okay guys let’s talk about the map kinase pathway it’s also called as a map k pathway so let’s let us talk about it so let me take a color first here map kinase pathway is a pathway which is related to cell proliferation and cell division it is ultimately giving the cell the different proteins and all these enzymes ultimately cell to divide and proliferate in a particular area so in a map kinase pathway you can see the different enzymes and different different signaling molecules working together to finally make a cell growth and divide properly now if anything wrong happen with the map kinase pathway even it gets activated too much so you know the functionality is the cell growth and the division and also cell proliferation right so if both of these things happen very positively I mean extra positively in that case it may turn into the cell as a malignant cells I mean without the control of cell growth so ultimately map kinase will lead to cancer in that case we see all these things later but actually map kinase pathways along with the cell proliferation and growth and if you begin with the with this with the very basic thing about any pathway it should have first the cell signaling molecule one signaling molecule and obviously it should have a receptor of that signaling molecule so in this case the signaling molecule for a map kinase pathway most of the cases it they are hormones they are hormones like growth hormones especially growth hormones so there are different types of growth hormones like there one of them is EGF epidermal growth factor right another one is they can be v DGF this is also another kind of growth factor so these are also called as growth hormone or growth factor whatever we can say EGF is epidermal growth factor v DG f is vascular endothelium I mean PDGF sorry not vdg platelet-derived growth factor so these are the different types of growth factors that can figure the map kinase pathway so the idea here and there should be a receptor for it and the receptor name naming is very easy you just take the name of the signaling molecule that is let us say the epidermal growth factor or EGF and simply put the receptor as a suffix ter so EGFR is the receptor for EGF so this is a EGF the signaling hormone the signaling molecule EGFR is the receptor that is embedded in the cell membrane now this EGFR or this receptor that is present here this receptor is nothing but this is a transmembrane protein and once EGF is on contact with this EGFR it finally it gets phosphorylated is an enzymatic receptor it gets phosphorylated and it is now attached with the accessory proteins out there in the cytosolic section which are grb-2 and is OS so these things grb-2 and so is once those things are attached with this phosphorylated EGFR they have a huge property to activate one of the most important mediators of this whole pathway that is called wrasse now wrasse is a protein which can activate further which can actually activate the map kinase because rest of the things we are going to see will be called as map kinase whereas is different and wrasse should be active for making map kinase activated so wrasse usually is in inactive form when it is bound with gdp now this grb-2 with SOS they can activate vas by substituting the gdp of grass with GTP so now it is substituted with GTP once it is substituted with GTP the gdp is released now the wrasse is attached with GTP and it is termed as a Razzie TP which is active this is the active form of GTP and once the grass is active now this wrasse can activate the map kinases now it first activate what is called as map kinase kinase kinase it is also known as RAF RAF is nothing but map kinase kinase kinase so this map kinase kinase kinase is activated by the active protein once it is activated this map kinase kinase kinase RF activates map kinase kinase that is also known as make so make is also known as map kinase kinase once RAF activates make that means map kinase kinase kinase activates map kinase tiniest and all those things as their kindness proteins you know they have the tendency to phosphorylate other proteins to activate it so in each of these stages they require the phosphate group and usually the phosphate group

donor is nothing but ATP so ATP donates the phosphate group to RAF RAF is phosphorylated active it donates it to make make gets phosphorylated active now make finally activates what is called as map kinase so we started with map 3 kinase is then map to kinase now finally map kinase so once the map kindness is phosphorylated it is in active form this map kinase can bring in the actual cellular effect that’s why we call it a map kinase pathway instead of anything else so once map kinase is activated map kind is we activate another proteins like mnk this is also kind of times our SK another type of kindness or Mik and finally it can activate CREB Mik s6 protein so these proteins like krebs cs6 make these things are nothing but transcription factors you know transcription factors can actually start a transcription process now once the transcription process is initiated due to the binding of transcription factor to the promoter sequence it will start initiating the transcription of the gene once this is transcribed into mRNA that can be brought to the cytosol and can produce proteins now the proteins usually produced after this transcription factor activation are all of those proteins necessary for cell growth and division like cycling’s cyclin CDK s and many more different types microtubules and all those constructive materials for cell cycle and division so once those proteins are activated the cell will get the signal to grow and divide rapidly and then proliferate so now let’s imagine if the situation occurs like that that this signaling pathway remains on throughout the time because like all of the signaling pathway is an on and off switch and in this case of map kinase pathway we also have that on an off switch now if this pathway remains on continuously it can activate this whole process of cycling’s and cdk proteins and finally it can turn a normal cell into a malignant cell because the cell will lost the control of cell division it will grow and grow and grow and divide and divide who ultimately gave us cancer now that thing happens if there is any problem with this grass protein because we know Raz is a very important mediator because if grass is activated all of these downstream mediators will be activated sequentially so normally after the activation of rass there is a cycle of inactivation also to stop this signaling pathway and that thing is simply by by hydrolysis of the gtp into GDP so this GTP bound with wrasse gets hydrolyzed into gdp inorganic phosphates frost rate is released and now the wrasse becomes only attached with gdp becomes inactivated so that thing is also necessary now let’s say in certain cases of rass protein mutation the gtp can bind with rash permanently in those cases the rash will not revert back to the inactive form and in that case the whole signaling pathway remains on throughout the time and it can convert the cell into a cancer Swan so there is map kinase pathway is related with cancer

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