but now I want to talk about really sort of hot topic right now is a lot of research in this and it’s sort of this idea that it will sort of get to how this isn’t totally true but in basic terms how guys kind of come in two varieties will sort of talk about that and of course we’ll talk about how a lot of guys sort of fall in the middle of these two varieties but these are sort of the two extremes so in perfect you know pictorial representation of this but allow researchers said that basically guys come in sort of a high testosterone or low testosterone kind of variety so for high testosterone man what typifies them physically well facial features it’s actually a lot of the stuff that we’ve talked about as being very attractive in guys or at least most women find these things very attractive in a male face for example so you know prominent brow Ridge thin lips a prominent square jaw line sort of a strong chin ample facial hair so remember when we looked at the prototypical attractive and unattractive male faces well these are all characteristics of the prototypical attractive male face body features you know basically what you’d expect for an athletic men so a muscular build not too muscular though usually women sort of like a medium athletic build broad shoulders ample body hair all that kind of stuff those are all typify of men who have basically high testosterone levels usually starting you know prenatally all the way up through the lifetime it tends your testosterone levels as a guy tends to be very consistent across the lifetime whereas the low testosterone man oh poor guy i love this actor but he does sort of typify the perfect low testosterone male facial feature wise someone with fuller lips so more round lips round your face in general but a smaller pointy chin so basically an underdeveloped jawline and patchy facial hair so basically kind of the opposite of the high testosterone male with facial features and bodily features you know sunken shoulders not really broad upright shoulders a non muscular so either thin or flabby build and patchy body hair in general so those are all indicative of low testosterone also kind of indicative of at least some of these like the rounder lips router face indicative of the knots so attractive male prototype so in indy testosterone and guys is related to just basically more attractive features in general one really cool way to test out your own testosterone and this actually works for men and women we’re going to kind of talk more about it with men but it’s called a finger digit test so that will get in this test in a sec but the reason why this works is that your fingers develop differently in the womb as a fetus to being on how much testosterone you have circulating around you and in you so this is something that actually is it something that only really develops and changes how your your fingers grow in the womb but it’s really indicative of testosterone levels throughout your entire lifetime because again like I was saying how much testosterone you have in the womb really dictates how much testosterone and you have you know as a child throughout puberty as an adult in the old age and beyond we have we tend to have very consistent levels so the way to measure this and this is a really neat test because you can actually do this at home although you have to be pretty exact in your measurement so you really can’t eyeball this you need to actually get out measuring tapes and test this out for yourself but what you want to do is test for the difference between how big your usually people call your index finger we tend to call it the the second digit because this is your first digit here your thumb so the second digit compared to your fourth digit or ring finger right here so you you measure this from the crease in your paw which is usually some around here all the way to the very tip of your finger and the real key is that you measure consistently so you can measure it you know from maybe your knuckle to your tip your fingernail or on the reverse side the crease in the palm all the way up to maybe rounding up to your fingernail or just to the tip of the finger the only thing that matters actually is that you just measured very consistently because what matters is the ratio between this finger and this finger so for typical guys actually let me jump back for sex so what tends to happen with testosterone is that this ring finger middle finger grows to be quite a bit bigger than this index finger so the more masculine eyes or the more testosterone you have in the room the longer this finger is growing compared to this finger right here okay so for most guys the second to to fourth digit ratio is point 0 for meaning that I’ll jump over here for guys meaning that this finger is four percent longer than this one on average for most guys and that indicates sort of a moderate level of testosterone and that is where most guys fall so again you have to get pretty exacting in your measurements to find a four percent difference so for high testosterone man what it means is that this finger is about six percent or more larger than

this finger right here so again it’s not something you really tell by eyeballing it you can’t look at someone’s hand go oh yeah that fingers six percent larger for sure something you really need a measuring tape with but you know you a measure that at home and for low testosterone guys they either tend to be you know equal basically in length or less than and so it’s rare but in some guys you can get a ring finger that’s basically less long than the index finger that that’s really an indicator of quite low testosterone levels so it’s pretty rare but not nearly as rare and women a lot of women have basically ring fingers that are the same in size to their index finger or maybe even a little less than indicating basically for most women a low testosterone level in the womb which is kind of expected so okay basically we use these types of measures and lots of studies use the finger digit ratio because that seems to be very predictive of testosterone levels later in life other measure or other studies have used actual testosterone levels which you can get from blood samples or urine samples so we’re going to look at results from sort of a mix of those I just wanted to give you sort of a cool test to see your own testosterone levels at home but this has been used to look at the psychological and relationship traits of these quote-unquote high testosterone or low testosterone men so again these are men who aren’t in the middle but are usually one standard deviation above or below the mean in average testosterone levels so an unsurprising and obviously I have a lot of citations here you don’t need to memorize those or any of the citations right matter but it’s just something I had a personal interest in so I’ve sort of read up on a lot of this literature and sort of consolidating it here so not too surprising if you have high testosterone levels as a guy you tend to be more assertive more aggressive also you know more likely to get into fights more likely to become a criminal those are sort of the negative sides of those traits but also more likely to be in a high power job all those kind of things so things that go along with assertiveness and aggression also something that tends to correlate pretty highly with testosterone levels having to do with how testosterone affects mostly growth and development of the parietal and occipital lobe in the brain is that guys with high testosterone levels tend to have good visual acuity so tend to be more likely to have 2020 vision and also spatial ability which actually a good indicator that is athletic ability so being able to catch and throw a ball to be able to have good hand-eye coordination all that kind of stuff especially because testosterone is really critical in development of the parietal lobe which has a lot to do with those functions they tend to have better than average numerical ability meaning they’re basically better at math not only in school but just in sort of a general sense you give them sort of a problem with measurements or you know having to build something that involves measuring things beforehand they tend to be better at tasks like that so think I know what we think of as a prototypical guy you know good at sports good at building things go to figuring out mathematics but also this is sort of the caveat the downside to it is lower verbal aptitude so as we’re as these guys are developing higher aptitudes with things that involve the parietal lobe oftentimes their temporal lobe especially the the brocean ver Nikki’s area kind of suffer from that so they tend to not be as good at expressing themselves and language to not to have as good a reading ability and so in these ways might be doing worse in schools in subway interestingly more recent research has found that probably especially due to this higher numerical aptitude they tend to be better at music as well not just in reading and writing music but also in playing it there’s a lot of research now showing that music is really tied functionally in the brain with mathematical ability it’s kind of interesting and also in general is sort of no surprise giving their better visual spatial ability they tend to be better athletes in general and also they tend to be more muscular and build so that kind of goes hand in hand with that so you know kind of the quintessential who I wouldn’t say a jock stereotype because they tend to be also good at math and music but you know lots of things that you’d expect with a guy with high levels of testosterone so relationship wise if you know this skit from Monty Python this makes sense so sort of the prototypical strong silent type when it comes to relationship so again these are guys with above average levels of testosterone they tend to not be very verbal as we talked about and obviously they tend to be pretty muscular so it kind of goes with it that strong silent type stereotype of the guy especially if you look at books like men are from Mars Women are from Venus the guys from bars are usually prototypically these high testosterone men which actually don’t typify most men but they are sort of that they extreme end they tend to have a high sex drive also which tends to lead to too good and bad things you know more sex within marriage also more sex outside of marriage which we’ll talk about so they tend to have a higher sperm count no surprise there testosterone is really highly related with sperm production and because of that they tend to have more sex partners and have more children than the average guy they also tend to have more marriages which you know is probably not a great thing meaning more divorces and

more remarriages also if they get divorced later in life they tend to get remarried to younger women and they are also far more likely to cheat and actually if you look at the 25 percent of guys who do cheat a very high percentage of those in fact I think the majority are those high testosterone meds so that that is a pretty strong predictor of cheating okay so now the low testosterone guys of which drew Carey kind of typifies that at least in facial features I don’t know what it is you know aptitudes are but I’m just sort of guessing here so kind of what you’d expect as being sort of the opposite of those with high testosterone although they tend to often be more average than low in these things about women or sorry guys with low testosterone do tend to be lower in a certain as an aggression than average but for the most part they tend to be just kind of average another thing so it’s not they have low visuospatial ability or low numerical ability or particularly high verbal ability they just sort of tend to be average in these things because they’re not sort of getting a leg up or a leg down when it comes to verbal ability in differences development of the brain prenatally so relationship wise is where we actually see the biggest Irwin’s differences between low and high testosterone guys basically for low testosterone guys they tend to basically have average or lower than average sex drives which actually tends to work out very well when matching the sex drives of women in relationships so actually they tend to report a high level of sexual satisfaction along with their mates because basically they’re on the same level they desire the same amount of sex they tend to be more likely to be serial monogamist meaning that not necessarily that they’re they’re only having sex within marriage but only having sex with in long-term relationships they’re more likely to be rated as being loving and committed and caring by their mates so they actually tend to be made a very good relationship partners basically for women and also you know maybe four other guys if their homosexual and they’re less likely to get divorced Lex likely to cheat much more likely to have one marriage through throughout a lifetime so basically in those ways they’re really the opposite of those high testosterone men so again you know a lot of guys fall in the middle of that but you know the quite a big percentage of the population about 25 to 30 percent of guys fall either in the low testosterone or high testosterone sections of the population so what’s also interesting is that guys tend to actually change their testosterone levels throughout their lifetime mostly depending on what kind of relationship they’re in so guys especially if they’re more toward the average end can go from a little bit higher than average testosterone level to a little bit excuse me lower than average testosterone level depending on where they are in their life so lots of studies have now found that as guys get into stable relationships their testosterone levels actually tend to decrease so you know even if you have a guy who has a relatively high testosterone level and maybe has a very high sex drive and everything that goes along with that once they’re in a stable relationship they can actually if not dip down to a low testosterone level get a little bit more average that their testosterone levels going to sink down a little bit and same goes with a net guy with an average low testosterone can probably sink down to a guy with lower than average levels of testosterone once they’re in a stable relationship and you know along with that this prob explains why guys and long-term relationships do tend to end up having a lower sex drive and get to be more of those cuddly caring kind of guys another testosterone testosterone drop tends to happen when guys become fathers so lots of chemical changes happen in women obviously when they become mothers when they get birth but also actually a lot happens to father’s as well a lot of it’s actually tied with smell so when guys there’s a great study that was pretty recent that even if a guy’s not a father if you have them smell the top of the head of a baby he it will actually produce less testosterone for a short while after that so the guy just the smell of a newborn baby or a smell of a young infant will actually decrease a guy’s testosterone levels which is very interesting so the guy sort of goes hey my job is done for a little while you know I have successfully impregnated a woman and produced offspring otherwise why would I be smelling this baby’s head so you know I can kind of relax on testosterone production it’s very interesting how our hormone levels are tied with small things like that now actually testosterone levels tend to rise basically back up to pre relationship levels after a breakup or divorce which is very interesting because guys it’s not uncommon that if guys get divorced or have a breakup that’s suddenly their sex drive will spike back up suddenly you’ll find them in the gym again not necessarily because they want to you know look good for the next mate but because they suddenly have all this energy and a very muscular sort of aggressive energy again because they’re suddenly have higher levels of testosterone than maybe they’ve been used to for the past few years it’s very interesting to see that that kind of changed to how our home Myrtle levels really do adjust depending on our surroundings and our lifestyle so okay

so for a minority of man so about in this case around twenty percent of guys their testosterone levels actually don’t respond normally to these relationship events so again like what i was saying for most guys maybe eighty ninety percent of guys their testosterone levels are going to drop when they get in a relationship or have kids for minority of man this doesn’t happen in this tends to be very predictive of things like extramarital affairs so if a guy is not experiencing that normal testosterone drop when they get married there thirty-eight percent more likely to have an affair it during that relationship there are also forty-three percent more to get divorce which is very interesting and this is sort of raises the question was the guy really into the relationship then which might be sort of a confound so the guy’s not really feeling in love with the woman that there with or really emotionally bonded they might not have that lowering of testosterone which might be the real problem is more the lack of intimacy in relationship it’s kind of hard to tease those things apart at this point but also their they’re 13 percent more likely to be physically abusive with their partner which does tend to be something related to with higher testosterone levels in general so again testosterone likely is something that feeds into how successful the relationship is and then sort of well basically I guess a testosterone levels maybe our product of how successful relationship is at emotional bonding and then again feedback into how successful it is sort of a feedback loop very likely okay so which of these two type do women tend to prefer and actually it’s more of a question of it depends on where a woman is in their lifetime and what they want so when women want a long-term relationship they tend to prefer guys with lower testosterone levels and this has been found in a lot of studies so you know as ladies I really like this one where they look at women on dating sites like eharmony or I cupid in the last them of course questions like are you looking for a long-term relationship are you looking for a short term relationship and women who are looking for a long-term relationship tend to message and get with more guys who show all of these facial and bodily and personality types that are similar to those with low testosterone levels and the opposite tends to be shown for women who want a short term relationship so guys who want maybe a fling or an affair tend to prefer guys know on dating websites but also just in surveys guys with more of those masculine testosterone high testosterone level facial bodily personality features we might call the more hunky guys versus the more lovey dovey guys I like I was saying in this tends to be more of a type of guy that women who want to have affairs or end up having affairs end up you know getting with also another interesting thing is that it also kind of depends on what what time of the month it is so as we talked about you know women are more susceptible to pheromones that are produced from testosterone during times of ovulation this might also explain why during ovulation women tend to prefer guys who produce more testosterone so during ovulation women tend to see guys with these more rugged facial features dominant behavior and all that as being more attractive and then when they’re not ovulating they tend to maybe veered more toward the average type of guy or maybe even the low testosterone kind of guy so it’s basically in a nutshell commonly found that women who are looking for or basically not looking for marriage looking for a short term relationship so women who are young women who don’t want to be in a committed relationship tend to go for the more high testosterone guys the guy with the more facial hair battle higher ugly hair square jaw dominant silent type you know type of personality whereas women who are older you know in their 30s 40s perhaps whining to settle down tend to go for more than low testosterone guys and I wouldn’t say that this guy I sort of this is mr. big from sexing see I just clear we got this guy because he you know looks like he’s from marriage potential or no way this is guy from the bachelor show I think anyway this guy does have some high testosterone level attributes he has square shoulders square jaw facial hair so kind of ignore that but I’m just kind of going for the more stable looking guy so what’s interesting is that lots of research has found that while women who are older and why you sell down tend to go for these types of guys with relationships when they you know of course a small percentage of them end up having affairs they tend to have affairs with guys more like this so this has led some you know not many but some evolutionary psychologists deposit is there in fact an evolutionary drive to cheat and this is not unprecedented this actually has been found in lots of mammalian species and there’s even some evidence for it when humans so I just love this picture this was a russian couple actually an actual picture of you know someone getting caught in the act so some psychologists argue that women have evolved this tendency to basically attract and keep these low testosterone men so this makes sense on a

reproductive level they want a guy who is going to not be premise it’s not cheat on them who’s going to stick around and help them raise and support their children and be emotionally supportive but then once they have these men they will tend to cheat on them with high testosterone men so men who are by them you know because of the testosterone the more fertile and also more likely to produce stronger offspring so guys with high testosterone do tend to produce healthier offspring than guys with low testosterone levels also tend to be more healthy themselves so this is kind of a callous view of women and obviously one that doesn’t fit the bill with most but it does fit the bill with lots of mammalian species you see this in chimps all the time where a chimp will attract a mailchimp our female chimp will attract a mailchimp to basically help them take care of their offspring but when the mailchimp isn’t looking she’s off with the you know more hearty high testosterone male chimps getting pregnant so that you can have you know more robust offspring so basically the guy with the drug on the long term eight says i supply the support and he’s saying i supply the sperm so obviously this has found a lot samantha species probably not the case for most relationships especially the fact that only about fifteen percent of women actually do end up cheating oops but you know studies have found that when women are ovulating they’re more likely to both cheat and to cheat with a guy with a higher level of testosterone so sort of that rugged high testosterone male type so this definitely isn’t a impossible or even unlikely scenario this obviously does happen and maybe biologically driven and of course when a woman’s ovulating she’s at her highest peak of getting pregnant so it’s sort of all these these clusters of things coming together to make it more likely that a woman will be with a maybe average or low testosterone guy but end up getting pregnant with a high testosterone guys offspring and in fact this is sort of a a real bummer for guys with children but when we do anonymous DNA testing with kids and their parents and there’s been lots of studies I’ve done this you can do this with just a cheek swab now feeldoe cheek swab basically kids and Jen cheek swab their biological parent about three percent of children born in the US are actually not born from their father vast majority of the cases the father that they well the married father the husband of the their mother has no idea about this so actually the prevalence of women getting pregnant from affairs is pretty high and higher than you would expect just by chance levels so it sort of does indicate that women are likely having affairs when they’re ovulating are likely having affairs with high testosterone men and thus upping their level of impregnation when they are having affairs so you know it’s kind of one of those things that if you are the father of a child there is a three percent chance of that that kid ain’t yours and that is kind of that’s that’s something that surprises a lot of guys and of course when you’re doing research like that you don’t tell the husband’s the male participants so they go on not knowing after that you know study is done that’s not really the place for the researcher to impart that information okay so so come back to a caveat on this I’ve tried to you know soften some of these findings a bit with reality and that the reality is that most guys really do fall in the middle of the spectrum so it’s really only maybe twenty to thirty percent of guys who could be said to quote-unquote have high or above average testosterone levels or below average testosterone levels being you know one standard deviation above or below the mean and also most women prefer guys who are either average or just a little bit right or left of center so guys who are a little bit more above average in testosterone or a little bit below average in testosterone so most women aren’t going for the you know really prototypical strong silent type and most women also aren’t going for the really you know lovey dovey low sex drive kind of stereotype they’re going for somewhere you know in the middle maybe leaning a little bit right or left it all so here’s a big caveat most women don’t cheat so only about fifteen percent of women cheat across a lifetime so in about only about three percent of you know children are born outside of marriage or I shouldn’t say that but but basically where the husband doesn’t know that it’s not his so you know there is some biological drive perhaps for that kind of behavior but it’s still unlikely very likely because of sort of cultural views and restrictions in that kind of behavior so you know while most women do for on a k perhaps when ovulating or they want to fling or they want an affair go for these rugged type of guys with high testosterone by and large these guys actually kind of lose out when it comes to women so the vast majority of women actually prefer relationship with guys who are more low testosterone and actually it’s been shown that while high testosterone guys tend to have more relationships and indeed have more kids and more sex low testosterone guys tend to have much longer or more stable and much more emotionally satisfying relationships and high testosterone

guides they tend to have or rate themselves as having more satisfaction in relationships and their mates their women tend route to say the same and actually that’s been true also of homosexual relationships as well I know we haven’t really covered those much but that tends to carry over quite a bit for homosexual relationships regardless of gender so you know just a caveat that most of the time the nice guys do get the girl it’s not quite like in the movies where you know it’s a strong hero that comes rushing in with the big muscles off and gets a girl most of the time it’s it’s basically average guys with average levels of testosterone or even a bit look below average those guys tend to be favored in long-term relationships okay so one last thing I want to cover it’s kind of an interesting thing and something I get asked a lot is do women go for guys who remind them of their fathers that’s kind of a creepy question in a way but it’s something that has been noticed for decades in psychology and it’s what you know one of the founding theories of Freudian ism which is one of the big theories of how relationships forum and affect our lives and the question is or that sorry the answer is that basically yes and actually this is just one in more reason SETI’s but lots of studies have found that women do tend to go for guys who at least facially and bodily remind them of their fathers you know not probably not on a conscious level it’s not like a woman’s going along in a bar and going hey you look like my dad sexy um at least I hope not but women when they do find a mate in to be surprised if they don’t recognize her than the researcher at least are surprised at how much they look like their own father’s so this is interestingly the same for women who are adopted so this sort of shows that this isn’t just an artifact of women being attracted to guys to kind of look like the male version of themselves which would naturally be someone you know who would look like their father just by happenstance because butts fathers and daughters share live genes but this really goes to show you that even if you have no genetic link with your father as a woman you tend to steal go after guys who who look similar to your father so this is something that is more of a learned preference or entirely in a learned preference more than a biological preference so some follow-up studies on this more recent research shows that actually women don’t tend to go for someone who maybe looks like their father now in the present day so there were 40 50 60 father for 20 year-old woman but they tend to go for someone who looks like their father when they themselves were a young child so somewhere between ages 2 and 8 so they’re probably looking for more someone who looked like their father when their father was in their 20s or early 30s most often times and also this effect tends to be much larger for women who have a close relationship with their father so obviously if a daughter didn’t really know their father this effect doesn’t really seem to to show up and if there if she didn’t have a very good relationship with her father didn’t see or interact with her father much there tends to be much less of a prevalence or much less of a preference excuse me so another thing which is cropped up is that actually the age of your father tends to affect the age of what your preferences for a romantic partner so if you were born of a father who had you later in life so let’s say your father had you when he was 35 so he would have been about in his 40s mid-40s when you were of that impressionable age it’s likely that throughout your lifetime as a woman you’ll be attracted to older guys if not in their 40s but maybe know when you’re in your 20s maybe they would be in their 30s and when you’re in your 30s maybe they would be in their 40s whereas if you or a daughter of a younger guy so they had you when you know guy has you when you he’s 18 you’re likely to be attracted more two guys in their mid-20s again throughout the lifetime sort of that age group so again just indicating that women do tend to go for guys of that same type as their father when they were at that impressionable age very interestingly we don’t see that trend for for boys and their mother so when guys grow up they don’t tend to go after women who look like their moms so it’s interesting we see that that between gender difference now what why are women attracted to their dads not for any sort of sick or Freudian reason it turns out that this is much more just to the general maybe we could call an associate associative model of mating that we tend to like people who remind ourselves of other people that we like maybe even chalk it up to the mere exposure effect that if we’ve seen someone who looks like someone that we’ve seen throughout our entire lifetime we’re like to like them more just because they seem familiar to us but it’s likely due to the fact that you know this trend seems to be especially prevalent in women who have had good relationships with their fathers well it’s no wonder that if some guy comes along and sort of on maybe an unconscious level reminds you of this person that you’ve had a great relationship with you’d be more attracted to them they might remind you of that love that you have for your dad of course a non-sexual love I’m sure but also just the feeling of you know love

and support and security and affection that you know daughter should get from their fathers that stuff is going to give that guy a bit of an edge because all that stuff is just sort of you know comes up naturally in the brain of that woman when he/she sees him just because that relationship with their own father so it’s kind of no wonder and also you know just in general researchers found that if you’ve had a good past relationship with someone a friend or maybe a romantic relationship you tend to be seeking guys in this tends to be sort of a cross-gender a fact the guys and gals who remind you of that past relationship you either in a physical trait or in a personality trait so it just sort of sort of goes to show you if you have good experiences with a certain type of person you tend to seek those experiences again in the future just like we do have everything you know if we have a great experience with a chocolate cake and another chocolate cake comes along looks like it we’re much more likely to go for it so you know really no surprise there that people would go for you know at least women would go for their dads if they’ve had a good relationship with her dad again nothing creepy about that I think Freud kind of turned that into something a little more creepy than it should have been but anyway so that was a lecture I just wanted to sort of recap again apologize for I couldn’t do that on Wednesday I basically had very little of a voice my voice is still kind of recovering but hopefully this is pretty much akin to the lecture so you know this will be included on the test coming up next week so make sure to study for it and i’ll see you all then

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