today and very honored to have professor daisho here from wasit a university I’d like to welcome you on behalf of citrus the consulate of Japan in San Francisco thank you very much for all the arrangements and there’s going to be a reception afterwards sponsored by them so thank you very much also like to thank mechanical engineering for many of the students and faculty are here very interested in this topic and I also want to make a few notes that there are questionnaires that the consulate asks you to fill out to get your response on how you felt the talk was and there are handouts on the talk right now some of you have them they are the second part of the talk and we are printing out the first part so you will have them by the end of the talk let me first also say thank you to the citrus staff for all their help in putting this together and now first I’m going to introduce professor Li Wei Lin who is going to introduce the Consul General from the Japanese Consulate thank you so my job here today is very simple very sure I’m going to have the honor to introduce nagamine Isom the general counsel of Japan in San Francisco on behalf of mechanical engineering department here and he will give a very short brief talk before the real talk as well can him well thank you professor Lynn for a introduction it is a great pleasure for me I’m the Consul General of Japan but not quite the general console you can say general constant sounds like a Tony even I wish I would be a Tony as well as a diplomat but I’m a consortium of Japan in San Francisco I’m very glad to sponsor today’s talks by distinguished professor yes hero died show later and this event is in collaboration with the citrus I don’t need to spell out the citrus Barclay and so I’d like to thank dr. Shastri dr. right dr. santosh mr. in no way and virtually everyone at the citrus of who made this event possible well today’s topic is related to global warming and global warming has grown to be a critical issue that needs to be addressed by the whole world to take an action every human being who shares this awareness must work together through the exchange of information and the technology co collaboration people from all over the world have started to take the first step towards this international goal lastima Japan took leadership initiative with the cool earth 50 proposition to have global greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 the idea was shared in the g8 summit last year then in December last year at the United Nations Cup 13 summit in Bali as you may know the nations of the world agree to the body roadmap towards a new framework of greenhouse gas emissions reduction that with the father develop the ongoing fo under the Kyoto Protocol to continue working together towards a new environmental outlook japanese prime minister Judeh himself has expressed his firm resolution to work towards the establishment of the new framework and they announced japan’s national target for reductions in greenhouse gas emissions japan will host the g8 summit this summer coming summer the global warming issue will be a focus of the discussion on a more local scale California of course is known for its environmentally conscious people and the government alike and progressive measures such as a b32 only one part of this state’s leading role on environmental issues in the United States therefore we are very much looking forward to working closely with the state of California to that dead end in this connection I’m very much honored to have a professor yes erode I show this afternoon who specializes in

automotive engineering and environmental and energy issues I hope that this presentation will help all of us gain a deeper appreciation and understanding of efforts by countries such as Japan to address global climate change to continue the spirit of today’s talk the constitution of japan in san francisco and the UC center of sacramento will host a seminar or march 26 and 27 in in the state capitol where the japanese policy makers and corporate leaders will come to discuss environmental policies and it’s environmentally friendly technologies so this afternoon is going to be the first step and then at was the end of this month we are going to have another step board we hope that these events will offer opportunities for the exchange of ideas and information between Japan and California so I very much look forward to this first step in this afternoon in concluding the concert would like to thank all the local organization who supported this program including the japan society of Northern California the Japan Japanese universities network in the Bay Area Jumba the Silicon Valley Japanese and entrepreneurs network sv gin and the Japanese bio community jbc the japan society for the promotion of sciences jsps and the center for japanese studies at UC Berkeley ladies and gentlemen please welcome professor Daishi oh thank you i just want to have one more professor come and introduce professor daisho this professor Bob Bibble robert duvall from mechanical engineering after that great speech they really don’t need me I i was invited to give this introduction to our distinguished speaker largely because the department knows i work with engines and diesels and combustion and so on and not surprisingly we discovered that our paths have crossed several times in the last few years to the graduate students i’m one of the last students who first of all I graduate students always taught undergraduate students how a slide rule works ok so in 1973 I taught the last slide rule class ok I also had a department of chemical engineering in Wisconsin that required a foreign language as part of the PhD so I thought I would do something unusual so I studied Japanese for two years ok and I enjoyed tremendously learning to study Japanese and I notice I didn’t say that I learned Japanese I learned to study Japanese and I look at it and so a wonderful experience and of course engineering schools no longer require a foreign language vironment and that that’s too bad because I tell you it’s a very was an enriching experience that I’m grateful for by the way after I got my PhD I did go to Japan and and people ask well what was the meeting or why going and the best description i could tell somebody is I was an American hippie traveling in Japan okay and I stayed at youth hostels the whole time okay and youth hostels then didn’t have that many foreigners and so the only thing in English in the youth hostel that I could read was a dictionary okay so you know then you got to be pretty bored to read the dictionary but we had that from time to time okay so so over the years though what happens is I’ve visited Japan on many occasions I’m a little bit better than most on trying to read what’s the station to get off the subway and navigate my way through Tokyo and so on but as you’ve just heard almost everybody I talked to in Japan could speak English far better than I could speak Japanese so as a consequence my Japanese just faded and faded and faded okay and so I thought I’d be big and brave and introduce you in Japanese but I gave that idea up quickly okay and so so now having given my speech it’s time for me to introduce you professor professor dies show is a professor of engineering at the famous wasit a university in tokyo his areas of expertise include automotive engineering developing evaluating electric and hybrid vehicles something I don’t do but here low emission diesel and alternate fuel engines which is something we do do in our lab okay and because remember my degrees were in chemical engineering so I’ve worked a lot with fuels it says here professor daisho is a member of

many councils and committees something I don’t do okay and in the Japanese government including the central Environmental Council Ministry of the Environment and council for transportation policies Ministry of Land infrastructure and transport and a committee for the next generation of vehicles fuels and the Ministry of the economy now this is important stuff if you bother to look out in the streets of California you’re going to see that fraction of the automobiles are from Japan and that’s because Japan took an early lead on producing environmentally friendly automobiles and also of course automobiles that have high fuel economy and they took an early lead on that and they intend to keep it and they’re doing very well at at last professor daisho has contributed to the establishment of the motor vehicle emissions and fuel economy standards in Japan and they are tougher than they are in California yeah and it affect okay he was executive vice president of the Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan from two thousand four to two thousand six and that meant that we knew each other because i went to the joint japan sae meeting and the American SAE meeting that was in Yokohama Japan when he just became vice president so I don’t think he remembers me at that meeting okay so with no further further ado would we please welcome our speaker with the usual applause thank you you have a microphone you don’t need this do this to forget study mr. Donovan a professor depot thank you for the kind introduction and thank you for inviting me here I would like to talk about the advanced technology associated with energy and the environment focusing on 22 the year 22 and beyond and please be patient with Japanese bad english for the next 2 45 year f five mins okay so and i would like to have questions from you after my talk okay I like to talk about future regulations and standard of motor vehicles on emissions and fuel economy and i will introduce advanced energy engine technologies and after treatment system then i will talk about the possible alternative viewers and energy in the future and finally i will introduce my own perspectives on future vehicle and fewer technologies okay you can take a look at to the website provided by Ministry of Environment of Japan and this is not shows the suspended particulate matters concentration hour by hour and some places we are suffering from the air pollution of SPN suspended particulate matter as shown here okay but almost all many cities in the world via suffering from air pollution okay so we have to overcome such programs in the near future maybe in developing countries they will suffer from such air pollution beyond 2010 but in motorized country and developed country they will be able to overcome such air pollution around 20 10 or a little bit later okay so okay speaking of gasoline engines emission control system gasoline vehicles are achieving almost zero emission levels by c.country reducing cold start and warm up emissions okay as shown here the engine utilized very sophisticated electronic control unit

and it utilized to catalyst to reduce any emissions during cold start and warm up conditions ok this is visa three monkeys suffering from bad snail from diesel but smoke and noise so we have to solve these problems okay and this figure compared the emissions standard of Japan and EU and the state as you can see we will be oops can I use the point there’s a point or something okay ah we’ll be able to have a very low oh thank you thanks a lot okay this is a US 20 m it’s a very low level for heavy-duty diesel vehicles okay and Japanese regressions will be here and euro 6 will be here so these very emissions will be reduced a lot around twenty ten to twenty twenty fifty okay and we need international harmonization associated with such emissions to be reduced using the same testing procedures and regression rebel okay this is the typical advanced diesel emission control system including turbocharger and exhaust gas recirculation and after treatment systems and high-pressure injection system is a key technology to reduce particulate matters and also nox emissions okay this is a group’s common rail system developed by Bosh this injection system can provide the extremely high pressure fuel okay up to 2 120 been a pastor to minimize the particles of fuel okay and such system can provide multiple injection as shown here okay so it can control emissions keeping the high efficiency of the dvo to avoid suit and NOx emissions rien combustion is very very useful and we are trying to find the best condition to control suit and NOx emissions simultaneously avoiding such peninsula ok and it’s CCI is very very hot topics because it can reduce p.m. and not simultaneously achieving the very very lean combustion okay as you hear injection is made very early from the top dead center so the in combustion will take place assume here but this converts type of combustion is very very explosive so such combustion can be utilized at low load conditions only and we have to be careful about the destruction of that of the engine if we utilize hcci up to heavy load and high speed okay so precise combustion control system must be developed to achieve such

combustion okay and in other words we call it is pcci pre-mixed charge compression ignition okay and to achieve such combustion we have different type of method as shown here are in injection late injection and low compression ratio and valuable valuable mechanisms okay in my laboratory we are investigating such combustion concept using very sophisticated single cinder research engine as shown here and it can change the verb timing using such complicated mechanism and we are developing the spray dynamic dynamics model as shown here ok this is experimental observation and this is a predicted fuel concentration and evaporated fuel action is shown here and okay this is the diesel engine and we developing the numerical model to predict such combustion processes as shown here and as you can see exhaust gas recirculation it can be utilized to such to achieve such combustion we use late intake valve closing to realize the lower compression ratio keeping the expansion ratio constant okay to ensure V thermal efficiency assume here so very very creamy and lean combustion can take place as shown here okay so in summary we are trying to develop and utilize numerical method to for engine design or two in order to understand the phenomena of such combustion it’s very useful method and hopefully by using such model we can investigate the new engine concept as shown here ok this is the DPF system this is consistent this such system include ceramic filter to drop diesel particulate matters but you’re here and this system requires a high temperature conditions to reburn accumulated suit on the filter so okay and this is a selective catalytic reduction system to reduce nox shown here urea solution is necessary to produce ammonia ammonia is a very very strong effect on reducing knocks in the exhaust gas okay and this is deeply in our developed by Toyota several years ago and this is a very compact looks and PM reduction system as shown here Knox can be stored on the catalyst and reduced by which condition operation which means a few were rich condition okay and also p.m. can be oxidized as shown here simultaneously ok this is the Honda’s new deluxe catalyst in the catalyst ammonia can be produced and absorb in on the catalyst so you don’t have to use Yulia solution okay if you would like to use urea solution you need a tank okay for storing urea solution

but this system doesn’t require any sub tank for urea solution because ammonia can be produced inside okay so this is a comparison of noxus storage type catalyst and pure HCL system durability from the viewpoint of durability elyas scre is much better than not storage reduction system but we need a different station for urea solution okay in addition to the ordinary fuel infrastructure as well so anyway we in the future we will have such complicated combination of both BPF and the Knox catalyst so much complicated and it will cost a lot so automakers are trying to reduce the costs and improving durability of such type of athlete treatment system calcium here so we in the very near future we will move from mad based map based control to model based control system to reduce nox and p.m. at the same time and model-based control is much simpler than map based control because it is based on simplified mathematic models and or physical models for transient conditions okay it is very important control idea to for transient conditions of the engine okay and we reducing sulfur content in the fuel as shown here 10 ppm listen Tempe p.m. Sava is now introduced in the market in Japan and in the state and in Europe as you here and in Japan we are discussing the future fuel economy standards for heavy-duty vehicles okay this is the first trail in the world okay and 12.2 two percent fuel economy improvement will be required by fifth career 2015 as shown here depending on the vehicle category we have a different standard as you’re here but okay and speaking of a passenger car fuel economy standard we will have a very stringent target as shown here it seems very difficult for European our automakers to achieve CO 2 140 grams poly kilometre and they will move to co 2 100 to 20 gram kilometer regressions starting in twenty twelve a very tough target as shown here okay interstates they take a corporate average fuel economy we call it the cafe okay and the cafe will be revised in the very near future this room here and President Bush is as big announcement that the states will take 20 in 10 policy it means the gasoline concept consumption is will be reduced by twenty percent in the next 10 years introducing bio fuel bio ethanol and also the improvement of the vehicle efficiency okay this is a very high target okay and in Japan looking at the

28-30 we will reduce co2 emissions by thirty to forty percent okay and euro is a very very stringent target as you hear and California will introduce such stringent radiation apart from federal fuel economy standard as you may know okay and speaking of Japanese passenger car fewer guna standard we will achieve 23.5 percent improvement by the Year 2015 okay depending all the big weight as shown here so this table shows a variety of technologies to improve fuel economy okay direct injection hybridization mirror cycle and downsizing with turbo charging and also variable valve mechanism and moderated displacement and so on okay this is typical examples examples including direct injection gasoline engine variable timing and CVT continuously variable transmission is very very efficient that this is the very very advanced concept direct injection gasoline engine developed by Volkswagen this engine has a direct injection system and turbo charging system as well and very very efficient transmissions as shown here okay so the engine displacement is very small because it is turbocharged okay and this engine is also turbocharged developed by matsuda and this is angie is very very small like Volkswagens TSI engine as shown here ok this is vs vents hcci diesel engine desoto means desire and auto it’s a combination of hcc I and ordinary gasoline combustion it means spark United engine okay very unique engine and this engine utilized mild hybrid I will talk about mild hybrid later but it is very very complicated system including very variable compression the verb variable geometry turbocharger and variable valve timing and up to light load the hcc I combustion is utilized to reduce nox okay to achieving the very low temperature combustion okay the combustion process are compared and very very lean combustion can be achieved by utilizing hcci concept shown here Knox level is very very low compared to the ordinary combustion okay so in summary we will improve combustion technology after treatment technology and fuel technology as well three technologies are essential to achieve low emission and high efficiency at the same time and such key component technology must be developed and we we have to optimize a bit very very complicated combination of such components to achieve low emission and high efficiency at the same time

okay and this figure compares direct injection diesel engine and stoichiometry burn engine stoichiometric burn direct injection and limp and direct injection in terms of NOx and co2 as you can see these arranging and lean bang engine have to reduce notes more keeping the high efficiency okay let me change the subject this is this figure shows the effect of resistance parameters on require the energy for the vehicle okay as you can see the reduction of the vehicle rate is very very effective to reduce required energy to achieve such a lightweight vehicle high-tension steel and aluminum and plastics are very useful okay but I think a high-tension steel is the most promising technology to reduce vika rate at a reasonable cost incremental cost okay and we are discussing a lot about the future safety for lightweight vehicles sometimes lightweight vehicle is very very dangerous okay because too right and if you have a collision extent you will be killed if you drive a very lightweight vehicle okay so safety issue is a very very important chairing issue for safety vico expert okay so I am proposing a challenging opportunities to develop advanced technologies for lightweight vehicle safety issue as shown here okay and ultralight steel auto body program has been done as you’re here 333 steel manufacturers book together to reduce the Vico h okay they have succeeded in reducing the week you weighed by twenty to thirty percent and improving this fuel economy by twenty percent or so okay this is a lightweight vehicle like to use okay the week weight is only 423 grams very lightweight and the viewer economy is 100-240 my miles per gallon very very efficient using using carbon fiber reinforced plastics very right wait okay and using a very small ranging okay speaking of electric vehicles we will have a big micro electric vehicles and hybrid vehicles and also fuel cell vehicles okay and such advanced technology are required and developed being developed okay for such vehicles in the past we expected the future bright future of ordinary v’s but ordinary devs in California to comply with zero emission vehicle standard but they are disappearing at the moment right so because ordinary v’s suffering was suffering from heavy weight of the battery unit and a long time recharging okay so I’m very expensive for replacement of the battery with new one this is the advanced very many type EV developed by Mitsubishi using lithium ion battery this battery technology is very very important technology to carry sufficient energy and providing high power as shown here

and the running cost is very very cheap as you’re here ok because if you can take a night time recharge the cost will be 19 of the gasoline a vehicle as shown here ok and co2 emission is very long as you’re here because in Japan thirty percent of electricity is generated by nuclear power ok so we can reduce co2 by thirty percent or more okay and in our rubber tree we have developed such minibus equipped with motor and battery okay this mini bus has a inductive power transfer system without using any prong in system okay so it’s very convenient system and it has only a very small button unit ok this is inductive charging system and this is located under the floor ok while stopping the vehicle the electric charging will take place very for Barry spending very short time also here okay speaking of hybrid system we are a very different kind of hybrid system as shown here ok parallel system is sometimes called mild hybrid okay and the engine and motor is connected directory to generate electricity and also it can drive the vehicle ok and cities type is a combination of engine and generator and the engine is used only for electricity generation ok and cities parallel type is shown here ok and there are some advantages and disadvantages for micro hybrid mild hybrid and full hybrid system ok motor is used for power generation but you’re here and it is very important function engines stop start and stop ok a function and the regenerative braking is can be used for this different type of hybrid types as shown here and this is what are the future vico we have developed such a very efficient hybrid system shown here we used carbon reinforced plastics body ok using I am battery unit and very small engine as well this is the what a vehicle’s engine this little W means the insurer of our universities name W very efficient almost 80 miles per gallon is achieved okay this is brew tech hybrid developed by mercedes-benz this is a modification of s-300 220 used theorizing bluetec urea HCL system and micro hybrid very efficient and this is a pro mean hybrid vehicle developed by toyota a based on prius okay it has another set of nickel hydride battery unit as you’re here okay this is a verbal recharge system recharge concept car it has prong in type silly the hybrid system okay shown here very efficient vehicle equipped with lithium ion battery unit shown here ok this is opals a concept sporty v’s if Rick’s and

it has a series hybrid system with 1.3 liter diesel engine and it has a pair of the segway okay so you can enjoy a Segway with your girlfriend or boyfriend stopping at in that of the Sun forest or something off road area but be careful it runs only 23 kilometers so you have to go 10 kilometers away and you have to return do you understand okay so this is a summary of the trade of increased costs and improved fuel economy in terms of microwave micro hybrid mild hybrid and full hybrid okay to be used for gasoline vehicles and diesel vehicles okay and development of major components are shown here we need advanced motor and battery unit and DC DC converter as well and other electronics okay and incremental costs must be considered as shown here okay this arranging is more efficient than gasoline engine okay but the diesel engine is a little bit expensive so we have to consider the trade of costs and the fuel efficiency okay not shown here okay and the Japanese government has established a future target for developing lithium-ion batteries for bigger applications as shown here the costs must be drastically reduced in the future as shown here and the performance of the battery have to be improved by fifty percent by the year 2015 it’s a very very tough target to be achieved but but the industry and national laboratory are working very hard on this target as you’re here okay and speaking of the future motor vehicle fuel we have some options including biomass fuel electricity natural gas and so on okay but the flexibility flexible flexibly brandable and the compatibility with conventional fuels are very essential issue okay and adaptive to existing refueling structures is also very important issue as shown here okay okay let me introduce some Japan hydrogen and fuel cell program okay we have ten differing station for hydrogen fuel cell vehicle shown here okay we have such different type of fuel cell vehicles tested on the road okay GM is now providing hydrogen 3a for metropolitan area in Japan okay and we carefully comparing the co2 emissions okay of these vehicles and conventional vehicles as well such as gasoline vehicle and gasoline hybrid and diesel and visa hybrid and CMG vehicles and as you can see battery v’s are the most efficient and the lowest co2 emission vehicle as shown here okay okay let me talk about a little bit about biomass fuel okay you can get bio ethanol from different sources as you’re here and sugar starch or series see rules can be used for production of

ethanol as shown here okay and the Honda and right has developed right string this is a very unique strain to avoid inhibit ation during fermentation so it can produce bioethanol very efficiently using the continuous processes of ethanol production as you here okay speaking of biodiesel again we have different type of sources as shown here okay rapeseed in Europe palm oil in Asian area the country’s okay and soybeans in the States and in Brazil as well for diesel fuel okay this is a chemical reaction mechanism to produce diesel biodiesel we need methanol okay and we get a by-product grizzling so it’s a little bit program for us because methanol is not a biofuel at the moment right so we have to produce methanol using natural gas or some other fossil fuels okay so we can replace such vegetable oils oxygen with hydrogen using such process developed by nippon oil and Toyota this is very useful or process because you cannot you don’t have to add palm oil’s diesel biodiesel and you can utilize such hydrocarbons very similar to diesel fuel having a very high cetane number okay and this is the future advanced process to produce diesel fuel utilizing such a biomass including crops good grass and waste the shown here gasification process and the fischer-tropsch method are used for producing such hydrocarbon fuel very similar to diesel fuel as shown here for such development Nestor and colon in Germany and is a IST in Japan are working very hard to develop to complete such processes they interstate some companies developing such processes to produce these viewer ok ok I’m running out of time so i would like to skip mais some slide but this is very important trend because it is predicted that co2 emission in the global transportation sector will be increased up to three times in 25 50 so we have to carefully reduce co2 emissions in the transportation sector ok reducing co2 emissions emitted I mean by committed from motor vehicles so here and while the energy demand in the transportation sector will be continuously increasing in the future as young here open twenty percent or twenty-five percent so we have some options for fuels for such vehicles okay we will have three four types of vehicles including SI engine vehicle compression ignition engine vehicle and fuel cell vehicle and electric vehicle and we have to carefully select the better fuel for the future fuels right as you’re here and in Japan we are working on a very important research

program including electricity and battery hydrogen fuel cell and clean diesel biofuels and the human mobile friendly Mobility Systems okay to achieve the target of reducing dependency of vehicle views on oil less than eighty percent and improving overall efficiency by thirty percent or more okay and this figure compares the emissions of co2 the baseline is present gasoline vehicle one hundred percent and in the future we will be able to reduce co2 emissions using such advanced technology okay and the venturi looking at the after the year 2030 and beyond we will be able to reduce co2 emissions in the transportation sector by seventy percent seventy percent okay we if we can utilize such concept okay we will be we will have to improve fuel economy by using efficient power systems hybridization vehicle weight reduction and we have to use non oil fields and energies including electricity biofuels and a carbon capture and storage based fuel okay and also we have to co2 emission more by improving the use of the vehicle okay we have to change the way we use the vehicle in the future okay introducing transportation demand management intelligent transport systems and modal shift from the Vico to the two railway transportation as well okay and again we have to change our light car lifestyle okay so looking at the future trend associated with emissions and alternative fuels and global warming as you can see we will be able to overcome air pollution issue around twenty ten or later okay the purple country reveal eight behind us okay but the developing countries or motorized in country will need some alternative viewers like vegetable oil or biomass will okay and global warming issue will be more and more important in the near future okay thank you very much for your kind attention let’s do da show thank you very much for this wonderful overview and and review some of your own work I’m sure there are lots of questions here and I believe we have another microphone here for people to ask questions just a note the we weren’t able to print out the first half of your presentation but they will be available on the citrus website all the slides so anyone can go to them and download them themselves so are there any questions I was wondering how this how in Japanese society and government the relationship between government and business and how how something like this moves forward how it’s different than the United States okay we for example in order to establish new regressions associated with emissions or fuel economy we discussed a lot between we have a very severe discussion between industry and government and neutral advisor like me okay and we had the interview technical

interview and very very detailed discussion looking at the father looking at the future technologies to be developed okay and eventually we determine the emission level or fury come in standard level okay so it’s a very tough discussion between industry government and neutral devices okay but the interstate and you’re in Europe they the government has its own overview or perspective on the future fewer regulations or emissions regression right so no discussion between industry and government you talked about using urea for pollution control yes and I was wondering on those systems let’s say the urea runs out i assume the agent is capable of running it’ll just pollute and so I wonder if you’re if you would think of shutting down the engine with course the pollution control or you leaves would you leave someone stranded in the desert or because the urea tank is empty or what kinda says yes it’s a very religious program in the state and also in Japan and in Europe right and we are introducing obd system onboard diagnostic system okay and you get a warning okay saying that the urea solution is running out and automatically the vehicle speed is reduced if you if the urea tank solution is running out okay it’s a very important issue it’s hi I have two quick questions one with the efficient diesel vehicles the amount of pollutants by weight is reduced grants per kilowatt hour do you know if there’s a different distribution in terms of the particulate size because there is a health concern with small particles mmhmm yeah it’s a very big issues and as you may know in Europe they will reiterate the particle number because you have many more tiny particles which have different health effects and they were very much fun yes it’s we call it the nanoparticle right yes ah yeah we in Europe the nanoparticle will be regulated in terms of number as shown here ok because it’s it is very more harmful than the larger size of the particle so they will be radiated in terms of numbers shown here ok yeah I was just wondering in terms of the new technologies technologies are only expected is there a different characteristic being seen right or is that not the answer but at the moment to we can be 50 beery reduce such a nanoparticle by using DPF ok BTW has a very larger pore but it can catch the nanoparticle ok very efficiently we have some evidence for them so in Europe they regulate the number of the nanoparticle but it’s ok because if DPF is used ok so it can be controlled yes ok that’s very good yes um the other question is partly a comment maybe I agree with you about the need to reduce the automobile lifestyle I would add to the transportation demand management also transportation landuse structure how we organize cities and the flow of goods and one type of technology which is now an old technology but is very promising in terms of energy efficiency and public health benefits is direct drive electricity you mentioned trains but there is the trolley bus is another form it’s more flexible and it can also write transition to trains yes it’s more viable depending on the Ryan structure of the land use but do you look at that at all or do ya engine wearable in Japan we have some such system electoral system and also we are introducing LLP do you know yes I micro trend lite transit system is introduced in some

cities took me more efficient but the obviously with your reducing you can run these vehicles from renewables directly a very energy efficient and you’re removing the need for so many batteries and engines yes so you have more space also because it’s direct electricity you have very fast torque so you can cover ground faster you need fewer vehicles fewer drivers and they last longer or less maintenance but they used to be very widespread and then they were transitioned from but I’m thinking that maybe they have potential for widespread use not only for public transport but for goods both person out in the future as people are organizing to use less energy and to reduce carbon emissions yes so I’m just wondering if you what you think about that yeah we are developing lithium-ion battery unit okay very efficient and it has a very high energy density and power density as well so we are focusing for that and also as I told you from in hybrid or inductive recharging system will be introduced okay on the road test to start with okay and we will evaluate the performance of such systems okay and comparing the a conventional system okay okay thank you uh-huh but again accuracy have to be generated using hopefully using renewables right yes reduce right nice haha right right yeah right but okay I told as I told you okay gasoline vehicles are becoming almost zero emission vehicle as you may know utilizing advanced catalytic converter and electronics and Furion system okay and for example in Tokyo and in Los Angeles if you drive gasoline vehicle you can reduce air hydrocarbon in the air because tailpipe emissions a hydrocarbon is much lower than the air HC hydrocarbon concentrations okay so very low emission vehicle so the program is the efficiency and the consumption of the energy using for cereal or using you renewables so sticking with internal combustion engines you I’m interested in biofuels and you talked about the importance of making them blendable and look like petroleum based ones but for biology it’s a lot easier to make particular compounds is it going to be possible or is it even necessary to change the engines if you just have two or three long carbons you know at 17 and 18 as opposed to the complex mix you get from petroleum engine requires a certain number or octane number that’s all so you can produce any kind of fuel me that we don’t have to make it look like petroleum-based oh yeah it’s okay but and also we can utilize existing infrastructure right it’s a very important right how many refueling station in the States okay we have in Japan we have almost 50,000 gathering and diesel fuel stations right so it’s very useful it very convenient to add alternative fuel to conventional fuels right mixed or simply one hundred percent synthesized oil it’s okay if you can keep the octane number or cetane number at the appropriate level for the engine okay do you understand what it is so I have a bad day spits at octane i blocking you can either blend it yes excela to refinery of blended or can we just run a car okay so if it’s all right to just run a car on it then we’re getting a lot closer to a true bio

mm-hmm people are concerned even today about the use of hybrid of batteries and the fact that they are not easily refurbished or recycled in the future do you see that as being a problem also to the environment in Japan we are creating recycle system okay using the data a shop and also recycle industry okay so it will be not a big problem in the future okay you are talking about the lithium-ion battery or an eco haider both yeah we have a recycle system okay so it’s no problem at all okay because you guys r e utilize such precious metals like nickel hydride and lithium-ion rythian right one more question and then invite you to speak with Professor taisho at the reception out yes enjoying California wine the the stopping and starting that happens like in the prius gasoline engine where it stops all the time and starts is that more difficult to achieve with a diesel engine yeah I think so because the engine diesel engine compression is much higher than gasoline engine but you can utilize valve a variable valve timing control so you can reduce the compression ratio and also then you can utilize integrated start and automated system okay some Japanese automakers have achieved such system for hybrid system okay one more turn upon occasion sounds you have the great research laboratory in the Isetta so how many student you have 50 50 yes oh great number talk can you accept somebody spots students from Berkeley oh yeah we have to prepare extra desk and chairs okay wonderful thank you very much I place everybody please give them another round you

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