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hey ma does come on its feet watch 0 0 favorite burger oh isn’t this great creeper social learning to be doing here 2016 on coming to you social learning trust Shh holes my video sorry oh good time hello thought I make a different entrance and welcome it’s the next install the acquisition that behaviors series that’s day we’re gonna move on alphabet we’re going to move on to social learning so this is how animals use public information and use it in social learning now in the natural environment there’s two types of public information there’s intentional and unintentional information right no great examples of intentional information are things like the waggle dance in honeybees the when the bees come back to the high they do it nice little dance signaling the distance and at what angle away from the Sun are particularly good food sources and we’ll come on today in a whole lot more detail in a later video another fantastic example which we’ll cover in a later video is in vervet monkeys which have specific alarm calls for specific types of predators right fantastic stuff for my unintentional information while unintentional information can be acquired through eavesdropping that’s people this we’ve all done at some point in our lives because we’re just naturally nosy but it’s a lot more important it’s a life-or-death situation in a nap in the natural world and the current example is in the tongue garber frog which is a specific sexually selected core would you use this to attract females that’s all the males do anyway and this is how it goes it goes hmm Chuck right now it’s the Chuck bit which really gets the females excited because they respond better to deeper sound the Chuck bit is deeper but unfortunately it’s the bit that predators also respond to a lot more because it’s deeper and these predators are bats right so these bats such as the fringe lip bat can tune in to these chuckles and help them pinpoint a nice frog meal and they’re never gonna write say you have sexual selection for reproductive success versus natural selection for survival success fighting against each other here right now a great experiment of another organism to show eavesdropping was done in the lab on Siamese fighting fish right now Siamese fighting fish the male’s like to fight each other to compete for females so experiment was done we’re Siamese fighting fish were kept in the tank and they were allowed to observe another pair fighting right a sort of one-way mirror was used so the fish fighting couldn’t see the one observing right that makes sense and as a control they used a fish where they couldn’t see the other pair fighting okay so two different experiments then what they did is that they introduced the fish that were fighting to the one that was observing right and they measured the latency in response basically how quick that um fish responded to the introduction of another fish multi-family there was much greater latency if a male saw another male winning a particular fight right which makes sense because if I oh god he’s a big tough guy I’m not going near him yeah yet if the fish didn’t see anything at all there’s no difference right so there’s clear eavesdropping going on here another great example is and when looking at particularly good food resources and love kings of these a bird called PI babblers right which look where other people are finding great food and go there themselves right cheeky little devils so these are all examples of public information and this can result in an immediate change in the behavior of that animal or it could result in social learning right and there’s usually a trade-off going on okay this series is all about trade-offs between the extender use of public and private information which okay definition time right what is social learning here it is it’s learning that is influenced by observation of or interaction with another animal or its products now important point to make here is that the demonstrator doesn’t

necessarily know that it’s being a demonstrator right so it could be another arm could just be eavesdropping as you’ve been talking about right another thing to point out is that social learning is not the same as social facilitation so what’s that well i got the definition here and social facilitation is when the probability of performing an own behavior increases in the presence of others doing it and a great example is in cliff nesting birds right so as one kittiwake or whatever starts making a nest on the cliff then it encourages all the others to do so as well because there’s an advantage of doing that because that means there’s greater chance of not being predicted upon right by you know mean birds like Arctic skewers and great black-backed gulls obviously doesn’t going to advantages the social learning it’s less time consuming and less risky because if you see another individual doing a particular task and getting away with it then you know it’s perfectly safe right so it’s good at overcoming neophobia a fear of new things for example experiments on crickets have shown there for cricket sees another cook up being poor dated at the particular area it will actively avoid going in that area right however social I’m learning isn’t always done in certain scenarios social only could be more time consuming than the individual learning imagine just observing to see where your mates are or waiting for your fellow be to come back with a waggle dance you know it may be better just to get out there and explore yourself and learn individually it all depends on the ecology also you can also be getting outdated information if you see your mate pi babbler over there getting loads of food then once you get to that place and learn that there’s you know good food there the pipe double is before you might have scoffed a lot so it would have been pointless so there are occasions when individual learning can yield higher pay off some social learning now another good tactic is to be a scrounger now not you know trying to promote this in everyday life this is a natural world we’re talking about here now if you’ve ever been to North America you’ll be familiar with grackles I’m half Mexican so I’m kind of familiar with them and these are big crow light creatures quite pretty but their little buggers they are they scrounge theythey voff conspecifics right now as an answer would be to do an experiment on grackles here in the UK we’ve only got pigeons so we can have to deal with that for the moment the experiments little pigeons right and where they were kept in a cage and there was a lever which they had to press and if they press they would release food right simple so in one experiment there was a pigeon in the cage and there was a mate right behind him ok now another point to make is when the pigeon pools are leaver it lets out a lot of food right you could say an excess of food ok in the second experiment pigeons were just kept on around they had no mate with them ok and these pigeons on their own could observe each other so they could see pigeons in other boxes with exactly the same situation right and we found that pigeons on their own all of them learnt to press the lever right whilst in pigeons where one had a mate the one which didn’t press the lever never learned to press the lever because he was used to scrounging and feeding off the stuff which is best mate had already got for him so off we learnt being a scrounger inhibits the ability to learn for well a life lesson ok there are several mechanisms of social learning in the next couple of videos we are going to be going through them so the first one is local / stimulus enhancements this is technically two so local enhancement first is really put in the context of our only endemic bird species the Scottish crossbill okay which lifts up in the cankles in Scotland believe it or not whoa shocker another shocking piece of news views that these clothes bills have cloth bills I know right so that bills sort of go over like that and they may look pretty silly but there are actually specialists eating and getting the seeds in pine cones right so if another Scottish cost bill sees another Scottish crossbill feeding on the pine cone right and that cost bill may think

right pinecones oh that pinecone looks like a great place to have my tea so once that other crossbills gone he’s going to come in and feast right so that’s what local advancement is its focusing on a specific place right because you’ve seen another individual doing the same thing so the present and the behavior of the demonstrator attracts the observers attention right now difference between that and stimulus enhancement is when this stimulus is generalized and that’s what’s really happening with the Scottish hospitals in the pond kind it’s much more common right so where these pine cones are generalized so the cross bill has learned that oh all pine cones must be tasty and have lovely delicious seeds inside them now yeah and we talked all about generalization in the six video okay so go back on that but I’ve third mechanism is observational conditioning conditioning we love conditioning bable bable bable yeah anyway so that’s when individual associates of behavior with a particular stimulus right now it’s been a while since I had a good diagram on the whiteboard isn’t it so I thought today had to be the day when a great day going might have to return as you can see what a fantastic work of art course you all know there is no no oh well I’ll explain anyway so it’s a while in fact that birds more bigger Birds right if you ever seen a buzzard in the sky I say all the time you see like blackbirds and crows flying around the buzz me said what the hell you do you’re gonna be dinner made well no thank ganging up on the buzzer trying to chase it away right that phase very sensible safety in numbers and all that and this modern behavior was studied by a curio his son mates he was curious on blackbirds he’s a black birds yep they’re black bears now head and um they mob owls right so what happened was that they were kept in two different areas and these two black birds was shown two different things right so they couldn’t see each other they could hear each other but they couldn’t see each other they couldn’t see what the other birds looking at right so this bird was looking at an owl a threat write something which you might want to mob this fella was looking at a milk bottle right completely harmless well having said that milk bottles are very dangerous as I found out to my own cost what this black book does he starts going crazy he starts trying to mob this out right now this black bird can’t see the owl but he’s going to copy him so it’s gonna do another fourth mechanism of social and in imitation which will go on to in a second right so you’ll start imitating but whilst he’s doing that he’s going to be associating the presence of the milk bottle with this mobbing behavior so has his black bird grows up he’s gonna start mobbing completely harmless stimuli okay so because he’s been conditioned of living conditioning imitation basically does what it says on the tin it’s when the observer copies the topography of the Louisville behavior as demonstrated by a demonstrator right and this is something we’ll go on to in more detail in the next video so hold your horses for that one now our faithful is probably our most complex was gold emulation and I’ve got the definition here okay so go live in the emulation is where the observer attends to the movement of the object not the behavior of the demonstrator and then comes up with its own solution to reach the goal right now that may not make much sense but let’s give it some contacts and we’re going to get it with a nice old wives tale right so back in the 60s and 70s in the South of England people started to notice that two of our most common British Birds blue tits and great tits started hammering away at the tops of milk bottles right obviously milk bottle tops and that was common anymore so you don’t see this behavior anymore oh well shame would have been a nice thing to wake up to on a Sunday morning but you know we can live a life full of regret so these were chopping away the tops of milk bottles right I was thinking why the hell was this and this was only in the south of England so the experiments were done on the American equivalent on black-capped

chickadees which are very similar to tits right by Sheree and Galef instead of milk bottles that use those little plastic tubs which have the milk in restaurants you know I mean they never without milking them by the way better don’t fear there are three experiments done so one where the chickadees were kept with no demonstrator right and the the tubs words open right so this was the control experiment right so no demonstrator tops I open second experiments there was no demonstrator but the tubs were open right in the third experiment there was a demonstrator opening the tubs the demonstrator chickadee opening the tubs in a separate cage right whilst the observer had um closed tubs okay so what were the results to hear the results in the first group where there was no demonstrator and the tubs weren’t open these birds never learned to open the tubs right however it didn’t give a damn monkey whether a demonstrator was there because in both experiments two and three they both learned to open the tubs okay so didn’t matter whether a demonstrator was there or not so therefore was the tub that was generating this behavior not the demonstrator so as long as the bird knows that there’s a tasty reward to be had in that tub Amell go in that milk bottle then it’ll learn how to access that milk individually now usually it will learn that there’s a good reward to be had because they see another demonstrator opening it and they say ah there’s food there right but they learn to open the milk bottle by themselves now we talked about his vertebrates this video and personally I feel sorry for the insects and let’s give them a go shall we so social learning in social insect well surprisingly they’re in social learning in total insights and listen experiment which we’ve kind of talked about before I thought be nice just to go through again so this is looking at how bees could use information given by conspecifics right so there was a box with loads of fake flowers on it and on some of the flowers they stuck bees on them dead bees but the same species right the bees watching didn’t know that they were dead right okay otherwise I’m sure they would have been hugely emotionally affected anyway the full experiments so first experiment was where there is a social cue which was informative this is where the con specifics were placed on fake flowers which had rewards in them okay so it’s telling the observers that were watching where these conspecifics were it’s telling them where to go okay the second experiment was where the social cue was redundant okay so this is where all the flowers had an equal levels of rewards okay but the social cue is the con specifics will only put on some of them okay so here the bees being there is and releasing kneeling anything okay now in the third blast chiller to controls so this is where there was no social cue so no conspecifics were put on the flowers at all and in the full experiment there was no learning phase there was no phase where the bees and the observers were actually allowed to observe so the bees were just chopped in at the deep end completely naive so the show that when the social information was informative the bees learned to visit that particular flower type if it wasn’t if it was made redundant it didn’t affect it ok now another experiment was done by an dies and chipka our favorite to be fanatics and this was our example of second order conditioning in the fourth video I believe so there were two different flower types green and orange green flowers had a lovely sooo close reward orange flowers had a bitter II quitting punishment okay so what they did was that the bees were allowed to observe the con specifics and when the con specifics were on the green flowers they would learn to visit those green flowers okay because they knew their associated with a tasty sugar bee reward however if they’d learn their conspecifics were associated with queening flowers they’d also learn to actively avoid them now when you think about in nature the loads of reasons why that could be right so you might want not not you might not want to go where your conspecifics I’ll because they may have already eaten all the nectar in that particular flower what’s important though is that there was no learning

phase they couldn’t discriminate between the two flower colors right there was no way they could have known that all the green flowers had two crows and all the orange flowers had quinny so yes this is second order conditioning because the bees are associating the flower color would become specifics and the con specifics with a particular sugary or bitter reward okay fantastic stuff so that’s my introduction to social learning next time we’re going to be talking more about our imitation my love are mechanisms of social learning I’m also between about culture and animals oh how cultural look at me look at me bye

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