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DEF CON 22 – Kyle Kelley and Greg Anderson – Is This Your Pipe? Hijacking the Build Pipeline.

>>  SO, I’m going talk to you about highjacking build pipeline. I’m Kyle and this is Greg. We both came from Rackspace. All right. When I talk about build pipelines I’m talking about your source control from GitHub, GitLab GitBucket, wherever you are storing their code, depending what site you are on. Continuous integration, are you running on (?), Kravitz, do you just run it on your local box? What actually is  — where are your tests running as well as upstream sources? Like NPM, by pi ruby, GEMS, all of those. The reason I care about this is I work with a lot of open source software where we set up builds for that software and you know anybody can contribute, anybody can push patches in, so what sort of vector is that? What can you do with that? What can you leave? Kind of the precursor here is all need secrets, you might need secrets for testing if you are deploying to production, database credentials, OF ced, might be cloud credentials, GitHub tokens, Twitter tokens, the actual SSH keys to get onto boxes. So need to manage these secrets in some way. Not everybody does this appropriately. Credentials get leaked. Like if you do a simple search on GitHub for AKIAJ you’ll find Amazon credentials instantly. I’m throwing 1071 results just finding for that stream. Right? Run infrastructure or do whatever, keep going. I think this is a problem with how people treat Git. (Pause) Like you start up a new project run GitApp, everything goes in there. If you have any secrets encoded into the repository itself it’s there for the world to see next time you get pushed. This even happens to people who know what they are doing. Rich Milgo gave a talk at BlackHat on working with the cloud, and to do security appropriately, set up the DEV environment appropriately as well as lock down your instances and how to handle keys. When he ended up looking at the account that got highjacked for him, what did he find running there? Right, so they didn’t actually care about his running infrastructure at all, they just wanted someplace to go mine. They pulled up really big, really, really big instances and just started spending his money. If you want to read more about that, go to bit leave/mobile, he does a good article on what happened, what he did forensically to figure out what they had done, tried to go back through cloud trail to figure out what they had access to and what else they tried to get access to. It’s not just in the GitHub credentials either, this is an Android file, APK. If you look here in the middle, there’s there cedes so every client that downloaded the app has access to their Amazon (Laughter) So what fun can we do with cloud credentials? I can spin servers, take down their servers, redistribute DNS and load balance exercise, maybe you have another node you want to put into the mix. I can remount volumes, if you are on Amazon you have your cloud server and it has a EVS volume on it Disconnect that, connect it to a separate like you’ve got their server and their EBS volumes connected to their own. Have your SSH and make you have access on their box. For open stack Nova you can append your own key to the main key they use when they spin up new servers so that every time the authorized key file gets dropped you get access to the new server. So how do we find these keys to begin with? Like I was saying before for Amazon, just search, find a list of keys, there it is. For open stack and the open stack writers it’s a little harder because they actually just use a hex decimal D so you have to look at what it would look like in the code. OS passion word would be if they had an environment variable or in some config file. The results are really big here but it could have come from a library. Same thing with Bianchi, looking at 3,000 results. And then API key, 305,000 results. Again, that’s like could be the libraries, too, doesn’t necessarily mean it’s the actual API key. We have

to do some amount of triage. For GitHub they only let you search for 1,000  — you only get 1,000 results back so you to have break it up. So like one day we took the Rackspace EPI key and we were looking for one good Python, we can do it with or without language. GitHub is their own search setup so you can break out as many things as you want and also look down particular paths and languages We get 4 20 for Python and 8,303 for the rest. When I was breaking these out I had to go through pretty much all languages and break them into their own discrete begins Paragraph bins. Right. Keep sweating. Couldn’t we just let people know when they fuck up? Like those are all there, their e-mails are attached from GitHub. So we created a project get get sec nanny. It searches repositories for the same security oop. He mail the original committer and the owner of the project, let them know how to revoke keys and also how to panic! (Laughter) The responses were very flip. They were like wow, thank you, how did you find these? You’re such a savior and, this is only a testing project. Is it your testing credit card? (Laughter) So far I found about 265 keys, I’m clearly going after one provider I want to protect There is certainly more out there to find. One of the biggest offenders for this were rails developers, config initializer secret RV, it’s got usually with cred, there are rails itself and this one is infamous, there’s a port out there that will never get accepted that just adds it to the get ignore so it doesn’t happen to people in the future The comment from rails was, they’re not gonna do it in there because people shouldn’t be doing it that way. (Laughter) You know  — (Laughter)   — great! So they’re supposed to use environment variables, that’s the way you are supposed to develop and deploy an app Anyway… (Laughter) So you have to be  — we have to do it the right way if we’re doing a security checker. This isn’t my security checker I just noticed this last week so Danny Greenfield here he got the message back. You can’t read that enhanced. There we go! All right. So they said they have confirmed this possibility by manual inspection and then there’s the secret. I don’t think they inspected that. So that’s it for secrets. But what if you actually need secrets for testing? It’s not like you can live in a vacuum where your code never touches anything. You are not gonna build any real web infrastructure with that. One opportune nivt  — I’ll give — (Inaudible) — in a second, travesty i I great for open source, just do a get push, hits the web hook and then sends out tasks to run the build and let you know if you have success Lot less control than Jenkins but super simple. This is the definition for a Travis yammel, you sign up language, here we are doing Python, 2.7, we have, before the install you have steps as well as the installation and then what script will run. They thv neat thing called encrypted secrets, though. Like you put secret on the Web out in the open, so I was curious if I could use it All this does is sets up an environment variable that can be used later. So could we leak those deC ed secrets? Like where do they come out? How do I get the secrets out? Say we open a request and we’ll try to echo off their environment variable has the secret. Oh, nothing! What! So Travis, the keys used for encryption and decryption are tied to the repository. If you fork a project and add it to Travis it will have a different pair of keys than the original What that is saying is if you make a repo it gets one key, someone forks your repo they get a separate key. They could run their own secret stuff they are running off their own fork to do testing, but then only the stuff that is on master gets tested

with the original keys. Nice So let’s say we emergency that port request, secret message then comes in. So drink. Right, so you are only  — only variable is cloud review and the fact you to have trust Travis At some point Travis is decrypting secrets so you have no idea. But those guys drink good coffee and live in Berlin so I assume they’re great. Now we’ll talk about Jenkins and I’ll pass over to Greg (Applause) >> Thanks, Kyle. So for those of y’all who are not familiar with Jenkins or you’re not  — Jenkins is a continuous integration and deployment suite used for not only functional testing but also deployment to production. Even if you are not a Jenkins user this is something you have never heard of before, why do we care about Jenkins? Well Jenkins is the road to production. If there is a general since server at the end of that pipeline is either a repository that multiple servers are using, or a production server with data worth ceiling sealing. The normal interaction is hipster developer pushes code to GitHub  — (Laughter)   — Jenkins is notified via web hook that there is some code ready for testing. What we want to do is masquerade as hipster developer so we can push code to production servers or repositories and compromise them. So let’s say that hipster developer makes an oops. He either commits his cloud credentials which have no off token or he commits his GitHub token directly to his code repository. We’re kind of off to the races, right? So if there is a repository at the end of that pipeline, all we do is propagate vulnerable code we can scan for and then pop every single server  — yeah, and the mic  — (Laughter)   — so you can pop every single server that is using that repository. Can y’all hear this? >>  Yeah! >> No shit! Okay. (Laughter) So what’s the other option, right? The other option is instead of a repository there’s a server with information we want to steal and sell. So one thing you can do is propagate things for persistence, think reverse shells, the other options is to try to extract the secrets that Jenkins has out of the build, so there’s two different ways to manage environment variables in Jenkins. Either you throw them directly in configuration or you’re using the credentials plug-in but at run time they all boil down to actual environment variables. So both plug-ins could possibly be leaked if you could sneak something like this into the code. So the goal of this script is to print the environment variables and then phone them home to a server. No problem. So that’s kind of cool but that will only give you one server. You know what’s really cool is compromising multiple servers. So how do we do that? We target the Jenkins install directly. So for my testing, I was using the Jenkins database library or Jenkins user management for authentication, Jenkins is like widely configurable so you might not run into this unless you use that exact authorization to replicate this. I was curious about how Jenkins decided to manage its users and it boils down to this file called config.xml and here is what it looks like. You’ll see that there is a user name, a hash’d API token and a hash password So what caught my attention is they are using JV script. So I did more digging. A lot moreing All the way down to this file called Hudson private security realm. And wall you’ll see is how Jenkins is actually encoding and stories passwords. There’s

nothing really wrong with this except that it’s really to duplicate. So using this three-line Java code, we can create hashes that are passable to Jenkins. But so now we have to figure out a way of how to actually pass those hashes and get them installed on Jenkins So what if we have something like this in our build, the goal of this code is to locate the config files for all users and attempt to replace all hashes to a password of our choice. Let’s find out. (Pause) So over here is my Jenkins server. To show I’m not cheating, I need a password, anyone. Admin? That would be a good guess (Laughter) So “admin” clearly doesn’t work, right? What I do is go over to my Java code (Pause) We get back a secret path. So then we go over to the compromise repository. And we throw this in our code. So if we go back to the Jenkins instance, we will see our project is now building or it’s queued to build and it’s building. Building >>  — (Inaudible) — (Laughter) >>  So part of the reason that it’s going through this right now is in the script there’s a command to restart because you have to refresh the file. And boom! We can then  — (Cheers and applause) >>  So from there it’s really simple, right? All you have to do is go change the voice script and propagate them through. The other thing I wrote just so  — thankfully it worked, too, I’m really scared of live demos, the other thing our script did is phoned home all the users that Jenkins has so I wouldn’t even have to know user name, Admin It’s right there for me to see Yes. Maybe. Not in this room They kick you out. But so there is a catch to this technique and that’s this config file is only stored on the master node of Jenkins. So if builds are allowed to run concurrently that’s really good news for us All you have to do is add a sleep function to your malicious code to put the nodes to sleep, and back on (?). If you are not allowed to run concurrent builds you’ll have to get creative. One option is to just keep committing and that’s because we know these people we have compromised are developers and they will be executing other builds. The other thing you can try is with the compromised credentials, commit other repositories and push other repositories to try to trigger other bills on Jenkins but what if there aren’t any oops, right? What if we really want to compromise this deployment system because at the end there are 100,000 servers that are consuming the repository or maybe you have like a vendetta against someone and you just really want to get into their production boxes. Well, one thing that can help you out is

that the low-hanging fruit in this scenario is that they’re doing automatic floor request building which basically means they are taking all the core requests they get and they are building them before they decide to push them to master or merge them into the repository. From a security perspective that sounds really stupid, right. Why would you ever run code that you have no idea what it does. Well the nice thing about Jenkins is if you were to do this, it would tell us first it was functional and, two, how the performance compared to previous versions of the code. There is definitely an argument to be made for doing this. I’m glad I don’t develop because I would probably do this. The other option, though, is that you hit the gate. And you get this notification from Jenkins asking for one of the Admins to verify the file. So if you are not going to give up, and no one likes to give up, you essentially have two options (Pause) (Silence) The web hook we originally talked about, right, Jenkins is notified there is code that has to be a web hook from GitHub and it’s always or it’s by default configured to be at GitHub-web hook on the Jenkins server. How the process is kicked off is a simple post request. If you can forage that post request, you can beat the gate and cause a trigger and compromise the Jenkins server and all things attached to it The worst-case scenario, right, it let’s say there is no continuous integration, there is no deployment system, it’s just a repository you want to compromise. Sneak in your code, hope no one sees it and it might propagate. So real quick, I’m going to do the quickest overview ever on how to secure a Jenkins server. So disable anonymous access, date your deploys, use random port, disable executors on master, change web hook from default URL, and it’s that easy (Applause) >>  So we can take questions. If you have questions, come up to the mic >>  This is kind of tall. I noticed that Jenkins failed. I have a suggestion. There is a URL you can hit on the Jenkins master that will make it reload all the files without restarting so no one would be able to tell you just did that. >>  You have to be authorized for that That’s my question. You back off! (Laughter) You’re absolutely right. There is a reload URL in the Jenkins server but there’s two problems with that. A, you have to be authorized and, B, you have to know where Jenkins server is This is like a blind injection I don’t even have to know where the server is because it will phone home that information to me. >>  Okay, thanks. >> Anyone else? Anyone? Anyone? No I know you. I’m not taking your question. (Laughter) Thank you all so much for coming and feel free to come up and talk to us (Applause)

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Pimp Your Jenkins Platform with Docker

DevOps calm and welcome to another webinar today’s webinar sponsored by cloudbees the enterprise jenkins company we have a really great webinar lined up today pimp you Jenkins platform with docker and it’s really going to be very hands-on how to buy sorella clark product manager cloudbees we’ve been lucky enough to have Sorel on on other previous webinars and without a doubt the feedback we got from when he’s doing these is is just fantastic people love thee the ability to really dive into online demos and see how to do things before we start though I wanted to just do a couple of polling questions that will help Sorel in terms of where the audience is with you know where that what they know about what they want to know about so we’re going to ask a series short series of questions I’m going to ask you just quickly to answer and and we’ll go from there so why don’t we ask the first question Jules so the first one we want to get a sense of is you know are you or you know how do you view yourself as a dev and op or a DevOps and we’ll just give it a few seconds here for everyone to vote and we’ll close voting off in the next five four three two one so we’ve got a lot of people voting and wow 71 percent of you our DevOps 22% dev 7% ops very interesting our next question what’s your relationship if any with dr well word I could go a lot of different ways but select one of the following we are currently adopting darker or evaluating doctor or we currently pop the doctor or evaluating doctor I suppose if there should have been another one they’re not doing anything with dr. but in any event I we’re going to close loading off now in and what do we have so it looks like as we see in many polls about almost three-quarters of you were just evaluating doctor at this point I don’t think that’s too much of a surprise and then let’s see our next question if we can and that is do you use Jenkins it is a yes or no and I I’m gonna guess that most of you do is you here today for the webinar so it’s kind of self selecting but so so everyone was popular tools so eighty-six percent of you use Jenkins and and thank you for answering that and I do we have one more question here yeah I’ll kill good okay do you use a cloud platform for production workloads and hits which which cloud platform do you use and if you can answer this price to see I will cool clothes voting in the next 25 for closed what do our enters wow other actually be to add AWS Sorel I don’t know if you were expecting that okay and our next question do you use a darker orchestration service and we have swarm Cooper Nettie’s may so sore AWS CCS and again if we can vote here and I know many of you who are just evaluating darker may not be using anything so we’ll close voting in the next five four three two one and for those of you who are using a darker orchestration service it looks like swarm narrowly beat saku Burnett is and AWS which was tied with goober Nettie is very interesting then I think we might have one more question correct or is that it no that was it okay with our polling out of the way we’re going to get into the meat of our webinar now and hopefully your answers will help Sorrell

as I mentioned our our guest today is still el sur le Clerc product manager cloud knees and Sorel would you like to take it away yes please ok ok good morning everybody you’re good afternoon or good evening according to where you are located for me it’s evening I’m based in Europe so today we are going to talk about Jenkins on docker first let me introduce myself I am a product manager at kaldi’s I am in charge of alliances on I cover many docker topics lat cloudbees I used to be a deaf person on i evolved progressively to DevOps I embraced DevOps i have done 15 years of consulting before joining cloudy’s on I do open source contribution when I have time and it’s mostly in Java and it’s a project called jmx drones which is to do monitoring of java application about you what we are discovered today that you are mostly DevOps person and also deaf persons some ops also in the group most of you are evaluating daughter some of them but good number already have adopted daughter you are familiar with Jenkins and maybe not as much with cloudbees so i will low to give you a quick overview people use AWS as you’re one of the platforms on regarding the doctor orchestration service working that form is strong on Copernicus on the ws were also quite strong now a quick presentation on cloudbees my company so for those who don’t know cloudbees kohsuke kawaguchi is the creator and founder of Jenkins which was called at Sun at the beginning on is our chief technical hitter we are the enterprise Jenkins companies so we used to say that we are to Jenkins what reddit is Linux and we provide on to price solutions for Jenkins in solution can be as a service and they can also be as a software so you have the name cloud in our name but we also provide our solution as a software Jenkins with docker so docker is very important in jenkintown in continuous integration and continuous delivery platform as it is important in all the places of data centers and here what we will see is that docker is very important on the continuous delivery platform because it will change the way you manage your build servers so the servers for you build your applications on docker as the key role in this non scape can really simplify as a way you as a city administrator will manage your platform and we will also cover another aspect which is key is how you can extend your existing continuous delivery pipeline see I bids to ship your application package with your application as docker container so that they can be run on production as docker containers so in the past we used to ship java applications like war fine ruby application PHP applications by some applications like archives and deploys em on servers and now we have a new opportunity which is too cheap our application as dr. iced as dr. image docker containers and we will see today how you can do it with Jenkins how you can extend your existing CI jobs to do it when we will also see the role of the doctor registry it can be dr. herb or it can be your private daughter registry what role it will play in this pipeline on in this infrastructure so junking swiss docker two key aspects one is to dock your eyes your Jenkins infrastructure it will help you to customize the build servers with docker containers some of you have to install

specific compilers or tools people with Ruby have to install a special version of Ruby sometime or it can be the same with Python some people have to install tools for web browser test like selenium is a given version of Firefox or Chrome on all these can be really simplified using docker images on dr. containers another value of dog arising your Jenkins infrastructure is to be able to have a clean build environment with ephemeral container if you build your application in an fMRI docker container it’s and at the end of the build the container will be destroyed on the next build will start on a clean new container so even if one being installed some weird scenes on your platform it will be cleaned up until your environment with always be reproducible this was the first part dog arise Jenkins infrastructure on the second teasing is continuous delivery pipeline for dr. iced application how do I package my application as a docker containers we will cover both of them today first I will do a quick review of the existing oops sorry daughter plugins in Jenkins so there are many dr. plugins in Jenkins and will give a quick overview and then we would I will get some of these plugins and i will do a demo one of the key plugin is for the doctor plugin it does to type of scenes first it is a slave provider so in the sense that you can provision slaves as provision docker containers as big slaves on the other set of features provided by this docker plugin is to allow you to do all your token docker comments in build steps of your jobs and here you can do something like built unpublished docker images all this is available in your jobs with the doctor plugin only has been created in November 2014 to its one year old if we come back to this screen you can see a standard configuration for slave provided by your doctor infrastructure first you configure your daugher orchestration service so here it’s a doctor host with me so sku burnett is a mess when is yes it will be slightly different but it’s the same idea and then you create docker slave profiles left on plates based on docker images and you will assign some levels drinking’s levels to these images to system place so that you can manage different flavors of slaves on your environment let’s review now another plug-in this plug-in is the doctor custom built on Vernon plug in the feature set is focused on how to run build steps in a docker container so this plugins does not cover the docker right elastic slaves but here in your build definition we will be able to say that you want the steps of your bill to run in a doctor image it can be a docker image put from the doctor registry your daughter registry docker hub or your private registry or you can bring your own docker file with your job this plug-in requires to run a doctor demon on your slave so typically it worked with a linux face and it is more younger than the docker plugin because it has been introduced in jun 2015 there is a lot of adoption as well and it is evident in another plugin is called the doctor war pro plugin so here it’s very similar to the doctor custom build environment plugin but it covers jenkins workflow so some of you may be familiar with dr. with changing or pro and i hope that you have discovered this feature which is very interesting in jenkins it’s the ability to define your job with a groovy dsl on here in this go vdsl with the doctor workflow plugin you can invoke doctor recommends and here you

can see that you can run a shell step in a docker container which is dr dot image that inside recommend all you can also do other things like pushing visiting a doctor image on your build here you can see the second code fragment with docker built when I build my daughter image on i push it on you could see with the with registration statement that i have declared the credentials two approaches to my doctor registry here it will be the docker hub so this plug-in is quite similar to the doctor custom built on burnin plugin it applies to change and workflow and it also requires to run a doctor demon on your slave when it was introducing jun 2015 another plugin is called the doctor buildin this plugin and here it focused on building on pushing your docker images to registry another one is a docker hub notification plugin so it allows you to trigger your build when a new image has been pushed to the doctor registry it’s called dr. hub for the moment but a pull request as he’s on going to also support docker private registry with the v2 API format so soon it will be able to support notification for private registries as well and this is key if you want to trigger your build when the exchange has been done in the total registry there are some other drinking stoker plugins like the doctor trust ability plugins which will extend ranking stress ability mechanism to docker images built on your slaves in your bins another one is a doctor it’s the plugin which helps you to execute dr. commands in bit step so you will have built push and so on another set of Jenkins plugins related to dokur are the clouds left providers so clutch slave providers is the mechanism in Jenkins to create slaves on demand maybe you have seen the Amazon ec2 plugin that helps to create slave based on amazon VMS on demand you have the equivalent with as your you are the equivalent with OpenStack or you have such a cloud plugin and we find semen on plugins that work with the key dokur orchestration service so we will find a cure Burnett is plug in which is a slave provider similar configuration to what we have seen at the beginning with the doctor plugin you give a URL of your orchestration service will hear the cue Burnett is URL credentials to connect to this oh sorry my mouse is oops sorry knee and tricky so you give the configuration details to access to preventive and then you will define templates of images of slaves where you pick a docker image on you assign Jenkins levels to this images so that you can assign the you can use them in jobs so this is the kubernetes plugin we have a similar one which is a message plugin so here it works with mrs Meadows is slightly more sophisticated on more complex than pure brand it is because mrs. not only supports a doctor but also other container technologies so the configuration may be a bit more complex to learn on to set up at the beginning then you have the Amazon ec2 container service plugin so here it’s a very standard configuration you can see in the first screenshot how you configure how to access to Amazon ec2 container service with where you select your ecs cluster and then you have slept on plates with levels on you associate with doc images so this is your doctor imagine dr. herb or your private registry and then you define the size of your slave with memory and CPU one you have advanced configuration as well is needed so this was a review of many of the most important daughter related plugins in

Jenkins today in our demo I will focus on a sample which is based on an environment on amazon AWS for my demo on here i will use a Jenkins master which will be an easy to vm i will use an ec2 slave which is a linux live on which i will install a dr diamond and i will use the jenkins docker custom build environment bragging on the doctor workflow plugin and now we also show you how jenkins can work with the amazon ec2 container service to create slaves on demand i will build an application and we’ll take the source code it will be a java application and it takes a source code from github it’s maven application i will indeed the way we used to be made an application on jenkins it will be very familiar to you probably and then i will create a docker image of this application so we’ll talk arise my web application in java application i will deploy this doctor i assist dr. image to the docker hub registry on then I’ll will deploy the application on Amazon ecs elastic container service so this will be my demo do you have any question please don’t hesitate oops so now up yes this is what I wanted some web application you can see it’s on Game of Life dashes here’s the Bashar argh this is a web application game of life is a demo application created by the authors of the books junking the definitive guide we have done the fork of this application to customize to three scenes but you will see it’s exactly the same so if you are familiar with this book junking the definitive guide you will be familiar with ease and here i can customize my application next to it I have my junking server so here its cloud-based drinking’s on the price which is cloud-based solution around Jenkins itself cloudbees Jenkins platform most of the features that i will show you today are available in jenkins open road some of them are available as part of cloudbees jenkins platform on i will tell you when it’s the case so it’s a standard Jenkins on my source code will be hosted on gated on its game of life as you can see here so it’s a standard maven application you can see pondered XML I will have to build this and then i will run acceptance tests which are selenium web browser test if i come back to my sample here my ec2 slave is a standard Linux claims there is just open to openjdk on a doctor demon I did not install build tools like selenium like jmeter once also on all this will be provided by my docker containers for my pipeline on the Jenkins master is a to build it I used cloud is image on AWS marketplace so if we look at the AWS marketplace you can find it you just have to search on this is what I installed so if you launches you can install the same server as I did so let’s come back to our sample I have my source code repository my Jenkins monster I will first do a demo with the ec2 slave and I will push this to Amazon ecs i push it to Amazon is here but the concept would be would be very similar to push an application on communities or on swarm on tall man Jenkins configuration so I will use a freestyle job I configure my data project which is very famous turned out for you I hope my data URL on here you can see Nathan king package so this is a stone that way to be but now what I will do is I will use the docker custom build

environment plug in to check the box build inside the docker container in your build environment section of your job and I will I say that I will build on a docker image that cloudbees is maintaining let’s look at it opps sorry on here you can see now I have my private access to cloud Ezra positive but we maintain an image called Java build tools where we install many tools to build application for example so we take Ubuntu 1504 we build we add + ZW get color get make the version is 40 GCC’s 492 openjdk maven 33 x vfb for web browser test firefox so it will be Firefox 42 selenium it will be 248 to AWS CLI it will be the latest so its version 196 guess your CLI cloud from ratio line opencv 3c ly diameter to dot 13 two brunette is Eli my sequel client we have preferred a bunch of tools that may be convenient on if you want you can easily fork or copy best fragment of this image to create your own docker file with only the bits that you like this is an open source fine so you can very easily extract the pieces that are convenient to you or extern this image if you want so this is the way I set up my build environment and I told you that on this Jenkins Flav I don’t have firefox install I don’t have the ewic a line installed on here thanks to this docker container all this will be available I will also use another feature which is called zone a wsdl I pro game it’s a cloud-based specific plug-in where we inject the credentials of your AWS account that you managing cloud in Jenkins credential store on its configure for you aw sea lions in store for you and you can use it as a shell step so this is how i use the cloud Jenkins doc your custom build environment plugin I can run it on let’s look at what hola the produced bit was very verbose yeah please oh so here you can see that here there is a doctor exact so my build steps are executed in a docker container on we’ll see in the job that I have Firefox version 42 I have the edible us realize that has been installed on I can do an easy to describe instances so here my AWS here is configured it will be important to deploy on this yes and then you could see oops that I have my maven step that is executed to maven clean package on everything works so this is how we use the Jenkins doc your custom build environment plugin you mostly have to check this box in your job definition on to define the docker image that you want to see to use on if you store it on docker hub it’s convenient because you don’t have an extra configuration setup setting your doctor registry you can also inject a credential sips it’s a private image and so on so this was a demo with a doctor custom built on Brandon plugin now I will show you in a much more complex demo with dr. workflow so what would be more complex I have just showed here with the frozen moment with my first of all how to use maven to package one or two I showed you that Firefox was existing now I will continue to work on my ec2 slave and I will also build a docker image and I will deploy the doctor image on docker hub i will restart my elastic container service

application with my new image and i will run maven selenium test so there will be selenium tests using firefox triggered by mirror here we may do a quick overview of our amazon ecs configuration so if you are familiar with it you can select in situ container service I use standard clusters a default cluster on here you can see that I have one test definition which is called game of life and other Jenkins wave it for the second part of my demo so this is my game of life task definition on if i look at the service or service on amazon ecs elastic container service is a long-running docker task so this is my service and this is please believe me the game of life web application that we could see here and here you can see that it was built by the game of life workflow job number 25 so let’s look at my workflow draw to see how I configure this so some of you may not be familiar with Jenkins workflow so I will spend some time with you on this so here in Jenkins for Chrome I will start with a simple bits you can see that on line 7 I get the source code from get here I don’t put credentials but it’s a very standard syntax to access get on I could have used the snippet generator to define cell existent X so I get the URL here in the standby generator I select get and here you can see the standard configuration screen that or you are used to use to configure get and you can generate the snippet that you can copy bedzie snip a generator helps to write your workflow drub copy pasting fragments it’s good to learn so here I do my get a check out git clone then I do my man step so mvn clean package there is a small optimization with this settings dot XML fine it’s a small optimization that I could detail later and as we said we want to run this maven build inside a docker image and here you can see on line 6 that I’d use a docker image comment dot inside so it was a syntax that I introduced in the doctor workflows line on the steps that are inside my daughter image in style statement will be executed in this docker container so here’s the deed check out on the maven claim package will be executed in this docker image available towards zero zero five then I will build my image as I would authorize my image so in my application in the source code of my application I package a docker file as well so this is what is the kind of things that you will have to do if you want to dr. eyes an existing Java PHP Python Ruby application or who knows go so i will show you let’s come back to the source code now this is not the source code that i wanted it’s sorry here so this is my game of life fork on if you look at the game of life web module i have created a docker fine on in this dough let me zoom i will say that my doctor fight will be an extension of the official Tomcat 8 image and i will add to this Tomcat 8 image my game of life war fine and i will name it root dot were so it will be deployed at the root of my tomcat context so this is my daughter fine it helped me it allowed me to deploy my application in the real context of my tomcat server on now let’s come back to this workflow fragment so once i have built the work file with this middle clean package I will do my doctor build dr. bill comment that you can see line 15 takes as the first parameter at the name of my

image so Scylla clear game of life this is the name of my doctor rub image so let’s come back to dr. hub if you can see my screen and you can see that I have a public repository called game of life so similar game of life here is what you see in my workflow here and then which folder in which folder is located my daughter fine on eating daughter file game of life web once my docker image is built I will push it to the doctor hub registry with this doctor push here and to push to dr. hub I have to define credentials and for this credential what i have done is that i have defined my credentials for my own workflow script so here with this line one dr dot with registry i have injected my daughter her credentials let me show you what is this identifier if you look at the credential store in jenkins ir define this abdo kirkham credentials when you can see that the ID of these credentials is dr. her credentials select layer or we can see it here in the advanced panel its freedom me know so this is the identifier that i have used in line with registry statement if you don’t manually write it define it then it will be a random value so i could do my git push by sorry nada push but dr. push with these credentials onesie image is pushed on dr. hub I will redeploy my ecs service so if you remember the ecs service is the service here game of life that is active with one desired container runnin I did it the way I restart in my container is to set desired count 20 and then to one with a sleeping a bit so if there may be other ways to deploy it will depend on the procedures that you like to adopt any CS once my application is restarted I will start some browser test and here i will show you other jenkins workflow features is that i will send an email to a group of recipient with this message do you want to start the web browser test and here you can see this male command that is very should be familiar to people who use many notifications in jenkins because it is simply this configuration just a bit generator you can see this med statement that has been generated and that helped me so I will send an email to myself asking do you want to start then I created an input step in my workflow so here I wanted to show you how to interrupt a workflow on wait for a human interaction a human validation this validation can be secured by security groups by rolls in Jenkins if you want and then i will start my selenium test web browser test are a bit fragile so we’ll user with dry clothes so i will try up to suite on to you to run this test and they will also run in the java build tool containers that contains firefox on selenium when here i will run the game of life project that is called game of life acceptance test it’s selenium with to see deed which is a web browser testing framework based on selenium and you can see that i specify the URL of my test server with parameters so this is my workflow definition let’s run it now on when it’s running i will show you some steps so here you can see this is the cloud base workflow stagevu so this is not in Jenkins open source if Justin Jenkins

clubby Jenkins platform this piece I told you I would it give you details on this and you can see details of what has happened so here my application has been built so if you remember this was defined by the stage step so build web app it has been done and it has run in the container then build on push docker image it took nine second so this is this deadline 12 build on push docker image so you have done dr. built on a daughter push let’s go back and then we have this redeploy is your service this one is quite a clone because i have invokes flip 60 seconds and then 22nd to give the time to restart they are probably more sophisticated way to do it but for this demo it was convenient and here you can see that i have used a built proper to inject the credentials on the configuration of my AWS july so i will show you with a snippet generator you select drop and here you have all the plugins that support bill dropper there is only one which is a wa CLI command on i can select my AWS credentials the default region in which my a wsdl i will be configured and i can generate the groovy script with this rock comment so this is how i integrate i have integrated my workflow scrape my pipe line with a wacc yes let’s come back to top story it was here so it has been redeployed on here you can see that this is post post because there is this input statement so let me look at my email and you can see here that I have received an email from Jenkins telling me start web browser test game of life uh-huh let’s come back to my build execution so game of life or pro you can see that here the job is posed if I on the cloud-based age you I can have this button proceed on the board this values can be customized I in the workflow definition i will show you another way to see it if you look at the logs of your job you can see here that the work flow is interrupted on this input statement with always my text start web test on Game of Life proceed aboard on the last way to see it is with this pose for input sorry I have to find it pause for input here and here you can see that your job is posed for input on that you can proceed on the board i will show you with the console so i decide to proceed and here you can see that it is executing the next step of my job and it is running the web test the Firefox selenium tests and this is my build number 26 so if you remember in this console in this web page I can see the big number so if you look at the lower right corner it’s written 25 so if i refresh this page it will be 26 I will wait for the web browser test to finish because if I remember there is the web test is a big project so here’s a test has been successful these were firefox test I have not installed firefox in my on my linux Flav it was provided by the docker image so now let’s refresh the application and here you can see it’s 26 so what we have seen on let’s come back to the slide is that I could take code from github on linux slave i could build my game of life application then I package it as a docker image bundling tongkat on game of life i push this image to docker hub i restarted i deployed this application on amazon EC sec2 container service it could also have been hibernating mezzos or a standard row doctor or Swan

is the same on once my application has been redeployed I did some automated web browser test with selenium and firefox selenium on firefox were not installed on this flav so I put up different project team testing with different version of Firefox I would just have to use different daughter images this was my demo now I will do a quick order demo which is i will use ecs elastic container service to provide slaves so i have to hurry so i have installed the amazon is in situ container service plugin and here you can see that i have configured my Jenkins to use easy to ecs cloud plugin i will use the default cluster of ecs and i will create i have two templates of slave one based on the cloud-based gen LP slave with java build tools on the other one with the docker image the official junk in CI general p slave i specify the quantity of memory on the cpu unit on i created a job which defines with the labels that it wants to run on the docker image with java build tools and it will just do Firefox version on java version so i will run this image i will run this job sorry well now will see that it will run oh it takes a bit of time to start let’s look at is yes now you can see here that there is a Jenkins slave 1 143 tasks that has been started it is running so it will soon finish Susie here I can see in easiest consoles that Jenkins is using a slave provided by dcs so let me come back sorry let me come back here okay on this flavor as the travas run let me show you the name of the slave here it was a random name it has been used on now it will be recycled terminated by Jenkins and if i look at my execution you can see the name of the slave which has been created by this cloud provider on that I have Firefox 42 on all the beetles that I light so here I could show you how to set up a continuous delivery pipeline to dr. eyes your java application or your web application or the application that you used to build on jenkins integrated with docker hub customizing the build environment with the doctor workflow plugin or the Jenkins custom build environment dr. custom build on brannan plugin i also denote elastic slaves created on demand i did this demo with amazon ec2 container service it could have been done with the doctor plugin with standard doctor or swarm servers or it could have been done with q burnett is always missiles so to summarize jenkins workflow to define a CD pipeline jenkins dr. workflow to customize the build environment i use selenium firefox if you’ll remember on maven 333 i also use dr. workflow to build on push docker images i use a doctor registry which was dr. hub to manage my daughter images I use Amazon ec2 container service to run my daughter eyes java application that has been deployed automatically by Jenkins on my last demo was to use Amazon ec2 container service to run slaves are the resources to find more to learn more about Jenkins on dr. on we will publish the slide deck I will come back to quick sing here we may have some question is it better to text on darling exclaims on to install the doctor did manage to use doctor Worf local custom build environment or is it better to use dynamic dr. slaves with the doctor plugin on a swarm or maybe a remote dr host or maybe whiskey brand it is personally I like a lot to just install

a doctor demon on a Linux slave to learn and discover the flexibility of what can be done with docker on a giant environment and I think also it’s a very iterative approach it’s an iterative approach you start with a small change which is just to install the demon and then you move forward on later you can adopt a docker orchestration service like swarm to burn a tease missiles or a cloud solution like is yes thank you very much it’s time for the questions please yes it is Cyril before we even get to questions so I want to thank you you are your webinars are always tops in my book there they’re thinking they’re just are so thank you so much for that let’s let’s um let’s get to some questions though because we don’t have a lot of time uh our first question well a lot of people seem to have this sort of thing can you try to answer why to use doctors and containers with Jenkins like what what are the advantages if you will so really what I like with I like to dr eyes my Jenkins infrastructure because it helps me to demise the build servers with docker containers instead of having to maintain five with or 10 types of Linux slaves to have the right version of Firefox for the web team or towards the right version of Firefox for the accounting team that would use a different version of Firefox faucets it’s automated tests and one here I can really simplify my bit slaves they are just Linux with dr diamond on each team can choose which bin tool the install on it if you think about Ruby teams it’s more convenient to install Ruby or PHP or Python directly on the host and to not have to manage seems like our vm to select pick the right version each team will select exactly the tools that they want some people want imagemagick and you have to be able to install this if you want GCC the compiler you may also have to be rude to install when i use doke arised slaves I don’t I can simplify my jobs my slaves and it is a project team that will come with Sony Potter image on the other benefit is that I can clean up my build environment between each job very good next questions or else can we compare and contrast darker with nexus and i would say that nexus is 3 nexus is the sauna type nexus is a maven repository so it’s a place where you store your image your artifacts your java artifacts or your application binaries when you use dr. eyes environment than the artifact is no longer a war fine but it’s a docker image so you need to use docker hub or another doctor registry such as Jeff frog artifactory or maybe a docker entrusted registry to store these images but then docker is the execution container of your application which Nexus is not Nexus is my repository and when I work in a dr Eisenberg not I continue to of my repository of Java artifacts like I have my repository of Debian package or rpm to install my clinic stuff I continue to have my drive artifact repository with Nexus and I introduce a new artifact repository which is the doctor registry okay our next question is Jenkins seems to be running in word server and darker is running in another server can we build dark image on remote server yes we can there are something which are a bit more complex because you usually want to have the workspace of your job on this running on the same post as your doctor demon so it’s possible these are some things that are possible there are some things that are not possible excellent next question is what was the am I for

Jenkins that you showed okay so here the n line for Jenkins that I showed is if you do a lunch you go to AWS marketplace and here you do cloudbees you search for cloudbees only we will find the Cubbies Jenkins on the price oh it’s on am i that is published on the uws marketplace so it’s a great places and then I I could provide the mi used for the slave I will provide it as a comment it’s an M eyes that with the it’s a big slab that cloudbees works on and we want to publish very soon this am I in our documentation it’s just a jdk with ubuntu on wizard or edema okay very good thank you our next it’s not really a question to request sorel after the praise to the prison can you make the configuration of the jobs readable for anonymous users a configuration analysis job okay otherwise it’s on I have exist I think it will be easier I think it’s this one and I can share this with everybody in the chat window Eddie I’ve showed it on the under chat window is it accessible to everybody or is it a more complex uh it’s just organizers we will a concert in case that and I’m gonna put it in handouts to everyone here um oh how can I can I say to her but guy right hit it under two to sit in entire he’s doing it we took care of it yes Juelz took care of it Thank You Jules so in your chat window everyone you can see that next question so I’ll how are the build results of what is running in the container collected by Jenkins and that’s a good question so here it depends on the implementation of how the business connected uh-huh that’s it’s a very technical question let me I simple will understand if we look at the console logs because here you can see the way there’s a doctor run is with scat no I don’t know because cap does not is not the answer i would have to dip dive in the code i contributed the beach to this code but not to this a very technical stuff I’m sorry okay uh someone just as his darker open source or is repeated service I can answer that darker the container darker is open source they do have paid services such as warm and some of the others and you exact importance when God um another question does it have to be a jnlp or canopy ssh connection for the slaves and so here it will depend on each plug-in that integrates with drinking sorry let me find my slave my dislike so when I use a Linux flav with the doctor demon with her wardrobe dr custom build environment here you choose the technologies that you want on i was using ssh when it’s a docker container that is as your slave usually we will see that they used jnlp because then it’s a docker container slave that connects to the master this is a reason why it’s jen LP and you will see that it is generally not for the general p protocol but two of the connection opened by the slave and you will see it for missiles for Tribune a tease for Amazon is yes for example excellent sorel unfortunately we’re two minutes past the hour and we have to be mindful of people times we do have many other questions i am i can’t i’m sorry i totally sustained tone no no don’t be sorry sorel with the amount of questions we’ve had we would have to do this for two hours so they’re not to worry we will we do have these questions in writing though jewels will collect them we will send them to you sir L if you can give written answers we’ll post them on the website along with the recording of today’s webinar the side of an excellent webinar that we had this many questions so do please don’t be sorry so

we can have to yeah we’re going to have to call it a wrap for today though thank you everyone for attending we will try to have Sorrell back soon in another webinar cuz the railway some of the best we do thank you to cloudbees for sponsoring today’s webinar sync you learn anything thank you sir well we will see you at the next devops calm webinar until then this is the mo of DevOps calm you very much thank you Dave ups.com and I think you too Erin into a jewel thank you sir i’ll be well but by

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Insane Jamaican Jerk BBQ!! HUGE MEAT PIT + Jerk Champion in Montego Bay, Jamaica! 🇯🇲

hey everyone hope you’re having an amazing day at smart Queens I’m in Montego Bay Jamaica and when you think about the food of Jamaica probably the number one food that comes to mind is Jamaican Jerk Jamaican Jerk is a style of cooking meat it’s a blend of spices and herbs and marinade that goes into the meat and I’ll just be honest with you it is a way of life and so we are dedicating today to Jamaican Jerk and there’s gonna be two simultaneous jerk events that are happening today number one is we have a whole pig a whole hog that my friend Andrew who is a Jamaican Jerk champion he is gonna season he’s gonna give it his Jamaican jerk seasoning treatment number two is that we are gonna go to a place called the pork pit who our jerk masters of Montego Bay and one of the best places to eat jerk in Jamaica we’re gonna see their process of how they smoked the jerk especially the jerk pork and jerk chicken we’re gonna see their seasoning this is going to be an ultimate day of Jamaican Jerk in Jamaica before we get started with the neighbors stopping for a quick snack a Jamaican patty hahaha what’s up Andrew whoa place is huge I don’t know which one’s a chicken or which one’s Andy one beep is the one sorry thank you we’re actually on our way to the market but yeah we had to stop to get the juices flowing we’re having a Jamaican patty Jamaican pet people are passionate about Jamaican patties this is going to be my first time to try a Jamaican patty you get the the patties always come in a brown paper bag two in one and Matt and Andrew said there’s no way you’re eating one you have to eat two at a time pull this guy out and also the common thing too is to eat it out of the brown paper bag my first bite of a Jamaican patty oh yeah looks like flaky kind of like buggery crotch meat in there senator this one’s beef and then just like here’s a little bit of that spike you taste a little bit of the ferment all right yeah I kind of should’ve been switched in the mini taster plate those grown to be but they season and put it into the crust and bake it that’s just straight like comfort food at its finest Wow I have to keep on eating the flavor actually gets better I can understand why they’re so popular and why they’re so addictive yeah there’s just nothing not to like about even like on the edges it’s more crusty and flakier that is an addiction like immediately out of the pack I can’t stop we’re in the car okay start at the market but in the car I’m finishing off the chicken patty a Kirkuk about there’s awesome – I think I still prefer that chick the beef that’s the original but the curry chicken is delicious also and again you have to eat them fresh and hot so because it’s still really kind of rainy today not a lot of stalls are open a lot of cells are kind of have some plastic over the vegetables and ingredients but that’s okay a few places are open Andrew is getting work – immediately oh I see that basket full of scotch bonnets yeah man Andrew so you prefer the orange in yellow intensive yeah because they give you a better flavor okay yeah they carry more heat okay Scotch bonnets are essential and Scotch bonnets they truly are one of the greatest peppers in the world – not only for their heat but they’re amazingly fruity flavor and then also some of that Jamaican ginger some garlic I know we’re also gonna get some pimento which is allspice berries already smell that tiny yes and this thing named beetroot okay this may be juice as soon as they pulled out the fresh thyme the room of that herb you can smell it so vibrantly that’s one of the most vibrant aromas and your entire shop that probably has the most vibrant aroma that fresh thyme also getting scallions onions garlic Scotch bonnets everything is going into the jerk we’re just waiting on the pimento snow oh yeah it’s gonna be the dried pimento berries okay the berries the

secret ingredient for every jerk and so then we just got a couple big bags of pimento which is also known as allspice they’re the berries they have a flavor that’s similar to nutmeg cinnamon clove all together in one just essential essential berry and you need it for Jamaican cuisine in almost every dish but for jerk without without pimento it’s not judge it’s like a spice of life in the care of the anthem we got everything yeah cool thank you took out the weather is raining today because otherwise we’d be walking around the market but instead we’re cruising around the market I love it how Matt and Andrew just know like everybody throughout the market do we need we drove over to pineapple beach it’s a beautiful property the grassy area the trees were right next to the beach you immediately smell the sea as you exit the car this is not great weather it’s really windy the seas are really high in rough and just cloudy and drizzling but that’s not gonna stop us from having this ultimate jerk day we’re getting ready to season the whole pig Andrew and by the way Andrew is he won the jerk Jamaican Jerk championship he is a knowledge a treasure chest of Jamaican jerk seasoning and we’re gonna be preparing the whole hog and roasting it here at pineapple Beach the leaves are also used for the we use the leaves yeah in a roasting so the green leaves give off the smoke when it hits the fire so when the fire is on it smokes it flavors with the pimento well this is one of the most important culinary flavoring and that leaf it’s like it is even the leaf smells similar to the berries almost the same cinnamony yeah cinnamon II but like more refreshing the pimento by the way the pimento tree that produces the pimento berry or fruit or allspice berry this an OTEC an OT ET r ET ot interchangeable apples which is similar to a rose apple it’s delicious I’ll give it the shirt the shirt the shirt technique hmm also so incredible juice might be one of the motion juicy fruits except back here in this lean-to surrounded by bamboo poles this is the kitchen chef andrew is gonna get started on the jerk marinade for we have a whole pig it’s a suckling pig and you what’s this this is the fork season to try rope okay also first it’s a dry rub and then the wet rub would go like the blender bit bright and fresh places there are and you got okay so this doesn’t solve it’s right here right now okay okay so he blended up big like half a bag full of the allspice berries blended that up fresh it’s silly romantic and then again that goes straight on to the pig oh yeah you can smell that’s heavy on batch bunny have you done the Scotch dude he’s like at least like 20 Scotch bonnets plus the allspice yeah you’ve been into the jerk your whole life probably right yeah which one can been doing everything he coarsely chop sup that time it’s so aromatic and now garlic goes in garlic gives it it helps to tenderize the meat as well [Applause] you just he added in the ginger Jamaican

ginger as known to be some of the strong as some of the best again it’s incredibly aromatic blended that all together with the pimento with the Scotch bonnets and the garlic and there’s a bit of vinegar in here too and then just poured it into this bowl that just smells unbelievable because these are so potent you don’t use a lot of it minions yeah onions I’m strong in it yeah okay improvise okay in the second blender he added scallions onions and some more scotch bonnets so that’s like a layering of the scott funding and what’s amazing about the jerk is that it’s also a layering of the spice so we first put on that dry rub then the wet rub so the dry rub sits there on the skin and now the wet rub is just gonna like marinate into every single flush every crevice all those holes that he poked into it and just as he pours in that marinade you can just the aroma of the pimento of the time of the garlic and onions everything is there everything is present it’s so powerfully aromatic I almost cannot control myself I have like allspice berries growing in my nostrils this is the setup that we’re gonna use above ground style hoe Andrews lighting the charcoal now and balancing on these stumps so above ground getting the heat and the smoke and sitting on top of the pimento wood with pimento leaves as well that’s gonna give it a fragrance as well so typically now in Jamaica because too much deforestation too many cutting down of the pimento trees usually sweet wood is used in the jerk preparation but here on the property there was a pimento tree that was already fallen that had fallen down that like a while ago and so it’s already cut up so we’re actually gonna be able to use the pimento wood which is the traditional way that harmony of spices is just unbelievable one of the great jerking and you can even use jerk as a verb jerking is one of the great barbecue techniques of the world and so of course the the fire is on the ground below the great is on the stumps now and then pimento wood and then pimento leaves on top this is the the base before the pig and I’m already you can smell the aromatics of the pimento the leaves and the wood everything that’s in the marinade it’s just gonna be a little tiny layer of jerk seasoning and just aroma fragrance spice [Applause] what an incredible setup and just the layers so the pig went on top of the pimento we use then a great then like a zinc ploy to metal and then start coals on top of that so that the fire burns on top of that so it’s getting heat from both the bottom but the bottom is more like a smoke because it’s a it’s a less direct it’s not like a very harsh heat it’s gonna get smoked but then he also from the top and so that’s gonna all just like bundle in there everything is like directing itself towards the pig and the pimento the jerk pig is gonna roast for four to five hours but from here we are gonna drive back into Montego Bay and we’re going straight to the pork pit which is it really is one of the best places in Jamaica for jerk pork and they do it in a huge way we’re gonna see the whole grill we’re gonna get a little bit of a jerk snack before coming back here in a few hours to to reconnect with the jerk Pig oh yes step out of the van you can immediately smell the dimeric yes

smokiness and when you’re in Montego Bay look for the massive cotton cotton tree right in the center that’s the landmark you know you’re at the port pick just take a look at the size of this cotton tree the stump the diameter has to be like meters across what is your name I’m mark nice to meet you Oh mark mark I’m mark also yeah all right yes yeah nice to meet you thank you we’re in the pit now and it is just unbelievable it’s just it literally is a smouldering smoking sea of pig parts it’s like a very low very subtle smoking sheet because as you can see with the whole construction again like like we did that with the whole pig it’s a layering system and so there’s shelves so the coals reside below and actually in the back there there’s an entire there’s like a furnace of coals going so when the when they every now and then replenishes the coals to replenish the heat but it’s a tray of coals on the bottom and then the next layer the next shelf is wood that goes down an entire layer of wood and if actually if you put your ear close down to the grill there to that smolder and go you can hear kind of the hiss of both that would kind of like smoldering with that heat as well as the juices from the pork just kind of seeping out and then that entire planks the the the poles of wood are just topped with just just like pieces chunks of pork that have been marinating and all of that jerk seasoning and Matt was explaining to me that the the cork here at the part bit it actually marinates for a week a week that jerk seasoning is just like seeping into the meat before ever goes on the grill and then again it’s just a short it’s just a long long grill process so the smoke goes into it layer upon layer of jerk unbelievable process pork is your your mute of choice but chicken is also available on this grill so two grills going constantly all the time unbelievable process oh you have a barbecue sauce salsa that’s like a special barbecue sauce yeah tell me you like special it be special ask for it right Janie yeah then the process is you go inside and you make your order you pay inside then you come outside to the grill to the pit you hand mark your receipt and then he gets your meat whatever you paid for you in the morning you get the chicken he chops it up fresh boxes it and then you take it to a CT so we just got to order for a nice juicy one for you thank you excusing us the juiciest evolved G please thank you now I’m a Clio suppose you gotta try some peas tough Austrian pepper shrimp we got the food we got the rice if Matt also ordered some pepper shrimp there’s some festival which are fried dough stick there’s some Bamie we’ve got the jerk chicken and we got the pork and okay I just have to I have to begin with that jerk pork he chops it up slices it up you can get fatty pieces you can get more meaty green pieces but if you just take a piece take a nugget and look at that marinade that seasoning that jerk that jerk rub spice blend mixture you guys get in on here get in on there oh that jerk is unexplainably pasty let’s sit out ringer on it yeah my favorite place dude man whoever plays on the island to you it’s the smokiness it’s the pimento that allspice you taste the thyme in there

the garlic ginger all those essential jerk seasoning spices and it’s just a fuse on our goodness it’s a fusion of Jamaica yeah that’s all it is still jamia can I go in one bite one bite and one more step to the perfect pork jerk experience what do you call it this is a scotch bonnet pepper sauce and the promove promove tick off the top yeah you don’t want to that’s that’s way too small for you too small of a hole at the top a chunk you want the chunk you want to chunks out a scotch bonnet for the sauce yes I want as much that’s what you are looking for the chunkiness the bulk go back in for a nugget a nugget of jerk look look at that piece and I’m gonna use that to scoop up the Scotch Bunny and actually I’m gonna have to grab another piece of pork to the scoop on as much chunk scotch bonnet chunk and garlic there’s any little juice to top it off a little more juice and that there you have one of the greatest bites of jury service people will layer upon layer of flavor that sauce is unbelievable the sauce is ridiculous the ginger barbecue scientist isn’t ginger grits barbecue sauce a layered on flavor Jameer has the best ginger and we put it on ribs oh my god okay barbecue ribs them oh yeah actually the ginger is the first thing you taste that barbecue sauce is incredible Pender smoky ribs hmm and then yeah incredible awesome a sweet tangy barbecue sauce but ginger is like the first taste that you actually catch mmm it’s finger lickin up sweet banana mountain okay and now to switch up the meatiness of my mouth I’m gonna try the fried plantain oh I love fried pungent ooh but the yeah the sweet and sourness of it gets ripe and then the texture it’s almost like boozy on the inside this is the green green plant it is green plantain green plantain so it’s not not sweet but then the pieces are squished into like paddy formations and I believe fried more starchy much more starchy than the sweet version and again like in that pepper sauce it is outstanding okay we got to try it chicken stuff well yeah the moistness and juiciness is preserved because of that style of cooking and that sauce that drinkable just like infinite supply of that sauce let’s ring everything oh it’s here bring it and you want to ring it out it it’s so good hmm like gushes with found new juices and then that jerk seasoning and then that’s got fun I’ve ever that’s actually a flavor you just want to tuck into your cheek and keep it forever once you start your new you cannot even stop approximately eight minutes later the entire everything we had that was full on the table has been reduced to a few chicken bones and a few empty Scotch bonnets sauce bottles we’re going back to pineapple Beach where the whole whole big jerk is still gonna be slow roasting away that’s coming next should be ready in a few yes you’ve been pushing down on the

knife it’s just like falling through a time he’s adding a bit more charcoal stoking up the fire but it’s coming very soon and that this entire beach actually probably everybody downwind from us in Jamaica can smell that okay so andrew is just read basting it with the final just pouring on that jerk paste the wet rub one more just full full layer of jerk seasoning is ready this is the moment we’ve all been waiting for all day [Laughter] you want to try the first beat or should eyes yeah you do No Tedric dude gosh been waiting and waiting hours for this that’s just insane New Jersey and like you have the skin the fat to meet the pimento the time that you jerk dr. Barnett pepper Jamaican Jerk a whole leg bone okay you’re just saying break into strips I’m sorry oh it’s so poor dude I’ll take a whole bar anybody feel free to come come have a bite the pimento the drumstick yeah this is a Jamaican party but the thing is the flavor has penetrated all the way down to the bones it is unreal the entire pig has just been devoured in about ten minutes but there’s some of that some of that rub some of that jerk seasoning leftover on that banana loaf huh with the pork fat mixed into it the pimento that time Ananas Ananas chef Andrew well done man bump-bump we ended up just hanging out at pineapple beach such an amazing group of people so much fun to hang out so laid-back people with such big hearts and I want to say a big thank you to Andrew chef Andrew again he is the jerk he’s a jerk champion of Jamaica and that jerk was unbelievable that just every component every spice that went into it and then the method the style the smokiness the juiciness was unbelievable and Matt the food bus from Jamaica Food Tours he is just an amazing and amazing guy Matt thank you and so that’s gonna be it for this video I want

to say a big thank you to you for watching this entire Jamaica food series if you haven’t seen all the videos I’ll have the link in the description box check that out check out all the amazingly delicious Jamaican food please remember to give this video a thumbs up if you enjoyed it leave a comment below I’d love to hear from you and if you’re not already subscribed make sure you subscribe for lots more food and travel videos and I’ll see you on the next video goodnight

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ISS: Ecosystem tradeoffs-Valuing public preferences – Sahan Dissanayake

welcome everyone I’m spread suhali me research assistant professor with the institute for sustainable solutions welcome to our third weekly seminar series with a focus on ecosystem services I would also like to welcome the in addition to the students and community partners our online audience we are streaming the seminars live and we encourage the online viewers to ask questions at the end before I introduce two nite speakers Speaker I would like to invite coming to say a few words about connecting with ISS on social media thank you prefer so my name is kami I am an MBA here at PSU and also a grad research assistant for ISS just doing a plug right now for our facebook page and twitter page as well we are using Twitter and Facebook more and more to share news about sustainability Portland State exciting events photos and soon are going to be sharing job postings as well so they’re both really good resources for you to sort of stay close to what is happening in sustainability at PSU our Facebook page address is WWF facebook com / the Institute for sustainable solutions and you can also find that just by searching for sustainability at Portland State or this is the ISS important state and our twitter handle is twitter.com slash ISS pdx edu this is also available on our web page pdx a to you and just want to find a plug we are going to be giving away some reward some prizes for our new followers so monthly giveaways include gift certificates to the psu bookstore and also some chinook book which are green coupons for companies around portland so check us out thank you very much Thank You kami tonight’s speaker is dr sahan dissin I okay we who is a visiting professor with economics department here at Portland State University he is an applied economist working at the intersection of land use ecosystem services and conservation using non market valuation and mathematical programming methods his research consists of three main areas analyzing public preferences for ecosystem services using choice experiments surveys studying dynamic aspects of Conservation Reserve during design using site selection model models and creating spatially explicit land allocation models please join me in welcoming dr dissanayake can you hear me yeah ok so likes pressure said I’m sandy sonic I’m a visiting assistant professor at the economics department at Portland State University and this presentation I thought a lot about exactly how I want to present this and what I finally ended up was it’s going to be a two-part presentation the first part of the presentation is going to be a general motivation for why we want to study biodiversity Co system services and generally about nan market valuation methods right and again part of this was motivated by the fact that I don’t think many of you here are actually economists then the second part of the survey would actually be other of this presentation would be about my survey and the results that I find and I’m going to motivate that by motivating why I wanted to look at this specific study the methods that i use my results and a brief conclusion so hopefully there’s something here for everybody even if you’re not an environmental economics and you’re just you know looking for the first time at some of the tools that environment economists use again if you have clarifying questions feel free to interrupt me as I go along but if you have you no more substantial questions I think we can wait till the end I think that works better with all the recording as well so to motivate my work why should we care about ecosystem services and biodiversity I’m going to give you some facts and figures that come from the millennium ecosystem assessment which came out in 2005 and the team report which was the economics of ecosystem services and biodiversity which was a large inter-governmental

report that came out in 2010 so increasing conversion of undeveloped habitat to human-dominated landscapes back to urban and farming agricultural landscapes only about fifty percent of a forest area that existed at the beginning of agric when agriculture was first started remain today habitat loss and fragmentation is a primary cause of extinction right so it’s not important step not only important to actually think about preserving land conserving land it’s also important to think about the fragmentation issue which can have a lot of implications in terms of species extinction humans have this this is something that comes from the millennium ecosystem assessment humans have increased extinction rates by about a thousand fold over what they would be naturally and global in tactical systems systems are disappearing about one percent per year right so here are some facts and figures that sort of try to motivate why it’s important for us to focus and study ecosystem services and biodiversity and you know do we care about these and I like to think we do and you know obviously this whole seminar series is about ecosystem services so I think most of you who are here at some level would also agree with me this decade the UN declared this the decade for biodiversity from 2011 to 2020 so there’s also a large scale national and international efforts that are going on in terms of protecting ecosystem services and biodiversity how many of you heard of IPC see the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change how many of you heard of IP BES not as many way so IP BES is the Intergovernmental platform on biodiversity and ecosystem services which was convened last year right and this is sort of still in the middle of getting put together but again it emphasizes that there are global efforts that are being undertaken to study these issues of preserving biodiversity and produce producing ecosystem services now what can we do in terms of protecting and preserving ecosystem services ideally we want to try to preserve natural ecosystem services ecosystems and biodiversity right but this question becomes interesting to an economist because resources available for conservation are limited and this becomes a classic economic question you have these unlimited wants limited resources how do you allocate your resources to ensure you have optimal outcome right so the solution to this problem becomes how can you optimally identify the land that you want to preserve or the land that you want to rest or where do you want to undertake these efforts and if you think about this question there are two parts to answering this question you have ecological and spatial aspects that you need to think about species presence is obvious a factor that plays into this you also want to think about size and shape of the areas that you’re looking at and related to that you have connectivity and clustering issues again going back to the fragmentation issue you don’t want to have a collection of scattered sites that you think would be a good ecosystem or a good way of trying to protect biodiversity it’s important to have these connected contiguous areas real location is in becoming a that’s gaining in prominence because of climate change because of climate change you have these ecosystems and habitats that are changing and moving so the land that you protect today is not necessarily where might be the optimal for certain species in 50 years time so relocation is becoming much more important and crucial as you go through with restoration efforts this problem becomes interesting to an economist because there are economic considerations that you need to take into account obviously cost and budget right there are certain costs and budgets involved in doing any sort of conservation activity or providing ecosystem services you also have to worry about land prices and part of what you have to worry about land prices is that land prices can change endogenously as a result of activities that are being undertaken by conservation organizations for example if you go and buy land there is a possibility that the surrounding land prices increase people like to live close to nature and this is something that’s empirically being found so you have housing prices increased land prices increase but as a result of the conservation action agencies actions you know if they come back in the future trying to expand they would have to sort of pay a higher price so it’s important to understand this land price of x again development can be driven by conservation activities so again understanding what leads to the development and how that interacts with efforts to preserve and restore biodiversity and ecosystem services become important valuation again this was mentioned last week you know trying to put dollar values or trying to identify what values are for these various ecosystems is very important because a lot of the times if you look at policy makers they make decisions based on dollar values right it could be I think one of the examples I was mentioned last week was example about building a road you get certain economic

value out of building a road but there’s detrimental is because you’re losing ecosystem services rightly so if you don’t have a way to compare it becomes hard from a policy makers point of view in terms of the accounting books how you’re going to make these decisions so part of what economics are trying to do is come up with valuation techniques that will give you some sort of values again it’s important to keep in mind that these are you know some values of what the ecosystem can give to consumers or give to the public related to that it’s important to understand consumer preferences again understanding consumer preference and the press my actual research presentation today is about consumer preferences and this is important because at some level you’re asking people to make a choice are you asking people to contribute to conservation efforts to contribute to preserving ecosystem services and in this sense understanding what drives what attributes are important to the general public can help conservation efforts right so understanding preferences can be very important so my research you know Traddles both of these sides of economic considerations and ecological and spatial aspects part of my work looks at land prices and end development so I have some emperor simulate simulation models that look at land price effects part of my work is looking at the collage achill and spatial aspects I actually work with the Army Corps of Engineers on a research project which has been going on for 34 years now we have three or four publications three publications a couple more that’s coming out where we look at conservation in military lands and that’s the sort of applied problem and this might be a surprising factor that many of you don’t know that military lands or the Department of Defense lands on average has the highest number of endangered and at-risk species compared to any other federal land management agency so they have on average a higher density than the Fish and Wildlife Service lands the Bureau of Land Management Service lands the National Park Service lands and again part of this is driven by the fact that there’s a lot of land that doesn’t get used and these mutilations are huge so there is a lot of biodiversity and ecosystem services in these lands so part of my work has been how can you optimally figure out protection for these endangered species in a working landscape given the fact that there’s military training going on given the fact that there are relocation considerations that need to be done yeah actually it in terms of the density of endangered species yes and I have actually a graph somewhere which it’s not on this slide but and and there’s there’s a couple of people who’ve been working on this problem Benton and they actually look at this this problem they find that there’s very high values and finally part of my work is looking at valuation and consumer preferences specifically I’m looking at understanding the willingness to pay to restore an ecosystem and and more than just the dollar value of how much people are willing to pay it’s also about understanding what the trade-offs are what actually drives people to contribute to a restoration efforts what are the attributes that really make a difference in terms of do of what the public has about and this work that I’m presenting today is joint work with Amy and no at the at the University of Illinois so to sort of you know step back and look at what economists do with regard to these problems economists have various toolkits and various methodology that they use to analyze problems part of what economists do typically use in terms of the two kiss is trying to understand human behavior using analytical models or using theoretical models so part of this work is what’s the optimal way to allocate resources or how do we expect people to behave right what what guides human behavior if you’re thinking of from a society point of view and sometimes part of this work is using numerical simulation methods I part of my work is actually coming up with numerical simulation methods that very certain parameters and then you try to analyze what happens in terms of behavior part of what economists do in a big part of what economists do is actually to use statistical methods to analyze data we are living in a world where we are producing more and more data and analyzing this data can tell you what drives people to behave the way they do so a big part of our economics is doing is studying data using statistical that at the same time when it comes to environmental goods we have a problem because we have incomplete markets and incomplete or imperfect information a lot of environmental goods are not sold on a market and a lot of the times you don’t have perfect information about anything but more more so about environmental goods and in this situation environmental economics you survey methods they use survey data to quantify preferences and place values on market amenities there could be goods

there could be a different non-market things that are not exchanged on the market and in terms of trying to use non market valuation methods the basic question that economics trying to answer is what’s the value of an environmental amenity and if you think about this question of what’s the value of an environmental immunity you have a couple of different ways of looking at this you have a functional value of an ecosystem and you have sort of a value helped by people so the functional value of an ecosystem could be things like erosion control carbon sequestration nutrient recycling prevention of soil erosion these are all functional values of an ecosystem that a lot of ecologists and economics work on trying to identify and characterize at the same time you also have the value that’s held by people right and these values can be divided up into use values and non-use values the use values for example are if you are engaging in recreation right there’s a park you go for a walk that’s sort of a use-value non-use values would be sort of the existence and bequest values and sort of example would be know if I stood here and said hey I just got an email that said the last polar bear just died I’m pretty sure a lot of you would feel some unhappiness at that you knowing that even though you might never go to the North Pole and you know actually see a polar bear interact with the polar bear just the fact that they’re no longer there can be something that you know gives you a certain level of unhappiness the fact that your grandkids might not be able to actually see them even in a zoo right so there’s non-news values that you can try to capture so this is what economists try to do in terms of environment determines we try to capture some of these values at the same time like I mentioned before you have a problem because you don’t have markets for these Goods so you don’t have prices and because you don’t have prices you need to use none market valuation techniques and nan market valuation techniques are aimed at trying to identify one a dollar value in terms of how much are people willing to pay and to trying to identify what are the different preferences and characteristics that drive people’s behavior towards these environmental amenities so there are two types of non market valuation methods does anybody know what they are if you’ve taken a class in environmental economics this should be something that’s very familiar what are the two main categories of non market valuation methods well that’s an example of one category contingent valuation way so I’m looking at you know you have revealed preference methods and review preference methods are so this is good because I’m actually having slides that is telling you something you don’t know revealed preference meds are methods that use existing market behavior to get values for goods that are not typically transacted in a market examples would be hedonic analysis where you use typically housing price values right so if you have a lake or a conservation area then you can use you can look at the housing price values and see how it changes as you are closer to this environmental immunity and away from it for the same type of houses with the same number of rooms and the same square footage and so on and then you can statistically estimate what the value of that good is right so hedonic pricing would be doing that the travel cost method is something that gets used a lot with sort of large parks a recreation areas where you see how far people are willing to travel and use that information to impute a cost about how much people are willing to pay or how much this this is worth but the game to do revealed preference methods you need to have an existing connection with a market right it doesn’t have to be the good itself is being sold but you need to have some connection and this often is not the case with some a lot of non market value environmental goods so you also look at what’s called stated preference methods it stated preference methods are basically survey methods where you are able to describe a hypothetical good or a policy or some scenario and see what people’s willingness to pay and preferences off of that and there are two exam both of stated preference methods contingent valuation which was mentioned before is is one survey method and a recent survey method that’s been used in the last 5-10 years is a choice experiment service and these are both stated preference survey methods and my work is actually about a choice experiment service so I’ll talk in more in detail about that now when you use stated preference method it’s important to keep in mind that you are valuing a hypothetical good in some sense or a hypothetical scenario right so that’s a good thing because you don’t have to have a connection to a real market at the same time that’s also a weakness because you have a hypothetical bias that sort of embedded into the decision-making that’s going on and it’s always important to keep that in mind as you’re going through with this service so before I start on my survey and why I did it I thought would be nice for me to give a few examples of the stated preference service because you know so again these are just a couple of examples that I found that I thought would be very interesting the first one was a study that was done in 2003 by Bosma trying to look at the willingness to pay to preserve this edgemere

National Forest in the Netherlands and she finds that the willingness to pay for this National Forest is about it’s somewhere between a dollar a euro and two euros right so she actually comes up with you no empirical estimate saying well this is how much people would be willing to pay to preserve this and the the issue in that particular study was that part of this was going to be converted into a city so the what she was trying to identify was you know how much is it actually worth two people assuming you also have sort of increase in recreation at the same time so if they found that there would be about a gyro or two euros in terms of the willingness to pay now these survey methods are not only aimed at identifying dollar values right so this is the example of dollar value but there’s a lot more valuable information that you can extract from the service so here’s a survey that was done about the Everglades in Florida and the part of the survey was trying to identify what drives people to engage in conservation activities and part of it was trying to identify how they how the way you present information changes things so they actually do a study where they have to sample they have a structural characterization and a functional characterization of the ecosystems right so they look to see how these different ways of presenting the ecosystem can influence what people’s choices are so if you talk more about the functional side of it or you talk more about the structural side what actually happens they actually get different estimates and they also find that socio-economic and external factors can affect the dollar value but but instead enough in addition to just calculating a dollar value they’re able to extract information about how to present information this is an example of a willingness to pay a study that was done to look at what drives anglers in terms of preferences for restoring salmon habitat and for salmon if they engaged in fishing and they find that what what drives the the preferences are actually the stock of the fish the size of the the stock of fish and not necessarily if it’s natural or not which sort of makes sense if you are a fisherman you are interested in trying to make sure you you know you able to catch fish and the this is the fact whether the fish was actually natural was of a lesser issue in these studies so these studies can be used to you know get information about a wide range of preferences not just dollar values the last example is so I’m from Sri Lanka so the last example is a case study that comes from Sri Lanka about the human elephant conflict now in Sri Lanka this is a big problem you have you know in rural areas you have a lot of farmers that loose crops because of elephants and as a result sometimes they would go out and you know shoot elephants and elephants actually come into villages and sometimes they’re people actually die because of these elephants coming in tearing houses down so that’s a big issue that’s been going on that’s been studied extensively and there was a stated preference study that was done to try to identify the willingness to pay and part of what they did was they compared the urban and rural willingness to pay to protect the Asian elephant and obviously they found that the urban willingness to pay was much higher because well when people like to see elephants and they want they like to go and see the elephants well as the same time the people who live in these rural villages are not necessarily excited because their crops get stolen or eating and some the houses get damaged and so on but the interesting part of this study was they did study to see if you could compensate for the damage and they find that the urban willingness to pay minus the loss of damages is actually greater than zero right so this says it’s possible to come up with a scheme where you can you know get the urban population to cover the loss that’s incurred by the rural community by the farmers so this is what an economics would say is a caldo hicks optimal solution because there is a positive outcome that comes where you know both the the elephant survived and people actually getting a positive italy right so these are some examples of how you can use these non market valuation service they’re not necessarily all about getting dollar values it’s more about trying to understand what the preferences are sorry that’s the willingness to pay it’s a it’s how much people would be willing to pay in terms of predicting a species or restoring an ecosystem and they find that you know the people in the cities are willing to pay a larger sum than then the rural community at the same time if you look at the the values from the urban to the rural that that is enough to cover the losses that are incurred sorry I please ask if there are other acronyms somewhere in there that haven’t explained so in terms of my specific research study right I want I’m trying to use these survey techniques and I have three questions that I’m trying to answer my first question is I want to understand the willingness to pay for

environmental goods and how they are influenced by the presence of an alternate environmental good nearby so the basic idea is if you are trying to preserve a certain area it could be a wetland or a forest or some sort of you know endangered species that’s living in a certain area and you have already people that are have have experienced this ecosystem service or they have an opportunity to go and you know visit an ecosystem service similar to this how does that influence your willingness to pay so if you have for example a wetland close by are you willing to pay more or less than somebody who doesn’t have a wetland close by to rest or additional wetland alright so that’s one of the questions that’s running through this and I’m just curious how many of you think that if you had a certain ecosystem it could be a forest or grassland or a great land nearby and somebody asked you about restoring another one do you think your willingness to pay would be higher than somebody who didn’t have one close by or lower how many think it would be higher about half of you okay how many of you think it would be lower okay so a little less so that’s one of the questions I’m trying to answer right so if you think about neoclassical economics economics has this downward sloping demand curve the basic idea is well the first donut you eat gives you a lot of Italy to the 38th donut that you eat is going to make you sick right so the more you have of a good you’re going to pay less so according to that paradigm the the code you neoclassical economics you would actually say that the the mahajan willingness to pay for this additional unit would be less at the same time there’s recently been work that about endogenous preferences this work shows that your preferences evolve and your preferences change right so if you experiencing a good if you’re able to go and visit a certain ecosystem then you might be more you might have a higher willingness to pay than somebody who’s actually not experienced that ecosystem before right so it’s it’s sort of you know different from the downward sloping demand curve argument it’s it’s looking to say that your preferences can change depending on what you are exposed to so that’s one of the questions I’m trying to answer another question that I’m trying to answer is in terms of measuring biodiversity what actually do people care about and this is motivated by the fact that single measures of conservation success typically species richness is used in a lot of studies in ecological studies in environmental economic studies in restoration studies you try to find that you know this biodiversity hotspots that have the most number of species you try to find the land that maximizes the amount of species that you can preserve in that restored area but in terms of public references right not from the ecological point of view but in terms of public preferences what actually do people care about is it species richness which is the number of different species that you have or is it the population density so if you look outside and you see a lot of black birds that are around does that make you you know happy is that what you want to see and you don’t necessarily you might not understand that they’re not the same species or that they’re not endangered okay all the presence of endangered species again you have a lot of work that’s been done focused on individual endangered species you have a lot of conservation efforts that sort of you know go based on these charismatic species so in terms of the public what matters do people care about these endangered species or do people care about some combination of these different conservation subsist goods so I part of what the research is about is trying to understand what this preference is up and in terms of maximizing social welfare from restoration efforts it’s important to understand this because a lot of restoration can be done in a way that you can change these attributes right so these are not just hypothetical attributes the example that I look at which is cross lines depending on how you maintain grasslands you can actually cater the grassland to focus more towards endangered species or more towards species richness where you have a lot of species or more towards having you know a bunch of the same kind of species but you’ll see a lot so it’s possible to change by based on your management techniques what the outcome is of a restoration activity and in that situation this is this work is trying to understand what do people actually care about and related to this another question I’m interested in is trying to see what the trade-off or the substitutability between these different goods are again the idea here is if you have a lot of species do you care less or more about having some endangered species or is it the fact that if you have a lot of endangered species you care less about everything else you don’t care if you only see one bird as long as you know that you know that’s an endangered bird you know so trying to understand what that’s absolute ability is is the surface what a one motivation that runs through this work so basically going to goods act as compliments or substitutes and what does that mean in terms of your optimal restoration because if you are looking at a trade off where they work as substitutes that means you don’t care about what the interactions are between them you just care about having a lot of something or is it the fact that you care about you know having these large areas with lots of different species and lots of different individuals and endangered species trying to understand what those

implications are again from the public’s point of view so to answer these questions I focus on grasslands and I’ll explain why I focus on grasslands now this is an example of three different grasslands that you can find in the in North America you have a sort of short grass prairie mixed grass prairie and then trawl grass prairie so the study was actually done in Illinois so most of what the grasslands that exist in Illinois actually tallgrass prairie so the study was about restoring 12 grass prairie the reason and so this is example of what I mean by a grassland so a grassland isn’t sort of these little pieces of grass that you see on the highway between the roads and it’s not sort of these grassy areas that you have in the middle of a farm area or sort of urban area they actually large tracts of connected land that’s able to sustain an ecosystem in its original condition and the collage achill literature says that you would need to have a bottom at least a hundred acre grassland to be able to generate the original conditions that existed so this is sort of what I mean by a grassland the reason I focus on grasslands is twofold one there’s a increasing loss of grasslands in North America right does anybody know what these are from the midwest you would what yeah farm so that exactly they’re pivot irrigated farms right so you have a lot of peabody irrigated farms this is a two pictures from a NASA land cover data so when you look this is sort of what you see you see these pivot irrigated farms where you have a lot of farming that happens and its pivot irrigated so you see these circles and you know 20 to 30 years ago this would have all been grassland right it’s now converted to farming and you have your little bits of grass land in the middle of these farming area but that’s not an ecosystem that can you know nurture the or the the biodiversity and the ecosystem services that you would typically find in a grassland in Illinois this problem is actually much worse and you know I ninety-nine point nine percent of grasslands have been converted so it’s not ninety percent it’s not ninety-nine percent it’s actually 99.9 and these two maps sort of again highlight this difference this is a map of 18 the grasslands in 1820 and this is a map that I made that’s similar it’s a map of rural grasslands so they’re not showing you exactly the same thing but again as you can see there are no I don’t know if how clear this is but there’s a smattering of yellow that’s you know this little dots that are not connected so there’s been a big conversion of grasslands in Illinois and the reason this is even a bigger problem than just a disappearing ecosystem is because there’s a lot of endangered species that are associated with grass lands that are also disappearing as a result of grasslands disappearing so 17 out of 28 grassland bird species have decreased in the last you know 30 to 40 years so if you look at the ecological literature the general consensus is that well to prevent this decline in species we need to rest or grasslands so the best way to try to you know prevent these problems of this conservation crisis from continuing and becoming larger in structures start restoring grasslands and there is a lot of work that’s been done to restore large tracts of grassland now at the same time this work that’s been done to restore grassland does not take public preferences or the values of consumers into account so there’s been no nan market valuation studies no environmental economics we’ve actually studied grasslands as an ecosystem and if you think about the fact that crafts lands are a cool system where based on your management techniques you can actually change the outcome you can change the number of species that live there you can change the way it looks then I think it’s very important to get public input or to understand what these preferences are because that can enable optimal solution in terms of maximizing welfare right partly you’re asking for funding partly in terms of what people care about and again just to reiterate the fact that no more economic valuation studies have actually looked at grasslands there’s a lot of studies that look at wetlands a lot of studies that look at forests individual endangered species you have dollar values you have lots of other information about the preferences but grasslands have sort of been ignored in this literature so this was another reason to actually look at grasslands now again to summarize my three research questions how does the presence of an existing environmental good in this case grasslands affect your willingness to pay right how much you’re willing to pay to resto an additional environmental public good what’s the trade-off or the subsidy durability between different conservation success mushy of biodiversity you have different ways that you can measure biodiversity how do the consumers view them with respect to each other and finally what are the consumers preferences and willingness to pay for restoring a grassland as an ecosystem right again the first two questions are very general they can be applied to any co system any sort of restoring ecosystem protecting biodiversity the last ones focus more on grasslands now in terms of answering these questions I use a choice experiment survey now like I said before

choice experiment surveys are stated preference methods that can elicit values and preferences for different hypothetical policies goods or scenarios and the reason that I focus on a choice of true and serving right so again I said there are two types of stated preference methods contingent valuation service and choice experiment studies the reason that I focus on a choice experiment surveys because it allows us to calculate what’s called part worth utilities basically it allows us to figure out what the trade-offs between different attributes in a good are and that comes from this the way this methodology is built so this methodology is built on consumer theory that started with Lancaster the idea behind consume this this methodology is that people get utility not from the goods that they consume but from the attributes of that good and this is a methodology that actually comes from marketing it’s been used a lot in transportation and recently it’s been used in environmental economics so the basic idea is if you look at how people by their pizza the choices are if the people that the choices that people make is not about which pizza bites it’s actually about what is on that pizza it could be the size of the Cross who could be the toppings or if you’re thinking about people buying a car it’s you know it’s people make choices based on what car they buy but it’s actually driven by you know the legroom that you have the size of the engine or the how much power the acceleration the car has so it’s basically the attributes that drive people’s choices so that’s sort of what this survey technique is built up upon right and the idea is you would describe a service or a good and you have attributes and then based on the choices you can figure out how these attributes sort of relate to each other so again I when you do a choice excrement survey typically you have set of choice questions you are asking the respondent to make a choice between a set of goods so they choose between two or more goods and the characteristics of each of these bundles that they choose change right so I’m not expecting it we will read the text here but just to show you typically so this is one bundle and this is the second bundle and you would make a choice saying I choose a or b and these are characteristics that change right so this is not my survey this is a survey about understanding preferences for hospital services it’s about you know the distance to hospitals the waiting times so this is also a methodology that gets used by health economists but the idea would be something like this where you have these attributes that are the important attributes and you have two bundles or two scenarios and you would make a choice and then econometric lee we can sort of figure out what actually drives these choices and how they’re related to each other so when you do a survey like this actually when you do any type of server it’s very important to make sure that you cover all the relevant attributes right because if you don’t what’s going to happen is person a is going to assume something different from person be when they’re answering the same survey so it’s very important to make sure that all relevant associated attributes with the good that you’re looking at has been taken into account so I’ve been working on this survey for about I guess about three years now and so it’s gone through quite a lot of changes we initially started doing informal focus groups just talked to a bunch of people trying to sort of you know characterize this problem and once we had that information we made sort of a rough survey then talked with collages and biologische and then made a bunch of changes based on their input then went and talked to actual land managers who actually maintained grasslands and then we made some changes as a result of this and then finally we did formal focus groups right so we did formal focus groups last June I guess no yeah sometime in spring last year so we know we are building this for about a year and a half up to that point and as a result of all this we have this final list of attributes that we have that we change in the survey part we have species richness population density and the presence of endangered species again these are the conservation success measures that I’m interested in measuring I also have the prevalence of wildflowers the reason I have the prevalence of wildflowers is because of because of the fact that people care about wildflowers it’s been shown that in terms of restoration effects in terms of you know a parks nature that’s one of the things that people actually care about a lot i also have a frequency of control bones because that’s something that is very important in terms of maintaining grasslands so the first time I had this did the surveyed I didn’t have it and then when I was talking to the collages and the lamb 90s they were like what do you mean you don’t have fine there that’s a crucial component of maintaining grassland and it’s also a component that has a detrimental effect because of ash and you know so if you’re living nearby it can sort of have an effect on you so you know we included that distance the site and cost for sort of obvious reasons trying to understand how much it would cost and how the distance place into this so this is what my survey looks like as you can see I have one option or one possibility for a grassland I have another possibility or grassland and then there is this opt-out option where you don’t want to do any restoration and then the respondent would make a choice and so the way the

survey is constructed they actually make seven they see seven different scenarios like this and each one has different values so I didn’t go into this because of time but when you do a choice experiment survey one reason it’s difficult to do is because you have to come up with these values using experimental design techniques to make sure that you are describing or the whole possible space of all the values so there’s actually some methodology involved in terms of coming up with these different values but the idea is you change the value so i actually have 59 choice questions and 19 different versions of my survey that got sent out and they all have different values and as these values change you can see how people make a choice and that gives you information about what’s driving their choice so that’s what the survey actually looks like i did a mail survey partly for finding reasons ideally would be nice to actually do online survey or even more idea if you had a lot more money you would actually want to go and talk to people individually you answer all their questions and then make them do the survey but most of you to finding reasons i did the mail survey i sent out two thousand surveys I included incentives dollar bills in about half of them send out a reminder I got 360 surveys back and 263 were complete right so because they answer multiple questions in each of these surveys i have about 1,600 observations with regard to my survey now in terms of analyzing the data these discrete choice models choice instrument surveys have this sort of a choice data you are making a choice right so when you’re making a choice you use what’s called a discrete choice model to analyze this data and typically people use what’s called a multinomial logit model and so that’s what I do in addition to that I do something a little bit more complicated way I do a mix multinomial logit model and the difference here is that I’m able to extract information about how the preferences change over people based on their individual characteristics so I don’t just get average values i actually get values that tell me based on people’s characteristics you know what actually changes and that’s something I’m playing around with but it gives you a lot more information so methodologically that’s one of the things that i do and these are the equations that i’m estimating i’m not going to get into those because of time but again if you have questions later on we can we can talk about that so my survey responses were very close to this so this is this is my data set and this is what the state averages are it’s a slightly older group the income similar it’s slightly more educated it’s slightly more mail but in general I was very happy this is you know 2050 surveys that I got back and in general the response seemed to be fairly similar to the state population so in terms of my results now very quickly I find that I do two kinds of analyzing of this year’s first I look at what i call main effects which is trying to see which of these attributes that of the seven attributes that I had was actually important and i find that everything except for burning is significant right so the important thing here is that all three of these conservation success measures are important what that means is as a conservation organization you know if you are interested if you are trying to maximize what people care about if you’re trying to take people’s perceptions into account then just focusing on species richness is not sufficient because you’re sort of missing out on the picture that people care about all of these other measures well in terms of answering my second question which is trying to understand the subsidies ability again I do these trade off interaction terms and they are all significant right so forget the numbers for now what they mean what that means is that people look at these conservation success measures as substitutes so ideally if you have a very high species richness you care less about population density or endangered species if you have a very high species richness you care less about population density right so the sort of act as substitutes as opposed to sort of compliments and what this means this has strong implications for in terms of how you want to manage and characterize your grassland because it says in terms of maximizing population what you want to end up is not with sort of a uniform increase of all these variables but a more selected solution where you have either a very high number of species or a very high population density but low numbers of the other two alright so this has implications in terms of how you want to approach conservation in in terms of grasslands finally in terms of this public good near question I find that if you have a grassland near people actually willing to pay more but if you have a non grassland nature your nature near that’s not very significant so what you see is that people who live near grasslands are willing to pay more to rest or another grassland then somebody who doesn’t have a grassland near them right so this sort of goes back to this

explanation of endogenous preferences your preferences evolve as you as you experience something and as a result you are willing to pay more now this has implications for conservation management because it says if you potentially if you educate consumers you know if you take kids to go see you OC parks then if you encourage people to come to ecosystems see different kinds of areas then your willingness to pay and support for conservation activities will grow right so potentially that’s an implication that that’s that’s coming from here I’m also able to use this data to calculate the total willingness to pay for a grass land right and this is again a dollar value even though it’s not the most important part of this I can calculate and again the results are in a table because these values change by distance and by whether you have a grass than you or not so for a respondent who doesn’t have a grassland near if this restoration happens 10 miles away they would be willing to pay about $66 per household per year for somebody who has a grass idea it would could be as high as 93 so I’m able to actually calculate values and these can be helpful again it’s important to keep in mind that these are just average values that you’re seeing right now you can also see this distance decay effect right the further away you go the less you are willing to pay and you see that grasslands the people who have a respondent’s we have a grassland you have a higher willingness to pay to compare this with other ecosystem services you see that it’s sort of similar to the range of wetlands and it’s also somewhere similar to the range of CV studies for forests again I put these in red because you have to be very careful about interpreting these large numbers because they’re in each study that you do there’s a lot of context effects you’re looking at a specific study but when you look at a study like this where you’re adding up numbers and comparing them and sort of taking them out of the context that they would not you have to be a little careful about interpreting them so they would have had different values of recreation they would have a lot of differences in that sense but in general these numbers seem very similar to what you what people have found for a lot of other ecosystem services I’m going to skip the next few slides so in conclusion I find that species richness population density and the presence of endangered species are all significant in terms of public willingness to pay all right so if you care about what the public things then these are all significant at the same time I find that these three goods act as substitutes and what that means is if you want to characterize a grassland that you know Kate is best to the public you get either either something like endangered species haven or something like a duck factory or a quail factory right something that just has lots of very common birds so again this is you know something that basically has strong implications that’s coming from this paper it’s also something that I’m still playing around with to see exactly what these implications are finally I find that the willingness to pay for a draw Senya is higher and that’s potentially explained by endogenous preferences does anybody have another explanation for why this might be the case why people who live close to grasslands have our high willingness to pay yeah exactly right so one possible explanation is what economists call locational sorting where you make your you know decisions about where you want to live based on the area that you like now you know one reason I think this might not be very significant is because in housing values are fairly high the willingness to pay he has fairly low and also the nature near variable was not significant that would mean that people are making their choices about where to live about being close just to cross lines and not to nature in general but again this brings up this valve point that if you educate and give information about ecosystems then you are likely to get more engagement back from from the public I can also calculate the total willingness to pay and this provides information that can be used if you’re trying to do a sort of a cost-benefit analysis and finally I find that these interaction terms that I have are very significant and that’s something that doesn’t get done in a lot of choice experience studies so that’s one of the things that also comes out of out of this paper so in general a lot of people i want to thank but specifically a part of the study was funded by the Robert shobha dissertation award and the initiative is our research board so the study actually wouldn’t have happened without that information so yeah so that’s the end of my presentation there’s some slides I skipped that we can go back to if you have questions but I’m up for questions I think you have to come to the market you mentioned that this is a way to

calculate people’s preferences for different trade-offs can you talk a little bit more about the trade-offs I can see all the different benefits but if there was like you know some kind of jobs trade-off or economic trade I’ve had it how did you incorporate your assessments of those preferences for those trade-offs so that that’s a good question I when I said trade-offs i was actually referring to the trade-offs between the different conservation success measures trying to see what matters more in terms of biodiversity in terms of species richness and in long those strengths the reason I didn’t look at something like jobs is because there’s actually been a lot of studies and typically what you find is that if there’s a negative correlation so for example if you are restoring farmland to grassland and if you if there’s a loss of jobs then people are willing to pay less for that whereas if you do this restoration in a way that doesn’t affect rural livelihoods then the willingness to pay tends to be higher so there’s been a lot of work that that actually have studies this that the trade-offs I was referring to more most more more about these conservation success measures yeah I actually for this study actually didn’t look at it I did make sure and this was something that came up so in the front material for the survey it says that this restoration is going to be from marginal land so it’s not going to be land that’s taken out of farming it’s going to be marginal unused land right now so we were trying to mitigate this trade-off issue of jobs being lost in that high well first I’m glad that your example was actually about restoration rather than just you know conservation because we don’t have that much left that to be just you know conserved in its pristine state so but we have a concert or actually a restoration issue here in Portland that I’d like to get your thoughts on how you might approach this through you know your survey technique and all and that is that the portland city council i think was last april voted to actually require habitat restoration on the North reach of the whip River this is for the the river plan the city has long had underway this this river plan and it took several years even to get to the point where they had with just the north reached part of it and in any case the industry’s along the north 3likes schnitzer steel and Gunderson and you know big heavy industry and all went to the land use Board of Appeals and actually a court of appeals and decided you know it was actually decided in their favor that no they didn’t have to do habitat restoration when they were going to really you know have a reuse of any of the landscape to know how would you use your information you know your approach I guess in changing the outcome there so I’m actually nocturia so the outcome here was that there were companies or institutions that were using the land and the idea was that they would need to rest or something Evelyn somewhere else yeah yeah well they could either restore it on their own land if they say if they were you know adding a building or what-have-you it would be triggered when they were making a revision and all and then they could either restore it on their own land or they could pay to have it restored somewhere else one example is toyota at what’s that gate for there is a particular term for it but in any case it’s number four they actually restored no at least 50 feet may it may have been even as much as 150 feet of riverfront property they took it out of pavement and put it into native plants trees shrubs and had incredible results in terms of wildlife and all and in fact it even was a real boon for their employees it made it much more interesting to come

to work every day and all so you know so we have one really good example already there but you know the other industries are just refusing to to cooperate and part of the idea is to help our endangered salmon you know are certainly a part of it yeah that’s that’s that’s a good question i’m not i think part of where this methodology might be useful is to identify what the characteristics of this restoration efforts might be that make it attractive to the firms that do them right i mean is that some way to design these restoration efforts in a way that would make it more attractive to the firm’s one of the so in this particular study i looked at biodiversity indicators i’m actually working with dave alvin and rhonda use a master student here they have a project it’s stepping back a little and looking at ecosystem services broadly so instead of this very specific but ever sending indicators that project is looking at you know what matters more is it controlling water temperature having biodiversity zip the carbon sequestration so it’s taking a step back and you know obviously costs and management options so you know this sort of survey would be helpful to have the these participant participating firms take the and then to see what actually drives is his best is it just a cost initiative what would make them actually you know come out and take part in something like this what you’re trying to identify that information you could construct a survey along these you know same methodologies that would try to answer that question but that’s you know it’s about incentives trying to understand what in terms incentives would get people to actually engage our gate films to engage in that sort of activity right yeah just wanted ugh I had a kind of a clarification question and it’s I’m a restoration practitioner I’m looking at some of the different attributes that you’re trying to kind of you know see how much priority there is over other certain ones I just wondering how much feedback you got from actual restoration practitioners because a good restoration practitioner can kind of address all the attributes with one sort of plan versus kind of breaking it up in and you know kind of parceling it up I guess I was just wondering about your choice experiment and whether or not that was actually based on feedback for a Mercer ation practitioners about the different attributes that we’re going to be tangible you know within their overall design right no so we debated we talked to a grass and restoration ecologists you know bloody collages and actually land managers who actually maintain and manage grasslands so these attributes came out from that process so for example the example I gave about fire not being there and you know it was added on because the restorations but you said well that’s something that gets used and it’s not something that you know we can really avoid it’s possible to more it’s possible to do this other things but you know the effect of fire is different so we did talk a lot so these attributes sort of came through their conversations at the same time you know the way the survey presence you have sort of this independence between these attributes which won’t be the case if you actually doing the actual restoration but the idea behind this is to identify which of these sort of drive drive the restoration but if you actually do in this restoration on practice well that all these attributes would be linked together at some level to create any kind of fictitious scenarios in order to you know see kind of to emphasize certain attributes of others or was it all kind of based on it was it was all achievable goals except you know the way these choice experience surveys are done you actually very the attribute levels randomly so some of these attribute levels would be unrealistic from a real point of view but in terms of the actual restoration that would happen they would be realistic film I mean yeah yeah thanks so a quick question how did offsetting think it’s called where companies can purchase a land that’s like kind of protected or whatever in like an urban area or something like that and then they can go and get tax credit credits or some kind of incentive to go save for us somewhere else or something like that how did your survey take that into account as far as i consent evora is that did that come into play as far as conservation so this

sylvia was aimed at households right so the the respondents were actually individual households you know people who just you know who weren’t associated with firms or companies organizations so it was looking at public willingness to pay and public preferences this other project that that that’s be going along is actually more along those lines is trying to understand what are in terms of you know offsets what do companies care about in terms of you know getting carbon credits or ecosystem credits in some sense but but this was focused on households how did you inform your respondents was their section in the survey that defined the different attributes that they all had the same idea of what they were talking about yeah so the survey again it was a mail service for those limited information but it had information about what this grassland was about grasslands in general then it also had information about each of the attributes so describe like for example species richness meant that you’ll be able to see lots of different kinds of birds if you if you’re talking about population density it meant that we’d see a lot of you know birds in total but perhaps not from different kinds so each of these attributes were explained in the front material as well as what grassland restoration was and that this was a hundred acre restoration there was some access to recreation and the fire can have a negative effect on based on these things so there was a lot of front material in the survey good question so in general terms how does the value held by people compared with the functional value of a particular amenity as determined by the colleges so I think these are very different values and this is always something I think you have to be very careful when you do not market valuation studies because you can’t expect to get functional values out of you know people who are not experts and the way I look at this the idea isn’t to say this well the value that you’re getting from people is it’s like that it subsumes the functional value in some sense I’d the way I look at it that they’re very independent values because for the most part people will not have an idea about that there’s a biodiversity value or a carbon sequestration value or a nutrient recycling value I think those are sort of complicated concepts that an expert will understand but a non-expert won’t so I think these values are very independent in many senses what you are identifying here is a use and non-use value combination it’s not about well if you have lots of grasslands it’s going to mitigate greenhouse gases and prevent you know I don’t think you are capturing any of these functional values from a survey like this and we were very careful not to you know try to confuse that issue in some sense so I think these values that you’re getting are purely if you go back to my slide that had those different types of values so I you know I think the survey is capturing these not the functional values at all and I don’t know if you’ve ever stood if anybody’s ever studied this but as people become more aware of the functional value does their non use value also change so well I don’t know about that I you know the amount of information that you give is shown to affect the outcomes and part of that is not just the dollar value but also the variances that you get in these estimates they tend to get narrower as you provide more information I would assume that if people know more then that willingness to pay would be higher yeah okay thank you other questions I just wanted to know I kind of came in here late do you have any like websites or any anything where you have like this type of information and they also to piggyback on the corporate and company side of the equation as far as these well so that his lands go yeah so this was focused on on individual households right and if you want information about this obviously there’s a paper that’s still a working progress but you know it’s something that that’s actually on my website so I talk to me afterwards I can tell you where to find the paper in terms of this other ecosystem service and sort of firms getting involved that’s this particular project is very much a work in progress right now but

there is a literature about corporate responsibility and sort of how you know these green initiatives impact corporate values so that there is a fairly large literature on that it’s not an area that I’m familiar with unfortunately okay thank you well thank you for coming and for questions

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Washington Foreign Press Center Briefing on "How USAID is Responding to Global Food Insecurity"

MODERATOR: Good morning. My name is Jen McAndrew, and I am a Media Relations Officer with the Washington Foreign Press Center and the moderator for today’s on-the-record briefing on “How USAID is Responding to Global Food Insecurity.” Our first briefer is Dr. Robert Bertram, Chief Scientist in USAID’s Bureau for Resilience and Food Security, who will discuss the impact of the current public health crisis on global food insecurity, how the Feed the Future Initiative is responding, and how USAID is partnering with top U.S. universities on research and innovation to reduce global hunger, poverty, and malnutrition Our second briefer, Dr. Hale Ann Tufan, is Associate Director of the Feed the Future Crop Improvement Innovation Lab at Cornell University She will discuss new global crop improvement research aimed at increasing crop yields and enhancing nutrition. The Innovation Lab at Cornell was established in 2019 with a $25 million grant from USAID We greatly appreciate both Dr. Bertram and Dr. Tufan for giving their time today for this briefing And now for the ground rules:  This briefing is on the record, and the contents of today’s briefing are embargoed until 12:00 noon Eastern Time, today, September 17th.  We will post the transcript of this briefing later today on our website, fpc.state.gov.  If you publish a story as a result of this briefing, please share your story with us by sending an e-mail to [email protected] Dr. Bertram and Dr. Tufan will give opening remarks, and then we will open it up for questions.  If you have a question, please open the participant box and virtually raise your hand. At that time, we will unmute you and turn on your video so that you can ask your question.  If you have not already done so, please take the time now to rename your Zoom profile with your full name and the name of your media outlet And with that, I will pass it over to Dr Bertram MR BERTRAM: Thanks so much, Jen, and good morning, good afternoon, good evening I think for some of you. And it’s a pleasure to be here, and I appreciate very much your joining us today. My name is Rob Bertram and I am the chief scientist for Resilience and Food Security at USAID. And this week we are celebrating 10 years of an initiative called Feed the Future. Feed the Future was born 10 years ago as a response to the global food crisis that took the world by surprise in 2008, 2007 And what we found was that for a long time there had been complacency about investing in agriculture, and yet demand for food was growing, but faster than production was growing, and this caused price spikes, and because of trade linkages we saw prices increase tremendously We saw riots take place around the world After years of benign neglect, agriculture and food security was back front and center on the global stage So under President Bush, an emergency package was – of $900 million was announced, and then subsequently when President Obama came into office he worked with international partners as – and the U.S. made a commitment for a billion dollars a year to fund Feed the Future. And that was in partnership and complemented by similar kinds of investments from Germany and the UK and other partner countries. It was really a global effort to respond So – but what we found out, of course, in that crisis situation is that most of the people that were most seriously affected actually depended on agriculture for their livelihoods The people in the rural areas were suffering the most from food price spikes because many – even small farmers are net consumers So the path forward when we talk about feeding the future really starts with feeding the present, and we set about it in a couple of – with a couple of new innovations. First of all, we put nutrition front and center, because what we found is where we looked at where hunger was – and that’s also where extreme poverty is – we also saw rates of child stunting, sometimes 40 and 50 percent Child stunting – in other words, not – weight – height-for-age, excuse me – is a marker for chronic food insecurity, lack of access to food exacerbated by – to a quality diet, exacerbated by poor sanitation, a lack of health care, a number of things. It’s a complex outcome. But we made that target of

reducing stunting front and center, which put a human face on our work in agriculture The other thing we had as our big goal was reducing extreme poverty, and those two things go together So what else was new about this? We took what we call a country-led approach. In other words, we partnered with countries where child stunting, extreme poverty, and agricultural potential all went together. And ironically – you wouldn’t think this – but ironically, hunger and extreme poverty and child stunting concentrate in the major agro ecologies across the world – the savannahs of Africa, the Ethiopian highlands, South Asia. These are also bread baskets and rice bowls of the world, but still hunger and poverty persisted We also – and very importantly, in linking to our subject today, is that science and technology was seen as a key opportunity to really address the needs of small older farmers in developing countries around the world and bring them the benefits of science that farmers in Europe or North America or Australia or Japan take for granted So that’s a lot of what we’re going to be focusing on today. USAID set out to lead Feed the Future with other agencies, and I want to particularly call out USDA the U.S Department of Agriculture and the State Department, who was the – leveraging our domestic capacities and our diplomatic engagements around the world to work with our partner countries We also put gender front and center in our work. We had gender as a – we saw women as key to economic action in agriculture Many farmers and farm families are led by women, but also absolutely critical for the nutritional outcome. So empowering women is part and parcel of the approach because women make key decisions that affect the outcome of family and child nutrition. So the combination of both the economic and the household realities of gender is – plays significantly in our work So in leading this research program that is part of Feed the Future, much of our work was in the individual partner countries through development programs, generally about linking farmers to markets and improving policies and making agriculture more efficient, productive in ways that increased incomes but also lowered the prices and made food more affordable for especially low-income consumers, whether they were in cities or in towns. And I’m pleased to share with you that last year the World Bank put out a report called “Harvesting Prosperity” that shows that agricultural-led growth in an economy is up to four times more effective at reducing extreme poverty, and that’s both in urban areas and rural areas because of those linkages that I talked about So we know that a key way to enhance both the incomes of people but also their access to food is through growth in the agricultural sector. And of course, our focus has been on the smallholder farm families. There are hundreds of millions of them across the world, and they produce a huge amount of the food that feeds much of the world, especially in places like sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, parts of Latin America So we work with sets of partners in carrying out the science piece, and that’s what I’m going to talk about now We work with our U.S. university community The United States, by virtue of our size and the number of climates, the types of agriculture we have, we’re a country that can both contribute a lot to collaborative research with our partners in developing countries, and we also stand to gain sometimes. Sometimes we can work on a disease in Africa or Asia before it gets to the United States. And we also work with the international agricultural research centers, the CGIAR centers. They’re funded by many countries across the world, and they work all through the developing world on agriculture and related natural resources issues We work with our national research partners in partner countries. That’s the critical third leg of our stool. And maybe if I add a fourth leg, we work with the private sector

as partners in research and development here in the United States but also in our partner countries. So for example, in the private sector, there are key capacities in terms of product development in ways that can accelerate the speed with which we can generate new technologies, and we’ve generated more than a thousand that have been taken up by farmers all over the world. So this is – it’s a very gratifying sense of impact that we’ve achieved, and I want to just state a couple facts for you We have measured that 24 million people – fewer people are in extreme poverty because of this work. We have measured that there are more than 3.5 million fewer stunted children because of this work. And we’ve measured that 5 million families have escaped hunger. So – and this is an ongoing effort, and many of you have heard that the world has committed to trying to end hunger in this decade, and we are contributing to that and doing it with the whole range of partners that I’ve mentioned Finally, I want to come to – and the last point on the science partners. And the U.S has also been a leader in working in a demand-driven way with our partner countries to access all the science that’s available. So that’s biological sciences, social sciences, digital information sciences. All of these are coming together to generate solutions in our partner countries Finally, we can’t think about food security right now without mentioning COVID, as Jen mentioned. And COVID is – it’s a key threat to some of the most nutritious, important foods that people and families depend on: the fruits and vegetables, the fish, the dairy, the poultry. These are value chains and production systems that have lots of human involvement and interaction, and that’s good because it generates jobs and opportunities, and even – and for women and youth as well, both on farm and off. But these are the ones that are most vulnerable So we’re working with our partners in our USAID missions in the private sector and our – the governments in our partner countries to see how we can try to keep those safe markets operating for fresh foods, for fruits and vegetables and meat and fish and dairy, and make sure that those continue to operate safely And of course, we are looking at food safety more broadly, and that – and building it in to our work in ways that help us build back stronger as the world collectively meets this challenge So I think – Jen, I think my time is up I’ll stop there. But later on, when we come to the questions or if there’s anything I’ve missed, I’m really happy to say a few more words. Thank you MODERATOR: Thank you, Dr. Bertram. And now over to Dr. Tufan, please MS TUFAN: Thank you, Jen, and good morning, good afternoon, good evening, as Rob said I’m really happy to be here and thank you for the opportunity. My name is Hale Ann Tufan I’m the associate director for the Innovation Lab for Crop Improvement (ILCI) led by Cornell University So as Rob pointed out, we have multiple crises that are coming to the fore threatening global food security: economic crises, conflict, pandemic right now, climate change. So while we see social, public health, and economic healing will bring back stability to these food systems, we really think scientific research will play a really important role to – about bringing – building back stronger. For example, virologists will help discover a COVID vaccine, but agricultural researchers such as plant breeders will also help a reliable influx of crop varieties that really serve the backbone of food security in vulnerable countries So we think this is an all-important function of crop improvement as an example of the science that Feed the Future supports globally So our Innovation Lab is a five-year initiative and it’s a 25 million grant from the U.S Government Feed the Future Initiative. And if I have to think and describe ILCI in a word, I would say it would be space, and I’ll explain why that word. So our whole premise in ILCI is to serve as the support structure to National Agricultural Research Institutes (NARI). I’ll refer to those as NARIs going forward So we really see that as NARIs define their own goals and drive advancement to breed resilient crop varieties to stand up to pests and disease and climate change, we’re a support structure to that advancement. So our ideas are if researchers and NARIs are given the space to set their own priorities for crop improvement, what would those look like? And if they’re really given the space to – if were given a space to co-create solutions to crop improvement challenges that NARIs face in their own countries, what would those look like?

So NARIs really play a central role in food security strategies, but they often lack the freedom to design and implement their own homegrown solutions. There’s a lot of donor priorities, a lot of influx of different projects that sometimes keep busy work going, and we really see to create the space for co-designing these contextualized solutions is really important And as we’ve said, we believe that if these NARIs play a central role in designing their own innovations to target their own needs, these solutions would be more sustainable And we really think that this dovetails with USAID’s framework for the journey to self-reliance, so we see ourselves in kind of enabling that through these grants We have a global mandate. We have East and West Africa regions, Latin American, Caribbean, and South Asia. So it’s quite a wide mandate We have – we’re working on crops that are really critical to food security in these regions – roots, tubers and bananas, sorghums and millets, and legumes except peanut and soybeans. So these are really important crops for food security Our core team is a multidisciplinary team across Cornell University, Clemson University, and Kansas State University, but also we have partners for cross-cutting issues, cultural practice, RTI International for MLE, and Makerere University in Uganda for gender training for scientists So really looking at our own experience at Cornell and thinking why this is exciting for us, we really host some of the most original and cutting-edge thinkers in crop improvement There’s a lot of new innovation and new ideas that come out of Cornell. Yet we don’t really stop to think how these thoughts and innovations apply to NARIs. What does this mean? So through ILCI, we see a lot of our faculty getting excited about experimenting with how their innovations play out in national settings and really create space for consultation, feedback, and co-creation for these ideas to be adapted to effectively support NARIs So this is what really excites a lot of our team And I want to give an example to really concretize that idea. So one intervention we focus on is really tools, technologies, and methods for crop improvement. What does that mean? For example, we have a team of faculty from Cornell, Kansas State, and Clemson together supporting what we’re calling phenomics Now, phenotype is a plant or what you observe – what is an overt, observable characteristics of a plant, which is a combination of its genes that it carries but also the environment in which its grown. So it’s really what you see, what’s manifested visually for the plant Historically, plant breeders observe plants visually. So they say how tall is it; what’s the color of its grains, fruits, and tubers; is it resistance to pests. So it’s a visual observation. But in – over the last decade, there’s been a lot of work done into really supporting that with science and technology to say – what happens if you use tablets or cameras to take pictures and use those measurements to be more precise? What happens if you collect data with those tablets, analyze them? What if you have specialized devices that measure biochemical compounds that may be associated with what you’re seeing for quality of that crop, for example, or the nutritional content? So our faculty are really bringing these expertise and that knowledge and offering them as options to our NARI partners to say do any of these work for you; how can we tweak these so that these would work for your crop improvement systems. So, for example, can the tablets be used to capture data from field tries of sorghum in Uganda? Can the tools to measure protein content for lentils help breeders in Nepal? Are these useful tools? So right now, we’re developing, testing, adapting, and refining these many different approaches, and we hope to do this directly with NARIs I think lastly – and Rob touched on this; it’s really important – we realized that crop improvement does not happen in a vacuum So oftentimes science gets disconnected from social issues in the countries that we work in, and to counter this, we really put a heavy emphasis on crosscutting issues. These are gender, nutrition, resilience, and involvement of youth. So we really believe that fostering gender and market-responsive innovations – what that means is any technology or any variety that’s developed is developed with women, children, and market dynamics in mind – that these go hand in hand with relieving world hunger. We can’t do one separate from the other We also believe that the future of food lies in getting youth involved, and we believe that nutrition and food safety are at the heart of growing food. So if plants and people can stand up to economic and environmental crises, we have a better chance of breaking the cycle of poverty. So we really see food security deeply entangled with issues of poverty, malnutrition, and gender equality, and we really by prioritizing those issues up and front and center with our NARI partners as well will be supporting more transformative innovations So I just want to point out to those listening that we have just begun our journey. We just started. We haven’t completed our first year yet, so we have many opportunities for funding that will come up in the next four years in the Feed the Future target countries This will be around crop improvement, as I mentioned – around the mandate crops that

I mentioned – and we really encourage researchers to keep in touch to learn of further opportunities Sorry So I’m going to end with kind of outlining our current major partners and their planned activities. So we’ll be announcing today – that’s what the embargo is for – our four new centers of innovation, as we call them. Each of these centers will receive $1 million over three years to invest in crop improvement priorities that they have established, that we will be supporting them to see through So the first is called the East Africa Center of Innovation for Finger Millet and Sorghum This is centered in Uganda as the prime country with collaborating countries Kenya and Tanzania, and the lead institution is the National Semi Arid Resources Research Institute, or NaSARRI, and the PI is Scovia Adikini. They’ll be working on sorghum and finger millets, and they – their tagline for their project is “harnessing sorghum and finger millet genetic resources for increased productivity and utilization in arid and semi-arid regions of East Africa.” The second project is the Central American and Caribbean Crop Improvement Alliance. This is centered equally between Costa Rica and Haiti and the PIs are Jose Camacho (ph) and Gael Pressoir. The crops are common bean, sorghum, and sweet potato, and they describe themselves as “a hub for plant cultivar development and breeding innovation in Central America and the Caribbean.” The third center is Center for Innovation of Crop Improvement for East and Southern Africa, centralized in Malawi with Mozambique and Tanzania as partner countries, and the lead institute is LUANAR, or Lilongwe University of Agriculture and Natural Resources. The PI is Dr. Michael Chipeta, and they are focusing on cowpea. So they’re really focused on cowpea improvement for yield, disease resistance, adaptation, and nutrition security in East Africa And last but not least, we have Crop Improvement in West Africa Center. This is centralized in Senegal with collaborating countries Burkina Faso and Niger. The lead institution is – it’s in French, sorry – Institut Senegalais de Recherches Agricoles, or ISRA, and the PI is Dr. Jedo Kan (ph) and they’re focusing on sorghum, pearl millet, and cowpea for a regionally coordinated approach to the development and dissemination of innovations in West Africa We also have, very quickly, five short-term research projects which will be one year long in Haiti with Gael Pressoir, in Nepal with Dr. Faishandar Durai (ph); in Uganda two different projects with Stanley Nkalubo and Benard Yadof, both with NaCRRI So I’ll take any questions. Thank you very much MODERATOR: Before we go to questions – thank you very much, Dr. Tufan – Dr. Bertram, did you have any other remarks to make before we go to Q&A? MR BERTRAM: Thanks, Jen. Yes. I want to build on the great news that Hale has just shared, and I think Hale, you’ve done a great job of showing how we approach collaborative research to improve food and agriculture by partnering with national institutions, following their priorities, helping them achieve the things they want to achieve. So it’s really an example of that country-led approach and also building capacity for our partner countries to solve their own problems, to identify and solve their own problems in ways that will help sustain their own journey to self-reliance, which is the theme that has guided us for a number of years in all our work But Jen, I want to just say that in addition to the great news about the Cornell lab and its new partnerships, we also have the animal – a new Feed the Future Innovation Lab for Animal Health, and that’s going to be led by Washington State University at Pullman in Washington. We’ve awarded them $16 million over five years to work on a tremendously important disease that affects livestock in much of Africa called East Coast fever, costing the continent $300 million per year. Sometimes people talk about a cow dying every second from this disease. It’s a terrible scourge of animal agriculture across much of Africa So we’re very excited about that We’ve also made a special grant to our Feed the Future Soybean Innovation Lab, which is led by the University of Illinois, to launch an Innovation to Impact platform that’s going to help make technologies more accessible to farmers in ways that advance global food security. And again, this will be working with local partners, national, and also private sector partners in commercializing these technologies This is a – we’re very proud of this lab

It really exemplifies building partnerships It works in Ghana, Zambia, Mali, Mozambique, and Malawi, and again is really responding to Africa’s interests in developing soy in ways that will help make things like chicken and eggs more affordable, and fish – fish feeds, make aquaculture-based fisheries more affordable and available for Africa’s farmers Finally, Jen, we have reauthorized and refunded our Livestock Systems Innovation Lab. This is led by the University of Florida but involves many U.S. universities and many, many researchers in partner countries. That’s going to continue to address the opportunities in animal agriculture, in large livestock, small ruminants, and poultry, and also very importantly focusing on how these foods in the diets of the poor are so important in providing nutrition in ways that reduces child stunting as well as gives people an opportunity for a better life ahead So we’re really happy this week to be able to share this news about our continuing partnership with U.S. universities and importantly partners, scientific partners, in developing countries all around the world. Thank you MODERATOR: Thank you, Dr. Bertram. On a logistical note for the participants, all of these details are in a press release to be issued later today. We will share that with all the participants, and the contents are embargoed until 12:00 noon Eastern I will now move to the Q&A portion of this briefing. I see we already have a hand raised from one of our participants, so I will call on Simon Ateba from Today News Africa for the first question. We will now unmute you QUESTION: Thanks. Can you hear me? MODERATOR: Yes QUESTION: So thank you for taking my question This is Simon Ateba from Today News Africa in Washington, D.C. I don’t know if you can talk a little bit more about food insecurity in West Africa. I was born there, and I see a lot of land, but we seem to have – as you mentioned, in Kenya and in other places where we have a lot of arable land, why is it so – why do we still have that problem of food insecurity in Africa, especially in West Africa? And if you can talk a little bit more about the East Coast fever that costs the continent billions of dollars every year Thank you MR BERTRAM: Shall I go ahead, or? Jen, or — MODERATOR: Yes, please do MR BERTRAM: Oh, okay. I didn’t – so thank you, Simon, for that question. We do – West Africa is a major area of focus for us. We have partner countries, as Hale said, in Senegal, Nigeria, Niger, Mali, and we have programs – important programs in Burkina Faso. And as you say, West Africa faces many challenges despite the fact that they are – they do have a lot of good land and sometimes rain I think rain and drought and climate change are major challenges in the region, and we are working with partners to develop crops that are more resistant to climate change So Halle mentioned the sorghum and millet with Senegal. We’ve worked on that across the region, but also cowpea, another crop And some of these crops – this is one of the exciting things about Hale’s lab at Cornell, the Crop Improvement Innovation Lab, is that they’re bringing the benefit of these scientific tools to the crops that have been under-researched. Rice, wheat, maize have gotten a lot of attention Now, having said that, rice and wheat and maize are very important in West Africa, and we do work on those. You might have heard about fall armyworm. This was a pest that went from the Americas to Africa about four years ago and has since spread all the way to Australia and is causing major losses to the maize crop and sometimes sorghum across West Africa, East Africa, Southern Africa, and parts of Asia. And we have mobilized with partners across the world to address that But – so West Africa, I think the other big thing to talk about there, besides managing

water resources better through drip irrigation but also through better land management techniques, would be the soil fertility challenges. They’re very large, and we work with national partners and regional partners around things like fertilizer policy to try to make fertilizer markets more efficient, such that African farmers can access mineral fertilizers but also adopt practices that increase the soil health – rotations of legumes, integration of perennials and trees. There’s a number of things we can do – integration of livestock in a mixed system so you get the manure produced So we take what is called the systems approach, in addition to coming in with these specific technologies around improved crops, maybe improved access to weather information that helps farmers make better decisions about when to fertilize, and also just accessing better information about pests and diseases and how to best manage them So – but I think we are making progress I really do. Northern Ghana is an area that we worked a lot in, and we do see improvements there. It’s slow, but it’s coming, and it continues. There are some special challenges that are not related to agriculture directly that also affect and challenge our work in that part of the world. But we know that there’s strong commitment from our partner governments and organizations and institutions in those countries to make progress And then on East Coast fever, just briefly, this is a – not a new disease. It is endemic in the area. It’s spread by ticks, and East Coast fever, the technical name is theileriosis, and the International Livestock Center – International Livestock Research Institute (, ILRI), in – located in Kenya, is a main researcher in this area, as are now with the new U.S institution at Washington State University also bringing to bear our science on this problem. But it is widespread and people live with it, and animals live with it, but many of them don’t thrive. And of course, the families, if they lose a cow, this is a tremendous loss for their livelihoods and for their nutrition, the ability to have milk available for the family or for the market MODERATOR: Thank you for that. Our next question is from Cara Anna, the Associated Press South Africa. We will now unmute you QUESTION: Hi. Thank you for the briefing My question is what seed shortages have you noticed in Africa caused by the pandemic and its wider effects, and what does that mean for food security in the seasons ahead? Thanks MR BERTRAM: Well, I guess I’ll take that one again, unless Hale, you want to speak to it, I’m okay MS TUFAN: No, please go ahead MR BERTRAM: So seed systems in Africa are a key area of us – for us. I just mentioned the input markets for fertilizer, but the other main one where we work at both the technical level and the business level and the policy level is on crop seeds. The most vulnerable seed systems – the most vulnerable commodities that I mentioned to – in this crisis have been the fruits and vegetables. And the vegetable seed industry is fairly advanced relative to the seed industries for things like cowpeas or potatoes or other crops, sorghum and millet So I tend to think that in the short term we are probably less vulnerable with respect to seed access. It’s more the markets that – in terms of moving the product, the degree of human involvement in transport, processing, marketing, and retailing that is our – probably our larger challenge at the moment. But I’m really glad you asked the question, Cara, because it’s a huge problem. Much of Africa, farmers are still growing seeds that are – varieties that are 20 or 25 years old. This means there’s been decades of times for pests and diseases to evolve in ways that they can attack them This means they’re not adapted maybe to some changes in weather that have occurred or climate that have occurred in those intervening periods So a lot of what our work – and exemplified by Hale’s work, but also very much at the

end of the seed systems end of the spectrum – is about getting these innovations, these improved crop varieties into the hands of farmers. So in that regard we have a partnership called Seeds to Be, and it’s to work in ways that help bridge the gap between the innovation and the breeding with reaching the farmers and the seed systems. The best place we see this happening – in fact, the most functional part is with respect to hybrid maize, because there’s a strong private sector incentive there And so for example, in the 2016 El Nino drought there were more than a hundred African companies – a hundred kind of companies in Africa, many of them small and medium sized, locally owned – that were providing drought-tolerant maize seeds to 3-and-a-half million farmers So this is a tremendous – we can see what can happen in ways that help reduce the losses of maize. Farmers who grew that drought-tolerant maize that had been bred for years and years, they benefitted tremendously. But in the crops like cowpea and sweet potato and finger millet and many of the others that we’ve mentioned this morning – sorghum and millet – the seed systems are not as well developed So that’s really where a lot of our effort is going. And frankly, we look to learn from countries like South Africa that have managed to manage their seed systems in ways that reach communities that are very similar to the same kinds of communities we’re working to reach in other countries MS TUFAN: Can I just add to that quickly, Rob? I think a lot of what we’ve heard recently is how COVID disproportionately affects the most vulnerable. So that’s kind of a trend that we’re seeing. And I think that’s true also for the seed system and women, because women often engage in informal seed systems, which is kind of off the record. There’s no formal supply chain, it’s person-to-person, it’s local growers and multipliers, so there’s no kind of business around it that’s formalized And if those seed systems are impacted more than the formal seed systems, women may bear the brunt of that change. So I think I just want to highlight that in all aspects, COVID will probably impact women more than it does men, and in seed systems that’s particularly true. And some of the crops that women are more engaged in are the ones who have informal seed systems. So it’s kind of this knock-on effect, and then that’s why we think it’s really important to make women’s involvement front and center, visible, and give them more voice in the choices that we’re offering MODERATOR: Thank you. I will now go to a question from the chat box, which is from Pearl Matibe with Open Parliament, Zimbabwe. The question is: “On the massive food insecurity that Zimbabwe is facing this year into 2021, can you comment and share data that show to what extent this issue is so large – i.e., how big is the problem?” MR BERTRAM: Wow. That’s a challenging question We know that things are getting worse and that COVID is affecting situations across the continent and elsewhere in the world, of course. Zimbabwe has, as you know, had particular challenges associated with its currency, with internal markets, and I – the agriculture sector, like other sectors, has struggled We do see the benefit of regional trade in these situations. Zimbabwe is significantly linked with its neighboring countries – Zambia, for example, and others – in ways that help cushion, perhaps, the shocks that have occurred in-country. But the thing about the COVID shock that’s unusual is that it’s at the same time a supply shock for the reasons we mentioned, but also a demand shock because people are losing their employment, the tourism industry has collapsed, other industries have scaled way back. In Africa, many people in urban areas are involved in goods and services for people, all kinds of services, and when people don’t have money they cut back on those. So this is – it’s a real serious issue, and we’re trying hard to work with our global partners and our partners in the partner countries to really understand in real time the extent to which we need a range of responses, from emergency assistance in some cases to better guidelines to policies that help foster liquidity and make loans more readily available to small and medium

sized enterprises But it is a very complex and dynamic situation This is one that I’d be happy, Jen, to circle back on it, if you’d like to get more specific information with respect to Zimbabwe. But we are there and we are watching and engaging in that situation very actively MODERATOR: Thank you. I do want to go back to Simon Ateba, who had a follow-up to his earlier question. Simon, coming back to unmute you QUESTION: Thank you. Thank you for giving me the opportunity again. I was – you said that the Feed the Future Initiative started under President Bush and President Obama expanded it. And we know that President Trump has cut funding to many initiatives, from the UNUnited Nations, WHOWorld Health Organization, and everywhere else. I was wondering if you’ve been affected by those cuts by the – by President Trump MR BERTRAM: So thanks, Simon. Let me clarify one thing. President Bush began an emergency response to the food crisis, but Feed the Future was initiated under President Obama The crisis came right as one was leaving the White House and one was coming. So I want to be clear that the Feed the Future started under President Obama, and then it became the law of the land in 2016. It went from being a presidential initiative and our Congress passed the Global Food Security Act which President Obama signed in July of 2016 Now, interestingly President Trump has re-authorized that for five years in 2018, so the actual re-authorization for Feed the Future and our work in global food security and resilience is – has actually continued under this administration with the law being extended until 2022. And then the other thing I would say is that we’ve had tremendously strong bipartisan backing and our budget is – has remained $1 billion a year roughly The other thing, I think – just one other point on West Africa that I maybe should have made earlier is I think you know, Simon, how interdependent West African economies are The livestock is produced in the drier regions to the north, and it moves south to meet the demands of urban markets and coastal cities and the cities in between. And so the whole area of trade policy and trying to improve the efficiency of markets is another thing that I think I would mention as a key objective we have in West Africa. And too often we see real costs and productivity losses relating to many kind of checkpoints and stops where trucks sit and wait, and that costs money and it takes time. So we’re also working with countries in the region to really help them improve their – both their trade but also their internal market efficiency. Just wanted to add that QUESTION: Thank you MODERATOR: Thank you. We do have two more hands raised and I have a question in the chat box, so I will start with the question in the chat box, which came in first. And that is from Kishor Panthi from ABC TV Nepal: “How is USAID responding in Nepal during the pandemic? There is a kind of starvation because of the pandemic. Could you please respond?” MR BERTRAM: Thanks, Jen. I think that that one is for me again. So in Nepal we have traditionally had a very strong emphasis on nutrition as integral in Feed the Future. So we’ve had some major programs in the country, particularly in the Terai region but also in the mid-hills In the Terai a lot of it is around system-level productivity and climate resilience and integration of nutritious crops like mung bean into the rotation where formerly there would be a hot season fallow. So with all of these things have been – we’ve been trying to improve the productivity and resilience. In the mid-hills it’s been more around horticulture and market opportunities linked to that And then very importantly, we’ve had a major program called SUAAHARA, which is an acronym for Nepali language. I can always try to get the exact – from the Nepali language, but it is basically about the nutrition piece of this. And we have been studying closely

how to make agriculture more friendly to nutrition, how to engage communities in ways, particularly through women, that result in improved nutrition, improved availability of fruits, vegetables, poultry, and eggs, and nutrition education So we’ve had a robust effort there in partnership with the Nepali Government. I think right now, as is – as everywhere, just as in Zimbabwe, we are looking and working closely with the Government of Nepal to see how our programs can what we call “flex.” We – some of them are in positions where they could make specific changes that would allow them to address some of the constraints that COVID is posing. So in a sense we are trying to – we’re giving license to our partners to try to be more flexible and responsive in ways that could speak to some of the needs that you talk about, Kishor. So – and again, I’m happy to find out more, Jen, and provide more background to Kishor if that were something that would be helpful MS TUFAN: Can I just add to that too? And I think I want to make this point that – maybe this is a little naive but I think it’s true – that often when we have collaborations between scientists that transcends crises and politics – so for example, our work in Nepal right now, and looking at bio-fortification of lentils and kind of using some of the methods to have higher protein content in lentils And through everything, I think those links scientist-to-scientist, we often weather these shocks just to work together and continue our work together however that looks. I just want to make that point that that’s one of the reasons why it’s so important to have the local scientists paired with the scientists internationally, because we try to continue our work whatever happens and that resilience is really important MODERATOR: Thank you. I will now call on Kemi Osukoya from Africa Bazaar magazine Ethiopia QUESTION: Hello, can you hear me? MODERATOR: Yes we can. Please, go ahead QUESTION: Okay, all right. Thank you for doing this call. As you mentioned earlier on, this is not the first time that the U.S. is addressing food insecurity in Africa and in the developing world. I was wondering if you could share some of lessons that you’ve learned over the years and what you’re doing differently this time. The other part of my question is you also mentioned women involvement. Women especially in Africa are primarily the farmers, more of the farmers. So – and land ownership is key to food security. So what are you doing in this aspect to enable and empower women regarding land ownership? MR BERTRAM: Great. Thank you for that question, Kemi. So I guess some of the lessons I would mention that we’ve learned – I mentioned country-led, right, when I was talking earlier, and I said that we follow the lead of our countries. I think we learned that if our partner country doesn’t prioritize something we probably shouldn’t either, because it won’t be sustainable. In other words, it’s not – this is not about us imposing some agenda that we have, whether it be in science or policy or development activities, but rather really following the lead of our partner countries with them as the key investors This is – countries like Ethiopia have tremendous investments going on now in both research extension, the fertilizer system, and the country has seen tremendous progress. People don’t know enough about how much Ethiopia has grown its agricultural sector in ways that have reduced poverty tremendously. In the past 20 years, extreme poverty rates in Ethiopia have gone from about over 70 percent down to under 20. I mean, it’s a tremendous story that’s – we often think of the Green Revolution about Asia but there’s been a Green Revolution going on in Ethiopia as well So that’s a case in point Other issues that I would say: the fact that the private sector is where the action is

I mean, public investments are really critical – roads, education, some types of extension – but increasingly in this world we see the private sector – local private sector especially, but also international partners – engaging in ways that help meet the needs of farm families I think the digital revolution is changing things as we speak, making better weather forecasts, better market information. Imagine how much more powerful a woman farmer in rural Ethiopia is if she knows the price of chickpeas in Addis, and when she’s selling to a vendor, an aggregator, a transporter, a middleman as we sometimes call them. So we see that information as being a really powerful aspect of what we do in – and with respect to everything – managing soil and water, the crops we grow, the livestock – animal health measures we take, the livestock breeds, everything, and then right through the market system to the consumer And then finally, regarding women, we have a women’s – we developed with IFPRI and it was cofounded with the Gates Foundation – the Women’s Empowerment and Agriculture Index. It’s called the *WEIA, W-E-I-A Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index (WEAI)*, and you could search for it on the web with IFPRI, the International Food Policy Research Institute. And that is – was – has been a tool that has guided us to help us understand what is the ability of a woman to control resources, to have opportunities in business, to be involved in the seed systems. We’ve done some really interesting work around informal seed systems in Rwanda just recently that shows how critical the role of women are in those informal seed systems. And very importantly, using what we call DNA fingerprinting, we see that those informal systems in some cases are picking up the latest varieties and moving them to farmers But we also see that the playing field isn’t always level. The males tend to have larger volumes. The women may have more customers because they’re at a smaller scale. So we try – understanding these things and these disparities is the first step towards addressing them. But the idea of women’s empowerment – and I think both Hale and I have really tried to emphasize that this morning – is part and parcel, and not only because we think it’s the right thing to do. It’s also the smart thing to do because women are incredibly important economic actors in food and agriculture MS TUFAN: If I can just add to that, I think in land ownership it’s a very tricky subject, and a lot of people who work in gender and ag are focused on this, and to understand that there are customary laws and formal laws to land ownership. And sometimes those are in contradiction; sometimes they’re not But I think what’s important we’re seeing more and more in this space is transformative community change, so engaging communities, especially men and boys, to empower women So that kind of community-wide transformation often is the most sustainable way to empower women, so I think a lot of the interventions are seeing more of that instead of focusing on – just on women bringing the whole community along. So we’re seeing – I think that’s really important And also USAID does a lot of gender and value chains work, because what we see is if you can’t always solve the problem of land access, you can create more opportunities for women along other nodes of the value chain, whether that be employment, whether that be kind of engaging in the sales or processing of the crops. That’s a form of empowerment. If you can’t change the land tenure, then at least you can create opportunities in other nodes through especially cooperative and collaborative arrangements. So there are worries around the land issue that I think people are getting more creative with MODERATOR: I have a question from Alex Raufoglu, Turan News Agency, Azerbaijan. Alex, we will unmute you QUESTION: Great. Thank you so much, and it’s good to see you, Jen, today. I thank you all for being here to inform us today. I understand Feed the Future Initiative doesn’t cover the South Caucasus, particularly Azerbaijan, but given your experience in working in oil-rich countries, I wonder if you have any recommendations regarding how to avoid food insecurity caused by the pandemic, particularly given the report that the era of oil demand growth is about to die. In other words, what do you hope people in my part of the world take away from your

report? And separately, if I may, I do want to ask about the technology, as you mentioned at the beginning. It is always – has always been a key driver – new development, weapons – right? But is there anything – anything different about technology today when it comes to addressing food insecurity than it has been historically? Thanks so much MR BERTRAM: Right. I appreciate your bringing up this issue that some countries are suffering a real double whammy because they’re suffering from COVID but also a collapse in oil prices and oil demand and sometimes other natural resource exports. So these countries have been hit hard Our analysis shows that, generally speaking, some Asian countries are – can – and I’m not talking about Azerbaijan here; it’s a producer. But some of the consuming countries in Asia can benefit to some degree from lower oil prices in ways that help sustain their industries. In Africa, we don’t see that happening, in part because the urban environments are heavily goods and services oriented and less industrialized and hence the impacts there have been somewhat larger in the urban areas In an oil-producing country like Azerbaijan I think – and I’m going beyond my expertise here, but I think the opportunity for the government, it’s a more developed economy, there are more means for countries – a country like that to undertake stimulus, albeit with the challenge you just mentioned, Alex, around the reduced oil revenue, so I understand the squeeze there But many of the poorest countries don’t have ready ways to support their economy broadly They don’t have as many stimulus opportunities So I’m sure that the economists in Azerbaijan and its international partners – for example, like IFPRI or some of our U.S. universities are, I’m sure, partnering with institutions in your country and others – are thinking about what opportunities are there I think agriculture is – opens up diversification opportunities, and Azerbaijan has a very diverse and rich agriculture. I’s possible that in this period where certain aspects of its economic landscape are changing, maybe some of the investments in agriculture will be of high interest, especially the things – the horticulture, the fruits and vegetables. And of course, these are the same ones that often offer opportunities for women, for people – youth, for people without land. So it’s – that is not a comprehensive answer to your question by any means That last point you made about technology – yes, that’s – this is – technology has changed a lot, and it’s helping the world address challenges like growing population, like scarcity of good land in some areas We’re using most of the farmland that we can in many parts of Asia, for example. Water use efficiency, resource climate change. I mean, we can look at things like heat tolerance and drought tolerance, and I mentioned some of that earlier Now, I think the challenges come up there because you get into science policy discussions, correct? I mean, some parts of the world – many countries have embraced biotechnology in agriculture as a means for reducing the use of pesticides, reducing the use of water, or increasing – actually, in our country, increasing soil fertility and soil conservation, reducing soil erosion So you see that, but you also see countries that have said no, we don’t want that. And of course, I think now, for example, with a situation like fall armyworm in Africa, some countries – or a country like South Africa is not having a problem with fall armyworm because they have biotech maize there, whereas some of their neighboring countries are really suffering. And so countries are saying, well, do we want to try to control this with pesticides, which are expensive and toxic, or do we want to try to use this technology that’s used all over the world at this point? So we also engage with our partner countries in the science policy where we try to, I think, work with them in ways that increase the ability to do food safety and bio safety, environmental

safety assessments of technologies, new technologies Gene editing is another one that’s on everybody’s – Hale should say more about that because she knows way more than I do. But absolutely trying – again, not – it’s not just about technologies. It’s about how you manage and regulate them. And we work with our partner governments around the world to enhance their capacity there MODERATOR: Thank you, Dr. Bertram. I think we’ve come to the end of our time. There are still a few questions in the chat box, which I will forward to our briefers for response later today. As a reminder, the contents are embargoed until 12:00. We will send the details about the announcements mentioned in the briefing to all the participants via email I want to thank both of our briefers for giving their time today on this very timely and important topic, and I will wish everybody a good day Thank you all MR BERTRAM: Thank you, Jen. Thanks to all who joined MS TUFAN: (Inaudible.) Yeah, thank you MR BERTRAM: I’m really grateful that we have a global interest in this, what is truly a global issue MODERATOR: Thank you. Good afternoon

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✈Amazonas, Brazil ►Vacation Travel Guide

hola I’m John Olsen welcome to next stop from Amazonas welcome to Amazonas brazil’s largest state on this episode we’ll go deep in the jungle for some adventures will tour the capital city of Manaus by foot and by air and we’ll introduce you to an amorous spider monkey our local music and cultural scene will blow your mind all this and more on next stop Amazonas the fun starts now Manaus is the capital of Amazonas and here we are with Alex our new buddy for a walking tour of this beautiful city we start here and this guy started Manaus right this guy is very famous because he’s young but sister to hit on onion he was the first governor so I like it that not only people hang out in the square here but actually the dogs come and hang out to it yeah yeah everybody come here like I say in the past everybody missed this place what I’m gonna miss ya I like this statue this is cool I like the boats what is that signify this monument is for the immigration and the date was November 15 when you made this time of the Portugal in Paris in Empire you see there like waves sure which represent the Amazon River and the Niger River and like wave this is the significance of this place here so then the boats are basically to open open commissary the rest of the world through the river the river the kimonos that’s the main thing say all right Alex to see how the local shop this is a typical fish from Amazon they call Janaki the very popular here everybody buy before ship and good beside there’s a lot of fish like tombak eat another one of their Sardinians see there another is satisha one of the larger ones physical come back here somebody come again what are some things uniquely Brazilian that we can find in this area all the equipment to fish does some fruit that maybe you cannot see in us lots of unique stuff around here else this is clearly the shopping district yeah so we got the local station in town there’s two TV crews in here fighting for space know before I post engagement you get water no Portuguese other vegetables does donezo take for English every time I go to I have to speak English every time for the makes me single tries to speak Portuguese yeah you are right I’m sorry we’re gonna be tough there me repeat after me so boy it’s a boy we continue our tour so we’re looking for something fairly unique I think we have found it who don’t see this like this what is this kind of me call me okay that’s your basic chicken the vegetables you said vegetables are really expensive here right yeah like my toes are really expensive this is just big goat cheese basically yeah so yeah in kg buffa leave em up ooh cheese in buffalo mozzarella yeah I love this market it’s something you guys have yeah we don’t but I like it so obviously they have to find a way to get everything into the market this is clearly how they do it that’s right that’s right this is the original point my house they live and sleep in this boat nothing like saving the best for last this is absolutely incredible the after house this is very popular came a lot of performance for the countries such as opera or tenors and dancing thing like this you have every year now well thank you for the tour this is you’ve got a great city what great memories here and I think we should go explore some more I hope that you see this in the US and they come to visit house why would you not coming up on next up we see a natural phenomenon by air and feature Brazil’s only hotel with a zoo when you think of Amazon you think of huge the best way to see this enormous area is by see flame okay Betty Islands River Thames River

corporate channel right side if every up the island over here I don’t know how you live on that island people are living there they’re here yeah what do they do let’s see the Amazon and they groan the enemy hey Derek now you can see the dramatic changes in Pella if you wanted to wear the meeting of the waters rub these up and never ever ever wondered el barco Ebola that is a very dramatic oh yeah really something to see how long is the Amazon River really see the waterways up here on the ground you don’t know how much water there is surrounding of the whole city oh yeah that’s a gorgeous building what a fun sewer oh great it’s the best way to see now from the founding Amazon’s up there oh yeah and listen to any waters that it has really really something Brazil is comprised of 26 states Amazonas is the largest of these states an area Manaus is the capital city and the largest metropolitan area in northern Brazil with nearly 2.3 million inhabitants Manaus is located at the convergence of the Amazon and negra rivers we’re staying at the lovely tropical Manaus which is much more than your average hotel it’s kind of like a city it’s huge yes this is one of the best of all time we have it here in Brazil everybody knows about it at Oracle here at the Mozilla it’s very favors and we have a lot of kinds of the room design types of different rooms here not yes we have the presidential to the standard rooms so we can receive a lot of groups and a lot of people around the world so the Presidential Suite is aptly named because President Clinton actually stayed there yes received a lot of president Watts the most importance is Clinton of course and entertainers shorts and a girl anis Morissette your location is awesome you’re right on the beach you’re right off the beach which we checked out yesterday it was incredible yeah this amazing place to Florida leisure you’ve got some restaurants here too that are pretty impressive your buffet is very enjoy oh my gosh the food is incredible you know great is great this is our grill not only for the guests but from the people from manaus one of the first things I noticed when we checked in the hotel of course is the lobby bar which is very open and very fun and inviting but I love your hallways they’re so long they’re very majestic yes majestic and other guys likes a lot because it’s different okay so we always like to find something a little unique about every property we stay at throughout the world here the zoo you guys have your own zoo who has their own zoo we as we have again maybe have a year is a perfect zoo and I think it’s the only hotel in the Brazil that have zoo hello I’m John Daisy nice to meet you I came here yesterday and I saw these animals and there was a cute little baby running around I’ve never seen animals like this what are they the name is Eason Mazepa curry very common the Amazon rainforest in the outer boroughs it so it’s kind of like our pig it’s like a pig in the US now you also have some very interesting monkeys yes what’s your favorite right my favorite a spider monkey my – lets go check out the spider monkey let’s go so these are my favorite monkeys – tell us about these animals hey spider monkeys the billion one thing that Mazzone enforced only a first piece justice and national registries Jason either living in the other states one of

these monkeys is a movie star you’re the movie star Nina Nina so I know what this guy is this is a macaw this is Bonnie here but see I have a problem I’m Kyra food and all after eating there indicates you haven’t I’m very impressive hotel and how many hotels have a zoo this is so cool thank you so much for sharing this with us this is very memorable it’s a pleasure for us over together there’s that thank you so much you might be wondering how we got here since Alaska Airlines doesn’t fly to Brazil coming up on next stop you’ll find out as we highlight one of their fantastic codeshare partners it’s always a pleasure to meet up with Alaska Airlines partners throughout the world and on this trip to Brazil we partner with American Airlines who’s experiencing some amazing growth some really fantastic changes starting right here at DFW what’s next generation yes we are standing in our first airport which is the next-generation concept design which is designed around the customer and really improving the customer experience putting the customer ease throughout the airport journey as well as keeping them connected so we have behind us here the ticket counter of DFW terminal a1 which features a lot of the latest technologies such as self tagging kiosks this is a big part of our brand and who we want to be which is an airline that is new modern fresh really keeping customers connected keeping customers at ease through through their travel journey and this is a big part of it is really elevating the airport experience for our customers here as an avid traveler I’m a connoisseur of brand new airplanes we’ve got that today the triple seven 300 yeah I think it’s it’s really the new American is really what you’re seeing with the introduction of the triple 7 300 it’s in our first and business class cabins it’s a hundred percent lie flat seats direct aisle access it’s a first for a US carrier our customers love it – there’s some good party lighting going on inside yeah so another cool feature about this aircraft is it does have a mood lighting system there’s several different settings that the flight intents are able to do throughout the flight one of them happens to be the party setting which are in the party mode as we call it it’s been very popular of course it has our brand colors of blue and red your coach is so bad either no in their own parentheses that’s right for myself included who would be flying in the main cabin we didn’t leave any stone unturned and so we really paid a lot of attention in our main cabin and that was really our goal behind this aircraft and and I think we I think we had a home run on that I think you did too now I’m in the market for a new car back home in Honolulu but I’m thinking why not just skip right to one of these planes how much just give us something about well this price let’s say about 110 million chump change chump change but it’s well worth it and you’ll get there faster I promise pretty oh my god if we’re taking a step Raziel you bet thanks a lot Alaska Airlines has an award-winning mileage program and is proud of its partnership with American Airlines which serves over 250 cities and 40 countries worldwide you can visit amazing places like Brazil take advantage of the bonus mouths issued upon approval of the Alaska Airlines visa signature card and start planning your next adventure today for more information visit alaska air calm we’re deep in the amazon about three hours outside of manaus at the juma lodge for some jungle adventures okay John we will start our hike from now basically some recommendation along the way just look before you touch any type of trees sometimes you have some spiky palm trees but basically some parts about the palm trees how to survive how we use our notion in the forest so we will learn some techniques how to climb the trees which is the material to use and many things to be using along the way welcome to the jungle area well now we arrive into a place that I would like to show you this how we have this knowledge from the ancestral people for a long time this here is going to be pull this this direction look when I pull it this direction here it will have one is good to remain it’s stuck back look so we do it a sphere we just swirl it this Wow voila did you expect that so this is the one that we use to make our roof principles so Juma lodge the other local natives homes are done out of this year

so I’m about to be United John of the jungle is fine now they’re in for it John of the jungle yeah you can use this here is a special farm tree it gives a limb for us it goes free to grab it we good up awesome you put it the Tenon’s ankle like this okay that’s how it’s not done so here we have a species of a monkey called howler monkey it’s a baby it’s a howler monkey yeah it’s a horror monitor yes in the Ennis area that will be real we have the black ones the tail is very strong you can see I can move the wrap around my neck right now yeah so how long is Jimmy Lodge been in existence this is a very cool place over 12 years almost Jumma Lodge is very simple very rustic so where’s the piranha Emma I’ve never fished for piranha oh so did they we have a little surprise we will go and look for them where we will choose a spot where we call it ego is a flooded woodland really water now is coming up it may be a small one Oh check it out well this is a small one is a black one but just take a look and see what this can do in a snapped in this seconds when it closes note everything that bites the expectation is to take out the whole beef today’s adventures at Jimmy Lodge were both fun and informative tonight we’re going Cayman huntin Joe is up there looking for Caymans right now we’re hunting Caymans in the Amazon it’s crazy he is well camouflaged in the vegetation you can see you don’t really realize it it’s under open your hand there formerly good right here great you can basically make it like a handbag or something out of this right yes it have been used for a while that’s belt wallet shoes they’re having now now it is a very strong heartbeat flowing you do a great job sharing your culture Thank You Nana you’re welcome my pleasure once again coming up on next stop we attend a boy booboo rehearsal what’s boy boomba stick around and find out for our local music and cultural scene on next stop from manaus we’re at a rehearsal for boy boomba it’s crazy in there right now before we could talk about what’s going on in there what is boy boo boo boo boo byes Kouta evolution that has in pairing teens it’s an island in the middle of Amazon River okay so it’s very interesting because it comes to Manaus and it all get together it’s an explosion of culture it’s an explosion of movement music dancing it’s wonderful explosion is a great way to put yeah yeah this is crazy and trying to sense and emotive it’s way more than just the musicians of the communities come together and it’s a big competition talk about that okay the competition is between two boys okay boy Baba’s the red one which is guaranteed oh and the blue one which kappa joseph so when the competition isn’t happening in they’re not practicing every single to the suicide should meet up and have a beer yes this is like really serious this guy in there right now that the people love singing who is that guy okay that guy’s blind okay his name is Ayaka he’s considered the Emperor of the musicians okay is

that the most famous singers of the oh boy boom bah expression wherever we go kids promote Amazonas we take a dancer okay a cup of – apologies boy bar and it’s very interesting whenever they start this and everybody goes along and try to do the same things but they don’t have coordination you know it’s quite difficult to get along with them I was passionate they’d have to play with the hands play with the legs you know and their expression they express everything that we have like ninja linearizations you know so we sit and people love it they come to do Pilates every year thanks for tuning into next stop from Amazonas Brazil obrigado to this show sponsors American Airlines the tropical Manaus the juma lodge and Amazonas tours thanks also to our title sponsors and very good friends Alaska Airlines and the Alaska Airlines Visa Signature card next stop where will we take you next make good memories everybody and ex-presidents for France Al Gore err sorry yeah Al Gore was president for France no no not only better the internet but he also was a real prize browser

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COAL: The documentary

>> Between 40 and 50 percent of the nation’s coal needs comes out of the Powder River Basin.>> We’re on a 90-foot thick seam of coal here, the thickest seam anywhere in the world >> It’s all about big bucks, and big bucks talks >> Where the land is being coal mined, it’s being destroyed >> If we don’t consider climate Change, the game’s over >> It’s not going to be harmful to the environment >> You talk about a stimulus package for the United States Coal is a stimulus package >> This is ground zero of defining the future of energy throughout the whole world >> All of the suffering, the global warming, the droughts, the famines The coal companies don’t have to pay for that You and I pay for that �� >> Funding for this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting and viewers like you Thank you �� >> It’s the heart of the crab fishing season in the Salish Sea This network of coastal waterways extends beyond the border of Washington state into British Columbia It’s one of the largest and most biologically rich inland seas in the world Thousands of species call this place home, including some of the longest lived animals on the planet �� It’s difficult to calculate the true value of the Salish Sea, especially to the people who have lived here the longest >> The whole landscape is sacred to us There’s not much contaminant free lands left in the United States This is one of them >> Jeremiah Julius is a fisherman from the Lummi tribal community For hundreds of generations, his tribe has relied on the halibut, salmon, and crab that thrive in these waters >> Fishing is who we are Fishing is our culture And to us, culture is fish It’s just in our blood >> It’s here at Cherry Point just north of Bellingham, Washington, where tribal fishermen drop their crab pots That the largest coal export terminal in North America is proposed to be built Nearly 500 ships would travel these waters every year, carrying coal to the other side of the Pacific The rapid industrialization of Asia means that coal-fired power plants are being built there every week Asia consumes more coal than rest of the world combined In the next three years, countries there are expected to double the amount of coal they import today That soaring demand spells opportunity for U.S Companies >> our particular project, Gateway Pacific terminals, when built and fully operational at full capacity, would generate approximately $5.5 billion in foreign monies infused back into The U.S. economy >> This possibility has placed the Northwest in the middle of a controversial debate: Should the region build export terminals that would open lucrative markets for the world’s dirtiest fossil fuel? As the nation’s economy continues to struggle, can the country afford not to? Darren Williams has been a longshoreman in Bellingham, Washington, for more than three decades.>> Today, because there’s no work in the port that I’m hired to work in, I end up spending a lot of time on the road traveling >> There hasn’t been regular work in the port of Bellingham for nearly 10 years That means Williams often must drive hundreds of miles for the chance to get a day’s work in another port.>> If we had work here steady in Bellingham, it would make my life much simpler Because all the hours that we spend traveling would be spent at home.Almost everything that we have in this country is affected by import and export over seagoing vessels And longshoremen play a big part in that

I think at the heart of most issues, you can always find money I’m not going to try and be holy and say that I think it should be built because it’s a grand thing to do, I think it should be built because of economic reasons That’s money Economic for me personally, economically for the community and the state.So what happens if the Gateway project is not built? I guess my kids and other kids in this community will go elsewhere to find jobs We’ll see a couple more grocery stores shut down, we’ll see negative, negative, negative >> They say we are going to lose all these jobs and taxes if we don’t allow this to go in, which to me is false because you can’t lose something you don’t have We have our fish, we have our salmon, we have clean air, we have a coal free corner in Washington state We’ll lose that That’s losing to me >> To me, these tankers are the trains that killed off the buffalo These tankers are going to kill my way of life So to me, this is, it is a battle >> Gillette, Wyoming, lies in the heart of the nation’s largest coal mining region One out of every six people here works for the coal industry People like Phil Dillinger Mining has provided a steady salary to support his family and send his four children to college >> It’s that stability of knowing that every two weeks I’m going to get a paycheck And that’s, that’s a huge, huge thing >> Dillinger’s job is loading coal into trains >> So our job is by the time it’s dumped into that coal hopper all the way to the time when we load it onto the trains That’s coal processing That’s what I do On an average, it takes a minute to a less than a minute to fill up one car One train car of coal >> Across Wyoming, more than 250 square miles have been mined That’s more than three times the area of the city of Seattle Mining companies are required to restore the ecosystems they disrupt But so far, only about 10 of those 250 square miles have been turned back into healthy rangeland �� For some ranchers like LJ Turner, coal companies haven’t been good neighbors >> Just as a pure role of the dice, our leases were all over in the area where the coal mining is It was a beautiful place to run cattle We’ve lost about 6,000 acres It was some of the nicest country in the world I miss it >> Now, he has to drive his herds hundreds of miles to find rangeland.>> What’s happening here is something that’s going to continue to happen, and once you destroy this area, And I hate to say it, but where the land is being coal mined, it’s being destroyed All of the water along the creek are fueled by these aquifers that run along the creek bed and where the coal mine has just mined completely across the creek just doesn’t exist anymore and they’ve totally interrupted the natural hydraulic flow of the water and so it’s just gone >> The United States relies on coal to provide about 40 percent of the nation’s energy But in recent years, U.S Utilities have been switching from burning coal to burning natural gas That trend has pushed U.S Coal companies to search for other customers >> The coal industry recognizes that over the next few years to decades as we in the U.S And countries in Asia use more and more environmentally friendly forms of energy that the market for coal is just basically going to completely tank So they want to get it out of the ground as quickly as possible sell it incredibly cheaply to China and Korea and India and make the money while they can >> The most direct path would be to send coal trains through the

river valleys of the Northwest to its deep-water ports The only obstacle is the lack of adequate coal export facilities Cherry Point is one of a handful of places in Washington and Oregon considering building coal export terminals These facilities would allow U.S. coal companies to ship up to 100 million tons of coal every year If these terminals are built, communities along the railroad could see between 18 and 37 additional coal trains a day And each coal train can stretch a mile and a half long Marion Dozier lives in the crosshairs of three rail lines in Billings, Montana She knows what it’s like to live in close proximity to coal trains >> When you’ve got a train that’s 120 cars long, you’re sitting there for a good four or five minutes or so at the train crossing We’re just three blocks away, and we never know where the dirt comes from, but there’s dirt on your cars and your windows, and if your windows are open, you’ve got grit It’s an issue that’s very hard to get the ordinary person in any way excited about it If they’re not waiting at the train and it’s 103 degrees out and they’re waiting and waiting and waiting and waiting, they don’t care And they won’t care >> Coal trains headed to the Northwest for export would travel through Montana, across the panhandle of Idaho, and then down to the Columbia River The Columbia is the largest river in the West Its dams provide the region with cheap electricity They also create slackwater reservoirs that allow cargo to be transported from hundreds of miles within the Northwest’s interior Often, these vessels carry grain, but soon, they could be carrying coal It would be Anne McIntyre’s job to navigate coal ships through these narrow channels of the Lower Columbia >> Captains of ships really can’t learn all the local knowledge that every port requires for every ship to call on that port So we’re the person with the local knowledge We are a 365 day a year, 24/7 operation We’re moving ships all the time I don’t view a coal ship as being any different than any other ship that I navigate You could put grain in it You could put steel in it You could put fertilizer in it It’s the same type of ship It’s just that the cargo is different We bring large ships in the river routinely 900 feet long 1,000 feet long If you put that ship on end, it would be taller than a building in downtown Portland But that is what we do >> If coal is exported by way of the Columbia, it could mean up to about 700 additional ships But this prospect doesn’t worry McIntyre >> A pilot’s job really is to mitigate risk, and we view ourselves as being on the front lines of defending the environment I think the likelihood of coal spilling out of a ship onto the river is just about nil >> Coal that doesn’t travel by way of the Columbia would continue on the railroads that pass through the small towns and major cities of the Northwest Little research has been conducted to measure how passing coal trains impact air quality Professor Dan Jaffe is a leading expert in atmospheric pollution He’s begun to take a closer look >> We stood on the bridge over the tracks at Richmond Beach and watched a couple dozen trains and we measured particulate matter concentrations that were well above the health thresholds The data we have collected on diesel and coal exhaust on trains is very preliminary I’d be disappointed to see a policy decision go forward without more information on the air pollution impacts >> In 2009, a BNSF Railway representative testified that as much as 645 pounds of coal dust is lost from each car during a 400-mile journey And if a coal train usually has about 125 cars, the amount of dust could add up quickly Physicians also worry about the diesel exhaust coming from train locomotives >> We know from numerous peer reviewed population-wide studies that there is an increase in asthma exacerbation when people

are exposed to diesel particulate matter >> It’s important to realize that the particles from the coal trains are microscopic, ultra fine particles that you can’t see They’re the ones that do the real damage because they make it to the deepest parts of the airways So you may not be seeing it, but you’re breathing it, and it’s affecting you >> Shahraim Allen has worked for BNSF Railways for 19 years >> I’ve never seen an ounce of dust That’s just my experience And I’ve run coal trains for BNSF Railway my whole career So I’ve been around coal for a long time If any has ever escaped, it has been, you know, to a small amount and that there are precautions that have been taken to this day >> BNSF now requires companies that ship coal to apply what’s called a surfactant or a topper agent to coal trains before they leave the mines They say this helps suppress dust by about 85 percent >> I’ve actually climbed on top of the car and I’ve tapped on it and it’s not going anywhere It’s hard There is actually an aerodynamic shape, they call it like a bread loaf shape, and what that allows for is even air flow as the train, over the tops of the loads, as the train travels down the tracks It’s not going to be harmful to the environment You know, hauling coal from the powder river basin to the pacific northwest has gone on for decades >> There are currently three coal trains a day that travel through the Northwest up to ports in British Columbia >> I believe it’s a misconception for the public to believe that if this terminal’s not built, that the train traffic won’t increase anyway >> Canadian ports are already operating at near capacity They too would need to expand in order to ship more coal abroad Here at the Westshore terminal in British Columbia, about 1.5 million tons of coal is waiting to be shipped to Asia >> Westshore was built in the 1970s So the environmental laws and requirements and regulations are much different than they are today.Comparing what Westshore terminal is and what our terminals are going to be, you can’t compare the two terminals On an environmental basis, it’s looking at a 1970 GTO versus a Prius >> Unlike the Westshore facility, the Gateway Pacific Terminal is designed so the coal would be covered during the loading process >> We’ve built in a great deal of design elements to protect the environment We have all of our conveying systems on the terminal covered Any conveying systems that go out over the water are actually completely enclosed We don’t think it’s an either-or proposition We think that you can develop family wage jobs and be good stewards and protect the environment There’s a demand for this coal in Asia So the question is, do we want the impacts and the coal to go through Canada, and have them get the jobs and the tax revenues? Or do we want to build these facilities here and have that $5.5 billion worth of foreign monies be injected back into our economy rather than into the Canadian economy That’s the real question >> Before any of the coal export terminals can be built, the environmental impacts of these facilities must be studied In the fall of 2012, federal and state agencies asked for input on the Gateway Pacific project They held public meetings throughout the Northwest Thousands from both sides testified >> I’d like to apologize for my dress I have soccer practice after this >> 12-year-old Rachel Howell Was one of the youngest to speak >> I have to say I was pretty nervous When I was up on stage, I was just thinking about delivering the message And it was sort of a nervous, exciting feeling, I was just really happy >> My generation will pay a high price for the global warming that you do This is the future that you’re creating for us and this isn’t the future that we want Please don’t build these coal terminals It’s just not fair to my generation [cheering] >> Howell’s parents are environmentalists Her mom works for the Northwest Energy Coalition and her dad works for the Sierra Club >> I first learned about the plans to export coal when my dad came home one day and he started talking about it

I didn’t think it would be that big of a deal because I didn’t understand the full concept back then When you hear something that’s really bad, and you don’t want to accept it, and you shut it out, and you pretend it’s not real, and you pretend the opposite of that is happening >> Howell snowboards with her family at Snoqualmie Pass in Washington’s Cascade mountains >> When you’re up there and you’re looking around, you just see wilderness and you think beauty There’s a lot of snow up there but if global warming keeps up, and that snow is going to start to disappear It sort of shows you how amazing the parts of the world that are untouched by humans can really be >> When coal is burned, a whole suite of pollutants is emitted That pollution doesn’t just stay in the air above a power plant It travels You can’t see Asia’s air pollution from the top of Mt Bachelor in central Oregon But it’s here >> Typically, it takes about five to ten days for air over China to move to the pacific northwest, so if pollutants were emitted from a factory in China at the surface, they’ll get wafted up into the air and we may detect them a week later >> Dan Jaffe and his team have built this mountaintop research station to learn how China’s escalating pollution impacts the rest of the world >> It’s a wonderful location for doing the kind of research that we do for understanding global pollutants and the transport of pollutants from Asia over here to the United States >> Of all the pollutants released when coal is burned, it’s carbon dioxide that most concerns Jaffe and other scientists Coal is the world’s leading source of carbon pollution and it has a direct impact on global climate change and the future of the world’s oceans Once built to full capacity, Northwest export terminals would ship 100 million tons of coal to Asia every year Burning that coal would put about 200 million tons of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere each year >> Climate changes needs to be considered in any proposal to ship coal to asia This is a very real issue that we will be dealing for the rest of our generation and the next generations >> It’s a real slippery slope If you look at the greenhouse gas effects of a product that we manufacture and export, do you look at that with Boeing airplanes? The jets that Boeing produces and sells to the international airlines produce greenhouse gases This is the kind of precedent that precludes our country from being able to go ahead and continue to expand our exports Actually, what it will do is constrict the exports that we have in our country and our economy >> If we don’t consider climate change in a proposal to export coal, it means the game is over Because once we are exporting millions of tons of coal to other people, there is no reason in the world anyone would enter into an agreement to reduce co2 We’ve pretty much stacked the deck and climate lost, and we lost >> In the last century, the Earth’s surface temperature has risen by about 1.4 degrees And a vast majority of scientists say this change is having devastating and potentially irreversible consequences >> When my temperature goes up 1.4 degrees, I’m not allowed to go to school And if I do stuff, it makes it worse, and if I ignore it, it makes it worse And it’s the same thing with the planet But the problem is people are in essence letting the planet go to school and ignoring it And so the temperature’s going up and up, and the planet’s getting more unhealthy and more sick You only have one lifetime, and if you stink it up with coal and you ruin it, and you make global warming bigger, you’ll go away, but the stuff you do won’t And my generation has to deal with the generation that’s burning coal and we didn’t do anything wrong and yet we still have to deal with the problem And so it’s not fair because we are trying to do good, and yet our efforts make no difference because of what older generations are doing >> If the Pacific Northwest becomes the gateway for sending coal to Asia, there will be winners and there will be losers How do we weigh those costs? How do we decide what is best for our future? And how do we make sure that today’s solution doesn’t lead to tomorrow’s crisis? >> It’s going to mean economic stimulus There is no doubt To this region and beyond >> I think we need to be careful of a short term economic gain for a small relatively modest number of jobs for changes that are going to change our region and our planet permanently

>> If this coal port goes through, Lummi will feel this for the rest of time We’re not anti-jobs But we have to fight to protect what little we have left.>> We can’t just say we’re not going to burn any more fossil fuels, we’re going to use wind and we’re going to use solar power Maybe we’ll get to that someday But we can’t just do that overnight >> The time to make that change to sustainable energy is now It’s going to be too late in even just a few years We need to do this now and we need to do it on an Apollo lunar mission type level >> I don’t want to try to tell people what they should or shouldn’t think People are intelligent; all I want to do is give them the facts You give people the facts, people will come to the right conclusions >> If you force them, they’re more likely to choose the opposite side, and so you have to give them an open choice and give them the facts and the truth and they’ll realize even without you pushing them, that that’s the right decision ��

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Fried Lobster Jacuzzi 🦞 JAMAICAN FOOD 🇯🇲 Beach Party at Hellshire Beach, Jamaica!

good morning hope you’re having an amazing day it’s mark Wiens were in Jamaica in Port Antonio Jamaica in Portland parish the plan for today is we are driving from Port Antonio to Kingston and we’re gonna drive all the way through the Blue Mountains which is one of the most spectacular ly beautiful places in Jamaica we’re gonna definitely stop for some coffees but then our next goal is once we reach a sit we’re gonna meet up with Matt the Jamaican food bus and also Matt from Ross kitchen and we are gonna go to hell sure Beach which is famous for seafood and we’re gonna cook we’re gonna eat we’re gonna have a huge seafood meal in healthcare and so we’re leaving we’re leaving Port Antonio in the morning at like 7:30 so there’s not a lot of action happening here it’s very quiet but the breeze is cool it’s very cool in the morning which is really nice we are in Port and to neo here what we’re gonna do is we’re gonna drive up to buff Bay we’re gonna cross the Blue Mountains right here that’s like the heart of the Blue Mountains and then on to on to Kingston we’ve arrived to buff Bay all passing by G&B jerk Center we ate there a few days ago but buff Bay it’s a beautiful place actually right along the coast it’s so quiet peaceful and from buff 8 this is when we come from the coast and we go straight into the Blue Mountains I’m very excited Blue Mountains it’s just spectacularly gorgeous and we’re gonna we’re literally going right through the heart of the Blue Mountains yeah and some spectacular Blue Mountain coffee so the road is getting really narrow it’s basically just one lane and very tight winding around we’re following the river but you kind of got to keep one hand on the steering wheel one hand on the horn because you got a every time you come around a corner you got a hunk so that you like to let anybody else coming no because the road is so tight it’s just one lane one lane road going up here so it does not get much traffic I’m sure I think on the other side a lot of people would do this route just coming from Kingston and back but we’ll see it should be a bigger road there we’re starting to we’re starting to climb now it’s just spectacularly beautiful you can see the Blue Mountain in the distance we’re starting to see lots of coffee now moving Mountain coffee we’re there’s just jungle fines there’s streams of water just flowing down and they’re still like there’s still villages there’s still communities and coffee estates going up the up the side of a mountain but the beauty is this is the coffee estate I hope they’re open looks like this is parking yes welcome officially properly to the Blue Mountains of Jamaica that was a spectacular Drive lush you can actually smell the tropical greenery and feel it in your lungs the views of the mountains the vegetation and oh man this is a gorgeous place and we have just pulled up to the old tavern coffee Estate where I hope I’m not totally sure if they’re open yet unfortunately it’s just completely quiet here nobody’s here this is definitely the coffee estate I don’t know if they have a different coffee shop somewhere else maybe hopefully up the road but it’s just completely quiet here but it is incredibly peaceful incredibly beautiful so we’re just gonna get a look maybe just do our own little tour of the coffee and see some of the coffee berries and then we’ll continue onwards here we go here it is famous Blue Mountain coffee of Jamaica he’s never smelled so fresh in my life and we’ll try to find another coffee shop to have a quick cup of coffee before we get to Kingston so now we’re coming down now we’re gonna start downhill from here downhill towards Kingston and I got a few glimpses of Kingston the city all the way down the mountain it’s a very clear day luckily but hopefully we’ll

stop somewhere soon you get a full view of Kingston as well we had to park on the side of the road there’s a lot of other people who worked on the side of the road too because this is a very famous coffee shop called cafe blue known for their blue juh Blue Mountain Jamaican coffee there’s a lot of people here this is perfect what a gorgeous but overlooking the valley the lush greenery again of the Blue Mountains I ordered Blue Mountain coffee Blue Mountain brew I think this might be my first time to really have a Blue Mountain coffee thank you very much thank you the aroma and they really market Blue Mountain Coffee has a very specialty very high quality very expensive coffee Blue Mountain mug beers in the Blue Mountains of Jamaica okay that’s cool yeah that is good it’s fruity acidic its acidic on the acidic side tastes like chocolaty and it’s sitting at the same time a little bit nutty I taste some almond almondy [Applause] the soil of the Blue Mountains coming down on this side of the Blue Mountains didn’t take that long and we’re now entering Kingston Jamaica my first time to Kingston welcome to Kingston [Applause] we’re dropping off the car we’re gonna meet up with Matt Jamaican food boss reunite because we were hanging without with him in Montego Bay but he’s gonna come here he’s gonna meet us and then we’re gonna drive out to hell sure for just a an out-of-control Jamaican seafood meal on the beach Matt good you guys are awesome okay if we taste it in the car awesome to be reunited with Matt and Amanda Jamaica food tourists of Jamaican food bus and that is what you call Jamaica food tours on the seat ready because of plate of a key I gave in dream of better than this ackee and saltfish this is the greatest of all Jamaican foods just have to start with that plate of that a key do you guys want some while the cream units the amount of onions and tomatoes and salt fish in there you can eat active every day every meal when you’re in Jamaica I never get tired of it it’s so good okay I have to be honest out of all the amazing food we’ve had in Jamaica all the food we’ve had in Jamaica for me it’s a key [Applause] off the rim bike rental bite until secret welcome to hell sure Beach and rolling in here this this Sartre or this part this side of the island you can see it’s a lot drier with almost like acacia trees and cactus and we’re right along the beach here rolling and it’s like a beach village community packed full of restaurants and seafood restaurants seafood spots Wow welcome to hell share Beach Jamaica straight up a beach party Beach hangout spot near to Kingston what an environment I know there’s like a lot of like dancehall reggae parties and look how beautiful the water is it’s so clear turquoise water it’s like a fishing village part just like beach party hangout

reggae party there’s fishing boats clear water sand delicious seafood this place I think is everything you could possibly want in one single location in Jamaica so screw Chee who is the owner of screw cheese he just went to go get some more fish and he’ll be back then we’re gonna start cooking then we’re gonna start eating Matt Matt double Matt thank you awesome hello hello Oh we’re coming back to the kitchen courtyard yard area this is where they’re preparing the ingredients chopping up the onions there’s a whole bucket full of Scotch bonnets that is beautiful the peppers it’s got plenty of everything but right now they have lobsters they have some fish that might be one of my favorite aromas in the entire world freshly sliced Scotch bonnets smells like you’re a fruit store they’re so fruity oh and that’s a beautiful quantity of Scotch bonnets as well thanks lobster head he’s our last night lobster Penza can see everyone say you’ve got good on him with the cut ones just opened up those are fresh lobsters he said from yesterday that just flash-frozen he pulled out a tray of huge local Jamaican lobsters that’s gonna be the main thing that we focus on mat Jamaican food bus said complete always has lobster when he comes here but we’re also gonna be having fish but lobster is the main event for today so we’re in the kitchen now this is almost like a little market they have here at screw cheese with the whole pan full of time scallions there’s tomatoes there’s onions the Scotch bonnets are outside being sliced and now just preparing those lobsters okay so after after slicing the lobster in half then he seasoned it with it looks like there’s some black pepper in there the seasoning mixture and those are gonna deep-fry go directly into the hot oil bubbling and deep-fry Oh a Jamaica in a frying pan right there representing Jamaica and having been dragged enough forward right in a pot [Applause] giant cast iron hand just filled with oil filled with lobsters just bubbling away like a an oil Lobster jacuzzi if you ever you come here lobsters the movie right then you love system a fish is good what it love says and then you saw that yeah no that’s awesome amazing eyewitness yeah I’m the scotch bonnet [Laughter] over on the other side of the kitchen I think it’s safe to call this a Jacuzzi tray of deep frying fish and festival festival is like dough kind of like dumplings fried but made from dough flour oh they are sugar dude they’re a little bit sweet yeah oh yeah they’re slightly sweet so kind of like sugar dumplings deep-fried it’s even like a starch to go with different foods but slightly on the sweeter side and then who’s frying some fish in the tray that jacuzzi tray as well as other some plantains I believe and this is their version of fish tea which looks incredible like a fish soup and see the pimento berries you smell them you see them floating around in there there’s big chunks that fit there scallion there’s carrot and potato it looks like a chowder almost that’s what it looks like

okay you know this mixture of vegetables that he’s sauteing stir-frying here includes onions peppers green peppers I think there’s some pumpkin and carrots in there and a bunch of thyme and this is going to be for the steamed fish [Applause] steamed fish in Jamaica is more like a a mishmash of vegetables and sauce with fish like just coating over the fish so he’s like stop paying that out over a huge flame five you really smell the thyme in it [Applause] [Applause] so we’ve had steamed fish a couple times to make an steamed fish but this is the first time going to have and watch them as they make it yeah and Jamaican steamed fish again is just totally different it’s not like the steaming actually it’s boiling them in a sauce everything does a boatload of fish oil flavor you got a refresh them out catch them again you got it yeah there’s so much sauce in there you have to recap them so in Jamaica the guy will you go to college it’s a softball starts bar small that is this our pots yeah we never seen everywhere a bag of crackers that’s common okay so he just added in to the steamed fish you’re making water crackers it is the most Jamaican thing you’ll ever see what sacrifice nobody else has done and this is good yeah this is my first time we’ve had steamed fish a couple times but I haven’t had the steam cracks the the water crackers now we’re gonna walk the crackers are dry but when you see – you see like little cracker patties they’ll take on the free book Oh awesome okay and he’s getting ready to add the garlic sauce scotch bonnet sauce pepper sauce under those lobsters on the side of the fish in addition lobster and the table is bowing is bowing due to the amount of seafood festival this is an entire sea of seafood on the table just you watch them cook everything in ultra anticipation and I couldn’t be more excited for a seafood meal in my entire life I’m gonna wait on them just one there one piece one piece but I’m gonna load up more of that pepper pepper garlic sauce it’s like 80% of you don’t like a piece of post walls Oh men and because we saw the whole deep-frying process they they they actually deep fry it until it’s just caramelized with like lobster juice from

the batch before and I just attached to the flavor they make the sauce depression tons of garlic a bitter scotch bonnet in to give it almost like salty rudiness stunningly tasty and even the juice could be the juice in the lobster shell there’s a song has a shot yes just a few drops but unbelievably tasty and you just want to scoop up you have to a good amount look out actually we have it we haven’t none of us have been able to even move on good tear everything out silence over there yeah I mean alright so you enjoy Canada with them I can go with this one laughter everybody do you see if we’re going for the steamer everybody who’s together with the wine rocker – I’m going – what’s your method underwater Kirk oh okay yeah I want to try that water cracker do for that fish water cracker you want to reduce reduce guessing with the water cracker you want to reduce it as much as possible this is a Jamaican steamed fish sandwich what’s amazing is when they do the steamed fish they boil down all those vegetables so they’re all just like completely Kendra that the the peppers just melt-in-your-mouth the onions just melt in your mouth you’ve got that slight stickiness of the okra just the mellow flavor of that steam boil spice in there you taste the pimento and I kind of a little bit of black pepper I’m tasting and then just like all wrapped up in that fish I’ll soaked up into the fish and those water crackers a little bita dish yeah it’s a toughie yeah okay we got two versions of escovitch one is the bribe you just give each the snapper exco so we got that as compete on the side is this this is dumb for thought we just dumped it on we all good with that this is escovitch it’s like a vinegar there’s onions there’s a scotch bonnet there’s a little bit of pimento berries floating around in there good okay guys hold it steady oh yeah you got a few more yeah oh that is crispy I I cannot decide if I like steamed fish or f-cove each matter I’ll tell you what me like this is so Jamaicans I’ve so enjoyed a fish it’s a decision you never would have to make you always order both I have never happened to me and you can see see that escovitch sauce just an even layer of escovitch just coating that fried lobster just the pimento berries in there just it’s a beautiful thing just just like it’s pasta I just twist that inside the interiors of that I think Matt would Renoir we went with everything that there’s not left in that way again you do not have to choose between and are both so good on their own tested everything from here we’re just gonna in about five minutes from now all that what we left on the table between fish bones and lobster shells that’s a this is a bloom onion bloom with the mint on top it’s a ring an onion ring that is of lobster and escovitch created by map the Jamaican food buff that’s my kind of a ring the famiiy which again we just saw him frying in that like it’s the jacuzzi tray of oil freshly made

thank you awesome thank you very much ESCA peach combination yeah with the scotch bonnet and I like how the onions are still crunchy there’s just like pickled and then it wouldn’t be the same without all of those pimento berries the allspice just there infused into the vinegar but oh you also get the actual berries every now and then and chew on them and oh erupts with flavor in your mouth I’m gonna ResQ of each myself oh man I’m gonna have to balance it on top of this piece of the lobster you’re gonna want a waterfall of stuff and that’s gonna be sauce to your food is so good so much of that we’re not even coming to that stage where I can’t fully even describe what’s happening in my mouth and it’s just it’s just a beautiful thing but you want that escovitch sausage just like me just like you want you want whatever it touches – for that to soak into it as much as you can get in one bite [Applause] you mention life now everything it’s time but I think I’m gonna kick it these guys I’m standing custom tonight and that brings us to the end of this day it’s been an incredible time a big thank you to screw cheese they’re so cool this is the place to eat in hellshire beach kitchen is awesome all of the staff and the way they cooked the way they made those lobsters unbelievable meal and today has just been a fantastic day driving through the Blue Mountains enjoying that part of Jamaica all the way to the coast to Kingston – hell sure Beach for seafood amazing people to hang out with amazing friends a huge shout out to Matt the Jamaican food bus he runs Jamaica Food Tours I’ll have his link in the description bus and to Ross kitchen Matt as well and good to hang out with everybody – Jonah what an amazing time at hellshire Beach what an amazing time in Jamaica so if you haven’t seen all of the videos in this entire Jamaican food series we’re eating our way around the island I’ll have all the videos in the description box watch the entire playlist for some incredibly delicious Jamaican food and I want to say a big thank you for watching this video please remember to give it a thumbs up if you enjoyed it leave a comment below I’d love to hear from you leave a comment below give it a thumbs up subscribe click the little bell icon thanks again for watching and goodbye from goodnight with a very very happy stomach in hellshire Beach Kingston Jamaica see you on the next video

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Manatees Love Sea Weed! Shark Tales, Parrot Fish, Turtles and "Coneys"

where that seaweed you know manatee and island in the eat seaweed everything love everything we’re not seeing they eat grass there is grass well we do not eat parrotfish but fishy did not eat fish in your seed really yeah all right fish eat everything i really fish them you know you used to i think that peace pull up your [ __ ] every one of them easily read this [ __ ] every pirate fish when i go out there and look on the reef and that they might eat whatever you think nobody yeah they’re just munching and crunching on it at the big ocean anima santo that’s when they caught their moon you see inside them it blew you know green tea you know [Laughter] you know i heard different stuff about parrotfish other people that are like don’t kill it not because it’s nasty but because it’s so good for the reef it keeps it healthy and makes all the sand and that kind of thing you know on one piece with with people nokiono one day i pick up my gun and i shoot a purge one million fish look at any one player demo then i would never shoot that sword again no it looked like everything that country motor blue one million fish look a fine fish next to that inside you know then another trouble all right i’m done with parrotfish like me business who like me business in the mountain sometime or leslie corny people don’t know what is connie but we jamaica know what it’s called people will we’ll cook it and go down and don’t understand but it’s sometimes a good one and sometimes a bad one why you’re hunting now you’re going out you’re looking for something all the time at the hunter man but no no more like the cornelia hunter money in the jungle let them leave three cars that father human being no sometimes the hard see their flowers too you know and we have one with the good ones on the background we have another woman one from the one where we’re sick they just work like human like human being likely for someone last a month stop from a legend let them live you don’t want to leave life of a moment leave them you miss life you don’t make no life to take life let them live free suppose you are about there right now and people cut your shoes your foot in a bag that is not your lucky deal all right yeah but what about if you’re a frog a big frog on the earth well then they

i know by 15 minutes time again still bleed ayah [Applause] running back with camera so i think i’m uploading come around upon him tonight but listen up now be proud what is your to you is that dream kayatu of life and that the blood problem is dead to the first that’s so insane prague know again the crab they come here in a church no light at night every light is a bag and a hand and a chestnut head after dark at night just like the people and all them are killers when the night comes you know nobody told me after that got nobody not gonna come here crab you know the crabs they come here and in a church not like a light is above uneven bug is enhanced and convicted people have you seen the the turtles this year a lot of them i’d because the season was pretty recent right yeah it’s coming up because a [ __ ] thing in a water one damaging about one million tokyo women for one year that year we go back again nicey and blue blue laguna up so [ __ ] so [ __ ] fast and go down back then pretty your fault i want to look in our watch i don’t know when the kai was that clean you know one million people do you have to take it the boat to see them or can you see them from the shore or something way better on the little raft thing yeah no

and then they watch other with them you know it’s like to within there and they were that clean they make pictures on their spirituality and people in there so then [ __ ] you know m i think we’ve been but we haven’t done the boat thing we just went to look quick i really want to do a fishing thing too like go up on a boat ride and try to catch some i don’t have any no if you haven’t liked all kinds of good stuff did you ever do shrimp catching no of course not you didn’t do that what am i talking about rasas don’t eat shrimp you know i eat chinese oh yeah i was thinking that too because when i was a kid i loved pirate stuff so much and the fact that there’s an old pirate city right here oh yeah oh just by the airport right it’s just past the airport like one little island beyond i think yeah let’s go there i want to go to the um botanic garden and bath too i’m kind of curious about that place where they had the first bread fruit ever in this side of the world because bath that’s like a well-known thing well known well we got the car we can do whatever that’s awesome are you around the yard this week we’re here oh good perfect friday all right it’s on yeah i’ve gotten one on the face before i’ve gone under and been like i know them almost with people so i know this son of a [ __ ] think we’re not the stingrays are cool there’s no they don’t mess with you yeah they kill people well if you step on them you’ll keep going white man i want your uh really dead

you know that sounds badass jerk shark yeah it’s hard to say i would sell them to the hotel then then teach we made three here you account every warranty oh yeah i just don’t think about them when i’m out there into surfing or swimming i know they’re there i just don’t know i just don’t remember yeah well well you know you’re not true yeah yeah normally but nobody does but when they do it’s trouble trouble is real no one did it you know until you’re shot now you know i see you no not sure sometimes surfers get smashed no i keep it on that but then it won’t come here you know when um

sure i got 257 ross kitchen ideas and now there’s more bigger key man and the big fishing big boat from the combined line

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Joe Freshgoods Gets Hooked Up With Detroit Food || InstaChef

– Hold on, – Hey! I ain’t even cut it! – Come on, man – Look, look, look First, let’s just, just get – There’s shrimp in that right there, man? – Just, just smell it real quick – Look at that – Welcome to “InstaChef,” where we profile chefs that are creating a new tradition in the food world by using Instagram to showcase their culinary skills and get their food out to the world I’m your host, Cliff Skighwalker I’ll be joined along the way by some of my friends and celebrities Some you know, and some you’re gonna wanna get to know Let’s go! Look, I’m finally back in Detroit and I can’t even front With all the traveling we’ve been doing these last few weeks, it feels great to be home And when I say home, I literally have y’all in my home in Pontiac, in the kitchen, and we’re making pizza Now, let me be honest with you, I’m from the west side of Pontiac, but spent my early years in Detroit, and I’m there whenever I’m back in town This is where I’m comfortable, this blue-collar environment where a hustler spirit and mentality is key to survival With the whole world calling the city out at one point with situations such as the recession, the automotive industry crisis, the city going bankrupt, its residents and chefs remained strong, never gave up and, most importantly, kept faith And look how far we’ve come Detroit is currently in a new renaissance and it feels so good saying that And the food? Man, listen A melting pot of cultures paired with rich soul and history come together and make this one of the most slept-on food cities in the country With all that being said, I think it’s only right that I show you my point of view for food in the city, and chefs and cooks who’ve gone into business for themselves, overcame adversity, and make it a point to serve their creations here first We’re in Detroit Let’s eat I think my special guest is coming up the driveway right now This man is from the west side of Chicago He took the internet by storm with his Thank You Obama collection along with various drops No matter where he’s gone in the world, he always reps Chicago to the fullest Without further ado, Joe Freshgoods – Yo Cliff! – What up, dawg? – What’s good? I told you I was coming – Man – How you feeling? – Gotchu all the way in Pontiac – Let’s get it – Come on! This is Detroit-style pizza – OK – Still deep-dish, blue steel pan, but first, we gotta talk about you! – Yeah, let’s go – What’s been going on with you, man? – My man, it’s been like collab year, you know, I’ve been working with a lotta different companies, you know, putting all for my city of Chicago, really just, kinda just trying to take over, you know? – One thing that I wanted to talk specifically with you about is how no matter what you do, no matter where you go, it’s always, “Look, I’m from Chicago.” – Number one – “I’m a 290 guy.” – Yeah You know I feel like the Midwest, we’ve always been left out of certain conversations, so it’s just like, you have to just learn how to just do it yourself – I’m using ingredients from the Midwest This is called brick cheese Give it a try, tell me what you think – OK, let me get it, man – Yeah and they make that, they make that in Wisconsin – Yeah, that’s pretty good I mean, I been seeing you doing your thing on Instagram the past year – You wrote on Instagram, you said, “If I don’t see you in 30 days, I’m reporting you for spam.” – Yes – We finally got you here – Yes – I feel like that’s so important – I’ve come to you – Can you talk a little about the beginnings? – I think when I realized I wanted to get into fashion, I wanted to initially move to New York or LA to make it, you know? – Mhm – And I think that’s a big misconception with a lot of creatives is that you gotta move to get where you wanna be in life With me it just when… oh wow, yeah – I didn’t mean to interrupt you, but I’m growing my own basil – OK, you in it – I, and again, didn’t mean to interrupt you – No – Just smell it – Oh yeah, wow – It makes such a difference growing it instead of buying it – Do you actually water that and all that stuff? – Bro I water that thing every day – Oh my god, OK – So yeah, keep talking though I didn’t mean to interrupt you – You know, I mean, just like, it’s just you never really see Chicago pride T-shirts or whatever like that, so I just figured I have my lane, you know and it worked for me I went from being an intern at a store to working at a store, now I own my own store, so I think people like success stories of just like seeing a person make it – If it’s cool, do you mind if I put this in the oven? – Yeah, do your thing! – Aight, bet – Come on let’s get it – Oh! Joe – Oh my God. Let’s get it – Joe come on, dawg. Look at that – You do your thing – I’m not playing with y’all, man – You did that – I’m dead serious for it – That looks good Is that shrimp? What is that over there? – I added some shrimp, a little bit more basil – OK – Watch this, you ready? – All right, look at them edges Oh yeah, sign me up – Come on, dawg – I’d damn about to eat this whole thing – Hold on – Hey! – I ain’t even cut it! – Come on, man – Look, look, look First, let’s just, just get – There’s shrimp in that right there, man? – Just, just smell it real quick – Look at that Oh yeah – You heard the crunch, right? – I heard it – OK, I’m just making sure we’re on the same page – Heard that, I heard that – Oh, come on, Joe – I damn about to steal that from you (Bleep) it, I’m sorry – This is your first piece of Cliff’s Detroit-style pizza – That’s a good weight – Let’s take a little toast – That’s what I’m talkin’ about – It’s hot! – Ready? – Let me say this, I’m really proud of you, bro I’m trying to find words to describe the beautiful taste This is just like really, really good pizza

And you know what’s crazy? I’m not really a big crust guy, but this is just like, it blends right into the pizza, it’s good – Not to toot my own horn, but beep beep, mother (bleep) – You said beep – I did that – I didn’t even catch that – Look, I did it, man I’m glad you enjoyed it, but we have some chefs to check out You wanna roll with me? – Let’s do it – Let’s go My dawg Man, we are on our way You really brought a slice of pizza? – I pulled this right out my pocket, man ‘Boutta kill it here – Listen, I’m with it Basically, Joe, I wanna start from the beginning with your story, and I wanna rewind the clock all the way back to high school, I believe, when you were selling the T-shirts? – I think I was 16 and I made my first T-shirt I printed out images of all the NBA players getting arrested I like ironed on all those mugshots on a shirt Wore it to school the next day and everybody went crazy, and I was like, “Oh.” This is that moment I realized, oh I’m good at this – What was that feeling when you got that first cease and desist – Man, got my first cease and desist from Rihanna It was like a damn, y’all know who I am? You know? – Yeah, yeah – I did these hats, I wanna (bleep) Rihanna That’s what the beanie said You know? – Yeah – It’s kinda, you know, it’s hard to put that out now Celebrities wearing the hats, everybody wearing the hat Booming And then I got an email one day from her team that said, “Hey, you gotta stop making these hats.” And I was like, “Holy (bleep) I made it! Rihanna know about me!” I was excited that somebody recognized me, you know what I mean? I just took them hats offline and the rest was history – What currently is inspiring you? – I’m inspired by newness I like people that out here really creating I’m inspired by the youth The older I get, the younger a lot of this stuff getting around me So, my biggest goal now is when I work with companies, I try to tell them, “Hey how can we empower Chicago? How can we do things to inspire the youth?” You know, my whole thing right now is give back – Mhm – So like, there’s not one person that inspires me, it’s like actions – Just talk about the importance of food to you – Aw man – Because it’s important to me – I already know, it’s important to us That’s our relationship Like, food! Man, you know food is a art I love food, I think Chicago, at least where I’m from, we’re one of the best food cities – I look at Chicago as one of the best food cities, but at the same time, sometimes people sleep when it comes to recognition – Yeah, yeah – And that’s why I say, Detroit is one of the most slept-on food cities in the country But what are your favorite foods at the moment? – I’ve been in a weird jerk chicken wave Like I’ve been going to different spots trying that dish – What do you know about this underground cooking scene? – One of my partners at the shop, Terrell, he has a big thing where he tried to find the Instagram chefs in each city ‘Cause it’s a big thing You know, I don’t really know too much about it like that, but them places be looking good when I go on my explore page! – Let me break it down There are chefs across the country – OK – Who are going into business for themselves They’re going on Instagram, showcasing what’s on the menu for either today or the next day, giving the price, giving where you can pick it up and the number to call You call that number, you pull up, you pay them for the food – Yeah – You get a quality meal – Wow – So we’re on out way to meet chef Tiffiany She had a job in the automotive industry – OK – And she was doing this food on the side The business for her food picked up so much that she left that automotive industry job and started doing this food full-time – I love stuff like that – And she’s making some of the best soul food-inspired dishes that I think I’ve seen Bro, check out her food – Let’s see this I love wings that look like that You know that type of crisp? – Bro, I think she has some jerk chicken for us – Aw yeah – And from what I heard, this is some of the best jerk chicken in the city Matter of fact, I think we just pulled up to chef Tiffiany’s place – All right – Well hello there! How are you? – I’m doing well, you? – I can’t complain, come on in – Thank you so much – Not a problem – You know how right before a wedding? – Yeah – You know, the groom is not supposed to see the bride? – Yeah – I feel like I took a peek – Right – So to maintain trying to avoid bad luck, I don’t want to see anything until the full plate gets on – Hundred percent – You know what I’m saying? What are you seeing? What are you smelling, Joe? Talk to me – I love the colors This smells like this is gonna be good already – Yeah – I’m just kinda ready to eat, you know? – Yeah, I’m done talking your head off Is it cool? – Yeah, I’m chill, you know – Let’s partake – Aw yeah – You know the macaroni and cheese is so important This macaroni is so delicious Oh my goodness – What’s that glaze? ‘Cause that’s like – Yeah! – The glaze… it’s like – I know you not giving away secrets,

but can you entertain our guesses? – I’ll just tell you there’s three ingredients in there Three simple ingredients, but I can’t tell you what three – Aw! You gon’ lead us on like that? – You just gotta come back to me I’ll make it for ya! – Hit the jerk chicken We gotta do this together, man, we are a team – Mind you, that is all seasonings – Oh wow – There’s no sauce on there That is a recipe I created on my own – Yo, let’s go in on this chicken real quick – Yeah, yeah Let’s do it, let’s do it – See, it’s the sweetness that gets ya Then the spicy come right behind it Can’t you tell I love what I do? I love what I do – Oh my goodness – There’s a lot of love on that plate – Bro – I wanna get up and hug you – I know right? I’ll take all hugs – Just give her a hug, dawg – I’m sorry – I’ll take all hugs! – I’m getting all emotional now – I’m glad you enjoyed it! You all right over there? – Hey, drink some water – No, no – No sauce All seasonings All dry seasonings And that is baked, not grilled – Mhm – That’s baked – Give me a description on the jerk chicken – I mean, it’s like an aftertaste I love when you taste something and then you taste another part of it after you keep eating it – ‘Cause you get, so with your chicken you get that sweet, but then the heat on the back, but then there’s a taste! – That’s love That’s what that is, that’s just love – Chef, you are diabolical – Falls off the bone – It falls off the bone – Those things that are on your plate are actually my biggest sellers – You know you had an automotive industry job and decided to go full-time with cooking – I’ve always loved to cook I’ve always loved to feed people You know what I’m saying, to see anybody just keep digging and digging in they plate like that, that warms my heart I originally started cooking when I was like 9 Peeling potatoes, cutting peppers for my grandma And then as I became a young lady, my homegirls would come over so we’d have a big dinner So one of my homegirls suggested you should really, you know, take off with the cooking thing And I was like, you think I cook that good? I took a leave of absence from work to see if me cooking full-time could cover my bills and it worked for me So now I’m about to open up a carryout restaurant really, really soon – This is amazing, chef – Yeah – Thank you – And it’s a blessing to even be in your presence having food like this – Thank you so much You’re gonna make me cry! – I really mean it! How have you used social media to your advantage when it comes to promoting and pushing what you’re creating? – A lot of people find me through social media They definitely do Like I said, I think I have like 25K followers or something like that, I don’t know, I haven’t checked – Ooh! – Oh, you lit – I haven’t checked in quite some time – I haven’t checked in some time – Well not to have a big head about it, but yeah I have quite a good following I have people that, from the airport, they come in flying here from Atlanta coming to visit their family here, and, “Oh I just wanna know what you’re cooking today, can I please try your food today?” So it warms my heart Social media definitely plays a huge role in it – So speaking of, you know, the role that social media plays Chef Cherelle – Yes – That’s another chef I heard that that’s a friend of yours – Yes – And that’s the chef that we’re going to see next – She is a sweetheart I love love love her And actually how we met is through social media She ordered some jerk wings from me Everybody talks about these jerk wings, so she’s like, “I’m gonna try ’em, let me try ’em.” So I bumped into her, gave her the jerk wings, and she gave me some cupcakes Oh my God! – Cheesecake cupcakes? – Yes, they were to die for Did y’all try ’em yet? – We’re going to try it I think we’re going to try her cheesecake for sure – Yeah, you’re gonna love her She is the best, hands down, with the desserts – We’re going to see Chef Cherelle Do you wanna join us? – Of course I will! You think I’m gonna miss that? – Let’s check out Chef Cherelle – Let’s get it – Alrighty – Is it cool if I could have a to-go box please? – Yeah, please – Yes, you can – Now chef, I wanna talk a little bit just about the city and it’s influence to how you cook and that hustler spirit, the hustler’s mentality, that intangible trait that makes people go out there and get it – It seem like it’s almost in the air It’s a lot of entrepreneurs around here, whether you’re selling food, T-shirts, gym shoes It’s deeper than just Detroit, you know what I’m saying? – Yeah, yeah – It’s Michigan We are true hustlers – Now how does that hustler’s mentality factor into your food? – Everybody loves good food My product sells itself – It really After tasting it? – Yeah – Come on now – You don’t gotta do nothing What else you gotta do? – It speaks for itself, you know – I feel like when you put something out, it sells itself as well – Yeah, but food is different – Yeah – You can see my T-shirt and copy it, and make it, and bootleg it You can’t bootleg good food You could try – You could try! – But like, even her corned beef was just like (bleep) – Yeah, yeah, yeah – Where’d you get this from? – I feel like if somebody tried to emulate her corned beef, definitely if somebody tried to emulate those jerk wings, I’d be like, “Nah.” – They can try, but it would just – I’d be like, “This ain’t it, chief.” People don’t know how to do that – Thank you! – People don’t know how to get that done – I love love love what I do I really, really do – When you have adversity, and when you have roadblocks,

and when you have, you know, the hater, how do you both overcome those adversities? – Haters and naysayers, that used to bother me when I was younger, because the internet was just like you can, you know, people could type anything and just put it online So just like, you gotta look at your life, man I have a beautiful family I wake up every day loving what I do, that’s the key thing – I don’t know what those are I don’t think I have any haters, everybody loves me! – We’re headed to see Chef Cherelle Now, she has amassed over 100,000 followers I’ve seen her sell out of cheesecake in mere hours to minutes I mean she sells this cheesecake and it flies off the shelves to the point where she’s going out of town to Ohio, Atlanta But thankfully she is here in Detroit, and if I’m not mistaken, we’re about to pull up on her right now – Let’s do it – I can’t wait! Yummy – Ooh! – Did you bring me some of them wings? – I did not Blame them – Yeah, yeah – Yeah, I’m sorry – Who ate your wings? – Look, look, me! – It was both of ’em – I did it Chef Cherelle, thank you so much for allowing us to come here – You’re welcome – Creative Cheesecake Collection You have to tell us, why cheesecake? – It’s a fan favorite I mean, everyone loves cheesecake – Listen, this is me not disagreeing with you at all – Thank you, thank you I mean I have 76 people who do not like cheesecake and they only eat mine So, cheesecake – That’s a testament to how what you’re making is so good Can you tell us a little bit about how social media has impacted the way that you sell your product and your company – I actually used to be the person that didn’t like social media So when I actually started using it, I was creating all types of different cheesecakes So deep-fried cheesecake wraps, and cheesecake cupcakes And people were kind of like – “Look at me.” “We don’t see that often,” so it led me to here – Let’s cut right to the chase Chef, tell us what’s on the menu – All right, so today we have stuffed cheesecake strawberries – Hold on, these are different flavors right now – Yes, yes So we have the classic graham cracker crust, of course But we also have Fruity Pebbles, which is a fan favorite – OK – And then we have Oreo here for you to try Oh look he started already – My bad, I’m like damn – Let’s do a toast real quick – Little toast – Know what I’m saying, get it Oh, oh, oh – Ah! – OK – All right – All right, a little bite – Mmm – And we got napkins here – Mmm – Girl – Girl Ooh Ooh! – Mmm! – I don’t even care that we’re on camera, I gotta eat the whole thing – Yeah, yeah Joe, so whatchu taste, tell me what you think, man – I’m at a loss for words, man I’ve never tasted nothing like that before – Thank you – I’m really looking at these Fruity Pebble ones – Mhm – One, two – C’mon man – Girl Mmm Girl You need a whoopin’ You can taste all them ingredients, too – Chef, what?! – Ain’t nothing instant about this – Bro, I don’t like Fruity Pebbles – I’m about to go bye bye – Oh you about to take that? You better set that down – I’m about to go – Chef, what? OK, we have some more we have to get into Tell us, tell us about these, so – All right so – What’s next, chef? – This is what I call a large cheesecake pan You gotta get it with the cookie – Mmm Oh, I’mma eat this on my own – Right? What’s up, Cliff? You gotta dance with it a little bit? You know, you gotta dance, right? – But chef, can you talk a little bit just about what inspires you at this point? – My children I actually wouldn’t have even started my business if it wasn’t for my daughter, actually So, the world should all thank – OK – All should all thank my daughter – Thank you Look, we are talking to you Thank you You know I think that, people being able to see somebody doing it, they can get inspired Whether it’s the youth, whether it’s somebody older than us, younger than us, and the fact that on this episode, we’re featuring two strong, talented, black women, I think that’s a testament to – Oh, really – That’s true I don’t mean the skills, but the techniques that you’ve cultivated and I think that there’s inspiration to gain from whoever watches this Everything that y’all are doing is a testament to the American Dream – Detroit has some of the most strong women entrepreneurs Everybody say it’s a man’s world, but I’m sorry – It’s taken over – Detroit, it’s all women – All hustle – It’s a women’s world over here – You gotta understand, I love that energy, ’cause it’s so needed Now, Joe – You know – You started literally from high school to selling T-shirts out of your garage and now you’re selling pieces all over the world Can you give advice for anybody that just wants to go out there and get it – Just trust your heart When you’re doing something that’s so, you know, not the norm from your community, it’s just like, you gotta know that you gonna have a lot of naysayers saying that you, you know what I’m saying?

So, I think you gotta just stay grounded and just kinda stay on the right path If this was easy, a lot of people would be doing what we doing, you know? So the fact that we made it this far, kinda shows that, you know, we got the strength to keep going Know yourself, trust yourself, you’ll be good – I love you – I love you too – I love him already – Chef, before we go A little birdy told me that there’s some Mason jars in there – Let me see – Yeah, yeah, there’s some right here – Don’t play with me – Oh! That’s a lot in there! – Oh! – You see that? – Come on. Aw yeah – Oh my goodness – Hold on, hold on, hold on Let me get my Price Is Right on real quick You brought out these Mason jars As we try them, I wanna ask you, chef, and you, chef, on what advice do both of you have for anybody? – If don’t nobody else believe in you, believe in yourself – Watch everyone, too, that you come in contact with One of my good customers, Keisha, turned into a great friend who has done nothing but been a blessing in my life – I have to agree 110% but I can’t get it out ’cause the cheesecake’s so good! – Yo! Since we’re all here, is it cool that we all get a selfie together? – Yeah, let’s get a selfie! – Please! – I think we can do it in this corner Joe I think you might wanna take it from the angle – We all know what I’m talking about Got it Aye, look, look – Super cute – Aye, that was cute – Thank y’all so much

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