Hello friends, welcome back to this last lecture on the series on Human Behaviour. Of course, there is one more lecture which we will follow, where we will review what we did in these 20 lectures in 8 week, but this is officially the last one in the series on human behaviour. So, as we have been doing up till now letís do a quick recap of where we started and where we are now. A more detailed recap that will follow is in the last lecture which is going to happen We started this series on human behaviour with the sole aim of focusing on what is human behaviour and why do we need to study human behaviour at all. We discussed these questions in detail and then focused on the science of psychology which helps us study human behaviour. We looked at how psychology developed as a science its roots in terms of philosophy and physiology, we looked at older and newer schools of psychology and some pertinent questions that psychology answers. We looked at various viewpoints which I used in studying human behaviour through psychology, then we discussed methods and tools which psychology provide us for studying human behaviour Once we were equipped with this knowledge and an introduction about psychology is, we moved on to look at how is human behaviour manifested. So, we develop one thing that for any human behaviour to occur that has to be a change. This change could be in terms of an external stimuli or internal stimuli So, any kind of change in the environment, in a person in a stimulus, any kind of change makes a person react to that change and that reaction is called the behaviour So, we started of by discussing how these changes particularly in the external world is recorded and we looked at the concept of what is sensation and sensory systems. We looked at the idea of how sensory systems encode changes in physical environment and convert it into the psychological domain We looked at properties of sensory system which are sensitivity and sensory encoding sensitivity being the property of the system and sensory encoding being the process through which sensory information is or changes in external environment is encoded into the psychological dilemma We discussed the process of decision making in terms of what information to detect and what information not to detect. Then we looked at us model system which is the human eye, which is in itself a sensory system and how does this system function. Once we have information about changes from the external environment, we need to make meaning of these changes and that is exactly the process of perception So, we looked at what is perception, how does perception function. We looked at various view points of perception which is the process of making meaning of the external stimulus, which makes us behave or which makes us do a reaction. We looked at the process of attention the first step in perception, localization and recognition which is similar to pattern matching. We looked at these three processes which are used for making perception or making meaning out of incoming stimuluses We looked at two more processes of abstraction and constancy, which the brain uses for making meaning. Once a information has been made a meaning has been derived out of it, this information needs to be embedded

or this information needs to be put matched with already present knowledge and that is the process of learning. So, how the new information is equivalent to or fitting already known knowledge or already preserved knowledge is what is the process of learning So, we looked at what is learning? Different kinds of learning, the associative and the non-associative form, the various parameters of learning and how knowledge is encoded or not encoded literally, but how this knowledge is matched with previous knowledge which has been already present in human beings Obviously the knowledge which has been learned now and the knowledge which is previously with us is stored somewhere and there is where we describe the process of memory. What is memory?, how does it function?, what kind information does it store?, what kind of models have been proposed for it?, what kind of alternatives are there?, characteristics, parameters, factors affecting it and so on and so forth. So, in detail we looked at what is memory Once new information or information which is encoded by sensory system made meaning through the process of perception has been attached to a store through the process of learning, this needs to be communicated or used for making or solving problems or for making decisions. For thinking, for making decisions, for solving some problems by human beings And there are two processes which help in that one is the process of language which is how we communicate knowledge between people and then the process of thinking. So, we looked at language, what is language? what kind of parameters language follow? We looked at the English language, we saw how various parts of language are used for communicating information between 2 systems, 2 people or 2 human beings or 2 beings for that matter. We looked at what is thinking which is the language of the mind, we looked at reasoning which is support process which helps us in thinking We looked at direct and indirect thinking, we looked at the deductive and inductive reasoning and how these processes then combined together to help us solve problems So, we looked at what is problem solving Once this has been done, we focused on more intrinsic factors which change behaviour internal factors, factors like intelligence. So, we looked at what is intelligence, we looked at the various theories of intelligence, we looked at the common conceptualization of intelligence and then we looked at how does intelligence measured. We looked at a process called emotion, what is it, what are the various theories of it and how does emotion change peopleís thought process or change peopleís behaviour We looked at the multi component model of emotion part by part and then we looked at how once a response is generated out of emotion how this response is to be controlled which is called emotional regulation. Once we were done with the idea of what emotion is, we looked at what is personality which is a stable pattern or a stable way of behaving across people So, we looked at what is personality, what are its factors and what are the various theories of personality. Those theories which have been proposed which define what is personality and what is the role of personality in human behaviour. Towards the end of it we looked at what is the various methods of measuring personality starting from the questionnaire method, to the idea of projective methods, to the idea of the newer methods like brain mapping and the EEG or hormone level analysis and so on and so forth In the last lecture we took a very very interesting variable, which is up till now we have been look at how a single individual at individual unit how is behaviour affected, but that we all know we live in societies and so, much so, that our behaviour not only affect society, but the behaviour of society affects us society has a lot of roles is we are social animal we live in societies, we live across people, we live around people and so, these people who around us also change our behavior sometimes. So, the last section I decided to look at what is the effect of society or social beings around us? how do they change your behavior? So, the last lecture we focused on that some concepts on that and we will continue focusing on that. So, we started up by defining what is the important society in our behavior? We looked at started looking at what is social thought, we would define what is social cognition weíll define what is social influence and then look at something called attraction and love which is again a societal problem So, we started by looking at what is social

thought, which is how do we think about others and so, we looked at the idea of what is attribution we looked at how attribution is caused the various kinds of biases which can occur in attribution And then we looked at something called social cognition, which is processing social information how do we process social information So, we looked at those causes or those features that people use for processing social information. We looked at how people deal with different kind of social information or when a information about somebody comes to us some external factor comes to us from people around comes to us, how do we deal with it We looked at various baises in that; we looked at the optimistic bias, we looked at the idea of counterfactual thinking and where the looked at the idea of how engage in this counterfactual thinking. So, this is what we did in the last lecture. What weíll do today is weíll continue where we left of And start looking at more interesting things social influences, attraction manage, social behaviour and so on and so forth. Now one another interesting thing in social cognition we have looked at counterfactuals and we have looked at how optimistic bias is and other kinds of biases work in terms of social cognition It is about how do we process social information. Another interesting thing in terms of social cognition is something called an attitude now what is an attitude? First of all letís look at what is an attitude and for defining that let us look at this. So, I am going to write some words here, and then what Iíll do is Iíll make you think what you think about it So, let us say I write Air India, I write Switzerland, I write Donald Trump, I write Honda and maybe another one ok. So, what do you think about these? What you think about Air India? When you think about this particular company what comes to your mind of course, somehow you would like it most people wouldnít like it as official definition that is a government company and so, they donít serve well, flights are not that clean, some people would have a thought that in terms of that it is a Indian brand and so, the food that is good and so on and so forth So, everybody has a view about it similarly what Switzerland, you going to have about a view its a good place and good tourist place to visit and so on and so forth similarly Donald Trump and Honda and Narendra Modi and so on and so forth So, each of these words that I have written when I tell you these words you start thinking about that. And when you start thinking about them when you start recalling these words an associated feeling occurs with it. So, basically attitude is a particular way of thinking about any social information Example when I say Narendra Modi the way you think about him, the way you think how he rose from where he is and right now he is a good a leader not only a good leader, but a leader focused on development and what all he has done and all the positive feelings that you have about him or when I talked about Donald Trump, the way you react to him the all the negatives that you can name about him, all the different kind of feelings that is generated in you. Not only the feelings all the sentences that you use to describe him all of them comprise together to form what is called an attitude So, letís then define what an attitude is An attitude is defined as a lasting evaluation of virtually any and every aspect of the social world. So, its basically an attitude is mostly a lasting evaluation. Now why it is a lasting evaluation attitude once form it is very difficult to change right. So, most attitudes generally have a ABC structure. Now what is an ABC structure? An attitude has an affect related with it, affect is how you feel about the issue, then we have a behavioral component which is what you want to do about that issue and c is the cognition which is how you think about it. So, when I say Air India, the like or dislike you have towards this particular company is what is a affect component, the cognition is what you think about it So, you feel one thing and you will think another thing. When you think about it is so, would think that is a Indian company serves a good food and all, but then there is also feeling you have attached with it the feeling is called affect component and the words that you used to describe it, the thinking

that you have bought it, the knowledge that you are stored about this company is what is the cognition part And then there is the b component which is called the behavioral component, that is the action that you are going to take. letís say you are going abroad whether you want to go with Air India or not how at the behavioral level. When it comes to you for purchasing ticket from Air India, what kind of fashion do you do is what is the behavioral component So, based on your affect how you feel and based on your cognition what kind of knowledge you have about this company you have behavioral be determined by it and your attitude is defined by it. So, attitudes what are they? These are lasting evaluations of virtually any in every aspect of the social world, it could be any aspect it could be issues For example, the issue of women empowerment, the issue of whether a Ram Mandir should be made or not, the issue of religion the issue of anything for that matter. Ideas, it could be attitudes could be about certain ideas, ideas like should we send so, many satellites with 1 rocket 109 satellites or the ideas that how India should develop in the field of computer science that kind of thing Persons any person Donald Trump or any person for that matter Sonia Gandhi. So, what you think about them, what is the idea that you have about them, what is the feeling that you have about this person? Social groups your attitudes could also about certain social groups for example, how about blacks, how about the under privileged, how about the reserved category, how about the Maoist or some other groups. So, what do you think about that?, how do you feel about that?, what kind of knowledge you have? and what kind of action that you are going to take about it ?, all these will comprise the idea of what an attitude and about objects you can also have attitudes about different objects So, attitude in such are evaluations are lasting evaluations, but lasting is a relatively lasting evaluation because attitudes can be change. So, attitudes generally involve an affective component like or dislike as I said this is the affective component; a cognitive component, which is the belief that you have and a behavioral component which is the action. The cognitive component as I said in the cognition the idea the belief the knowledge that you have. And a third is the behavioral component which is the action that you are going to take once you know about that particular thing what is that action that you are going to take An attitude is in itself define social cognition because your attitude about something will define how you process certain information If you like a person all information from him will be processed in a in a different manner. If you dislike someone the behaviour that you do towards this person and the information that you collect from him, how do you process that information is also determined by how you think about this person. So, attitudes are formed through the basic process of learning like operant conditioning observation learning and classical conditioning Now, of course, these are evaluation lasting evaluations how a attitude form. Generally speaking most attitudes are formed through learning. Be it operational conditioning, be it classical conditioning or be it observation conditioning. how? In terms of operational conditioning attitudes are formed because we reward correct behaviour. If we act in a certain way and it is rewarded certain attitude is formed. For example, letís say that someone from weaker class comes to you and in your class or in your social stata you do not give so much respect to this class and so, its a common norm that there is a difference between you and this lower class person So, most elders they make this lower class person sit in front of them at a lower chair then where they are sitting. When a small child comes in and he sees his parents doing it and he also dos does the same to this person or any person from this group. Parents praise them or parents give them some kind of a reward or they feel rewarded. And so, when this behaviour is rewarded in future also this child learns that this is what is the kind of behaviour that I am going to do and this is how attitudes are developed through operate conditioning So, if a behaviour that you do is rewarded and as a consequence of that you keep on doing that behaviour for the reward, then the consequence of doing that behavior is positive as we keep on doing that behavior for the reward or for whatever matter possible then attitudes are forming that way. Attitudes can also be formed by observation learning. For example, when you see your role model do something. For example, very small children there is a study by Albert Bandura where they on aggression what they saw was small children when they see a aggressive film they see the role model fighting and when they fight when this role model fights he wins over certain enemies So, this small children learn it that aggression is good because if I do this aggression then I will win and so they learn this process of aggression or the attitude towards this particular zombies or to whatever group this aggression was being shown by this role

model. And so, through copying a role model or copying the behavior of role model attitudes are develop in that way to Also through classical conditioning for example, in some type of affect or some kind of feeling is developed through classical conditioning Because when you feel in that particular way, if something happens and you feel nice about it then something gives you a nice feeling because of that you do some act then if that is what the reason is then attitude is positive For example buying shopping gives you a positive feeling and so, you shop. So, this positive feeling which related to shopping gets attached to it and so, attitude towards that particular thing will always be positive because buying that particular thing gives you a positive feeling and so, you keep on buying it right. So, this is the idea of how classical conditioning can affect attitudes Now, if attitudes are so strong and it is difficult to change and it is learned through so, many processes how do we change attitude? As a one of the ways in which we change attitude is by using something called persuasion using messages to change attitude So, changing of attitude of people has been the biggest business of the twenty first century and using persuasive message to do so, proved to be really effective. So, one of the things if somebody develops an attitude about something or someone or some event how do you change that attitude? One way is giving them correct information; one way is giving them an information which is contrary to the belief that they are holding and that is called a persuasive message So, this persuasive message this information this new information that you giving this people, how that should be presented is a number of factors have been defined of how to change peopleís attitude. So, you can do a change a peopleís attitude by through persuasion. Now there are certain factors one should remember when using persuasive messages For example, the first is experts are more persuasive than non-experts; if an ad you want somebody to buy your product let us say its a toothpaste ad now if you take a doctor with a white coat and he is the one who is advertising rather than some abc normal house wife whether it is in the toothpaste, the expert the doctor is known to create more public or attract more public towards the toothpaste because a doctor a dentist is known to be knowing more about teeth problems and tooth problems and mouth related problems than a house wife and so, doctors will be more attractive or more welcome Similarly messages that appear to be designed not to change attitudes. If you want to change peopleís attitude you have to design a message, you have to write a message in such a way you have to present the information in such a way so, that it doesnít appear to hit that person. So, donít go on saying buy this, donít go on saying that I want to change your attitude present your message or present your information which you want to give to this people so, that they are thinking or belief about something changes in a way which is very certain and that is why soft sell actually sells Now, attractive sources. Sources which are really attractive which are liked by a number of people they are more prone to creating attitude change than non-attractive sources Distraction is used to change attitude. Sometimes when persons attitude has to be change the real messages given and then and the same time he is attracted by something else. For example, all those ads where Salman Khan wears actually a slipper and so, the attraction of the hero is taken in and some information through him is forced into you. So, sometimes distraction is used for you to not question the real issue and change your attitude to the some way because if a direct information is given to you, you people will question it So, attractive source is even the source inturn changes or fuses in you or sense in you information all those public awareness programs Where we use an attractive source in public information a public awareness programs are put through you. So, that is what it I am talking about. Two sided approach when people hold contrary views. When people that you are going to change an attitude already hold a contrary view a view which is opposite to what you want them to believe In those cases you have to present your information in such a way that both sides of the coin The pros and cons of the issue has been presented if that is the kind of information or that is a kind of message that you give to these people then they will accept your view more easily, then if you just give one kind of information. Sometimes emotions are also used for making attitude change and fast speaking people are known to cause more attitude change than slower causing people So, in terms of emotion sometime some ads are used sometime patriotism is used, the idea of patriotism the idea that army is fighting in the war there was its so, many news channels which is putting through it. And so, the very idea that you are patriotic and you will buy something or buying Patanjali for that matter because your patriotic that kind of thing is used for that is also a view to change the attitude Emotions like you should be using herbal and so, thatís why you buy Patanjali or you should shift from more organic, shift from more fertilizer based to organic based in

those cases also emotions are used and fast speaking people. Sometimes people speak very fast and fast speaking people are known to have more expertise than slow speaking people and so, sometimes fast speaking people can also cause an change in attitude Now, there are two different approaches to persuasion how does persuasion take place? People process persuasive messages in two distinct ways this persuasive messages. This information new information that you giving to people for changing the attitude they generally processed in 2 different ways. One way is called the systematic processing or using the central route for processing, to persuasion involves careful consideration of message content idea that it contains. So, one way of sending in persuasive message one way of presenting persuasive messages to people is in terms of systematic processing So, we are the mean of reasons Give the message to them in such a way that they can not only perceive it, question it, think about it, collect more information on to it and then finally, trust the message that is called the systematic processing or the central route. In other cases a heuristic processing mechanism is also use a peripheral route to persuasion involves the use of simple rules of thumb or mental shortcuts experts can be trusted For example, believes like So, when a message is important when a particular information that you are giving to someone for changing the attitude is important For example, a information on cancer cure, information on paying taxes is that kind of information is given or that kind of thing is given or where somebody saves money, somebody saves somebodyís life that kind of information or that kind of attitude change is required, you give people messages so that they can not only perceive the message, but they can also think and question and then reason and based on that take a decision But if simple things have to be solved simple attitudes have been solved for buying an x brand of toothpaste over a y brand of toothpaste in those cases we use a peripheral mode of attitude change or the heuristic processing In which what happens is that, we use certain rules of thumb, we used to use a certain heuristics methods of processing information, one I have given you is experts can be trusted, actors cannot lie, organic is always good this kind of facts organic is not always good For example, bitter gourd juice is not always good some person actually died of bitter gourd juice and so, that kind of thing has to be there So, when do we use this different approaches? So, when are we actually using this different approaches? Modern theories of persuasion like the elaborate likelihood model and the heuristics systematic model suggest that we encourage the effortful type of processing, when a capacity to process the information relating to the persuasive message is higher or when we are motivated to do so. So if people have higher capacity to process an information or they are motivated to do so, we use the central route of processing. For example, if an attitude change is required in terms of paying taxes, saving money saving someoneís life and life, threatening issue a those kind of things are there then people tend to use the central route of processing Even they had not only wish to solve a message, to wish to get involved in a particular message. they also have a processing capacity of to monitor that message and they also have the motivation. In contrast when we engage in less effortful processing when we lack the ability or capacity to process more careful or when our motivation to perform such tasks are low Now issues there what kind of oil should you use to your car or two wheeler in those cases most people are not mechanics and so, they will trust a brand saying that I will go with Honda or I will go with a some company Weedol or something because this is the popular company Castrol is a popular company So, letís go with that They really donít know whether it is a 2 ply, 3 ply, 4 ply or what kind of fuel to use or what kind of engine oil to use. So, in those cases where people are not expert they cannot process information and also they care very less in terms of processing the information in those cases a heuristic or a peripheral router processing is actually used. So, research suggests that uninteresting or irrelevant persuasive messages produce low persuasion So, if a message is uninteresting or irrelevant sometimes ads come with irrelevant information and those ads are the easiest to forget. So, if you are putting an ad to something, if you want to change people attitude you should always be considering only important issues Donít mix important issues with an important ones because what will happen then is that the whole message will be made irrelevant and so, people will not process it all and active change will not occur Another interesting thing in terms of attitude change is how we change our own attitudes So, persuasive messages external messages can change our attitude is what we are established, but how do we people change our own attitudes and one way to look at is something called cognitive dissonance. Letís take an example do you have been in situations where you have what you say what you do what two different things. There are situations and you go to a friend of yours and so, he is wearing all this yellow color pants and a bright color shirt and he ask you how do I look No matter how hard you try you donít like it, but you cannot tell it to his face and

so you hide your behaviour, you hide your response and somehow you say that you like it. This particular thing is what is called induced compliance and this induced compliance actually leads to something called a cognitive dissonance which happens when what you know, what you believe and what you do are two different things So, induced compliance what is induced compliance? These are situations in which we feel compelled to say or do things inconsistent with our own attitudes what we believe, what we do or what we would have done in a certain situation or how we feel about a certain situation if there is a difference between that and when we have to or we are compelled to agree to a certain situation this is called induced compliance. Now this may in turn lead to a change of private attitudes Now you believe something else, but you are saying something else then this leads to a change of dissonance a change of unrest and one way to solve this unrest this dissonance is basically changing your own belief So, you start saying that okay, maybe since I am saying it that yellow color pants are maybe they are, no matter how difficult it is for you to believe. But you will change your attitude now the term cognitive dissonance it refers to feelings we experiences when we notice a gap between two attitudes we hold or between our attitudes and behaviour. So, cognitive dissonance occur because there is a gap between 2 different attitudes that we have two different feelings about something or it could be a feeling and a behaviour that we have Even the same time we hold 2 attitudes about something now it will lead to us causing anxiety or more anxiety to be surface attach at as a thrown attach or it could be that we say something and we do something and that can lead to a lot of anxiety and that could lead to a dissonance or that could lead to be a very unstable state Now, we reduce this dissonance through so, how do we reduced this dissonance. One a situation like this occurs when you say something when you do something or when you believe 2 different things about the same thing for example, 2 things letís say a birds of feather flock together, but opposites attract Now at the same time 2 different things are been sent to you two message are sent to you and believe both of them now both of them cannot be true. If birds of feather flock together and opposites cannot attract and we will see that in this last session on attraction how these messages vary. Now if you have holding a view like that then dissonance results then a situation results when you actually feel anxiety you feel at unrest And so, how do you solve that unrest? one we can change our attitude of behavior to be consistent, we can change, what we believe or we can change how we act in certain situations that will lead to this dissonance, we can align our behavior according to what we believe or we can align our belief according to how we act how we feel and that can lead to lesser dissonance We can also acquire new information that supports the attitude; sometimes what happens is, we donít want to leave donít want to change how we believe. So, what we do then is we look at newer informations; we look at journals we look at books which actually support our view. So, maybe I donít like a certain thing or a certain idea. So, I search for more information on why I donít like vegetables for example Now the thing is how do I confirm for that match to towards vegetables is not good so, I will look at new researches we say that vegetable eating is not good and that will not change my attitude rather it will reinforce my attitude. And so, I will look for new informations because what is happening is that I know that eating vegetable is good, but I donít like vegetable the way it is cooked or for that matter and so, there is a difference between these two things and so, that is causing a lot of dissonance So, how do I go low on this dissonance? I has a start thinking that vegetables are bad or I as totally give up vegetable or I start eating it one way other way is I can look at new information we say that vegetable eating is bad or I can trivialize this matter saying that Oh, vegetable is not that much of an importance to me and so, letís not focus on vegetable.So, I can trivialize the matter it has no importance in my life. So, these are called the direct ways of changing attitude So, all approaches of attitude change mentioned above are direct methods of dissonance reduction. There are some indirect methods also which I use for reducing attitudes or reducing this cognitive dissonance And so how do we do that? There are a number of indirect techniques to dissonance reduction. One of the Steele 1993 suggest that individuals experiencing dissonance may focus not so much on reducing the gap between the attitudes and behavior , but as on the self affirmation which is efforts to restore positive evaluation self-evaluations and that are threatened by a dissonance So, what I could do is, if I am not want to change my attitude I can use a indirect method of reducing the dissonance and that is why thinking or something positive. So, if my boss gives the speech and I donít like this speech and I canít say it on his face also I am feeling a dissonance. However, to reduce the dissonance, I start thinking about all the positive events that have happened in my life and that will lead to self-affirmation saying that I am a good person So, whatever I am doing is for good right and that way my attitude whatever attitude

behave and discrepancy which is happening where the dissonance which is happening the anxiety, which is being cause because I donít believe in what my boss says, but I have accepted his view or I have faced him in certain way that will go low Self-affirmation can be achieved by focusing on the positive self attributes good things about oneself. So, what can we do? We can start think about all the good things that happened in our life. All the times we have been really good, all the acts in our life which has made us who we are or all the pleasure moments in our life and that way I can focus on the good things and reduce this dissonance The next is the interesting thing is about social behavior. How does interacting with others how does that play a role in our behavior or human behavior or our responses Now we not only think about others, but also interact with them and in this influence them or influenced by them also at times Now, there are certain factors which modulate our behavior social behavior. One of this is something call the prejudice, which is the distorted way or the social worlds what is prejudice? Its a certain way of thinking about certain people or certain groups and that makes us that defines our behavior right So, thinking blacks are all thieves, thinking that caste wise people are not equal, thinking that certain kind of religion is better than others. If we start thinking that way then it sometimes reinforces our behavior is reinforced by that and that is what is called prejudice So, what is prejudice? These are powerful negative attitudes towards the membership of a social group, based solely on the membership of that particular group. So, a negative attitude and negative feeling and negative belief about a person from some other group, which is different from the group that I belong to and why are we having this particular negative feeling? Because this member this person and donít hate this person all I hate is the membership that he has the group that he belongs to. So, hating Harshvardhan Owaisi or hating Narendra Modi because he belongs to the Hindu class the he belongs to the Muslim class So, you are not hating the person you are hating the group. And so all negative feelings you have with this people, with these leaders is basically because they belong to certain groups and so the prejudice that is there is because these people belong to certain groups So, ideas about these negative ideas about the certain groups and being transformed to the certain people is what is called are prejudice Where is the origin of prejudice, how does prejudice actually come about? Now the realistic conflict theory suggest that prejudice stems from the competition between social groups over valued commodities and opportunities Now of course, as we saw that prejudice are negative attitudes that people have towards member of a specific group and why this negative attitude is there about this person? Because he belongs to that particular group right. So, hating all blacks, because they are thieves, because they are not good people or any other attitude for that matter and any other prejudice that you have for that matter Prejudice that it could be a positive prejudice also prejudice that all North Indians are rowdy. People belongs from North of India rowdy maybe that is one prejudice. Now or then you meet someone that prejudice occurs with. Now this negative attitude which you have towards this particular person, because he belongs to a particular kind of a community that we have defined as prejudice So, how does this prejudice come about? How does this prejudice start? One reason that is provide is something call the realistic conflict theory and what does the theory say? Its say that this prejudice how does this come about it comes from the fact that good things in this world are limited. And so when good things in the world are limited people will actually fight among each others right And so when they fight among each others people who are from different communities they will fight and when they fight the one community which wins will have a negative attitude, will have a negative saying about the community which loses Similarly, the community which lose will have a negative attitude about the one that wins, right because the competition is there over all valued commodities in the world all valued opportunities in the world right So, the very idea that why is that its lower class person get a reject promotion or some kind of reservation and not upper class people all these things are related prejudice and that is because of this. So, is basically that people are not divided as such; we donít or people donít like or dislike people from these different caste strata. What happens is that since you arguing better opportunities to one set of people and not to others other people so, this prejudice is develop So, it is because of the realistic competition that is happening in a world like this where everybody is the resources are limited and people are competing with each other, the one which wins and the one which loses they will definitely have different views over them and that will lead to the kind of prejudice the kind of negative attitude, the kind of negative feeling that people have among themselves Another reason for prejudice to occur is something called social categorization and so what is social categorization? The dividing of the world into distinct social categories

like us and them, generate share contrasting feelings and beliefs that are usually attached to memberships of the in group and to memberships of the various out groups Now, generally speaking when we work in a social world, we divide a social world into us versus them. People who are like us, people who are like me will be in the us group and people who are away from me people who are hold different views are them group So, dividing the social world into us versus them into people who are like me and people who are not and like me or unlike me and dividing the social world into this two parts is what creates a sharp contrasting feeling and belief towards members of the opposite group So, let us say I have a particular view about anything and a member somebody else. So, I have a view about whether high everybody should come to higher education or not and so my believe is that not everybody should be allowed into higher education. There could be other people who says that opportunity should be given to everyone. Now when I have this thing people who believe with me that higher education should not be given to everyone they will form one group and on the other hand people who believe that higher education should be given to everyone should will be come to them group Now my feeling towards the them group will be then a total contrast a sharp contrast and it will be totally opposite and negative And so this us versus them grouping of people who believes that higher education only limited people should be given higher education and people on the other hand people believe that everybody should be given higher education. So, there will be divide between them. And so this us versus them group will then fight among each others and that could be also one of the reasons of why prejudices developed Just by dividing society into two parts, into 2 unequal parts, into 2 contrasting parts create some kind of negative feelings in them People will not like each other, people will oppose each others view people will not only attack your belief, but your affect system and the way you work and that will lead to certain kind of negative attitudes right and these negative attitudes are what is the reason for prejudices to form Now persons in the us category are viewed in favorable terms while those in the them category are perceived as negatively and this is one of the most dangerous thing to do There are times when people in the other group are much better, but we donít seem to prefer them thatís what has been happening in this country. The country is divided into many parts basically 2 parts the one the Hindu loving and the non-Hindu loving kind of thing and so, even if somebody is good in the non Hindu loving part, they are not preferred, somebody very good in that Hindu loving part and say that are non Hindu loving part kind of person comes to power, he will not look at those people who belong to this Hindu loving community will not give that opportunity because we have because they have this kind of view, that their contrasting views that he belongs to this particular group and so everything that this group believes or everything that this groups stands for it is also embedded in him. What people tend to forget is that there is something called individual differences every individual is different. So, I might support some views or the group I might not support some other groups But when I am tagged with the particular group when I am put in a particular group what will happen is, the group feeling will come over me the group feeling will embarrass me, it will form around me and so I will be tagged like that. So, no matter how much different I think on certain views or my views are different on certain issues, I will be tagged with that particular community and so that is one of the reasons that can actually lead to prejudice Now we acquire prejudice attitudes through learning how do we acquire prejudice? We acquire prejudice through learning; we acquire them from people around us through social learning. basically this prejudices are acquired through process of learning we see our elders, we sees a role model act in a certain way and when he acts in a prejudiced way he is rewarded. So, all those people who talk nonsense about the other community other group, they are rewarded theyíre given better position theyíre given something else theyíre given some kind of favour And when we see that we also start following that particular thing, we learn that this behavior is what is appropriate. Because as the behavior is say that those behaviours which produce consequences positive consequences are like this is call associative learning. And so we associate that then doing this behavior is going to give us positive consequences. whether it is getting a good job, whether it is getting some kind of favour, some kind of money whatever it is. So, we start behaving that We acquire this kind of thing we this kind of a learning or this kind of a prejudice from people around us through social learning We look at models what they do and so we learn from them. Countless experiences where teachers, parents friends express prejudice views make children acquire them attitude We see our parents we are see our teachers, we see our friends, we see people around us

that we value in the us group. they behave in certain ways and so when they behave in certain ways that rewarded, they are praised, they receive all kind of high accolades and so this is how children also start learning this prejudice Then I was start valuing individual for that matter, they start valuing the group value the group thinking, the group idea. So, they can no more see people as different they see people as belonging to certain categories and certain groups and the group dynamics or the group characteristics becomes the characteristics of the whole person. So, that is one of the ways how you acquire this prejudice There is another interesting reason or another interesting way in which prejudices are acquired and that is through the role of stereotype So, what are stereotypes? These are cognitive frameworks consisting of knowledge and beliefs about specific social groups A stereotype is a particular kind of a thinking a or particular kind of cognitive framework consisting of a knowledge and belief about certain groups For example, Maoist letís say people belong to the Chakma or people belong to the Naxal groups now what you think about them or how do you think about them? These are people who create trouble, they kill people they have all kind of unnatural demands and then all those things. So, basically they are a stereotype, it is belief that everyone in that particular group has this attitude has this belief system They think this way, they act this way, this is who they are and this is how this defined As the Naxalites are define in a certain way this is call as stereotype. Now as I said each human individual is different and so when we start stereotyping, it actually helps us in certain way So, all Naxals are in the same way. So, no matter who it is it is in same way that helps us in creating the prejudice or in forming prejudice about people. Suggesting that by and large all members of this group process certain traits and at least to a certain degrees All blacks are thieves are as a no matter who you see as even the most famous black person that you would know, he would be tagged with that particular thinking process you will be tagged with that particular name calling or that particular trait and so on and so forth Now once an individual acquires the stereotype, he tends to notices information that fits the cognitive framework and remembers consists facts from memories. So, once you have tagged that information once you start believing that blacks are not good, they are thieves and they are not educated and they are low maintained people what will happen is as soon as you meet the black the next time, what will really happen is you although you might have good facts. What will happen is you will only start looking as lows facts those information which fits your cognitive framework of how most blacks are and so you will start finding those information in this person. Finding those traits in this person which matches your cognitive framework So, maybe this black is very helpful, but what will happen is of course, if you put someone to the limit he will mark back he will act back. Now you will push him to the limit till the point of time that he attacks you and you will say that look all blacks are bad and so that is what happens in term the stereotypes also So, stereotypes acts as a labor saving device why do we keep our stereotypes? The reason why we keeps a our stereotypes is that because it saves us, because it helps us in making quick and dirty judgments about people We really donít want to go through the whole process of attribution. So, what we tend to do is we tend to take stereotypes or form stereotypes and what this stereotypes actually do is, it is a time saving device We donít have to then attribute reasons to anybody behavior say that, okay, he is black and he is supposed to do this kind of an act and that is the since certain way. They also individuals to protect and bolster their social identity that way prejudice also stereotypes also helpful So, how do we tackle prejudices? One way is learning not to hate. So, one way of tackling prejudice or learning how to reduce prejudice is learning not to hate. So, discouraging the transmission of bigoted views, while encouraging more positive attitude towards others and that way what will happen is a prejudice will lessen down. We can also increase the contact between people from different groups which lead to realization of similarities between people If we mix people from both the groups, if you big people from a number of groups us versus them groups weíll come to know about other people, weëll come to know how similar we are to them in what ways and how different they are from us and how similar they are to us. And that will form similarities and that will also make us like them. So, one way is increasing contacts between people Also resetting the boundary between us and them if we can reset on the boundary if we can lessen the gap between us and them that can also lead to lesser prejudices; for example, recategorization somehow inducing individual to shift the boundary between us and them reduces prejudice. So, if we can use the process of recategorization, where boundaries between us and them are reduced in some way, so, that people interact more often or people are recategorized as more often or forming new categories of assigning people or making people within the Hindu versus non Hindu you can also have people educated noneducated that kind of new boundaries new categories if you can do that then it will reduce the prejudice one way of reducing prejudice is through that matter The next thing that you want to look is social influences, how do we change others

behaviours or how others change our behavior Social influences involve attempts by one or more persons to change the attitude or behavior of one or more others three important terms are there. How do other people change our behavior or we change other peopleís behavior is what is social influences. Now there are three different things to be looked at one is called the conformity Now, what is conformity? Pressure to think or act like other people stemming from the fact that, in many contexts there are spoken or unspoken rules indicating how we should behave When you tend to conform with other people tend to agree with other people, this is called conformity, whether you like it or not. And there is a very simple experiment which Solomon Asch did to show conformity, its a very simple experiment what happened is, that he had people selected a participant selected and this participant was sitting with 6 or 7 confederates of Solomon Asch. Now he did a very small experiment which is called line judging experiment so, there are three lines on one slide. And one line of the others slide and people were supposed to judge how this target line is equivalent to or whether this target line is a part of this line or not Now, on many of the trials 9 confederates or 7 confederates that he had actually agreed with the participant, but on some trials the confederates actually gave a very disastering answer, where he gave a answer which was non believable to the target. Where you can very easily see that this line doesnít belong to any of then doesnít fit to any of them and there are multiple versions of it there are sometimes when these 7 people deliberately make mistakes What do you think will the participant do? Will he conform will he agree to the 7 people who are wrong yes thatís what happened? Most participants actually agreed to what the whole group was saying to be wrong or to be right and this is what is called conformity it is the pressure to think or act like other people Now, what is this conformity come about, why do people conform? One is called descriptive norms tell us what most people do in any given situation generally appropriate or desirable behavior. We start thinking there are certain descriptive behavior, you start thinking that these are the rules which are there, these are the things which of how we should be acting in a certain way and so we start responding to it And the other is something called the injunctive norms which is specify what should or what should not be done and not merely what people do in certain situations. So, the reason for this conformity is descriptive norms, a these are certain norms which are there which tell us what people do in a given situation generally appropriate or describing behavior and that are something called the injunctive norms specify what should or should not be done and not merely what people do in specific situations So, injunctive norm is say that what people actually do and injunctive norms actually say what should be done or what is possible what should be done. So, in an accident descriptive norms says that, you should take someone into hospital and the injunctive norms says that you actually have to take someone into hospital and its not about what should be done? It is about what should be done and not what most people do. in descriptive norms is that most people do in a accident, injective norms is you should have someone So, why do people actually comply? Why do they actually go with this? So, in the Solomon Asch experiment where the participant very well knew that this line is not equivalent to any of this line, but then he complied with the 6 participants or 7 participants who rated this wrong is because you felt something called conformity. So, why did he confirm why did he comply to other people? Each of us has the strong desire to be liked by the others one of the reason is that he thought that, I donít want to look bad in front of so many people and so that is one of the reason he wanted he had a strong desire to be liked by others Now, experience teaches us that one way to reach this goal is to appear to be similar to others as possible and so that is why he complied We conform to others as we have a strong desire to be right and to hold the right views dress in the right style and so on and so forth. So, one way is that we should be like by others. The other way the other reason why this people complied is because they believe that they so, many people in the group cannot be wrong they have more information than me and so they cannot be wrong and so they comply Compliance they conform rather; compliance when we want somebody to do something for us, we use certain tricks to getting people to say to us or comply to our request. Now when we want somebody to do something for us or we want some somebody help us in certain way or act for us in certain way view certain kind of a technique and what are these technique based only liking The first is tactic based on liking – ingratiation which makes people like us help people in complying with us. So, view certain techniques of liking for example, self-enhancing techniques, enhance personal appeal, we can dress nicely, we can speak nicely and that way people will like us and they will do whatever we want them to do or other enhancing techniques we can use a flattering target persons. We can trace the other person saying that you are so good, you are so nice and so on and so forth to the other person will do what we want them to do

Tactics based on commitment or consistency, we can use also something call the foot in the door technique and in this what we happen is, getting others to say yes to our small request are based on obtaining an initial small commitment from the target person So, what happens is, in the foot in the door technique what happens is initially you go to a person and what you do is you ask them very for a very small help. Now one this person gives you very small help and you praise them in certain way later on you can ask them to give you a very big help what will happen is, the person believes that okay, when I complied to you for the smaller help I will always comply let us comply for the bigger help also because now I am thought of a helpful person So, you start by making people say for very small things and then later on ask them for bigger things. You can also use a technique based on reciprocity which is which is called the doors in the face. So, you start with a bigger fat. So, in the first case what happens is ask someone for letís say 10 rupees he will give you and then later on because 10 rupees is not too much of a matter later on you can increase the value to 1000 rupees and because he has helped you with 10 rupees he will think that he should help you with 1000 rupees. The other way round is the door in the faces ask someone for 1000 rupees; obviously, he will say no then ask him for 10 rupees. Now you will say that I have already said no, so, second time no is not good. So, maybe he gives you ten rupees and so this is called the door in the face technique Instead of starting with small request we start with big request that people put down and then make a small request. Now tactics based on scarcity playing hard to get there is another technique which is used for complying, a tactic in which individuals try to create the impression that they are very popular or very much in demand and that way also people comply to what you want So, you will start saying that oh I am so, good everybody wants me and so people other people respond to what you want them to do Obedience which is social influence by demand now most influential way one can change other peopleís behavior is through something direct order. So, direct order like in army if a major gives an order, everybody has to comply to that and everybody has to show obedience to that. Simply telling the other person what to do? Now why people show obedience the source takes the responsibility of the action why people are obedient in army why does the soldiers follow what the general says Because they believe that it is the responsiblity of the major is something wrong goes the major is responsible or the general is responsible Sources holds clear signs of authority the major actually has a good voice, good command and so he holds that actions or he holds that science of authority and second commands to be carried out by gradually Now not all commands are given at the same time this commands are given one by one And so, because of that people follow obedience The last section that we need to do is something called attraction and love and what is it? Similarity; the more similar people are to us attitude, personality and habit the more we like them as such persons provide us validation for our views or a personal characteristics that make us feel good or like them. So, why do we like each other because of they are similar to us in terms of the personality, in terms of the habits, in terms of the attitude and so on and so forth Affective states positive feeling or moods So, why we like other people why we like certain people and not like other people one reason is something called similarity, other reason is called affective positive states Whatever their source causes to like others we meet while experiencing them while negative mood cause us to dislike others we meet when we are in a feeling low. So, when we are feeling good as we meet someone we generally like them. When we are feeling bad and somebody is introduced to us we actually dislike them and so affective state the way we feel when we meet someone also has a large influence of how whether we like someone or we dislike someone If positive feelings are produced by something another person says or by the way the person looks we tend to like that individual So, if somebody says good and we feel positive we like that individual. But even our positive feelings have nothing to do with the person as in the unexpectedly high grade incident or if we meet someone in a pleasant setting. So, we like someone because it feels positive because we meet them in a positive sense Physical attractiveness is another reason; the most important factor affective interpersonal attraction is something called physical beauty. Research suggests that we are suckers for a pretty or a handsome face Physical attractive people make us feel good why do we like pretty people because they make us feel good. Physical attractiveness is associated with good health and good reproductive capacity. When we meet someone whose attractive he is good, he is good looking, handsome, pretty what happens is we associated with good health and they are also related to good reproductive capacity What makes people attractive, what are the factors which makes people attractive? Now, it depends on a lot of cultures; however, most people agree on what attractiveness is and what is not. Among women two distinct patterns of facial features are viewed as attractive for example, a cute pattern involving childlike features with large widely spaced eyes and small nose and the chin for example, Meg Ryan on one end and a mature pattern involving prominent cheekbones, high eyebrows and a pupil and a big smile for example, Julia Roberts

For men there are two classes of attractive features for men youthful appearance for example, Leonard Dicaprio or you could have a mature masculine feature like Harrison Ford. So, these are the settings which have been done or these are the set of characteristics of people who are attractive Judgments of attractiveness do not depend solely on facial features and are influenced by other aspects of physical appearance as well; what is it? Physique is another important determinant of attraction at least among young people. Persons whose physique matches the popular model currently slim, but muscular tend to be receiving a higher evaluation than people who are departing from this models So, physique is another important factor in making people attractive Love the most intense forms of attraction what is it and how do we know it? Romantic love is a form of love involving feelings of strong attraction and a sexual desire towards another person There are other forms of love like compassionate love, but we are not dealing with it we are only dealing with the romantic love. Now there are three components are central to the romantic love. Now before we can say that we are in love, the idea of romantic love must be present in culture. So, when we are say we are in love what do we mean? That we this idea of love should be present in our culture Second we must experience intense emotional arousal when in the presence of the appropriate person. So, if there is an person who we fall in love with what we do not feel that intense arousal, then we cannot say we are in love though intense arousal should be there. Now these feelings must be mixed with the desire to be loved and the object of our affection, coupled with the fears that the relationship might end. So, it not only that we love this person, but we also should have the fear of ending relationship and that defines love So, love how and why it occurs? Romantic love often develops quite suddenly. People report that falling in love feels like being struck by an emotional lightning. Now we are all prepared to fall in love by our earlier relationship. So, how does it happen? It occurs because either we are prepared by some other relationship So, we had some kind of a fallout and so that with that is the through the ages the reproductive successes of a species depends on two factors. Now desire on the part of both men and women to engage in sexual intercourse or an interest in investing the time and effort required to feed and protect offspring and these are the reasons of how this romantic love actually occurs The times when the love dies when there is no love at all and what happens, why does it happened? So, when a partner discover that they are dissimilar in important ways love can be weakened or even die, so, one reason Another and potential serious problem is simple boredom; a third reason is jealousy which can undermine relationships; a fourth is changing patterns of affect, a fifth is partly function of early childhood experience people differ in their attachment style. So, they may not be attached at all to start with and interactions that can only be described as self-defeating patterns of behavior sometimes emerge and that can lead to the falling out in love or the dying in love So, this is where we end the whole section on human behavior. what we did today is we looked at some more patterns of human interactions or social group interactions, we started off by continuing with what is social cognition, looking at what is attitudes, looking at what is prejudices, stereotypes, we looked at social influences the idea of how we comply or how we conform to certain things and what kind of people are who actually show obediences And towards the end of it we looked at certain attachment styles we looked at what is attachment what is similarity,what is love and what that kind of actor. So, all in all these kind of social pressures these kind of social behaviors also changes our own behavior or sometime our behavior also changes social behavior in certain way. So, not only our behavior is changed or manifested or modulated by our internal factors, social factors, other persons outside of us also change our behavior in a lot of different ways. This concludes the whole section on human behavior and we will have a final section where we will start looking at what we have done up till now in too detail But what you can do is there are certain portions in this lecture which has already been covered in a parallel course which should be running this semester, maybe it sometimes also doesnít run that is the course on cognitive psychology introduction to cognitive psychology. They can also refer to that course where things about learning, things about memory, things about thinking and problem solving those have been covered in detail So, some parts of this lecture has been covered in great detail in on the course on perception, sensation these have been covered in great detail in the course on cognitive psychology. So, what Iíll suggest is while taking this course what you should also do is refer to that course and that course could also give you a lot of insight. As this is last lecture I wish you all success in doing this course and so thank you from here until we meet in the last lecture where we summarize whatever we have done in this course of human behavior Thank you

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