS program When we started we had the good fortune of Ed Coil, who’s my colleague, lived next to the director of United Way for our county And and so our first, when we started thinking this might be something we can do he simply went and asked Could we come talk to the directors of the United Way agencies, and could we present them this idea that our students could work with them to do things? And so we worked through United Way We worked with school districts because that was was a fairly easy thing We all had kids in school, and so we thought we’d do the school districts really well But also, even in the first semester, some students heard about it, and they came and say well I’ve been volunteering at an agency that works with kids with disabilities Couldn’t we do a project with them? So it’s come from multiple, over time more and more the agencies come to us because we’re known in the community One of the things that’s been critical, I would say, for sustaining this is the fact that we don’t have to go out, and generate a whole new set of projects every semester especially as the program has grown So that notion of stable partnerships One of the measures for us of success is that if we’ve been working with an agency, and deliver a project that’s honest to goodness this is it It’s working, it’s done Instead of going away they come back, and say well I’ve got another project because that, for us, is probably the real proof that they feel there’s value in it – Good afternoon, my name is Oscar Devon I’m a professor of material science and engineering, and I’m also the associate dean for equity, and inclusion in the College of Engineering And I am really excited about the topic of service learning We are actually in the process of designing an American cultures course for engineering students that will integrate service learning so I’m really thrilled to hear about the wonderful activities going on I have a question about the industrial response So now you have a whole generation of students Many students are going out into industry, and have this experience, and certainly bring that to the table when they are exercising where they’re practicing engineering So have you received any feedback that has that made a difference? – Yeah it has One of my other favorite quotes that I didn’t have, and it’s been a while since I read it verbatim so I’m going to have trouble reconstructing it, but basically was from a company that hires a lot of our students saying I will hire an EPICS student over all other students who are interviewing because they understand what it is to work on real projects Our students tell us that it is invaluable as interviews that when they start talking about their EPICS experience when they’re interviewing for a company they often never get to anything else, and they get so many questions, but then they get jobs so that seems like it’s a good thing (audience laughing) But the industry response has been really strong, and one of the interesting places has been through the partnership with IEEE that’s also involving some of their practicing engineers in communities is that it’s making a connection between local companies, and the university, and the schools and that dimension of it has also been valuable And industry support for the program has been one of the key things to sustaining it financially So industry has been, and I just since you mentioned diversity, and inclusion, women, lots of data at this point that say that women disproportionately choose to do this as their design experience compared to the base population Similarly for underrepresented minorities It’s just there the numbers for us are smaller so they’re not as robust, but it’s been a way of the retention of our first year women in engineering is significantly higher for the women who do service learning in the first year – I’m gonna pick on Cara Just giving you 30 seconds warning okay You know a program that’s been popular in the college of engineering has been sort of the power of technology to lift people out of poverty, and, several exemplars are faculty here in this room, but Cara’s been working on sort of sending students into the developing world to do safe water, and sanitation And Cara I was going to ask you so what your sense is that the models of service based learning for those models I’ve seen her students in slums in Bombay, and floods, you know, working on clean water, and sanitation and so the question’s that

what lessons should we take from this? What do you see as the parallels between these programs in these are primarily in the U.S. or– – Actually all over the world on both university programs, and certainly the partnership with IEEE is all over the world – [Cara] So the parallels are obviously tremendous I do, I was thinking actually throughout the entire presentation about the convenience of working with communities that are local because it is clearly so much easier to be in close contact with them than when you have to travel, and that gets restricted to the semester breaks, and the summer time, but one of the things that really strikes me about the EPICS program is how formalized it’s been integrated into the engineering curriculum, and a lot of the activities we have going on here through our Engineers Without Borders student organization, through activities at the blood center for developing economies are still really, to a large extent, extracurricular, or students have to use really creative mechanisms to integrate that into their formal coursework through doing independent studies, or through student led courses We have a program here called Ducal that a lot of students do that, and as a result I think that they are challenged to get the level of support that they really would benefit from from our faculty So one of the things I’ve been wondering is how you, integrating this more formally into the curriculum What kind of incentives, and mechanisms have you provided to encourage, and also recognize the contributions that faculty can make? Because you know what it’s like then How we’re always trying to balance our portfolio So many demands and recognizing that this is the kind of mentorship that requires a lot of not just time, but really thoughtful input on the part of the faculty, and so I imagine you’ve tried some different things, and you might have something to share that would help us understand how you can also give credit for this kind of confusion because it’s not the same as just teaching a regular class – Yeah and that’s really at the heart of it, and so a lot of benchmarking early on with some of our faculty especially in mechanical engineering because in the mid 90s they were ahead of everybody else at Purdue in design courses To benchmark level of effort for faculty who were involved not in teaching teams, but in coaching teams, or in mentoring teams coming up with what we hoped was a realistic formula that advising a team is not the same as teaching a traditional three credit course, but maybe if you do a team over an entire year that’s about the same amount of effort, and then hours, and hours, and hours, and weeks of negotiations with departments to say if a faculty member does this it shouldn’t be an overload It’s gotta count in their course, and that continues I will say we’re 18 years into this, and if the budgets get tight, or things get tight, it’s still well I could assign someone to teach one of my courses, or to EPICS well that’s an obvious choice And so it’s still a discussion that goes on, but it’s negotiations with the departments Getting it approved by some of the programs to fulfill the capstone design requirements for ABIT, and this was the source of the comments from my Dean that this had better not be jeopardizing ABIT, but that was probably one of the single most important things that happened is that we had a couple of degree programs, and now, increasingly, we just have another one coming online this year saying this is going to fulfill capstone design because we developed a documenting system that people deemed robust, and rigorous enough to say we actually were evaluating the student learning outcomes They were documented in a way that a hardcore ABIT evaluator would look at, and say okay that passes muster And I think the other part is that so the three of us who started this didn’t come out of the education side of the house We actually came out of the signal processing communications and computer engine computer software side of research side of the house And so I guess I would say we played by the rules We got grants, we wrote papers, a lot more conference papers, but we actually started publishing papers in the reputable education journals, but we also had papers appearing in technical journals I co-authored a paper on signal processing and community So kind of playing by the rules of the establishment

to convince people that this actually was real That it wasn’t something that we were doing on the side, or that anybody else should be doing on the side, and then the other part was as we were writing grant proposals, negotiating with our department chairs, and deans that they would provide some measure of cost share in some form Even now it’s harder ’cause NSF will tell you that you’re not allowed to do cost share, and so you kind of but they don’t mean that Their panels still come back, and say well you know what are you putting in? But little by little every time they put in a $100,000 to match the $100,000 grant they had now invested in this, and so it was this sort of I guess subversive way of getting the institution, and the administration to buy into it And say oh we’ve got vested interest in having this succeed, and after a while it just started succeeding, and then they started hearing what the students were saying, but it was actually establishing by the traditional ground rules But also, letting a department get by If somebody is to do it for an overload for a year fine, but you can’t do it indefinitely because if it’s an overload forever you’re saying you don’t value it And we don’t want faculty here who aren’t being valued for what they’re doing, and having that should be pretty hard-nosed about that – Thank you very much so I’d like to thank you before you go We’d like to give you a little gift to remember your day at Berkeley here And to be the inaugural Minner lecturer, and here are the folks that– (Leah chuckling) – Over here, I got it The photographers in control, thank you (audience applauding) Thank you very much – Thank you Please join us outside in the Garbarini Lounge just out here to the left for refreshments It’s a hot day I think that we have some cool drinks outside here, and a chance to talk to both Dean Jameson, and the Minner family Thank you for being with us today and go Bears (audience applauding)

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