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hello konnichiwa Nihao and gutentag welcome to Burlington house here in London and we’re here with a special panel on progressive plastics to mark the end of three days of scientists from countries including Germany and China and Japan and the UK all being here together trying to share ideas share their knowledge about the best way to tackle the problem of plastic pollution plastic pollution is something that hasn’t actually really been a phrase for very long for years decades in fact people live quite happily with this versatile useful waterproof substance but things have changed in the last few years we’ve all become a lot more aware of the problems that plastic can cause when it gets out into the environment no thanks to Sir David Attenborough who’s really drawn attention to the problem through his Platt through his show blue planet to the number of Google searches for instance for phrases like plastic pollution and beep plastic pollution weren’t really used before but now they’re being described as breakout phrases and actually the increase in the number of times they’re being used is too high to quantify so we’ve seen the problems that plastic can cause and more and more people therefore want solutions is chemistry going to provide us with the answers before I introduce you to the people on my right I just want to say that if at any point you want to join in with this discussion I would love to hear what you think Elizabeth Ratcliffe from the Royal Society of Chemistry is on my left and she’ll be processing all your comments that you make in the live chat and on the Facebook page and also feel free to tweet us we’re all society chem row m and hashtags are progressive plastics and RSC sustainability so in no particular order we’ll go from the far right we’re joined by Professor yang Hong bang from Chang Chun institute of applied chemistry then professor Charlotte Williams from the University of Oxford professor andreas Greiner from the University of Bayreuth and professor toshiaki Yoshioka from Tohoku University I hope I said all those right thank you all very much for joining us today can I just say it’s really great news that after three days of being locked in room trying to solve one of the biggest problems in the environment you’re still smiling and chatting so on each other that’s really good to hear first off just a quick question is how do we look at the impact that plastic has both negative and positive sang-hun can we start with you what do we look at I really pastor should be positive and it has positive impact in human beings in the world and how do you quantify the positive and how do you line up with the negative that can come from them yes Oh point is you know countless where in the world we used almost 300 emitting tongue of glass decays so it give us a lot of convenience and also we can find many many applications from plastic so it should be positive but you know sometimes we’ve really finance unconcern from plastic is so we should face the concerns and solve based on our knowledge Jankovic Charlotte when you look at the impacts of plastic what sort of things are you looking at professor Wong statements it’s really important to consider that plastics are applied in a really broad range of our everyday lives so of course we know the very visible plastic packaging but polymers also perform key roles in sectors like construction where they make sure that our homes are properly insulated and that we can use a range of materials they’re very important in electronics they’re essential to light waiting transport nearly 50% of a car or an aeroplane would be polymeric components and so they bring so many benefits in terms of sustainability to our lives that we must not forget this but there are very real concerns with what happens once we finished using them and we need to improve upon this so that we overcome that negative impact that they can have address what so what extent do you think it’s chemistry’s job to solve this problem rather than society’s problem I would like to extend this a little bit by saying we have an impact of plastic and we have an impact of plastic handling this we should keep apart and chemistry can help here of course by making plastics which are better suitable for the particular application

they are meant for they even enabled certain applications only this with the appropriate chemistry but it already starts in its production that it’s more sustainable less co2 footprint and so on what we all want to have of course a little bit but Yoshioka first I want to talk to you about degradability a lot of people when they think because plastic pollution such a visceral thing people can see the plastic they see the problem but there’s still a lot of confusion about how plastic degrades can you tell us a little bit about that about the recent environmental impact with the plastics it’s a good not good and however even now the lifestyle is lost wizard plastics there are so many plastics produced around us – and then if you have plastic not a degradable in that case the plastic have a lot of impact in the environment but plastic have a good advantage for example if you go shopping and buy a milk or juice with glass bottles or plastic bottles in a bra obviously the plastic bottles can carry more drinks in one shopping we use less energy and there are plastic the graduate hour is important but a plastic not a great area were very important for power I’m andreas can I ask you a little bit about is there a way that we can break down plastic and polymers without hurting the environment what all we do you mean SBR if we act something we somehow of course have an influence on the environment there will be never no influence and with the degradation of polymers of course we also have an impact on the environment just to give you an example if we create one of the standard the creator of polymers which are meant for degradation we change for example the pH the question is how is how much it is so there will be some dosage for the nearer environment but maybe not for the wider environment what is most important is that during the decoration process no toxic components are developed we often of course at the development of for example carbon dioxide in the degradation of nowadays the creator of polymers so one has to make then a trade-off if it worthwhile to do that or not yes I actually had a question through earlier from Wei who says and when you are sort of changing the degradability are you making a compromise and all those attributes of plastic that makes it so useful what do you say to that beauty and performance but anyway come to the based on chemistry and also our physics we called polymer blending something like that saying we can make such a balance for particular page in performance I just want to pick up on what you said that there is a compromise on the performance what sort of things will be less efficient with plastic if we make it more biodegradable yeah actually the first thing we should satisfy the function for certain application then we find a way to adjust as the deal ability and we can control as a silence or the time how long it will degrade yeah are these methods there yet can chemists do this at the moment I think we basically have the tools but we have to put the tool together do that better and I would like to emphasize as this trade-off situation gives you an example if we have to increase the crop production which we have to do we have only a limited amount of square meters on this blend earth we have to increase the productivity in the future we might have to use the degradable plastic in order to increases then we have a co2 maybe development during this degradation but we maybe also increase a crop production which of out most important for the future our children and grandchildren and this you are the mean by the trade-off Charlotte some people might say that if you make plastic more degradable it’s not really going to teach the world about being sustainable they’ll be like well if I tuck this away it’ll disappear no harm done to what extent is that possibly

going to happen we’ve discussed this at length over the last three days at our meeting and we are very clear that although we can propose technical solutions that allow plastics to be broken more easily back to their small molecules we are not proposing the indiscriminate disposal of plastics in the environment this is not our solution to the problem we need to use technical innovation to redesign these high-performance products and I’m very confident that our field can do this but the behavior of people we need also to tackle that as a society we are not advocating a throwaway culture and the waste of this precious material however it is made and whatever it may degrade to even if those degradation products are non-toxic we still say this is precious material we need to recycle it and reuse it and not have it out there in the environment I’m glad you mentioned cycling because that’s another aspect that you’ve all been looking out there last few days your choker and what problems are there with recycling plastic and polymers at the moment yeah and the reason is the both technical issues and economic issues and there are two issues is a big problem for the plastic so what is so it’s it’s to do with how much it costs but also presumably the way it’s done what problems can be caused a lot of people Leone is actually message to say that a can recycling plastic be done without using a lot of energy yeah for example and it’s the consumer cooperate we are went through through way of the plastics and the energy used for her recycling can be reduced and then the if Maria’s industrial technology can be used well it’s a possibility how about the energy consumptions for recycling with energy of the manufacturing this processes and what changes can be made to plastics to make them more recyclable would you say yeah it’s it’s a good question yes almost yes it’s possible changing how would that change what does that change look like yeah questions of meaning plastics what engine well how can you change a plastic yeah considering that in our life and maybe it’s difficult difficult but we have to the attacker’s plastics are good with solutions and some plastics can changing other materials but almost plastic is a difficult to change other materials for example electric appliances and the automobiles they have a lot of it’s a plastics to reduce of their energy consumption if automobiles changing to the old metals in that case carbon dioxide emissions are more a lot for example packaging plastics is maybe there I hope to the little bit changing with other plastics for the environmentally friendly materials Charlotte’s you know we discussed in some detail some of the challenges with recycling and in future it’s clear that we need to have efficient separations of plastics technically it’s really important to realize that polymer can be recycled within a reasonable temperature range and I say this because many times you see that people wish to replace plastics with materials that might be even more energy if it cost to recycle like metals or glass so to recycle those materials requires a very significantly greater energy input than it does for polymers and some of the challenges for recycling of polymers involve that they are not a single thing they are a mixture of different chemistry’s and so if we can improve that separation of those chemistry’s we can then develop the technology to allow for this recycling

song you’re nodding along to everything Charlotte said yeah as you know there are two ways to reduce the plastic impact on the environment one is the recycle plastic another one is degradation so in some way design early recycle cannot be done very well I mean energy and cost issue so luckily in China’s you know we have a huge lender for my she filmed at for agriculture Martian film so it’s nearly impossible to recycle more than 60% or 7% so we needed bio degradation so this means a change of plastic front traditional non terrible plastic a true bio terrible are in this morning which is cast for environment so it’s not a case of either or it’s both together yes yeah but so how much is it of one improving degradability versus improving recycling Andres what do you think it depends on the application very clearly like in not in a Picasso field you want to have of course the gradation more it’s next to impossible a very huge field in China to recollect that everything is simply not efficient to do that but if you have a material for example like a coffee beaker we get here in a coffee shop in London this could be nice to recycle and see the trash can there and here would like to make point in some countries we have already good recycling systems there can be always improved but I also see other countries we are not any even garbage management systems are they’re not talking about recycling and here clearly maybe also sometimes the education is missing to have the awareness to do that everybody can do his own chemistry or her own chemistry by simply collecting the plastic instead of throwing that in the environment and I think all these things has to come together education garbage management system polymers which are by the way not simple materials they’re complex materials they are like a Lego system which have to be put together either to be clearly decree double to be clearly recyclable that you can that is a wife long that they can be reused again many plastics could also get kind of degraded through the recycling process and then they are maybe even useless after reciting then only burning remains and this is plainly not a solution yes tell us a little bit more about burning listen at the interesting issue because a plastic is although a container for energy and we always have to make a trade of it’s a burning of a plastic a better solution or its recycling because recycling also takes energy and it’s usually connected to a loss in quality for example if you want to use that now for windshield for a high-speed train maybe I would not want to use a recycle plastic maybe the transparency is missing because the recycling process then I have to think whether this would be better burden at least get the energy back this needs a so-called difficult work now lifecycle assessment this has to be done professionally and should it’s done in industry academia you should do that less like chemists like me meet colleagues helping here but this has to be done more if it comes in a real application field I love people when they hear about burning plastic will suddenly become a bit panicked about the emissions that could come from that and the emissions that come from recycling plastic what plans could there be in order to mitigate the effect on climate change as you try and tackle plastic pollution it’s a problem oh and I’m sorry I dress okay that is an important question we all want to and have to reduce the co2 footprint there’s no doubt about that we know all why that is the case and recycling is not recycling recycling can be really either break it down to the starting materials and reuse it again this is a very efficient process but also a demanding process which has maybe the co2 footprint one but we can also re-engineer it and make out of a beaker maybe a table for example or a cloth then it will have a different co2 footprint but whatever we do we will need some energy again the trade-off is a solution you have to see is it easier to make a new polymer and burn the rest it gets a co2 or just to recycle it this has to be carefully calculated and cannot be ended is a white field there is not a single

plastic we have a huge variety of plastics because in our everydays life it’s like oxygen we all have to breathe here and out in the world we have to breathe we don’t notice the oxygen body is not there we notice it same with the plastic considering the plastic recycling and the plastic treatment and we have to consider the other chemical substances for example the plastic container and a lot of the additives and sometimes as a additive added to the environment but now that prohibited from using them in addition the process of the copper and plastic of a chemical raw materials can be recycled as a resources as a raw materials wizard generated hamara substances and of course the carbon dioxide is a one with harm stances harmful substances and there are how to treat of the plastic materials and that we have to consider and there every kind of the chemical substances how difficult is it to do make all these changes yeah and we have a many type of the plastic recycling method and physical recycling processing and chemical recycling process and the burning and the track to the burning and aiming in fact I want it’s better to the energetic of our system and the three a type of the recycling is a method we have and we have to the selected which recirculating system is a method of the each plastic materials depend on which is depend on the dirty one and the impurity ones and how to the history of the how to use cetera and we have to select it today which the circuit method is a better um something that’s been mentioned a bit over the last few days is new plastics Charlotte what do we mean by new plastics exactly Wow we’ve alluded to the fact that plastics catches a lot of different materials chemistry’s additives and forms of material not just the plastic packaging and so when we talk about new plastics and polymers we’ve got an opportunity here as a field and as an industry to think really carefully about the way that we design at a molecular level and at the article level the objects that we use and so this might mean careful redesign of existing materials to make sure that they really fulfill these sustainability criteria what is your criteria when you come to we want to make something more sustainable what is the criteria that is exactly as Andrea said it’s a complete examination of what happens from the very beginning of making the polymer the raw material you use through its use and what happens at the end now the difficulty in doing that type of assessment is how do you relatively offset different impacts and I think we’ve already alluded to this but that’s what we are using already as a field and will continue to use in proposing new types of plastics one of the really inspiring things that we’ve heard here at cs3 is the potential to use unconventional starting materials to make some of these plastics like what well for example we might be in future using wastes from agriculture or from other industries we might be more efficiently using some of the plastics that are out there and reforming them into new types of chemistry and product we might even be using co2 that most troublesome of gases as a raw material to make polymers from so one of the great excitements for me here is hearing that in future we use these range of natural chemistry’s to improve the ability to break at the end of the life that polymer into things that can be recycled or where the application demands it biodegraded it sounds like new plastics have the potential to solve a lot of problems at the same time but and just how expensive is this so that’s what a lot of people wonder yeah are you not going to pay of course the development of a new plastic is always expensive it starts with the research with the fundamental research which has to be done and numbers of

students and professors have to work on that then this has to be transferred to industry they have to do the build up the production the qualitative management it’s a long process and then finally the marketing people have to bring it in the market has to survive the regulation everything but it pays off there’s no way around who I want to give you an example we all need better batteries urgently to reduce our co2 footprint to collect the sunlight save it in the battery that we can heat our houses overnight and run the fridges of the overnight for this we urgently need better membranes in the batteries and these membranes are usually plastics but existing plastics are not good enough yet to really have the super batteries so we are on a good way here but there’s a lot of room it’s just a single example for what we need or a better packaging material for food packaging that our food is longer preserved and here is I’m not talking about communication transport for example lightweight materials which are important for the electric cars that they can run through London with less electricity consumption and to other place as well and here is the room for the new plastics and industry I think it’s a way of that that they need new plastics there could be more aware of course but there’s no way around that are you seeing a lot of funding coming from industry into this kind of researched the good question question for all of you there if I may I think the industry are really well engaged with this problem and they’re their customers and the general public demanding this so I don’t I think it would be simplistic to imply that only academics would be involved in solving the problem absolutely wouldn’t be so but what’s really important is that we accelerate through the process of improving these materials and so close working with a range of industries this could be really important because Andres has given us a hint of how technologically complex you know there’s a really piece of customized design even in a simple piece of relatively apparently simple piece of plastic packaging and so working together to make sure we get that right is really really important and we need to do it quickly what other industries need to get onboard then other industries than the chemical industry yeah for example in China we have such kind of new plastics like a biodegradable plastics and actually started Afrin USA and also German and currently in China we have more than one soul and factories are companies doing biotech or plastic so they support a lot for academic research chemical companies car companies textile companies non woven industries makes the filtration aquaculture companies you name it is a standard for a polymer scientist to work with all these different industry it’s important and there’s a constant communication and you absolutely right of course in industry it’s done a lot of research but I also think there has to be nowadays room for disruptive development that we do not just improve the existing materials that we also think new avenues for example for this battery problem to really get the kind of disruptive development we need not only a constant development we have to be faster so we need some kind of new ideas maybe from young people which are out there and they I’ve a brilliant idea and I come in there and they should have the room to do that and how much research is being dedicated to examining the potential impacts of these new plastics on the environment or does that go hand in hand when developing them from the beginning I think the awareness is now very high in the past we had a discussion about the danger and less the potential of nanotechnology and at that time the Vienna see new technology is much more in effect I’m very thankful it’s not to talk now about plastics because plastics somehow they give me as give me there it’s very taken for granted now we talk about it and it’s so important to explain the layman out in the world what is the plastic what do you have in your hand you lay in the bed and you lay on plastic maybe you should know what your eye I became chemists because I want to know what is around me that was the reason and everybody has the right to know that and I think we have the duty to explain it in simple words as simple as possible yes I think I can speak for the whole world when they say that they want answers and they don’t often want simple ones but if they can’t get simple quick answers then clearly explained to them that it’s a bit more complicated and we’ve talked about all these

potential developments that are being made in this field what sort of timeframes are we talking about when we’re talking about making plastic more degradable when we’re talking about improving recycling is it going to happen in the next 10 years is it to what extent is it already happening there the geographic China they are much faster sooner currently but neoplastic like a priority over plastic is still in the baby stage so we need a more chemistry and a fix in unity experiment clearly cooperation to push such new plastics for live or live application so for example like in China or common Dec encourages postage back and garbage back and also in agriculture Marshall fuel they encouraged whether we can find a way to make such new plastic use this has less environmental impact and also less probably a concern on the final after after use I would say how where do you think the general public are that these changes are already being made and they’re seeing them on their high streets or where they live no need to place a bet right now in former times the development of a new new plastic took about twenty to thirty years this is of course no more there we have now bore much better infrastructure do the development it takes some time you should take a pill against headache it also takes some time until the headache goes but it’s not like that of course you I think a realistic aspect could be with the nowadays ways of communication and would already know already ten years I just now say if you can oppose that but I think 10 years from scratch to that proceeded on the shelf okay ten years brilliant don’t take me on that government make plastic strategy until the 2000 started that the main target in the recycle ratio will be doubled until now and then the biodegradable and by a plastics the market is more expanded to the totally the to medium tone production in Japan but I think the amount is a yeah but Japanese makers at the strategy and then there are because there are equal we used new plastics including the bioplastics in that case there are two all right – roaring that the cost and in that case we need to kill them more expanded market and then there are that strategies it’s recycling and new plastics making until 2033 I’m just gonna take a step away now because we’re getting a lot of questions coming in from people around the world Elizabeth what questions are coming in so we’ve got people tuning in from all around the world from India to Bulgaria so one question we’ve had from Theresa Nogueira is are there any studies to create plastics from agricultural waste and if so can you give me examples important question you know country in China where we used nearly 2 million dong polyethylene or how to film so I said cause a lot of agriculture waste and also may be harmful for soil soil safety so in that case we first we encourage recycle of such cheap plastic but still we find that in huge blender we cannot recycle so easily so when we may need it biodag elastics to push in to reduce agricultural waste maybe I can extend a few a little bit on this interesting

question because shallot in myself and many other colleagues work now on using the orange shells could ingredients which are you we get a lot of orange juice and we get orange shells and how to use the orange shell which although agricultural waste and they’re the compound in which we all know when you look on the back of your shampoo bottles you might read limonene this comes out of the orange shells but our groups do for example with co2 out of this a very nice polymer so one can use that ingredients of real aquaculture waste from a plant to make plastics I think it’s very nice to do that it’s not yet in application as far as I know but many companies are interested in that because also available in large amounts not a smaller compound which you can get out and what else to do with orange shell some countries use orange shells like in Brazil they used a lot nowadays for making food for cows and so on but in other countries like in China orange shells as far as I know are not used not a huge amount but not used for that in China’s case and China try to make a lot of about a plastic change agriculture but in such cases agree but there are many kind of agricultural plastics such a house we have a house at the cover in that case it’s difficult to to the biodegradable plastics in that case that we need to the raw circular and corrected and we have to consider to the how to the degradated were hardly the correct of the waste plastics and the two type of the treatment which is necessary for the sustainable plastic we use there are a number of plastics that are currently sourced from plants but at the moment the majority of those materials are still quite small scale the largest scale example would be poly lactic acid and that comes from lactic acid that was originally sourced from glucose and at the moment that glucose source comes from crops that you might eat but actually in the future there’s very intense research and real possibility to substitute that with either non edible crops or Co products of Agriculture I guess we have to always be a little bit careful with the term waste because a you know what might be assumed to be away from one industry can find over many years of human evolution other useless right but I would say co-products going along with other industries and finding uses for things that are currently not so valuable to them that’s oh that’s an interesting idea for making plastics and one that certainly the community is really engaged in researching it sounds very promising results thus far and there’s a lot more another question here on YouTube wants to know is there still a risk that biodegradable polymers will still break down into micro plastics that could cause further environmental problems I think it’s a very good question and one in which the kind of environmental and talks are logical community are very actively engaged and at this point I think it would be premature for anybody to say no in answer to that but I think that the early science in testing of those materials is that the design is appropriate there may be things to improve about the relative amount of time that it takes for things to biodegrade we need to be very careful because the environment is a complicated place but we we are engaged in the scientific discussions and we’ve seen that in a very inspiring way at this meeting we’ve seen you know both very compelling evidence of the problem of pervasive micro plastics that were made in in the alteration ways and the research that’s going to make sure that we avoid these unintended consequences in future DC world where we won’t be talking about micro plastics so much in the way that we currently do in the past two years we have a lot of for micro party case yeah actually for such kind of micro particles we can finally in the sea or also you in the land so it’s true but we can find a new way we if we can use new plastic is or if we can you like a biodegradable plastics they can be degraded into not a micro class 2 molecule yeah and like a shield shield whoo in water that’s not that so it

should be wait we’re needing the concern about the micro plastic is from such kind of a new plastic it’s all about breaking things down into nicer things rather than make the plastic sundress large research program or micro plastic involving more than 30 research groups in bio and surrounding universities because we don’t know anything about the effect of micro plastic we know it they’re more or less you know anything what does it do to any organisms and to ourself although very interesting we don’t know how it is transport through the different environments order air and soil it it is happening but we don’t know how and we don’t know how it’s being formed because micro plastic is not micro plastic it can consist of many polymers many ingredients which are in there and what is really a danger if there is any danger we don’t know it yet and we have to find it out and there are worldwide it’s very intensive research efforts now to find out what are the micro plastic due to us and then only we can find solution to do something against it and I would like to emphasize it’s not a way to fish it out of the water in the ocean you destroy so much organisms in doing that that many of us strongly oppose that better is to avoid it at all there’s a better solution or find other solutions but for this we need to know these mechanisms and scientists and industry as well is now active in battling this problem would you agree that progression with things like degradability and recyclability can’t really happen unless we know more about micro plastics no I would not agree on that because these are two different issues for example the micro plastic is the majority is being formed by polyethylene polypropylene polyethylene terephthalate just to name some of them which are so-called komoti plastics which are used in large amounts in contrast to the cradle polymers which are now in the market i used in by far lower values you might finds and nowadays on a compost plant because they don’t degrade in the time as I should decorate as the compost is bringing out of the fields but this is really a relatively small amount in compared to the so-called big plastics I think it’s really important to talk about the timescales for technological deployment in this field there is an immediate term crisis and we need immediate term research to understand what’s happening in our environment but we also need to kickstart research rapidly so that we can solve some of those problems and we simply cannot afford to wait until we have all the answers about polythene before we begin bringing through the research through that pipeline that takes time so that we have materials that that don’t give rise to these problems so we have to talk to one another we have to keep the two communities really in active discussion but we can’t do this in a linear way where we wait for the answer there before we make change it’s got to be everything absolutely the same absolutely but I think we’ve got time for one more question all right so Tina Gregory on YouTube wants to know what do we do about the plastic already in the ocean you touched on this just now didn’t you what do you do about the plastic already in the ocean you’re not a fan of removing it with a net would know the end there I would be maybe not sitting here I said already I think the fishing out of that is not a solution like having big Nets which go around and fishing out the plastic will may cause more harm than let it be there what is the solution then in fact I have no proper ender for that to do with the plastic which is right now in the ocean the question should have just how much everyone should be aware that not just a bad aspect of the plastics but also they pray important rules such as improve quality of life such as reducing energy consumptions and keep that and the current plastics issue current Plastics problem such as a micro plastics also is one of the challenging that struck our lifestyle change and this issue is a not trust for castings of plastic and that is issues to how that’s an interesting point Yoshioka because a lot of people want to know well what if I take one thing away from this what what should I be doing so I can help with this plastic pollution problem from your points of view should

stop immediately dumping garbage into the ocean which is still happening and if we would stop that immediately this would help a lot if everybody in the UN or whatever would commit himself we don’t dump from boats and I don’t know what any garbage in the ocean anymore this would help not alone country is so difficult to do is a huge part Russia in the ocean yes the very tip other maybe we can collect but it takes a lot of I think energy and the cost is cost issue so I agree with cleaner so can’t really we just need a more education and so to stop pouring plastic hair to the into rivers in the ocean and Charlotte I do think that it’s a very interesting question that were asked and we heard at the conference of the importance of of models and understanding of what happens to that plastic that’s in the ocean and I think that that’s essential that we build a almost world scale model of what’s going on and I we we I mean the community of scientists engaged in this activity so that we understand if there are easier opportunities to remove some of it so unlike Andres I think if we can take some of that plastic out we should explore every possibility to do so until we are sure that there’s not a negative impact because at the moment it is not clear what the impact of those materials in the sea is and some of the interesting research here that we heard about was how often small particles get beached and washed away from beaches and so on so that was certainly very eye-opening for me and of course you know a natural consequence of tides one might say but are there opportunities through really understanding that to to grab some of that plastic out and and you know at least try and limit some of this effects of course the comments that my colleagues make about immediately turning off the tap in terms of appropriate waste management is highly important thank you all so much for sparing the time I know it’s been a long three days and I’m really glad that you can share with everyone what you’ve been talking about and full results will be come out next year sometime I believe but until then thank you for giving us this insight into your world it sounds very very optimistic but that all the role that chemistry can play well you’re not alone in fighting this problem it seems like in a lot more workers than you did across around the world and across the board in order to tackle this plastic pollution problem and I think that’s what we’ve got time for I’m hearing in my ear thank you very much for joining us today the discussion here and the broadcast may be over but the argument and the discussion will continue online so please keep leaving your comments those hashtags again our progressive plastics and our SC sustained RSC sustainability we will be milling about and we will be answering some of your questions online after the session until then thank you very much for tuning in

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