good day we could today we’re going to be looking at the standard of living and leisure through from 1950 up until nineteen sixty with me is my steamed colleague and noted history enthusiast mr. Raymond creamer so first things first what do we mean by the word standard of living and word leisure well standard of living basically explains the quality of life and the way we judge that is saying do they have access to the bare necessities do they have a running toilet running water do they have heating do they have electricity’s whereas leisure on the other hand is how much time people have to relax to go on holiday what they can afford to do with your spare time very enthusiastic me good sir thank you so the key words we’re going to be talking about disposable income income is money you have coming in so disposable money and it’s basically money that you have left to spend on stuff you don’t necessarily need okay nice thing so if you spend all your money on food and rent and you have no money left you have no disposable income to spend on nice things whereas if you have say a thousand pounds left office pay for all the stuff you need to pay for bills rent etc then you have 1,000 pounds of money and which is disposable leisure time is how much time you have after you finish working and do all the cleaning and cooking everything you need to do to live how much time you have left over to do nice things then lastly the welfare state it’s the idea that the government will provide welfare or a better living for its people in that is usually done in the form of money service sometimes housing for those who are poor and can’t afford it older and no longer able those who are disabled those who are ill or unemployed effectively the welfare state is government initiatives to make the society more fair for all peoples so I’m going to take you through the story what we’re going to explain to read the rest of this presentation when I go through all this stuff in detail in a second but just to tell you where we’re heading essentially there is a general improvement in the living standard living and the amount and type of leisure that the middle and working class and entitled to and enjoy and this is mainly because of the rise of the welfare state which and which gets rid of the were successes of poverty which means the working class have a baseline standard of living okay increase some new technology which means that both middle class and some working-class people had more time to spend on air fun leisure activities because of the invention of stuff like a dishwasher or the washing machine which saves much a lot of time the fact that jobs the types of jobs but also the conditions and people expected to live and got much better which means that again there’s more leisure time and finally and that in the economy in general got better people what richer the country got riches that means that the middle classes and the working classes got more money your standard of living could afford more therefore had more leisure opportunities both at home and abroad followed not naturally by the middle class who by by nature of the work that they did the fact it was higher paid could afford to do some stuff their holidays probably wouldn’t have been as far flung but by the 1960s they were certainly leaving these shores and traveling to places like Spain and so forth and then lastly the working class who based on the nature of their hand-to-mouth existence for a lot of cases did not travel much and had very much less a less quality standard of living and certainly certainly much more much Leslie leisure time so before we move on I’m just introduced to the idea of class if you’re not quite sure and British society can be very very basically divided into three parts of working class the middle class in the upper class and generally the upper class perform only five perhaps ten to send that most of society with middle class being about twenty to thirty percent of society and everyone else being working-class it comes down to how much education you have access to what kind of jobs you do and what we tend to find at the start of 1945 the standard living for the upper classes was great they had a wide range of them different income sources which meant that they had a good food good access to amenities and very good housing and they also had a lot of leisure time most of them jobs they had were relatively undemanding and lots of money they made was free stuff they owned Robin stuff they had to work for the middle classes we’re starting to enjoy slightly better standard living but they still might have outside toilets and a relatively small homes and into our modern day we will see it’s fairly sparse and not very nice quality of life and although they do have a little bit of a lifetime followed by their jobs they are very very very rarely would afford to go anywhere abroad them a couple of hundred couple of hundred miles at max staying in England that’d be very rare to get any foreign holidays where it’s a

working classes often lived in slums and very poor quality housing very poor quality of life and there’s your time they had very little of and there are definitely opportunities for holidays both in terms of the time they had also the the disposable income at money they had to spend on anything like this definitely did not exist I find it very striking when talking about the working classes in 1945 it’s just how little they’ve evolved from even though Victorian the Victorian situation I mean most of you have all probably watched things like Oliver Twist in that and the average life save for the fact that there are more cars driving by them would have changed very little for those in that bottom bracket so before World War two when looking at quality of life and leisure time there is a huge gap between the very rich upper classes and everyone else but obviously there is still that divide between working class and middle classes middle class thing I was slightly better clam standing living and a slightly better slightly more leisure time so with Lee as technology increases and particularly just up into the Warren just after the war many upper class and richer middle-class Christians could afford stuff like cleaning or indoor toilets and maybe even some plumbing okane in some cases heating how the vast majority of Britain’s did not have access to this because this is just far too expensive so they would have to make do with coal fires make do with a relatively relatively little or no electricity and outdoor toilets and no working plumbing okay middle most middle and upper classes and working classes but had very little money to spend on holidays and when they did and have money they were often given very few days off there’s no government laws at this point to tell you how much holiday that your employer had to give you and therefore most employers didn’t give any holiday or they did it’ll be a matter of weeks maybe one maybe two weeks off a year because otherwise they’re losing money by employing someone and paying them if they’re not working I think another thing to point out is that the concept of even the most basic time off work the concept of the weekend is only 50 years old at the time of the Second World War now what does why do we use the Second World War as a starting point well the war does a lot to change people’s opinions now during the war and after the war the there was a general feeling especially amongst the soldiers who predominantly came from the working class that after this war is over and after we’re done feed defeating Nazi Germany we’re going to return back to a Briton that were going to make a better place and shortly after the war the Conservative government of Winston Churchill’s defeated and replaced almost immediately by a Labour government and the Labour government promises is one of its election platforms to put forth a welfare state they wanted to make society more fair and better for poorer Britain’s through government action government payment and predominant government involvement in society the average Briton saw as a cause of this in the immediate post-war period i’m talking 1945 to 1949 pension increases they receive some insurance if they got sick meaning that they if they got sick or unable to work they would receive some payment to continue them to continue living on support for people with disabilities support for people who had children which allowed women to have a little bit more freedom and support for those who found themselves unemployed first for instance of a factory or shipyard closed those employees would be basically left to exist on any meager savings they had now with unemployment insurance the government would provide a living wage for people who couldn’t at that time anyways find employment the beginning of real council housing pushes replacing old slum housing with new houses with modern amenities comes at this time a lot of the new council houses are built on areas especially in London and major industrial centers that were former bomb sites the Nazis of course had bombed London and a lot of Britain’s major cities heavily during the Second World War and there were lots of there was lots of available land a lot of which was sold slum land that could easily be used for new improved housing for the lower classes I think that the biggest it’s impossible to our modern imagination to realize quite how much changed results of the welfare state being produced by the first labour government in 1945 I mean the picture on the top and demonstrates a typical slum or in London life expectancy was very low there was no such thing as the NHS if you were poor you had almost no way of getting out of it and your experience of life in your chances of survival or improvement we’re really basically negligible and with this creation of

what was called a safety net to catch you not make you massively rich but just as I’m catch you so that if you are unlucky enough to get into the work or be very sick or lose your job that your family would not become destitute poor sufferer and even die as a result of this there’s a basic safety net which will save you from that so all of this together led to changes to standard of the sound of living and the keyphrases economic redistribution a very long word very articulate user of your friends to sound posh intellectual I do it frequently don’t let mr. own unfortunately am so essentially what this refers to is taking money from the rich and giving it to the poor so people heard the pay for all this uninsured clone insurance these new houses that’s disability support all this stuff were the rich then before they weren’t tax very highly at all and they were taxed quite heavily to UM to get all this stuff and they didn’t really benefit from it so what we see is money essentially being taken from the pockets of the rich and being given a new houses better jump public sector jobs and all the other stuff that comes with welfare state which benefits the poor on top of this post war that means after the war workers turn turn up be paid more okay this is because Britain does economically quite well partly because of the Marshall Plan which hopefully should remember from the Cold War and partly because there’s a genuine general economic boom in 1948 onwards on top of this and they were actually the England got close to full employment now that doesn’t mean everyone in England was necessary employed but the unemployment rate was about one or two percent what that means is if you’re a worker um you have the power because this Gary another job you can easily go to so you say to your boss while i’m going to leave and this should give me a ten-pound pay rise the boss knows that he’s going to have trouble finding any workers because everyone’s got a job so it gives you your 10-pound pay rights and what we find is that middle one middle class is particularly but also working classes find their wages going up which means that and although their rents the same and the partial foods the same everything else is saying they have more money which means more disposable income to spend on stuff that makes standard living and better but also as you’ll see leisure activities more affordable now what are the big things and we mentioned this last lesson we talked about the situation with women is the fact that technology plays a tremendous role in the 1950s and 60s I mean you think back to your cold war course we talked about the advances in technology and weapons but the technology has a trickle-down effect to the home people have access to things that are truly remarkable and save them enormous amounts of time and time which people can use for hobbies able to use for other things but time that generally allows people leisure now the technology technology i’m speaking of involving involves plumbing heating cleaning products tools refrigerators washing machines and not to mention and then settled see it on this list the car talk about leisure time the ability to travel the car allows britain’s who otherwise couldn’t afford rail travel to get in their car and cheaply and effectively go to you go camping go to the go to the coast whatever it happens to be combined this of course with the improved economic situation that mr. Suder was talking about you have the ability of people to buy these things and when people are doing this on mass it really helps improve the standard of living in the country this of course again and I need to stress this is more so for the middle class of course the upper class could afford this all along and we’re not even there you know this isn’t a drastic revolution for them but for the middle classes their access to all of this stuff really helped improve their standard of living for the working class their access to a lot of this stuff was minimal so if we summarize things they experience the middle classes by the mid-50s are going into the 60s was an increase in if you look at the top picture of people owning nice homes in the suburbs most of North London than areas of south east London were major in these periods for middle classes bigger homes nice gardens there are more there’s more money and time to spend on a mean see such a TV or radio and the wives would have again more more money and due to technological improvements more access to a time-saving devices such as vacuum cleaners washing machines and that kind of thing when we look at the working classes we see a slightly different story and although we see new houses such as the council state which nowadays has seen is very bad but no states have seen is a great modern way forward and we also see although there is some increased disposable income there is not enough to spend more than just casual things such as extra things to each or extra thing to drink and and although there is definitely improvement standard living and places they’re living at although today we don’t like

council estates as general society and we blame them for a lot of problems they gently were a market step up from what was there before and they increase the public health and the health of these people and the health of them and happen to people immeasurably now just to review the class structure we’ve got of course the upper classes with a great standard of living as was the case before the war what is the case after the war and continues to increase though they’re taxed heavily the leisure of course lots of it middle classes quite good and improving the working classes things get better and it’s much improved but still there is plenty of room for advancement as far as leisure of course you have the upper classes with lots of time the middle classes with little but ever-increasing amounts of time in the working class very very little and so we’re going to look at that leisure side now and see what happens we’ve looked at the improvement under standard of living and now we look at the leisure side of things so the main reasons for changes in erm to leisure are similar to standard living because people are richer because of improving on the economic situation people are richer because the country is richer the welfare state has existed which means there’s more disposable income that means whereas people have more money they can spend it more money on leisure and on holidays as well as this as mr Raine mentioned there’s technological changes which means that it’s cheaper to fly out cheaper to get a car it’s cheaper to get TVs and radios which means you can spend your leisure time going on holiday and enjoying it you’re a family sitting around the TV listing these radios and that kind of thing on top of that in 1948 the government made it law for the first time that workers should only should have two weeks of paid holiday now it’s very low considering our standards today but it’s a brand new thing and gave every member of the Great British workforce and opportunity to go on holiday or at least spend their time in a way that wasn’t working on top of this companies again struggling to keep get workers because you can get a job anywhere would say idea what will give you an extra i’ll give you an extra day off or to give you an extra week off if you stay here and then people the employees will go well that’s a better deal than if i go down the road so let’s just stay here so again we see even though law says you can have two weeks of paid holiday companies often giving more in terms of paid holiday in order to keep their workers so so the major changes to leisure and by far the greatest the greatest change is the invention of television in 1947 only 15,000 Britain had a TV licence by 1960 are looking at 10.5 million the amount of time British people spend in front of the TV as a form of leisure will will be absolutely enormous 23% by 1960 of the leisure time of the average British person will be spent in front of the television this opens them up to new media and new culture new experiences and TV has a profound impact in fact we’ll talk about that in later lessons also you get with TV and increase in chanyeol channels and more populist programs bring pop culture the masses etc car ownership goes to 1.5 million by the end of the 1960s and Britain’s take to the highway perhaps greater and in more numbers than any other country safe for America in the world the Britons love affair with the automobile really blossoms in the 1960s and they use this to travel travel everywhere the number of holidays increase again to 49 million by 1973 Britain’s are traveling not only within their own country but by the early 1970s outside of the country and also to the fact that aircraft technology means that Britons could travel further afield for cheaper and more people could go and this has a profound impact on culture as it brings other cultures to Britain as well which well as we’ll talk about sort of the impact of British culture another on others and other cultures impact on us will have a tremendous impact will have a tremendous influence on society so when we look at the vast majority of ways people in Britain spent their leisure time it’s not just holidays a vast majority I actually was just them sitting at home watching TV or enjoying and board games or listen to radio at home religion listening to music however there is a massive increase in car ownership which means that people can drive to different parts of Britain Scotland Wales or even closer going camping holidays or just go in the holidays in Britain this is particular case for the working classes and the middle classes because although we see a rise in flights it’s not until the 19th late 1960s early 1970s where this becomes a mass thing and if we have

a look in the bottom right-hand corner the first location Britain’s go to and to some extent always still the case today is Spain there’s a nasty old dictator in Spain who needs foreign money and he realizes if he opens up his pristine sandy beaches to brits on package holidays Rita Polly’s which everything is included in a relatively cheap British people will come on mass or both of working-class and middle-class backgrounds and spend their money up in Spain helping Spain gets richer on top of this we also see a rise of leisure people spending their money in the pub or into cinema and other leisure sit spending as well as this finally we see holiday camps emerging in Britain so these are like the specialist camps designed to entertain middle and working-class Britons and they’re designed to be all-inclusive service things for the kids to do things for the adults do to etc again this is great evidence in the example that we give us butlins of increased leisure time because this business takes off Matheny’s because so many people are doing and they have nailed for the first time two weeks of vacation to do it in so to summarize um what we’ve seen I’ve seen this lesson ilysm from nineteen forty-five up until 1975 the standard living for the ham and the leisure time the upper class remains good I they’ve got a lot of leisure time and they’ve got a good standing but the middle classes have now entered into a standard living which is far far better and they enjoy it quite a comfortable existence by 1975 still not quite similar same as ours but consider what it was quite a lot better so they have the better they have no danger of not having a band assess it or we consider the bare necessities today and also they have a lot of luxury goods and luxury items which help make their life easier and on top of that they have a lot more leisure time and they’ve got a lot more different ways to spend that leisure time not just in the dark playing cards and finally the working classes they’re standing living definitely has improved by 1945 but more to secure the bare necessities rather than to have the great amount of them luxuries on top of that the working classes definitely have more leisure time and they definitely spend it more and spend more money on their leisure however they are still not quite at the point where the vast majority were gone the holidays abroad because air travel is still a little bit too expensive and a little bit too exotic for some and so to finish off the overall story is that because Britain including as Britain increases its economic power as and because of the welfare state and because technology is always making things cheaper and saving time Britain’s have a standard of living an amount of leisure time increases markedly so it gets much better for both of working and middle classes and this meant that life was significantly better than in 1975 compared to 1945 but the thing to keep in mind are as always the case is that there’s still a class element that’s very very very profound in Britain with large differences between the upper class middle class and the working class and this is this is the case as it was in 1945 though narrow are still the case in 1975 so that concludes lesson number two as normal you’ll find the powerpoint on the website with all of the notes please do read the chapter on living and working conditions under key topic one that’s pages 14 15 in your textbook

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