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– In a moment Okay, good afternoon and welcome to the sixth session of the Inspire Success webinar series Brought to you by the Stender School of Business and Technology My name is Breanne Tepler and I am your host and facilitator The Inspire Success webinar series brings you topics that relate to the graduate business and technology programs offered through the College of St. Scholastica Today’s session, Ethical Considerations for Working with Data, is brought to you by Scott Lee-Eichenwald Scott is an instructor in our Master of Science and Applied Data Analytics Program Applications are now open for the fall semester start for this 100% online graduate degree in applied data analytics The deadline to apply is August 15th You are joining this webinar via Zoom If you’re new to this online platform, although there are very few people new to Zoom today But just in case this is your very first Zoom session Congratulations for making it this far into the pandemic and not using Zoom Please make note that your camera and your microphones have been shut off and muted We will have 10 to 15 minutes at the end of the session for questions You may unmute your microphone at that time or if it’s easier type your questions in the chat function Which is found on the menu bar at the bottom of your Zoom screen any time throughout the session but certainly at the end as well If you loose connection with this Zoom meeting you can close out and go back to your confirmation email that you received And dial in using a phone if that works best for you That phone number is in the confirmation email that was sent to you when registered for today’s session This is gonna be our first webinar where we’ll have a little more interactive commentaries So, Scott is gonna ask some questions possibly throughout the presentation And he really invites you to interact by chatting answers and asking questions all throughout In the past webinars if you’ve been to those We’ve held off questions until the very end But Scott is an instructor and he really like that interactive action throughout the webinar So, that is welcomed for this session If you end up having to leave the session early I am recording this I will send it out before the end of business today which is Tuesday May 12th I’d love Scott to introduce himself So, without further ado let’s get started – Great, thanks Breanne and thanks everybody who’s able to attend I assume there might be some people that are gonna be kind of floating in and maybe, a little bit to get started here But happy to be here Really happy that I was asked to talk a little bit about this topic It is something that I’ve been involved with both Well, professionally for sure with teaching But I’m also involved professionally with my career outside of my teaching as well So, the first thing I wanted to note or I wanted to do is it’s really important to me that when I talk about topics, regardless I mean, of course I have prepared content But I really like to get to know my audience And so, if you wouldn’t mind just typing in the chat window and let me know just some really basic things You know, where you live if it’s in the US here, maybe outside the US And the industry you work in And what you do within that industry because I’m very interested in that And I think that’s gonna lend to me understanding on the scope of this topic Because this topic is common but it’s also very different based on what you do, are doing day to day Of course, completely voluntary but I appreciate it – [Breanne] Yeah, go ahead and start typing in the chat function – I think Breanne will make some notes on Yeah, Breanne will make some notes on that It’s really good for us to know who’s been able to make this session and kind of where you’re all coming from And kind of also what you’re interests are in the topic If you all mind that as well It’s just all really good data collection, right And we’ll make sure we protect it – [Breanne] All right Scott, a lot of people are already- – I want to spend just a few minutes talking about me I do – [Breanne] Sorry for the delay Scott I just wanted to mention there’s a lot of HIM, HIT, healthcare And then businesses like software development, finance, massage therapy There’s some business owners in here And we’ve got quite a few Minnesota cities represented So, just to give you a quick summary there

– That’s great No, that’s excellent All apply to data and the importance of keeping it safe for sure and ethical considerations So, just a few minutes about me Just to give you some understanding about why I might be qualified to talk a little bit about this topic So, I grew up in Duluth I’m a Minnesota native I actually went to the College of St. Scholatica for my undergraduate degree which is in psychology I’ve had the opportunity to live a couple years in Europe which I had some exposure to this topic Last five years I’ve actually been blessed to be able to live in Montana So, it’s beautiful in Montana And we’re not quite as effected by the big elephant in the room COVID as we- – [Breanne] (mumbling) – So, I’ve got a master’s degree in software design and development from the University of St. Thomas and St. Paul And I also focused, within my studies I focused on a topic called human factors which is very dear to my heart Because it really allows me to kind of sink my two I guess interests which is people, psychology and then software The creation of usability within software So, I’ve been working within medical technologies for going on almost 20 years now Primarily within the health or medical devices And again, Minnesota is a huge medical device mecca and worldwide So, it’s giving me some great exposure to work in this industry I worked within cardiac rhythm management I worked within remote patient management, infusion systems, interoperability Again, all about systems connecting devices which I’ll talk a little bit more about later And then when it comes to privacy and information Of course, we can’t forget about HIPPA, the Health Information Portability and Accountability Act Which I deal with day to day Not only in my teachings but also in my workplace And then I also deal a lot with protected health information on a daily basis That’s probably one of my most common things that I have to deal with with my job Is to make sure that customers understand that the systems that I sell and the devices that I sell and I support are that we follow strict guidelines around that whole topic around PHI And again, as Breanne mentioned I’ve been an adjunct faculty at the College of St. Scholatica for I guess going on almost 15 years You can see the gray hair in my picture But I loved it, I loved everything about it So, very fortunate to be able to continue to do that I also have my first publication that came out in February of this year I was honored and fortunate enough to be asked to contribute to a chapter in a health information technologies book called Health Information Management Concepts Principles of Practice Which is a book that is authored by a couple of my colleagues within the Health Informatics Program So again, if you have any questions about me, my background Please let me know Please type it into the chat I’m always happy to respond to any questions you may have throughout this presentation So, today we’re gonna talk about ethical considerations for working with data These are the objectives of my session And basically at the end of this webinar I just hope you’ll have a greater understanding of the information that I’m going to be presenting that are on this slide This is the outline of the things I’m gonna be covering today I know there’s a lot of bullets there But they’re all in my view and my experience, very important things I chose areas of focus that I think address this topic really comprehensively I would like this session to be interactive So, do not hesitate to stop me at any time to ask questions Again, via the chat and provide comments Any personal insight you have, examples, et cetera All great things ’cause I do like to make sure that what I’m talking about is very meaningful to my audience So, the statement that I have on this slide

I think this is really the big problem around data generally Is that we’re just have a lot of data that’s being created, stored Which of course needs to be analyzed And all this data causes ethical and privacy concerns Now, this cartoon I think is really funny because it’s a good visual that really demonstrates the idea that data really is something that we should be protecting And it should be learned at a very early age I think as we all know our kids are growing up with electronics very early And it’s just interesting that in this comic this child would actually say that to his teacher And I think that’s really telling And I even think about the fact that, you know When we’re born, right We’re immediately, our personal information is collected and recorded Whether it’s hand prints, foot prints, et cetera And at least the whole topic of biometrics So, just think about some ethical concerns just with that simple example I just raised And I believe, as with many things in life, education is key and working with data is no different But with the appropriate safeguards in place The topic of big data management, which we’re about to get into, will become much less intimidating Now, how could I not have a presentation and not talk about COVID-19? So, I just wanted to just bring this up at the beginning here Just because I think COVID-19 is gonna change the landscape of data And I put some of what I call data consequences on this slide And I don’t know if you’ve heard about the Apple and Google partnership around COVID-19 with contract tracing technology And I’m not gonna get into it in detail here But I did provide a link that feel free to read up on when you get an opportunity Because when you look at high tech surveillance I mean, you really have to think about that there is purpose for it However, is this technology that’s being developed per se just because of something like COVID-19? Is this actually something that will be effective and it’s gonna solve the problem at hand? And we also need to make sure we’re thinking about things that come to light because of something like a pandemic And make sure that we’re not jumping into it too hastily as well And then working from home, you know again I mean organizations have had to basically make decisions on the fly And often times going against the grain of what they really believe is their company culture from working from the office And had to quickly change to working from home And I really see this as a COVID-19, I call it a consequence But I think companies had to pivot very quickly and educate all their employees about how they’re gonna work from home How they’re gonna set up their office How they’re gonna secure their data Protecting that personal information That personal health information for those that work in healthcare So, things are thing that I think it had to be thought about quickly in many cases over the last couple of months And it’s gonna continue to be a thought as we move forward and into the future So, I think we can really dive into the topic we need to start with talking just about definitions So, what are ethics, right? I mean I grabbed some definitions here from some different sources You could find many different definitions But again, ethics are rules or guidelines that establish conduct, right or wrong for individuals or for groups And for example, code of conduct express relevant standards And these standards are gonna vary based on the field that you work in The ethical considerations, it’s really about applying these ethical disciplines to what you do Because again, there’s many different areas where data is collected And then the whole concept of data

You know, data is collected and measured and reported, analyzed And analytics, so again There’s a set of quantitative and qualitative approaches for delivering insights from data And that’s really what we’re gonna get into in much more detail through this session How data is used and extracted And how it’s important to make sure that we’re following ethical guidelines when we’re utilizing this data So, we’re getting into a little bit about who and how big data is collected So again, anyone who values information is gonna value data And primarily businesses, that’s gonna be the focus for today They collect data and they need this data to make intelligent decisions This comic is funny to me because I just think it’s a paradox of does somebody really stare in your window to collect data on you? Probably not or we hope not But again, it’s interesting that that’s what the person in this comic would think about somebody looking in their window So, big data is defined as extremely large data sets that may be analyzed to reveal patterns, trends, associations Especially to human behavior and interaction So, data collection after all is a science and therefore a method is essential for data collection And that method is gonna vary depending on the goal of who is actually collecting that data Now, solid data collection is definitely important to ensure in any field of study or data preference that, you know The strategy behind collecting that data is intended for what that data is gonna be used for Now, what’s really a scary part about a collection is that often times it’s unknown how much personal data is being collected Who’s actually looking at this data? And what it’s actually worth to a business So, everyday hundreds of companies you know or may not even know are collecting your data And this information needs to be protected And one of the biggest people that collect data are known as data brokers And what data brokers are is they’re entities that collect information about consumers And these data brokers collect it for companies or for individuals You can even think about Facebook as a data collector And I found one statistic that was posted a little over a year ago that I found very enlightening So, Facebook recently posted a continued growth and profits number from the last year And they reported that over two billion people use its online properties everyday So, it appears that users are unaware or they don’t care how their data is being sold freely Or more accurately they may not understand the ramifications So, now that I’ve covered the who collects data The natural progression in my mind is to spend some time exploring the big why or as I have stated the purpose of data collection So, the code that I put on this slide It does sound a little scientific in nature However, I do think it sums up the purpose of collecting data And I think it clearly covers the wide spectrum of those who collect data So, there’s numerous reasons we’re collecting data

Primarily based on the motives behind it Some motives for example that come to mind for me They could be criminal activity such as fraud, identity theft However, I want to focus majority of my thought today and conversation around business and marketing related reasons So, bottom line is that data helps companies learn about their customers It enables companies to realize trends and the way that people may change their opinions or behavior over time under different circumstances It lets businesses segment their audiences into different customer groups It facilitates decision making It improves the quality of those decisions that businesses make It also helps to resolve issues businesses may be having It also helps to improve quality of any product or service based on the feedback that they were able to obtain Now, I wanted to talk about a quick example The slide show, as I mentioned a little bit earlier I used to travel a lot before COVID And I’m also interested in the idea of machine learning or known as the internet of things actually And when I walk through airports and you look at vending machines for example That’s one example of people that are purchasing things out of vending machines That information goes back to the people that supply the product And they are making decisions based on what is being purchased And if they realize a product isn’t being purchased they will stop from putting that product in the vending machine And that is just one example of how intelligent data is used to improve a business decision Another thing that’s smart nowadays is garbage cans And I bring up this topic because I also find that very interesting That they now are able to track and know if they need to go collect from a garbage can So, they don’t just go on routes anymore and just randomly do the same thing over and over again They will make their route decisions based on if those actual cans need to be emptied So again, all data coming into businesses and they are able to make much smarter decisions because of that So, in theory raw data is just a vast number of bites of information Yet you must remember not to diminish the data because it’s very powerful and valuable This is well known to those who rely on the information Whether the intent is for good or maybe devious purposes To capture that true value and use it It has to be translated into data analysis with the aim to find credible and conclusive answers to questions that help drive decisions So, to close on the why I just want to review that companies use big data by combining information for better resources, to create knowledge Make better predictions, tailor services However, big data has also been highly criticized in the last few years As breach of privacy, even potentially discriminatory information has come to light This opens the door to the world of ethics and the use of data and why it’s so critical to understand the topic Not only as someone who collects the data but for all of us because we are the source of the data And please reflect on that because I think that is a very important point to take away from this Is that everything you do on a daily basis You are providing data to somebody who is using that for their own individual purposes So, now that I defined some terms Talked about who collects data Along with the purpose of how it’s collected I want to explore some ethical principles that drive considerations on how to behave when working with data So, big data ethics is different from information ethics

which I think is a key Because the focus of information ethics is more concerned with issues of intellectual property and information that those professionals need While big data ethics is more concerned with the collection and the use of data that is used by data brokers as I mentioned previously, governance and businesses large and small So, business leaders should hopefully follow big data ethical principles that are called out on this slide For a sustainable big data industry standards of principles need to be enacted, believed in and followed To foster a culture that will adopted holistically throughout the big data industry So, the things I called out on this slide just highlights what is important for businesses to understand when they’re thinking about how to maintain their ethical standards within their organization So, this actually comes directly out of a textbook that I use for one of my ethical courses that I teach And it’s really important that once you establish a core of principles Then it’s important to create a sustainable process that can be worked into policy, you can train against it and follow up on to ensure retention of that information and compliance in action So, this is a ethical decision making process that I ask my students to incorporate into all the activities that we do throughout term Because I believe that with this process of defining a problem, identifying alternatives Choosing your alternative, implementing the decision and monitoring your results will lead you down the pathway When you’re making ethical considerations with your decision making when dealing with data or ethics in general So, now we get to talking a little bit about sensitive data and versus non-sensitive data So, sensitive data is the definition defined here Is data that’s required to be protected from being accessed by unauthorized parties And you can see that there’s three main types of sensitive information that exist Are personal, business and classified information I think we mostly, you know Why is data sensitive? Well, I think we primarily think it’s sensitive because it can be used to cause harm if used in the wrong way And I think we mostly think about in our daily lives with banking information, online banking Like you social number Anything that has a unique personal information that can be used to identify you if used in the wrong way can eventually lead to harm Such as identify theft and so on So, I work in a medical field and I interact with healthcare delivery organizations everyday And I sell technology that’s used with patients And as I mentioned a little bit earlier One of my primary responsibilities is to work with hospitals who purchase products and systems to provide healthcare And I need to prove on a daily basis to my customers that our devices and systems How we manage PHI, personal health information Because any device that has these capabilities pose a larger risk to our organization Healthcare specific, I’m sure you all have heard about and want to cry And hospitals being held ransom for their data

So, it’s very important to Hospitals for example that collect personal health information that this information is very solid and protected So, they do not risk or they lessen their risks of those type of problems And businesses have the same They will have standards in place that hopefully they educate their workers on around the information that the business collects And they will let their employees know what level of protection the information needs based on the type of information that it is And then classified information primarily relates to the way government agencies label their information which governs who has access to it So, everything that I’ve discussed on this slide are put in place to put a standard around the protection of data Now, non-sensitive data in contrast to sensitive data is basically information that used alone is not able to determine an individuals identity So, however non-sensitive data is not considered delicate It is considered information that’s used along with other information still could provide a way for someone to get at your personal information So, even though it’s not sensitive and not as deemed necessary to protect It is becoming more and more important that is does have protection Because it’s known that it can be used against you as well So, some key takeaways from sensitive versus non-sensitive data is that personal identifiable information, PII Is information that used alone or with relevant data can identify you Sensitive information includes anything that can be used as a unique identifier Non-sensitive information can be easily accessible from public sources such as your zip code, your race, your gender and date of birth, et cetera The regulating and safe guarding personal information in my opinion and research will likely be dominant issue for individuals, corporations and governments for years to come So, data’s got some privacy concerns Having merged as competitors of big data and big analytics Data ethics The right or wrong conduct in the relate to handling data in daily public use On this slide I called out some professionals that it’s their job to work with data And as you can see, I called out some titles that I know that they use Their primary job is to look at data And you can see based on their education, experience and so forth They can actually make a pretty hefty salary So, these type of jobs are not only in demand but they’re very much of interest for people who have interest to work with data Now, the people that choose to go into this field to work with data, you know They have to realize that there are ethics that go along with how you need to work with data So, the reason that organization need these people is that they have to analyze a higher volume of data everyday The large growth of data demands the use of data management techniques

And if you aren’t careful with how you manage your data and you end up with a breach That could cause huge difficulties for your business which I will talk about moving forward So, I’m gonna spend some time talking about the consequences of misusing data So, organizations believe that keeping sensitive data secure from misuse means they’re automatically compliant with data privacy And this is definitely not the case So, consider a scenario where you’ve gone to great lengths to secure personal identifiable information That is encrypted, the access is restricted and multiple monitoring systems that you have in place have been put there for the pure reason to protect your data However, if that information was collected without and proper consent You still could be violating data privacy regulations even though that data is secure While finding the right solutions to work with data paralyzed parallels how best to ensure you’re keeping data secure so it does not get misused Data breaches are a constant threat to every organization And the cost associated with these type of incidents can be very high In some cases could actually threaten the ability of a company to continue in business So therefore, it’s extremely important for businesses to identify the threats And therefore, put things in place to reduce their exposure So, data breach threats are targets that come from different types of data And a lot of times it’s their own employees or suppliers and consultants that have access to their network that provide the access to the companies data that can cause harm So, the data protection measures are extremely important Even disgruntled employees may decide to leak sensitive information So, data breach consequences The consequence for businesses that experience data breaches are severe and increasing And this is mainly due to the increased regulatory burden for notification of individuals whose data has been compromised So, I wanted to talk a little bit about the true reason today on Zoom Because the COVID-19 pandemic has forced millions of people to stay home over the past two, three months And this tool was actually compromised because somebody took notice that daily meeting participants on this platform surged from 10 million in December to 200 million in March and 300 million daily meeting participants in April So, Zoom had to quickly act to secure their platform So, some solutions to be able to reduce the risk so there’s less chance of misusing data So, most companies just use encryption which offers this kind of control but it has to be the right kind of encryption If a specific file or email is encrypted you can control

who can read it at all times So therefore, even if someone is able to access your systems The information will not be able to be viewed, disclosed So, we just talked about how to protect data from misuse and consequences of breach If someone like myself who works with data, it’s important to know how to protect it From the point of view From my point of view and experience it’s important that these protections start from the beginning which is part of a development process This can apply to both hardware and software Once a product is out the door it’s much more difficult to make changes The golden rule to an engineer is to make sure that you design security in from the beginning Ensuring that your software is secure is one of the main challenges developers face on a daily basis It’s not only enough knowledge to just test the software only on certain stages Because this can cause critical vulnerabilities to be overlooked And this is exactly what people are trying to use the information for malicious means are looking for So, software development companies use what’s called a secure software development lifecycle to be able to protect how they’re creating their software To make sure they’re designing the security from the inside out So, securing data in transit and while in storage is very important This is too something I work with on a daily basis because the devices and the systems that I provide to customers all have data that’s moving and needing to be stored So, enterprises will choose methods to secure their data while in transit Such as SSL, TLS, FTPS which I mentioned on this slide And this helps to protect the contents of the data when it’s moving For example, for my case from a medical device into a server system And then maybe into an electronic medical records system And then when the data is at rest that’s also extremely important So, when the data is sitting on a device or within a server It also is protected so somebody could not easily access that data So, I want to move into data governance Which is a term that is used to describe the overall process for controlling the integrity, use, availability, usability and security of all data owned and controlled by an enterprise It’s got a place for an enterprise to a appoint a team to oversee these becoming more complex data governance programs And I made a note of some popular data governance programs but there are many more than this So, the CCPA is a statewide privacy law that regulates how businesses all over the world are allowed to handle the use of personal information for specifically California residents The GDPR is a newer framework that sets guidelines for the collection and processing of personal information from individuals who live in the European Union Now, this also effects US businesses that have their data moving outside the US They also need to follow the guidelines set by the GDPR

The Brazilian General Data Protection Act establishes rules on collecting handling, storing, sharing of personal data and by organizations And the last one, the POPIA That is self advocates data protection law So, I wanted to provide just a couple of examples and the first one I chose is I think it brings to light a common area where data breach can easily happen Especially looking back with how we are all behaving or needing to behave often times mandatory now because of COVID So, people are bringing their computers, their laptops, their portable devices home or they’re away from the office And everything on those devices has personal information Whether it’s considered private or secured or not secured And this is one example that the industry calls the security breach that started it all with the Veterans Administration Where they had 26.5 million discharged veterans records that were stolen from an employee who improperly took the material home Now again, I work in the world of medical device sales and we are heavily mandated on how we manage our laptop that we take away from the office Just because of the information that would be at risk if those laptops were stolen So, some recommended practices is just ensure proper physical security of that device, wherever it lives Laptops should always be secured Whether in the office or when it’s not in the office And it’s important to use other layers of security like encryption, some physical security And it’s important to securely delete any personal information or other sensitive data when it’s no longer needed for business purposes In another area that I think is often times overlooked is the insecure storage or transmission of personal information and other sensitive information These records, financial data, et cetera Is important to be kept secure Saving the files in an unsecure place or anywhere that it could be found publicly Could cause some data to be breached which could lead to some very serious consequences So, especially when you’re working from home And now you need to move information from your computer maybe back to your employers networks Make sure you know who has access to folders before you put your data there Make sure you don’t put sensitive information in locations that are accessible publicly And just make sure you transmit sensitive securely Don’t use open unencrypted wireless when working with or sending the data This brings up an example of home networking So, some people’s home networks aren’t secure So, now that you’re working from home it’s important that you understand how to secure your network So, I wanted to- – 10 minutes left So, I’m just giving you the 10 minute warning before it’s two pm – So, just wanted to round out with a couple things

about just best practices with ethical data collection and use These are some very simple rules I think you can take away to follow Define the value of the information Companies need to be transparent with what they’re collecting and how they’re using it They need to know the origins of the data and the rules surrounding it They need to choose their business partners wisely And they need to look a little bit deeper into their ethical data management practices And the lessons learned from this session that I hope you’ll take away or call to action is understand the meaning of ethics and data analytics Remember the who, what and why The purpose and how of data collection Review ethical principles and ethical decision making processes Know the differences between sensitive versus non-sensitive data Stay current on all data governance and protection policies that apply to you and the industry that you work in And always follow best practices of your collecting, transmitting or storing data And I just wanted to close with a quote that, again For the things we have to learn before we can do them We learn best by doing them So, I hope you take that quote into action as you move forward with understanding how to protect data and use it ethically – Awesome, so let’s open this up for questions now And while you’re going ahead into the chat function and starting your questions I’ve got one to begin with Scott I think of all the apps on our phones and our tablets that we can sign up for The privacy information is there, it’s a privacy statement We as consumers have access to that I feel like most people don’t read them We just quickly swipe to check a box And go right into using the products and services that we’re going after To what level of To what degree do you think businesses have an ethical responsibility for giving that information? Are they more apt to gain more customers if they go above and beyond a legal privacy statement because that’s what required to do? I guess I’m asking are companies doing the bare minimum? Should they be doing more? Could they get more consumers if they went a step further and really helps their customers understand the data that they’re giving up and what that’s being used for? – Yeah, that’s a great question I mean as a consumer myself I’m also somebody who does teach on this topic I think businesses have to have the core responsibility to let the consumers know how their data will be used Again, it goes back to the transparency I was talking about on a couple of my slides The more a company is willing to disclose what data they’re collecting How they’re gonna use that data That they’re not gonna share that data They’re not gonna sell that data I think that just gives people more confidence in using that company And with that confidence hopefully will come greater business for them Or more business for them – Absolutely Yeah, other questions Go ahead and chat I think there’s a small enough group here where you could unmute if you wanted to ask a question using your microphone Everybody’s currently muted But you could unmute yourself if you’d like to ask a question or type it into the chat function Question, terrific presentation I’m a student in HIM Was very helpful in explaining the concepts of big data, thank you Is it possible to include your slides with the recording? It will be helpful for my report Scott, how do you feel about creating a PDF of your PowerPoint presentation so that I can submit that to everyone in the email with the recording? – Yeah, happy to create a secured PDF – Yes, secured PDF – Happy to provide that, yes – Awesome, so there you go Debbie Other questions She says thank you (chuckling) We had folks joining us from all over

I saw Seattle on as one of the locations And central Minnesota Quite a few from Minnesota of course Colorado That’s a little closer to you over there in Montana – Yeah, same time zone for sure (laughing) – Donna Thompson says thank you Very informative session We’ve got about five minute left Are there any other questions? Well, I think the takeaway is Oh, here we go Can you comment on where China is in relation to big data versus the United States as it relates to the future of technology? – I can definitely comment on it I haven’t done extensive research but I know China has data protection governance I didn’t call out their specific governance Such as I called out the European with the GDPR But I do know they have a particular governance policy that you could look up for sure and find out more information about it But I don’t know enough detailed specifics to speak extremely educatedly on China’s particular policies But I know they have some specific guidance around data protection – Fair enough How does big data compare in other countries compared to North America? So, does this put North America companies at a disadvantage when other companies have a different way for their data? – Well, I know the market The trend is that the GDPR is a very comprehensive and very strict governance policy And the US doesn’t have anything that directly aligns with what the GDPR has So, when I lived in Europe for a few years and I was selling medical technologies that had of course data sharing It was critical that the data that was coming out of Europe was not sent back to the US Everything had to be stored in Europe And we actually had to follow very strict data protection policies that at that time came out of Belgium Belgium at that time had the strictest policies with data protection of electronic data So, we had to follow their guidelines for all of the health information that was being collected from the devices – Okay – So, I think European standards are seen as stronger in a general point of view But the US again, many US companies are global companies So, they need to follow guidance like the GDPR Even though they’re an American company our data is leaving the US So, that means that any data we’re collecting from somebody who lives outside US and Europe We have to follow the guidelines so we’re protecting the data following the GDPR standard – Yeah, okay We’ve got a couple more questions here Is there a good source for where we can go to learn how to send emails securely from a personal email? – Well, your email provider takes on the burden of securing your emails So if you use, I’ll just say Gmail for example I mean, your emails are within their servers, their environment The are the ones that are deemed with protecting your data So, if you’re sending an email from your email and sending it somewhere else Then that would go under those email servers and it would just depend on the protection of those particular email servers I mean, you could go to the extent of sending emails that are encrypted There’s software programs I don’t know if you’ve ever had to communicate with your bank or communicate with something like that Where they’re actually sending you a link that you have to log into Provide a password, a username password to be able to email each other That’s another level of security to protect your email directly – Good, yeah – But just, yep – Okay, next question Can you comment on the degree of advantage? Bigger companies have over small companies

because of their capabilities in data So, comment on the degree of the advantage that bigger companies have over smaller ones because of capabilities in data – Well, I think the larger companies When it comes to protecting data I mean, there’s always best practices and policies and procedures and guidance What it really comes down to is the resources that you have to be able to enact all those policies and procedures I mean, if you could afford to have a complete team to manage your governance Rather than maybe one person that’s in charge of everything So, I think the larger companies have more people at their disposal to help protect their information And on the flip side, if they have a breach They also have more money, per se, to deal with dealing with the breach Small companies normally need to hire out or they need to consult with data privacy professionals They don’t have an in-house As a matter of fact I think that’s a good thing for even big businesses to not only have in-house but also consult with third party Because it’s always good to get somebody looking in from the outside on how you’re protecting your data So again, bigger companies can do a lot more internally But I think smaller companies just need to be smart and leverage, consult and make sure that they’re in line with policies and procedures – Yeah, absolutely Okay, I think I’ve answered every question I’m getting lots of thank you’s on the chat function right now I’m gonna stop the recording Let’s see here

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