as i was told i will be talking about Hungary I did the focus and I will talk about two things basically the rule of law and democracy if you take a look on the basic facts hungary in the European Union it is this country is a member of the European Union since 2004 I would say a reluctant under recently because it doesn’t look like it belongs to the European Union it is a membership without sort of true in all feeling of belonging actually this is how the government presents the Hungarian position within the European Union the population has a different opinion to juggle Hungarian actually like the European Union so if there is a sort of discrepancy between the governor communication which focuses on national war of independence and the everyday experience of the population European Union means first of all hope of orders rasmus fellowships travels education and integration to the European values the economy contact is the post economic crisis situation go to financial crisis in 2008 and that made possible for this breakthrough this big storm which occurred 2010 in Hungary that fit as after eight years of socialist Liberal government came to power receiving fifty-three percent of the votes but due to the disproportionate system of the electoral law receiving to turn majority in the parliament the elections were free and family 2000 unfortunately we cannot say the same about the 2014 elections which are widely seen as free and unfair if you have question I can elaborate this late that one so while 2010 absolute majority was enough for a qualified majority in the parliament in 2014 45 forty-four percent of the boats was enough to have to third of the seats in the parliament so the Hungarian party system is a dominant hegemonic practices but basically there is one party sort of state party which dominates the political agenda the opposition is fragmented the left is fragmented badly beaten and still try to recover why the far right is sort of emerging there are speculations about the danger of your peak whether it will be the dominant party of the future or not it is still about fifteen to eighteen percent twenty percent some time if you compare it to France from nacional it is stronger if you see then mark or Austria i would say that there are democracies latest rom firelight party but the center is unattached to the far right ideas there is a clear-cut division between the far right and the center and the problem in Hungary exactly this that this doesn’t exist there is an overlap in several aspects between yoga fitness and therefore the real problem in anger is not so much the fact the existence of our language my greatest as i said in normal Western democracies but actually the mainstreaming the extreme ideas so with some irony we would say that we can have we have an extreme Center not an extreme right and that makes democracy more vulnerable so the direction of change is unfortunately negative since 2010 Hungary used to be a consolidated liberal democracy by all democracy measuring institutions actually Freedom House consider it as a consolidated democracy until 2013 now the recent results they suggest that it is still free but it is downgraded a little bit terms of political rights and civil liberties so a group of people political and economical enterpreneurs capture the

state from occupy the state from inside and the process is a sort of hollowing out a liberal democracy from inside it’s very interesting from a phenomenon as a political scientist I follow this process with great interest but as a citizen of the country I am less happy with this procedure so it seems like there is a something new and mix the hybrid regime we don’t know the end of the story so what are the conceptual pillars of the old regime in my second slide it is interesting to see that we don’t say usually that open government is a open machine so after the name of the Prime Minister Viktor Orban is the prime minister of Hungary and everybody talks about or biology which indicates that it is more than just a government this is fundamentally different from the three bills so what are the pillars centralized power there is a very high dose organization of politics the media is controlled by the state and actually the party is fit as the dominant party it’s not the classic political party this is a state party so the fitness doesn’t have any life outside the Prime Minister’s Office it is directed from the Prime Minister so it’s it’s more like a state party than just a normal democratic political party it is a boss democracy if it is democracy at all so it is very hard to identify any sort of ideology because the Prime Minister declared that the ideology is over so the age of ideology expired and he is going to continue a very pragmatic political line sort of opportunism primacy of power politics and of ideology nevertheless we can identify some sort of national strong nationalism and wrapping it in in populism selling it in an apocalyptic discourse there is a homogenized concept of nation so nation is not seen as a political community but more like a homogeneous ethnic community but it is also inconsequential sometimes it used with the double standard there is a difference between the Roma and non-roma components of the Hungarian nation or those who are living in the former pre trianon Hungary and Aryan territories and those who are actually left the country and in London or Berlin or Vienna those are different Hungarian so so you know making differentiate difference differentiating among canadians indicates that even edmond nationalism is used in a in an instrumental way again social inclusion exclusion is an important feature of the regime the Hungarian society was never really very very solid a listing the cauda Vienna panda was very honest traded kareem his chief was very successful in dividing neutralizing atomizing the society so we have this non solidarity tradition unlike Poland and this is pretty well used by the current government to do to make sure for the middle classes and upper middle classes that they can cause a decent life however there are steps towards social exclusions towards the lower classes unemployed people the Roma refugees are treated as you know criminals and also disabled people and the ideology of the early changes anti-communism until in Arizona anti-intellectualism at the same time so a lot of empty not as much positive statements but a lot of negations justified in the need for any radical elite change and the Prime Minister conceptualized the great victory of 2010 as a revolution at the polling booths so claiming that this is the will of B this was the build of people so we don’t need to you know be mother but bothering with you know low-flow checks and balances

minor issues Lord consultation about the new constitution the wheel of people appeared in the spring of 2010 and that’s it so there is a cruel majoritarian understanding of democracy in order to justify the suspension of the rule of law so from now in the following four slides I’d like to follow what professor Garner delivered from a theoretical point of view to what extent these principles exist or does not exist what are the shortcomings of these principles empirically in the alien case so we have a new constitution that was accepted in 2011 implemented from the first of January 2012 and it is called the basic allure fundamental oh I use this fundamental law because it describes itself this way this was simply discussed within two weeks and accepted by one party only the pedestrians will you be participating in the process but then did not vote for it the left-wing opposition did not even participating this so it is not something that a broad consensus of the society it is one sided Constitution as prime minister mentioned the liberal constitution of 1989 now replaced by a Christian Constitution of 2011 so so he wanted to give an ideal finally an ideological justification of the new constitution that this is based on collectivism work home family belonging and Christianity however the conception of Christianity for Viktor Orban’s a bit different from the conception opportunity of Pope Francis for instance so it’s not sort of inclusive broad open understanding of Christianity but rather a sort of X Christianity which can be used for social exclusion so it’s the god of Hungarians not not the love of football so the fundamental law was modified several times to marginalize the Constitutional Court I will return to this port later on private pension fund which existed since 97 was aggressively nationalized by the state union rights rights for strike were fundamentally restricted referendum fit as well it was in opposition in 2007 initiated a very successful referendum a petition campaign which undermine the legitimacy of the socialist liberal government now when Freda’s came to power the first in the one the day they did was to made referendums really really need to impossible to initiate in even some ways the private property was were restricted private property as something which needs to be defended as a principle thing of a liberal capitalist democracy it is simply deleted from the Constitution so there is a parliament which which is not about debates but standing the initiatives of individual and people who are acting in the name of the government so there is a de facto sociologically speaking the de facto governing my decrees and I should relentlessly underline the importance of the government control of the media digital divide is used I should like to I should remind you the secret of Vladimir Putin after the last ten years that he relied on the television and radio these are neither internet internet users in these societies are characteristically dunya people and they still compose the minority of the society not the majority the majority still gets the information from the state-controlled television I would not call it any more public media it is state media that is a media alternative which have broad powers to

punish those channels and media outlets who which which can be considered as you know sayings a politically delicate thing so it’s very interesting that some you know in in Western societies you have some some devices to control the media content you know preventing children to watch pornographic films on TV and the same regulation is used in ambien for political content in some ways so it’s very strange that the regulation exists in other countries but those are implanted in Hungary to a completely different circumstances and the different political intention second dimension public scrutiny justice you know there are very many important social institutions like the tax office attorney general the judiciary the so-called counter-terror con counter-terrorist Center police so all the institutional pillars formally exist like the Constitutional Court the problem is that these are operated under the control of those cronies who belong closed circles for the Prime Minister so therefore the desk office could be used politically against some time yo position or against some business people media outlets the Attorney General is a former feed as first one sometimes he is very quick to initiating a procedure sometimes he is breathtakingly slow text benefits are also somehow I’ve been traveling designs somehow the regime makes difference between good families and Death Valley’s good families are those middle-class people with children those can get some tax restrictions and tax benefits which is obviously not designed for the Roma or the underclass or for the unemployed so it is not directly I would not say this is a racist legislation no it is just a biased legislation it is not set in the in the England legal car drops there were some efforts by the proper City Council to criminalize homelessness there is some struggle on this there are still elements of the hula flowing anger because sometimes the court can act against some unusually harsh decision of some bloody moneys for instance homelessness was criminalized and then the judiciary reversed is so that’s a good news for instance right to protest against the government sometimes depends on the circumstances so when the direct Chinese delegation visited buda-pesht some people wanted to initiate a protest for the bank for the freedom of digger but they simply the Prime Minister did not either approval for this which is obviously against the law but who cares you know and sometimes paramilitary units are used to restore order or to combat protesters sometimes football hooligans who are close to something as leaders one of them is the president of feran soares football right wing to a football club in randwick traditions and there are particularly good relationship with this sort of combating non-military non-police but still potentially dangerous groups of people who who can can be used for the work for the purposes of the government even if the relation can be judged as indirect we don’t know how the contractor or sent center LOL hurry to respond is exactly used you know since george w bush peggle war on terror is a high on the agenda globally therefore not always Democratic minded leaders can easily use counter-terrorist

measures for strengthening their own power so actually abusing the original idea of the counter terrorist activity and there was a major change in the currency recently the Swiss franc and the euro became much more expensive and the following for hungarian forint was evaluated lot of people became bankrupt and that was one of the reasons why fidus wonder 2010 elections but then being on government these inducted people were treated selectively again those who had enough money to pay back those who are given the opportunity others still pay back slowly double triple amount of time it seems that there is no government willingness or capacity to date default effectively the rights of the Roma and there is not much social security again it is deleted from them from the Constitution unemployment benefit is decreased and there is not meaningful ate the same story continues under the labor of equality under the law if you take a look on the electoral laws there is a broad scale gerrymandering which goes beyond the normal I mean gerrymandering exists everywhere in the world it’s not a big news but but the scale is different in Hungary also differentiations as I said between the so-called trianon Hungarians who live in the historical Hungarian territories and other Hungarians who just recently left Hungarian they cannot vote in an envelope in return they have to queue up in the consulate on the embassies and it is actually more much more difficult for them to vote it was also a huge scandal in Romania and that led finally to the election to Klaus you huh mr. rumanian president as for the hungarian President it is you know a parliamentary system so the president is just a figurehead and but still previous presidents had some sort of moral authority iPad goons fans model lasco surely on the exercise some sort of you know counterbalancing power based on there consistency moral authority that popularity wash meet the others other are both coming from the Fidesz labor fidesz that is governing party MPs members of parliament and particularly passionate was absolutely proud to be not neutral and he that was his constitutional obligation to be neutral and he proudly declared that I was I am NOT going to be neutral I will be the motor of the legislation and not the control of that so it’s a it’s a clear bias again there are sometimes government campaigns against Falun Gong bangs campaigns against foreign investors and that businesses sort of national nationalist tolls it is again typically in populists discourse selective taxation of the minion media also observable there is the art a group it’s a foreign owned television channel that used to be lawyer to the government then then the government decided to text highly the earth there and then the earth they are decided to be more critical to devour then the government decided to text even highly more highly and more biased way they act there this media outlet so so there is no normative your stance on both sides it is just using the law in a discriminatory way which is Isaac highly problematic and really undermine the public trust to the rule of law and also religions are you know it used to be just a group of people deciding now being belong to the same religious group they went to the judiciary and it was registered automatically now they require a political approval now the Parliament decides whether certain churches or religious communities can get some state approval or not so it’s a result of a political decision decision how can the politic intervene to religious matters it’s a problem and again there is a new campaign against refugees all of you remember the

assassination of this cali couture tableau in tirana Charlie Hebdo in Paris the prime minister visited the Paris after and during the morning and and he returned home he started playing against refugees and recently he served that all troubles are caused by the by the refugees and Hungary should resist to the temptation to multiculturalism it should be proud not to be multicultural because multicultural undermines the identity of the of the nation and the refugees should be renamed as economic migrants you know if you if you hear this motion of refugee you have some sort of sympathy and solidarity to work those people if it is renamed in the propaganda as economic migrants then you probably think that those are greedy people they just come to you know for better life and more money so this is an interesting changing the political communication finally judicial independence I mean one of the cornerstone of Hungarian rule of law was constitutional court now it is filled with with pro-government people it used to be first members now 15 members it is again a classic method for for it was used in other countries to make it bigger and send cronies to the judiciary the chairman of the Constitutional Court now elected by the Parliament it used to be the judges who elected among themselves and now it’s filled with former Fidesz politicians and even some father figures that is a constitutional and the Constitutional Court is forbidden to refer to its previous decisions as president president so the Constitutional Court was always very proud of the consistency of his of his decisions and it is really an important tradition of rule of law and democratic tradition I would even say which which which we collected in these two decades of liberal democracy in Hungary now the court cannot refer to those with the decision so no president it’s a brave new world you cannot think back to the 2,000 previous period of time and the judges cannot reform refer to this so answer it’s again like a starting again a new chapter the Constitution declare that the Communist video did not belong to the national history national story was interrupted nothing is very valid which those legal acts which were London time so it is similar application to the Liberal Democratic video very strange and paradoxical the Supreme Court is under the control of the planets the family friend and there was a purge of the judges those who were over 60 to erode those or forceful entire in order to fill the position mumbles one was removed after his remover the office was restructured and there was a recurrent government pressure on the judiciary sometimes in the press one can read explicit political expectations but to the critical in judiciary they sometimes very proud to defend themselves so so it is an invisible struggle so that is the rule of law so what is the meaning of democracy if the rule of law is broken to that extent so how can how can we define this so we were very much preoccupied by institution building it was very important to have sophisticated democratic election and maybe the democratic deficit was that people did not trust democracy enough because they expected economic well-being from democracy and they did not like democracy for itself just if it delivers something and so there was an East Democratic institution without the spirit of democracy and this was abused by the populists discourse an anti elitist and deliverer very populist his course indiscriminately

as I described in Google chavez who died used to rule Venezuela he said famously sometime that to my friends I gave everything to my enemies to load so this is discriminative leganza you know that it is not used for everybody on the same extent but if the law is used don’t punish those who are not a political and friends so my mother and others is followers coldest mafia state I call it predatory state so it’s interesting to see there is a I said occupation of this day but it’s not a state capture because it’s not from outside it is from inside and parallel one can observe political and economic goals being rich and also to stay in power for long and my final slide conclusions okay we know many countries like the seam of belarus ukraine russia turkey lot of other countries in albania problems in multiple Mia problems in Serbia but these countries are not members of the European Union what makes the Hungarian case really unique that this is a canary into the European Union member state which openly which leader was which leader openly admires illiberal states and present as models for Hungary Russia China turkey as abuja none of them democratic none of them even half democratic and it is presented by the european union member dane as a model and also cultural culture and education are politically homogenized a real corner once upon a time wrote an article wrote a book one on the interwar period and the rise of fascism under the title the ball again is the best it’s somehow a sort of i don’t need world I because it cannot be taken seriously war against Western multiculturalism against cultural diversity feminism minority rights LGBT rights and so on and so forth and there are open borders you know there is no Iron Curtain everybody can freely leave the country still there is a concentration and xenophobia so my conclusion is that it is a very paradoxical situation as a member state Hungary receives lot of money lot of fans from the European Union and this is high linkage read the West which was used to democratize the country that years ago now it is used to the opposite purpose to make those circles rich who who are close to the families immunity so actually the Western taxpayers the European Union citizens found they sponsoring the economic stability of the regime which is please respect the European values it is a problem of Europe the European Union does not sanction non-democratic policies of an angle state effectively for some reason they are shy away they are clumsy they are slow they have the responsivity there is the European Commission the Parliament the European consider the Copa criteria very high threshold for new member states but once you are within the club you can do whatever you want so and then then the Union doesn’t have mechanisms there is no Copenhagen committee yet as young ruler proposed so my conclusion last sentence that that why is why is it interesting it is not just because angela is interesting a small country I mean it’s clear that the West is much more concerned with Russia putting the conflict in Ukraine Ukrainian situation turkey or the economy crisis in Greece but the Hungarian political crisis can be a dangerous one potentially if other countries like Romania Slovakia Serbia Croatia follow the same example if it is not that word properly then the Hungarian problem is going to be a European problem

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