This is a presentation on motivation and specifically on McClelland’s 3 need theory So in your book, this week we’re talking about leadership trait theories, talking about characteristics of leaders and in that chapter they talk about power and achievement and they talk about power and achievement as behaviors They talk about them as traits or characteristics of effective leaders, but power and achievement in psychology are not only behavioral concepts So power and achievement actually represents some psychological underpinnings of why we might behave as we do So actually, power and achievement represent motives or motivations So motives can be drivers of behavior, but ultimately you’re able to intentionally choose your behavior So we’ll talk in a minute about definitions of motives, but basically they’re potential sources of satisfaction and if you are not choosing your behavior intentionally, there’s a darn good chance that your behavior will align with your main or your dominant motive, but they don’t have to Motives do not equal behavior You can choose to behave however you want in a given situation and in fact, the most effective leaders, the most effective team members don’t just behave in alignment with their main or dominant motives, but they in fact choose their behavior as effective as possible in any situation Alright, so we are going to be talking about motives and motivations But first, let’s start with a little history So here’s some history and this is really just to set the context You don’t need to really worry about any of this, but in the 1930’s, Henry Murray was a psychologist at Harvard In fact, he was the director of the psychological clinic there and in the 1930’s, the main theory around personality was in fact focused on trait theory Most of the research around personality theory was focused on trait theory and Henry Murray, in his own research developed what became later known as the need theory of motivation And so what he did is he developed a test, an assessment in order to understandwhat people’s motives were, what their underlying concerns, sort of the way they saw the world was The problem is that motives and those kinds of underlying concerns are what we refer to as nonconscious They’re not unconscious, we can known them, but most of us don’t know what our motives are If you were just to give someone a paper and pencil test and say tell me about your motives, they would predict them wrong So what Murray did is develop a different kind of test in order to really tap into what people’s actual motives were And the name of that test is the thematic apperception test, the TAT This test developed in the 1930’s is still in use today and here’s what Murray found out He found out that if you show people a single frame picture that has at least 2 people in it and ask them to tell you a story about that picture, what you can do is you can then look back at that story and you can uncover what that person’s motives are And so here’s how the TAT, the thematic apperception test worked So let’s say this woman is a psychologist and she is administering the TAT to this other person So here’s the psychologist, here’s the person whose motives we are assessing with the TAT So the psychologist shows the person this single frame picture, ask them to tell a story about the picture, and then the psychologist takes notes as the person’s telling their story After the first picture, the psychologist will show a second picture and ask the person to tell a story and take notes, then a third picture and ask the person to tell a story and take notes Murray recommends 20 pictures for the thematic apperception test In modern use, people I think tend to use more like 8 to 12 pictures, but again, Murray recommended 20 pictures After those 20 stories have been told, the person goes away, the psychologist looks through all of those notes, codes the information that’s there, and identifies what the motives were that were shown in those stories It sounds sometimes like it really shouldn’t work, but it does It’s a very reliable and valid test

that the psychometric work to assess the validity and reliability has been done again and again and again since the 1930’s Alright, David McClelland In the 1960’s, David McClelland who was also a psychologist joined the faculty at Harvard as a professor and ultimately he became chairman of the department of psychology and social relations And McClelland also did some work on the thematic apperception test to improve it, specifically he did some work around increasing the reliability and validity of the scoring of those tests He also became known for his own research around achievement motivation theory, which is sometimes called the 3 need theory and sometimes referred to as the 3 social motives So what McClelland ended up doing was coming up with his own version of the thematic apperception test, it’s a variation of the TAT And he did this for several reasons One of the reasons was he had a concern that the motives of the psychologist, the person that was taking notes might also be showing up in the notes as well as the motive of the person telling the story So in his version of the test, the individuals write their own story so that there’s no chance that the psychologist is polluting the data with her own motives He also reduces the number of stories He found in his research that after 6 stories, he felt there was no significant difference in the results so his test has 6 stories and the improved scoring of the stories that he began with the thematic apperception test, he continued with his own test And his test is referred to as the picture story exercise Again, they’re essentially the same test, just a few differences between the two Now before we go on and talk about motivations, here’s a little bit of psychology trivia So some of you might be familiar with Daniel Goleman Daniel Goleman came up with a model of emotional intelligence, he’s written extensively, talked extensively on emotional intelligence Daniel Goleman actually got his PhD in Psychology at Harvard while David McClelland was there So Goleman studied under David McClelland and in fact, David McClelland was the dissertation advisor for Dan Goleman for his doctoral dissertation and when Goleman graduated from Harvard, he went to work for David McClelland’s company So the emotional intelligence work that Dan Goleman did, that model that he developed is influenced from several sources including the 3 needs theory of motivation that he experienced while working at David McClelland’s company Alright, so now let’s go and actually start talking about motives So first, a definition of a motive According to Merriam-Webster dictionary, a motive is something like a need or desire that causes a person to act Here’s a definition I like to use Kind of a working definition of a motive And I’m going to read it and then I want to go over it in pieces So a motive is a recurrent concern for a goal state It’s based on a natural incentive that energizes, orients, and selects behavior So let’s break that down a little bit So first of all, a motive is a recurrent concern So going back to the language of Henry Murray, this really represents a view that you have of the world This is an ongoing concern It’s not something that you’re concerned about on Tuesday or a week from Wednesday This is always part of you So I like to think of it, that you know how when you’re watching television and there’s that text that scrolls across the bottom of the screen? I like to think of that as your motives It’s always there, every minute of every day as you are experiencing the world that concern is present And it’s a concern for a goal state and a goal state is actually a feeling It’s not an activity, it’s not an action, but it’s the way you feel inside, it’s a sense of satisfaction So imagine for example, that you’re a basketball player and you’re out on the court and your standing at the free throw line and you put the ball up and it just swishes right through the hoop and you think, “ah, that feels great.” That’s a goal state Or imagine that you and your teenage son haven’t been communicating so well maybe lately because he’s a teenager and you drive him to the mall to meet some of his friends and on the way to the mall you have a really great conversation and when he gets out of the car you think,

“ah, that was wonderful.” Or imagine that you coach your son’s soccer team and 6 years old and instead of bunching around the ball and chasing the ball around the field, finally today they start a little bit spreading out and playing their positions and you think, “ah, that’s wonderful.” So it’s that “ah” feeling, is that’s the goal state And it’s a very satisfying feeling and it’s based on you’ll see in the definition, a natural incentive, the reason it’s a natural incentive is because it comes from inside you It’s that sense of satisfaction from achieving the goal state that incentivizes you, that has you move and behave in alignment with your motives You don’t need external reinforcement in order to behave this way You have internal reinforcement and it’s reinforcement that energizes, orients, and selects your behavior Why does a motive tend to direct your behavior? Because it makes you feel good So unless you’re choosing your behavior intentionally, chances are your behavior is being influenced by your main or your dominant motive Now, let’s talk about McClelland’s 3 needs theory So McClelland identifies 3 motives The achievement motive, the affiliation motive, and the power motive Now according to McClelland, none of those motives are better than the other Right? No motive is good, no motive is bad Motives are just potential sources of satisfaction Now if you behave out of your motives, it might be effective or not effective given the situation, but the motive itself isn’t a behavior The motive itself is just that sense of satisfaction So let’s talk about each of these 3 motives and what the need or where the energy comes from for the motive Oh, before I go on, McClelland says everybody has all 3 of these motives, but most of us have a first place, second place, third place Our first place motive is something that gives us a sense of satisfaction When we’re behaving in alignment with our dominant motive, our first place motive, we get filled with energy When we are behaving in alignment with our third place motive, we can do those behaviors, but it takes our energy Instead of giving us energy, it sucks the energy away from us Alright, let’s talk about the 3 motives So the first motive is the achievement motive and the main concern for someone who has a dominant achievement motive is meeting or exceeding a standard of excellence or improving your own performance So someone who has an achievement motive, is always thinking about setting and accomplishing goals It’s always about where’s the bar, where are we setting the bar, and how can that person hit the bar or get over the bar So the second bullet there is someone who has a dominant achievement motive is concerned to know their progress toward a goal or the results that they’re getting toward a goal Now those results can come from measurements or statistics or business results or from other feedback So people can give us feedback to let us know how good we’re doing against our goals Now these goals can either be self determined, I have decided I’m going to get the report done on Thursday or they can be assigned by other people So the third bullet is the dominant achievement motive also is concerned about and gets satisfaction from accomplishing something that’s new, unique, or innovative And you’ll see I have in parentheses there, better, faster, more efficiently So the person who has the dominant achievement motive is always looking for ways to do things better, faster, and more efficiently than they have been done before And then finally, that last bullet, somebody who has a dominant achievement motive has a focus on the task A focus on meeting or exceeding that standard of excellence more than a focus on people It’s not to say that they’re not personable, it’s not to say that they don’t like people But when they’re working on a task, they’re working on a task And they tend to kind of tune out other people, might prefer to work alone because they think they’ll just get it done better, faster, and more efficiently So that’s the achievement motive Some of you who are listening have a dominant achievement motive This is the main concern, this is the text, it’s always scrolling across the television screen that is you There are however 2 other motives So the next motive is the affiliation motive and someone who has a dominant affiliation motive

has as their primary concern maintaining close, friendly, reciprocal relationships with other people or avoiding a disruption of those relationships So someone who has a dominant affiliation motive is going to be concerned about, no surprise, establishing, maintaining, or restoring close, warm relations, being liked and accepted by the people that they like Now someone who has a dominant affiliation motive doesn’t like everybody, but they like who they like and they’re concerned that those people like them back, that they’re in a relationship with those people So that second bullet there, being part of a group of people that you like is important and satisfying to the affiliation motive The third bullet is another concern that someone who has a dominant affiliation motive has is avoiding conflict or the disruption of group harmony So for example, they’re likely to be risk averse to something that will disrupt the group harmony, that will disrupt people getting along They might consider the group or others over themselves So they might go along versus rocking the boat because again, the main concern is making sure that those relationships stay in tact And then the last bullet there, someone who has a dominant affiliation motive is concerned with collaboration more than competition The idea that there is just one winner is something or just one first place person or just one who gets the credit is not satisfying to the affiliation motive The affiliation motive values consensus and collaboration Now some of you who are listening to this have a dominant affiliation motive This is the thing that primarily motivates you and your behavior Now the third motive is the power motive Now McClelland said at one point in his career that if he could have renamed this, he would have because people see the word “power” and they think all kinds of negative things And again, this isn’t negative, this isn’t positive, this is just a potential source of satisfaction So if it helps you, think about this is as the influence motive So the main concern for someone who has the power or influence motive is in fact having an influence on others or making an impact on others So someone who has the power influence motive as their dominant motive is concerned about influencing others or controlling others Often this person will arouse strong positive or negative emotions in others People will be grateful for their influence or they might be resentful of their influence One thing that I don’t have on the screen here, but people who have the dominant power motive sometimes give unsolicited advice because that’s a way to influence someone because again, if I’m dominant power motive, the satisfaction for me comes from influencing other people whether you’ve asked me for my advice or not Alright, going back to the third bullet on this screen, another thing that the person who has the dominant power and influence motive is concerned about or thinks about is status and recognition because status…right? “I went to the opening of the gallery, I went golfing with the President of the university.” Those are a way to make an impact on others, to have an influence on others, or recognition “I got an award from the Chamber of Commerce for something.” That’s a way to make an impact on others or to have an influence on others And then finally, that fourth bullet, competition where in fact there is a winner is something that is very satisfying to the power motive Being the winner, being in first place is a way to have an influence or make an impact on others Some of you who are listening are dominant power motives You get your satisfaction, you get your energy from influencing other people Now sometimes when people read through this, they think, they go to the dark side of the power motive So I do want to talk about 2 variations of the power motive We sometimes talk about socialized power and personalized power Socialized power is where I influence someone or have an impact on someone for the purpose of making them stronger and more capable

So I’m influencing to make you better, I’m influencing you to make you strong, to make you capable Personalized power is where I influence or have an impact for the purpose of making me look stronger and more capable So I influence you to make me look better So when you think about power, sometimes it’s helpful to think about the difference between socialized and personalized power Now when people take McClelland’s test, when they take his picture story exercise, it doesn’t tell you if your socialized power or personalized power, but really what is behind these 2 kinds of power is the intent Right? Why are you influencing people Are you influencing people to make them better? Or are you influencing people to make yourself better? So those are the 3 motives We all have all 3 Most of us have a first place, second place, third place Our first place motive, unless we choose our behavior intentionally is likely to drive our behavior Why? Because it makes us feel good It gives us a sense of satisfaction and energy when we behave in a way that satisfies or aligns with our dominant motive So why do we even care about motives? Why am I bothering to tell you all of this? Well, another psychologist in the 1930, Kurt Lewin came up with this formula and his formula is that your behavior, anyone’s behavior is a function of who they are as a person and the environment that they find themselves in And so this is often abbreviated B=f (P,E) Behavior’s a function of the person and the environment So my behavior is a function of who I am as a person and the environment that I’m in Somebody else’s behavior is a function of who they are as a person and the environment they’re in and the formula makes a lot of sense when you think about it Right? You’re one person And if you find yourself in a hundred different situations, you’re likely to behave a hundred different ways Or if you take a hundred people and put them in exactly the same situation, they’re likely to behave in a bunch of different ways So another way to say this formula is to say that the person and the environment influence the behavior of a person So when I say person, really I’m talking about the individual competencies of that person Everything that makes up that person It’s their education, it’s their beliefs, it’s their experiences, it’s their family, it’s the country they grew up in, if they are a man or a woman, it’s their values, and it’s their motives So if I have a dominant motive of achievement, if my main concern is meeting or exceeding a standard of excellence, unless I choose differently, that’s going to influence my behavior If my dominant motive is affiliation, if my main concern is those closely connected relationships, unless I choose my behavior intentionally, that’s likely to influence my behavior And then finally, if my dominant motive is power and influence, if my concern is having an influence on other people, unless I choose my behavior intentionally, chances are that power motive is going to influence my behavior So who I am as a person and all the experiences and education I’ve had up to this point plus the environment or the situation that I’m in, both of those things are going to influence my behavior Alright, let’s get rid of the bottom of the screen for the minute and focus back at the top So this is a class of course on leadership so it’s also true that a leader’s behavior is a function of who she is as a person and the environment that she’s in So if we look back at the bottom of the screen where we left off, we can also say that a leader, who a leader is as a person, her individual competencies including her motives, and the environment that’s she’s in influences her behavior as a leader So for a leader, when we’re talking about environment, we’re really talking about job requirements and the general workplace environment Is it a collaborative environment, is it a high stress environment, is it very competitive, are people overworked, are people disgruntled Right? What’s the general workplace environment? Who that leader is is the person in the environment in which she finds herself influence her behaviors as a leader And when we’re talking about leader behaviors, we very often refer to them as leadership styles We’re specifically going to be talking about leadership styles later in the class, but know that basically what we’re talking about are the behaviors of a leader Alright, I’m going to get rid of the bottom of the screen again So looking back at the top, it’s true that the behavior of a leader is a function of who she is as a person

and the environment that she’s in, but leaders don’t behave in a vacuum There’s also employees there and it’s also true that employee’s behavior is a function of who he is as a person and the environment in which he finds himself So the question is, what’s the relationship between that first line, that first equation and the second equation How does the leader’s behavior impact the employee? And the way that the leader’s behavior impacts the employee is that the leader’s behavior is part of the environment in which the employee works So going back to the bottom of the screen, we have the leader so we have the person and the environment contribute to the behavior of that leader, but then we also have the impact of that behavior and the impact of that leader’s behavior shows up in the employee’s environment, in the environment in the workplace in which the employee is working Now there’s lots of ways that we can look at an employee’s environment We can look at culture, we can look at engagement, but I want to introduce a concept called organizational climate And I like organizational climate because it’s a localized measure That is to say the behavior of the leader is the single greatest contributor of organizational climate It’s not the only contributor to organizational climate, but it’s the greatest contributor to organizational climate So what is organizational climate Organizational climate is how it feels to work for a particular leader It’s the things in the environment that contribute to the employee’s willingness and ability to do whatever it is they’re supposed to do So in a more effective organizational climate, an employee is willing and able to do their job In a less effective organizational climate, the employee’s willingness or ability to do what they’re supposed to do is compromised One of the other reasons that I like using organizational as a measurement for the employee’s environment, is because research has been done to correlate, to statistically correlate various aspects or dimensions of organizational climate with results So there’s been research that’s been done since about the 1960’s or 70’s that show a relationship between the various dimensions of organizational climate and results And in fact, in many studies what they have found is that the more effective climate has an impact of as much as 30 percent on the results that are obtained by an organization, which kind of makes sense If you have employees who are willing and able to do what they’re supposed to do, it just stands to reason they’re going to get better results And on the flipside, if you have employees who are unwilling or unable to do what they’re supposed to do, it just stands to reason that that’s going to have a negative impact on results And when I talk about results, here’s what I’m talking about I’m talking about an actual increase in performance So we sell more stuff, we have higher scores on our customer satisfaction surveys Right? The actual performance measures go up But it’s also about an increase in innovation It’s an increase in people’s abilities to try new things and do things in better ways And it’s also about an increase in discretionary effort and when I say discretionary effort, what I’m referring to is the difference between what people are capable of giving performance wise and what they’re actually giving So I’m not talking about how do you get employees to work 150 percent I’m talking about how do you get them to give 100 percent of what they’re capable of So this is why we care about motives We care about motives because our motives impact potentially our leadership behaviors or our leadership style which impact the environment that our employees work in, which impacts their willingness and ability to do whatever it is they’re supposed to be doing and that has an impact on results So that’s why we care about motive So just to wrap it up, one more slide, let’s talk about your motives and the motives of others and in fact, I’m going to go ahead and tie it to emotional intelligence So I know many of you are familiar with Goleman’s emotional intelligence model Here’s just a quick recap for those of you who are not familiar with it It’s a 2 by 2 model as you see on the screen here The top row is about awareness and the bottom row is about action The left hand column is about self, it’s about you, and the right hand column is about others

So as we populate those four squares, we see in the upper left corner, self awareness Then moving down, we see self management, that’s the actions part of self awareness Moving to the right hand column, we see social awareness, awareness of others And then moving to the final square, we see relationship management, which is the action piece It’s now that you understand yourself as well as the needs and concerns of others, how do you make that, how you navigate that successfully to get done what you need to get done So from a motive standpoint, understanding our own motives, self awareness, I know what my own motive is, I understand what motivates me is a very effective tool and it’s an effective tool because then I can self manage myself If my dominant motive is achievement and I behave 100 percent of the time out of my achievement motive, I will not be effective 100 percent of the time If my dominant motive is affiliation and I behave 100 percent of the time under the affiliation motive, I will not be effective 100 percent of the time And if my dominant motive is the power and influence motive and I behave out of that motive 100 percent of the time, I will not be effective 100 percent of the time In order to be effective 100 percent of the time, we need to behave from each of those 3 motives Whether it’s a motive that gives us a bunch of internal satisfaction or not, so really the self management piece is all about choosing the behavior that’s going to be most effective in any given situation whether it’s our dominant motive or not because our motives do not equal behavior They do not have to equal behavior We can choose to behave however we want, but if we don’t choose chances are we’re going to behave out of our dominant motive So up until now, everything I’ve talked about really has been in that left hand column It’s really been all about us, but you can also use motives as you think about other people So it can be very effective from a social awareness standpoint to understand the motives of others and even if you don’t know what their motives are, it’s just very helpful to understand there’s people who are motivated by things that are different from you I joke around and say the saddest day of my life is when I realized I wasn’t the center of the universe And it sounds silly when you say it that way I think I’m the center of the universe, but many of us lead as if we’re the center of the universe We think that everybody’s motivated by what we’re motivated by, we think everybody’s rewarded in the way that we like to be rewarded, we think everyone likes to communicated to the way that we like to be communicated to, we think everybody’s influenced the way that we’re influenced, and that’s not true So even if you just use McClelland’s 3 motives to say “okay, I think I’m this one, but I know that the other people that I work with are bound to be not just the one I think I am, but these other motives,” that’s really going to help your social awareness as a leader And then finally, relationship management, you use that knowledge that there are other motives, there are other ways to get energy, to get satisfaction, to view the world different from the way that you do, especially when it comes to communication for you to create clarity with others and as you influence people So I can tell you personally, that once I start to learn about motives, which was I don’t know… 25 years ago or something, I became a thousand times more effective as an influencer because now I’m not just influencing people from my own motive, but I’m influencing to all 3 of those motives So in summary, here’s a little bit of background on motives and what motivates people according to David McClelland If you’re interested in any of these concepts that we talked about because I know I blew through a lot here So if you want to learn more about motives, if you want to learn more about organizational climate, if you want to learn more about Goleman’s emotional intelligence If you want to know more about creating clarity or influencing or any of that stuff, just let me know and I will do my best to work it into something this semester so that we can have that conversation

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