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so your PhD you will do work that maybe is a print culture and the formation of Atticus movement in space and university so it was that a nice snappy side or stuff is on a university of sheffield at moment so i’m just going to hand you over now well thanks and feelin airy high-tech here I’ve got microphone which is kind of up coming out the back i’m going to read off a screen which i don’t normally do so if i look high tech at all the show it’s clearly not been anywhere near a princeton last week so and so yeah basically thanks to all of you for coming it’s really really nice to have people showing interest in something that you’ve decided to work on and devote some time to and yeah it’s a real privilege but needs to be here talking to you especially like the roger from biting me down here this is my first time in bristol ever and i really appreciate the opportunity to speak today here the Hydra hmm it’s rather sad we met at a conference and answer them names on official histories which sought to bring people together from a range of backgrounds and their public rather call or academic history and shared a very much in our panel but throughout the the conference and by a desire to discuss one neither called bottom-up history or history from the perspective of those who lived it now this paper and comes out of a project and which holds this kind of viewpoint I score and names new approaches to Spanish anarchism this project was said it by myself and my colleague Danny Evans we’re both PhD students working on the subject of Spanish anarchism Danny works on the Civil War periods up in Leeds and is very close to finishing his PhD and I have just submitted my thesis on the print called through the movement prior to the first world war one of the main focuses of our projects is to bring current discussions of anarchism in Spain out of there are the small circle of academics working on the area both to a wider academic audience and importantly to a public audience for those who are interested we and our friends in Spain in America are approaching this question in different ways but broadly speaking we are trying to move away from the image of Spanish anarchism as something peculiar something unique something strange and we really want to kind of under my own this image that it was something really bizarre and unique only to Spain we want to place the movement in Spain with in an international context hope into kind of situation occurs in a range of contemporary trends on the left which it can be compared to which it can shown to have influenced and trends which it can Jones have been influenced by for example dainese paper Donny’s work in the project compares anti-fascism in Spain from the anarchist movement and this German German anti-fascism with the communist movement and looks at contrasts isn’t comparisons between the two a friend Fran in Granada and is looking at the influence of Nietzsche in spain in the anarchist movement and while we’re delighted so that my freckles Berg author of a great book on them okay Leslie brezin a narco feminism in Spain is contribute in the paper which compares a narco feminism in Spain and Latin America and another aim particular my part sort of blossoms yeah is to undermine the commonly held idea of anarchists is being exceptionally dedicated and passionate people and which makes them unusual right this idea often comes from critics of the movement the textbook for example of this which may be familiar with Eric Osborne’s primitive rebels and which sees anarchists in Spain as something of kind of throw bucks as religious zealots full of religious fervor and passion and in contrast to what he sees as the kind of rational materialism of Marxism needless to say Hobbes porns view and his portrayal of anarchism in Spain is deeply patronizing and completely ignores how anak is portrayed themselves the image of exception that exceptionalism also comes from contemporary writings within the movement and from sympathetic historians who wish to betray anarchists is the most committed to their cause and unlike any others on the left both critics and sympathizers of the movement want to show how anarchists were different to others that they were unusually devout and driven and often overlooked in how Anika is portrayed themselves and their ideology as a rational and considered response to their political and social context now this idea of anarchist is

being strange and unique and as largely although not entirely been chipped away out in academic writings on the subject yet it persists in the work of non-experts and I think it is remain strong in a wider sort of public view I think it’s time for specialists like myself to start talking outside of our own circles right we can all academics can all talk to gathering and say audio don’t we all agree on this but it’s no good if you don’t go and try and talk to people who aren’t particle to atmosphere now and when we look at the idea of anarchist internationalism and this idea of anarchist being sort of strange and zealot type people comes out quite strongly when alec ism is discussed through an international transnational perspective it is almost always done through a lens of exceptional individuals exceptional individuals and missionaries and exiles kind of leaping from city to city preaching the anarchist message to the masses aquatic story in regards to Spain in this way is the mission oki sepi finale an Italian anarchist who reportedly brought an occasion to Spain under orders of Mikhail Bakunin in the late 1860’s finale apparently managed to convert the workers of material in Barcelona to the cause despite the fact that he spoke no spanish and and instead he managed to impress his ideas through expressive mimicry I don’t know what he was doing apparently this is it and apparently an you’ll find this in so many writings you know start with finale it’s like he came and then the largest anarchist movement in the world sprung up and it slightly hard to believe and similar accounts of anarchist preaches and so on spreading the idea are abundant over the turn of the century yeah what is missing from these accounts for me is a sense of how these ideas connected to the daily lives of ordinary members of the movement those who are not great auditors those who engaged in the day-to-day work of establishing anarchist ideas in localities in Spain and abroad ensure uninterested in what might be seen as the mundane be unsuccessful the vast majority of anarchists who did not move around leap around city to city or certainly didn’t do it very often he went writers or celebrities within the movement and this kind of desire to seek out the mundane has led me to download and that’s not a slight on that I realized that that reads no he’s quite strange i didn’t realize that really like that double axes woman day so no I’m my interest in the anarchist community and our lights began during my research into the Spanish Annika’s pressed at the early 20th century and without going too far into this subject so spent four years doing it there were hundreds of grassroots papers published by the anarchist movement in Spain over the turn of the century and they were present in almost every child where there was an anarchist presence these papers played a vital role in networking the movement together and they constantly published letters and communicate and to and from countless areas across Spain this is just one this is a number from one paper you can see and you know here comes in a letter from La Linea which is near gibraltar one of our story colonia you know this happens in every paper and everyone is you and they’re all talking to each other and this is how they communicate it this is how the movement operated these kind of letters pages also link the movement two groups abroad mostly to large very obvious senses in Europe and the Americas such as Paris London buenos aires in New York but from 1900s and nor less bang on 1900 a new location appeared on the radar of this panasonic is pressed and soon became one of and in many cases the most prominent international link to the anarchist movement in Spain when I saw the name Dallas I initially I didn’t know where it was or why there seems to be such a strong Annika’s presence there when I discovered that it was a ton in the borough of methods hit vil I’d be lying if I said I wasn’t completely taken aback just completely surprised there’s there’s the borough that and here’s Dallas here just to the north east method I never imagined that this could be a thing that Spanish anarchism could find its way into an area of South Wales which barely makes its way into many British histories many Welsh histories and yet alone the kind of great international stories of anarchism in the early 20th century and I need at some point when I had a bit more time I needed to explore this fair that and understand what was going on here and now that I’ve finished my thesis and this is what I’ve been doing and I’ve just come from a week of archival

research in South Wales in Swansea mathur and Cardiff and what I’m going to talk about it what photos really is my findings thus far and now I’d like to stress this is very much a work in progress as I’ve tried to explain I’ve come at least subject from the perspective of a story and of Spain I’m not an expert in Wales and some or all of you may know much more about the context that i’m talking about than either i’ve been trying to give himself a crash course in wealth history over the past few weeks but a city still got a long way to go on that and the end product that this paper will be a you know an article published in an academic journal and but i hope that it will go beyond and I want it to be accessible a meaningful for the people at the area if they are interested and about anyone who has an interest in this subject anything you can suggest and criticizes or comment on on this paper will be greatly appreciated so don’t hold back afterwards if you want to tell me why I’ve got it all wrong so my first question really when I discovered where they were and was why why why were they there now the anarchist of dollars they were part of a larger Spanish community who settled in merthyr at the beginning of the 20th century at the time Darla’s was a site that one of the largest metal works in Britain and this picture here comes from a little bit after the period i’m talking about but to really get sense of the scale of this and I walked up to dollars from there the other day it’s all uphill and what part is huge what that felt like a park and in fact it was the site of the old ironworks and its enormous it really kind of get a sense of the perspective of it and bigger than the town itself it felt like and so yeah that’s that was there early 20th century now links between the Basque Country and South Wales and extended back into the 17th century yeah really the kind of strong links between these two areas began with the conversion to vesa mere still making and in the mid 19th century and best amia still makin requires high quality clean ional which was found in abundance around bilbao in 1873 the Dalai sign company brought up the orkin era iron company in Bilbao and this became as principal supply of raw materials 1984 about four-fifths of the INR imported into South Wales came from the bust region now at the end of the century the iron ore company also began important people in 1899 conscription for the Boer War led some shortage of skilled workers at the dulles works in response the management invited experienced workers and from northern Spain to the area the first 12 Spaniards arrived in june nineteen hundred and an amongst original twelve who’s the chap called melkor Bustamante who later became the head of an anarchist orientated workers society in dulles these fairs 12 was soon joined by their families and within a year around the hundred more workers had set off from bilbao to delays in search of work these Spaniards arrived at the same time at the large influx of Irish labor who like the Spaniards have been encouraged to make the journey to Wales by the works management so this poster is advertising for work and dialyzed in Ireland and I couldn’t I couldn’t find the one from Spain but I much you know they may have looked quite similar the so the movement to the reason was encouraged and facilitated by the by the waste management and they wanted to keep their lives in their own words well stocked with labor in 1901 the works built a road bungalows close to that are for works in the town to accommodate the new arrivals named Alfonso street and it’s still there today the photograph was taken by me on Wednesday and and from the old photographs is still looking quite similar I go without the weavings would have otherwise that’s then you can see the other little a small little garden at the back as well and so these little single-story cottages were built for them so it’s called up on so screen still is but at the time it was no more commonly as Spaniards wrote in these first years it seemed like the Spanish community was something of an anomaly they only really made it into the local paper when they were involved in fights were infused of drunken behaviour few histories or memories of the area mentioned the earliest Spaniards in the town although a recent paper published by Stephen Murray and Oscar about as heater there’s a good job of portraying this initial movement now things really accelerated in 1907 and there was a strike in the

works and this prompted management start recruiting unskilled laborers from Spain so I forgot to move on there this is a map and don’t know how clear it is this is dilation night and 14th and that’s where Alfonso is right next to the eye for works there the actual main works are here down to the south and would be a much much bigger area and yeah that’s that’s an idea of the tongue so in 1987 yeah unskilled laborers from Spain started to be recruited as well the work they came to do was badly paid and often dangerous they were pic cleaners engine scrubbers boiler washes and slag haulers the company’s accident book of this period reflects the growing spinous workforce in the various works across the house as well as the frequent injuries they suffered bruce fingers burns broken limbs lots and lots of these accidents happen and they happen to everyone that worked there savannah duane yet one of the original 12 Spaniards to move to dallas in 1900 was killed in 1910 in the works when he was run over by a locomotive now the increasing spanish population initially prompted hostility the Spanish were accused of being part of a wage cutting process across the works yeah if the management thought they were getting around the problem of politicized workers by bringing in foreign labor that they were wrong most man rise of the period suggest that far from seeing the Spanish had strike breakers or as cheap labor brought in to replace Welsh workers the Spanish were seen as hard workers and quote this quote comes of constantly in the memoirs they were good Union men several oral testimonies from a slightly slightly later period States strongly that the Spanish had a reputation for being socialists and we’re never behind on their union dues over the next few years the community groove and settled in other areas across Carlos Union Street which is just here and Bracken Street which is off the map and where are we yeah and Bracken street with the homes of many Spanish families by 1911 the official census said they were 264 Spaniards in merthyr tipple and I believe that that’s hired but the official report is that number I know part of an international community in the town which included migrants from Ireland Eastern Europe France and Italy around the same time around sort of 1910 a group of spanish families left our lives during a lockout with the works and moved to a back road at the top of the swansea valley where there was a french-owned International colliery compared to the now well established community in Dallas the first years another curve was something of a shock to the Spanish incomers on any resident of the area cutting Mira dueñas remembers the terrible living conditions in these early years and having to bury their in her words stuff outside because they didn’t have a toilet the new arrivals did provoke some animosity from the close-knit nonconformist community of other crave in 1914 a demonstration against the Spanish took place in the town with local workers complaining that the Spanish were threatening their jobs their lack of English or Welsh as was commonly spoken in a back road and was used as a means to discriminate against them by some in the pits died on Evans a union leader in the town recalls a foreman stating that there is a separate low account for Spaniards and when establishing the day’s work died down also reports of Spanish customs such as drinking in public also attracted hostility from the town’s religious leaders some labeled the newcomers disgusting due to their habit of leaving cooking pans outside in the open air rather than in the kitchen nevertheless as in Darla’s the community appears to have eventually integrated well and by 1921 there around 200 Spaniards living in the tongue in both our lights and I Burke rave marriages between Welsh and Spanish families began to take place which helped to break down barriers of culture and language a number of accounts also suggests that the Spanish were instrumental in growing militancy in both areas helping to forge a bond of left-wing international explain the large number of volunteers for the Spanish Civil War of 19 36 to 39 from the South Wales area now this is the account of the Spanish and allies which you’ll find in a number of local histories as well as in the work to fuel Francis minez against fascism and the Fed written with David Smith as I’ve mentioned and I’ve just come from doing some research for the oral testimonies and local records across these areas and most follow this familiar tale of initial difficulties growing integration and a shared political outlook I don’t want to

dispute this account and it’s too strong a theme in too many histories and memoirs to kind of to ignore yeah I find it quite difficult to square with the accounts that i have in the spanish Annika’s press which I’ll get into in a moment indeed few histories from the Welsh perspective mention anarchism at all and none really give a sense of the ideas of these ideas of anarchist ideas as part of the exchange of political art looks which took place therefore I’d like to suggest an alternative accompanying account to the experience of spaniards in South Wales which focuses on the anarchist amongst immunity specifically before moving on to the letters in the amicus press and I thought I’d give a short run through a Spanish anarchism up to this point so although its ideological roots were very deep anarchism only really became a political movement in Europe in the mid 19th century and it has formed a significant minority of the first international and they were led in this if that’s the right word by the Russian radical Mikhail Bakunin while most if not all of the the kind of idea is mingled with in the first international shared the common goal of a socialist future Annika’s differed from Marxist and other elements in the international in how they perceive the class struggle and revolutionary tactics for anarchists the struggle was not solely economic capitalism was one cause of the oppression of the working class however they also saw the state and religion is independent sources of authority and power nothing less than the complete destruction of all three of these institutions would constitute a true revolution does the idea of seizing the state and using it in a kind of Marxist sense and through political or revolutionary means wood fer anarchists only bring about further repression the state had to be abolished immediately with no intermediary periods in most countries particularly after the defeat at the paris commune and anarchism was a minority and found any small pockets of support in countries such as france and italy in britain the movement and really failed to attract the substantial support from the working class yet spain was different from its inception in 1869 was furnished front of the International has always been a largely anarchist organization and it led interactions in Alicante in Cadiz in the early 1970s in the 1880s the movement had formed around the National Federation of unions known as the ft re so as one of many acronyms that comes up you can have to bear with them and now the ftir II was organized along Annika’s principles of bottom of decision-making and a commitment to revolutionary action the strength of this organization contrasted with Spain Socialist Movement and which was committed to parliamentary a parliamentary strategy and they were very concealer II in labor disputes both of which was seen as futile by large sections of the Spanish working class the Socialists nationalist union was only formed in 1888 twenty years after the anarchist organizers begun work and this remain weak until the early 20th century the Socialists parliamentary party of the pursue and one only is firstly in 1910 and was lodging marginal until after the First World War but things were not all rosy the anarchist movement either by the 1890s the movement was struggling quite badly ideological disputed ripped apart the ftre which was followed by an upsurge in political violence and terrorism in the 1890s particularly in Barcelona from 1894 onwards the movement was subject to a severe and heavy handed repression from the Spanish states who’s tried to wipe out an occasion and in Spain with indiscriminate arrest torture exile and execution and in 1900 when the first Spaniards left for Dallas the movement was beginning to recover and was reestablishing itself and working-class communities in areas such as Barcelona Southwest under the theater and northern cities such as gift on and renew now unlike the exiles of this period unlike the exiles of the 1890s the Spanish anarchists in bow lace were not necessarily escaping persecution but they were part of a broader wave of economic migration from Spain over the turn of the century in eighteen eighty to nineteen fourteen around three million Spaniards departed for foreign destinations this in a country of around 20 million people so there was this big move of economic migration going on at the time the vast majority and on 90% moved to Latin America drawn to the

cultural linguistic and colonial ties of countries such as Argentina Uruguay and Cuba although doubtless doesn’t really fit in this pattern it to held an appeal of better wages and a chance of escaping oppressive economic and social climate of early 20th century Spain now one of the earliest migrants to dialyze was Vicente Garcia the most prominent basque anarchist of the period garcia was not one of the original twelve migrants to the area but he did arise less than a year after them Garcia was a Cooper a barrel maker I’m not really sure why he felt of working in the ironworks would be good from that background but he went nevertheless he had also founded an edited the Annika’s paper el combat there in 1890 and was the main correspondent from the bus region to the main papers of the movement such as la vista and lateral testa he founded in Annika’s school in bilbao where he in his words made up for his lack of formal training with a burning passion to teach and an extensive collection of Annika’s pamphlets for him that was all you needed you didn’t need to be trained as a teacher you just wanted to need to do it and you needed to monica’s pamphlets the reasons I’m still unclear of soon afterwards garcia left for Dallas there’s a suspicion that he was escaping arrest but I’ve been unable to prove this he took up lodgings in union street though it is at the turn of the century and along with the master boilermaker milk or bush term anything now Garcia’s arrival in Dallas and appears to have sparked an upsurge in activity amongst the Spanish community yeah most of this activity was focused on Spanish affairs on the Spanish movement rather than things in Wales in early nineteen oh one forty Spaniards sent money from Dallas to support a strike in the astoria importantly fun most contributions being a few shillings and pennants that they could cobble together later that year Garcia and thirteen other workers formed an association which affiliated to the new anarchist Labor Federation in Spain known as the fish audit they’d wanted to send a delegate over from Wales but they couldn’t afford the passage there so they nominated someone in that place the same group organized meetings on significant dates in the anarchist calendar such as the eleventh of November the day of the execution of the Haymarket martyrs which they held in a local meeting hall in Dallas all of these activities were published in the anarchist press in Spain which provided a link between the movement and the migrant community in bow lace as in Spain Garcia was a prolific contributor to the Annika’s press giving regular reports of his experience in Wales and this was largely if not entirely negative he and his companions clearly saw a Welsh workers and as their ideological inferiors they were unimpressed by what they saw as the poverty of labor after in Wales and said that quote the worker of the Welsh country finds himself far behind that of the bus country and they are completely ignorant of their rights this was demonstrated by their willingness to compromise with the ironworks management the Dow lights anarchists were aware that in Spain within the Spanish movement there were calls for a more centralized and style of unionism based upon a British model but they wrote from from Wales and said that this was ignorance British unions were indeed powerful on paper they reported but only because they collected extortionate Jews and did nothing to help their members they’re quite perceptive something and in 1982 the correspondent Antonio cafe who actually think his Garcia right under a pseudonym and gave an account of quite a tedious wells work of society discussion on pensions which he completely disagreed with and he said that this was proof that the entirely ignorant Welsh worker thought of nothing more than quote the bar and the church now this comment is it’s striking and because so many of the accounts of the assimilation of the Spaniards into South Wales rests upon these two pillars of the community the bar and the church and you know they said the Spanish were so willing to join in the religious and social practices in the town that they inevitably started to get on that here’s that letter saying that we that we dislike all of that because because the anarchist in the area like their comrades in Spain saw religion and alcohol as sources of working class oppression so this is suspicion from these reports that they were setting themselves apart from their

compatriots they were refusing to join in the kind of social practices which integrated others of this finest community into local Welsh life and and the segregation if it can be called like that of the Dallas anarchists was not only evident between kind of Welsh and Spanish identities the anarchists also claimed to have kept a distance between themselves and their countrymen in their lives who belong to the Socialist Movement and like the anarchist movement there was a Spanish socialist presence in dulles and eventually the branch of the pessary was opened in the tongue in 1902 Jorge Fernandez returned from Dulles to Spain because he was ill in a letter published in the arcus press and addressed to the spaniards in dollars he accused the town socialist society of refusing to help him because he was not socialist they was dogmatic and they didn’t know the meaning of solidarity according to Fernandez and they were accused of perpetuating the Malthusian misery in the tongue in contrast Fernandez thanked the Dalai scientists for their assistance which enabled him to return to assess out now I really like this letter and because it really shows the kind of networks and the links and movements of people that I was talking about this is Fernandez who’ve moved from sesto near Bilbao to da lights and then he come back written a letter to an anarchist paper based in la linea which is next to Gibraltar so the complete opposite side of Spain and the letter was published for the Spanish people in power lights so this paper would then have been sent all the way over to ones and these kind of circles and links and things are the kind of things that I’m interested in now aside from political and social issues Annika’s such as Garcia seem to have found the day-to-day life in Wales quite difficult they found it hard to find food that they liked they found the weather depressing and changed as well I’ve just come there and yeah and and they felt that they were discriminated against as Spaniards one correspondent made the slightly unbelievable claim that Spanish families were forced to pay twice as much in rent as locals and because the local Jewish landlords didn’t like Spaniards because of the expulsion of the Jews from Spain in 1492 would be quite a long grudge other and they also suffered like all families in their through at the time and from diseases brought by the lack of other quick public health care in the area mother had one of the highest infant mortality rates in the country in the early 20th century at least three children of the anarchist community died at a young age including fraternidad the daughter of vicente garcia and who died from tuberculosis shortly after they arrived this is a death record a pretender Garcia method in hville 11 News and after she died Garcia road to la protesta and same paper as fernandez road to and to express his rage at a local priest who’d insisted that she had a religious burial as well as his gratitude to the spanish community almost all of whom had attended the funeral the response to this situation was often despair with only hope of further migration to leave he ate the difficulties of life in dallas when 10 Spaniards returned to Spain in 1902 the owner kids Press reported that the only reason the whole community hadn’t up sticks and left again was because they couldn’t afford the passage fer Canada was also seen as a potential destination to escape from the hardship of Wales particularly after the local union had reacted timidly to the ironworks threats to reduce salaries this came around in 1902 the company and said that they would knock down some berries the Union did nothing and a lot of spying his left at that point now this is kind of the earliest experiences of the Spanish in Barlow’s the Spanish anarchists and our lives and the most of this continued really after the big second wave of immigration in 1907 the statists and pictures from that time both of Union Street and dollars by night no sirven Garcia had left for Bordeaux but a number of the original anarchists remained in the town 1f Ramos wrote to the anchors paper ta de Libertad in 1907 to warn potential migrants against move into the area he advised that quote lace is not a place where harm hangs from the trees sounds lovely instead there was a place of hard work and exploitation yet migrants including Manny Anika still came in this period there are fewer of the longer kind of letter style reports which give a sense of the experience of the area but the

other kiss of the town remained amongst the first spanish-speaking Annika’s groups anywhere in the world to subscribe to new publications they requested new editions of anarchist pamphlets they were on the most fruit most willing and frequent donors to support campaigns launched by the anarchist press in Spain money to Annika’s publications was usually wired over the records of Lloyds Bank in merthyr show several payments from the town to the editors of papers such as Thierry live a thug from these correspondences we can’t infer some shifts in the dynamic of the anarchist group for one thing the anarchist association appears have been joined by a handful of local workers names such as John Burns William Evans and Evan Davies appeared alongside around 100 Spanish names in one strike fund in 1909 perhaps more importantly Garcia’s role as the main contacts in the area was apparently replaced by an English or a Welshman named Marcus Harris unfortunately I’ve been unable to track down anything substantial about Harris other than that he lived in the same street as a number of spiders district Union Street the various groups he headed over the following years all had names in common use in the Spanish movement a poor your aid or assistance between the cathian and need dogmas nisa stammers no dogmas no systems now these kind of you know hints at a slightly greater interaction may suggest the beginning of a wider accommodation between the Spanish anarchists and the Welsh working class of the area some scholars have suggested that such bonds contributed to the growth of syndicalism in South Wales at the time like the original Spanish on a case of bow lace from 1908 the rank-and-file of the South Wales minus Federation was growing increasingly critical of their union leadership and its commitment to conciliation with employers this was manifest moans clearly in the nineteen twelve pamphlet the miners next step published by the Federation’s on Form unofficial Reform Committee hmm the pamphlet called for worker control of the mines as opposed to nationalization favored by the feds leadership some areas of this pamphlet in the u.s. sees program are strikingly similar and to those of the Spanish anarcho-syndicalism Federation to CNT formed in 1910 and could be suggested that anarcho-syndicalist ideas had filtered from Spain through the anarchist press through the anarchist militants there into Wales yeah I find it hard to go beyond speculation on this point hard evidence that the influence of Spanish anarchism Wales is scarce only a few fleeting references to anarchism were made in contemporary records and the memories of those who live there at the time a non suggest that the distinct politics of Spanish anarchism were really acknowledged by Wells unionists at best there are accounts of a general left-wing sentiment and a commitment to unionism there are also hints the anarchists did not settle in the area or that they gave up their ideas in order to fit better in the communities of dollars and a back row Leandra macho born in a backrub the Spanish parents recalls his father struggling to get the quote anarchist boys of the village to work once they’d end enough for their weeks food and lodgings these young lads said that they have been exploited enough a sentiment which matters father a long-standing and kind of pillar of the Spanish community and thought was disgraceful such sentiments are also found although not necessarily from anarchists in a report for the British sociological review conducted in Mantha in 1926 which stated that the Spanish were quite very clannish and embittered and in conversation they convey the idea that the whole world is up against them they think that they are here on sufferance I suspect that and despite the suggestion of greater interaction with local workers such as Harris the anarchists of the second wave like Garcia and those of the first continue to focus most of the activities on causes connected to the Spanish movement such as the anarchist peace conference held in photog in northern Spain in 1915 which was supported by two groups from da lights on one from a backrub and whether most striking things I’ve found in my research is that there was almost no mention of the anarchists of our lights in the British anarchists news pay for freedom through 1902 1915 I’ve not found a single solid reference to suggesting that the Spanish groups did not subscribe to the paper like they did the Spanish papers and hidden paper was largely unaware of their existence something which I find slightly unbelievable and given it was probably you know the single most concentrated group of anarchists in the country of

the time so what conclusions have any computer or from this study and I feel I’ve been a great deal for my research into the Panasonic case at bar lies in the thousands of Annika’s papers I’ve read as part of my PhD and in a lot of scholarship on the subject I constantly find references to the anarchist commitment to internationalism to a world of no borders and a unified global work in class of abstract ideas and exemplary figures who took their ideas from country to country like missionaries and profits in doubt life’s I feel I found a different sides of this story the only case of the area were not there to spread the message they were there for work they struggled in their new environment I’m a critical of the political failings of the local working class and other Spaniards in the area their practices remained orientated towards a movement in Spain and many sought to leave the area as quickly as possible in time some signs of integration and then perhaps a local support for anarchist ideas may have developed the evidence for this is sparse what I would suggest then is that away from the celebrities of the international movement away from metropolis is such as London and Paris the experience of migration and in turn nationalism with complex difficult unlimited the late 19th century up to the First World War was one of the great periods of globalization and movement of people both of which were challenging experiences for those caught up in it anarchists were not exceptional in this regard and their belief in internationalism did not always overcome the boundaries and borders of nation-states cultures and languages now I’m not saying this as a criticism of these people I don’t think we should make out people in the past as heroes or mythical figures whose commitment to our geology sets them apart from their contemporaries or ourselves rather I think is more relevant and accurate to try and understand what life was like for those who tried to put abstract ideas into practice the difficulties they faced their frustrations and their failings as well as their successes trying to write history from the perspective of those who lived it helps us to move away from both glorification and patronization or in the words of EP Thompson from the enormous condescension of posterity we may disagree with the ideology of the anarchists of bow lace or we may support it we may have wanted them to a blaze the trail the radicalism across South Wales but frankly this didn’t happen what we believe in what we want history to be like is not the same as trying to acknowledge how it was and I think I that’s great very interesting question it’s going to leave across the river right yeah I’ve got one of my friends here boy I another point really interested probably an unfair question but maybe a four-month piece of research we would do wouldn’t it be useful obviously to get comparison there is any other Spanish community within Britain to see what happened there we know of any and I know of there’s quite a strong community in London of anarchist in London us you notice the Center for exiles and kind of political refugees beyond that I’m not I’m not familiar with one dad this particular juncture I’m sure there are but I’m not cuz it will help to make a comparison to see if is just the ticket be nasty buddy switch yeah then I mean II can put you can compare it to migrant communities in say Latin America but they’re the contest is so different than me and there they did actually go and I nakum did spread quite strongly in places like Argentina but though you know you have some obvious it’s obviously slightly easier I think in that kind of contact and but yeah you’re right it would be good to follow all compared with different nationalities as what yeah to compare with the Italian migrants become thanks i find that particularly interesting especially around the context of dallas in that period given Keir Hardie has just been elected his MP and the ILP units in its kind of its form at that time shares of lots of the ideals and ideas may be better by the boy yeah all of that a grouping around Garcia and actually this when Keir Hardie comes to talk to the Dallas ILP in 1904 he says pretty much the same thing don’t let’s meet in pups because we’ll all get drunk we won’t want anything done let’s meet it and a room much like this where we can have a cup of tea or cup of coffee and much more

materials going on so my question really relates to them the role of the ILP as the unifying force because when you look at other crave and you look at Dallas in merthyr the ILP seems to be the connecting point as an interesting article in the method pioneer which is the ILP newspaper around the the time of the first world war in which they describe walking to our crave from mithran dollars on meeting with our things and national cadres tech speak for the Spanish who was living there and they’re the only ones who seem interested in their message so when Howland I did that research years ago that’s I think where they’re getting some of the other information from and so I wondered whether you you picked up any sense that the art that is where the connecting and from the perspective of the Spanish Annika’s press they don’t they don’t talk about distinctions within you know can be kind of between the ILP or liberals around it and they kind of lump it all in together and so they certainly don’t reference it explicitly and from the Welsh perspective you know I’ve read a few memos and listen to a few oral testimonies about the early ILP in math and I was kind of hoping no i don’t i didn’t really want to present this idea that things didn’t really click I didn’t really you know that wasn’t what I went looking for but that’s kind of what I found in the archive the quite a lot in the ILP and they didn’t really talk about it very much until they didn’t all weathers finance particularly look very much and certainly not with that specific bit that I’m interested in with the anarchist part of it and like with the miners next step as well and the kind of syndicalism in South Wales I do suspect that I don’t know if this kind of direct crossover happened or if the kind of coming out it they’re both reaching similar conclusions perhaps independently of one another which males I mean the IWW visit South Wales at the same time and I wonder if that’s more really where this is coming from rather than coming from from Spain but it would be a kind of be something to follow you know I’m not know an expert on the ILP in the early I or pieces of that would be interesting do you know how much effect the religious revival of the early 1900’s might have had on dampening vertical thought in women’s at the time I’m I don’t you have explained religious revival quickly don’t was such remembers religious revival kicked off about 1904 I think yeah well I don’t know whether it was mainly a function side around industrial areas as well as well well it was a chap 11 Robert who was think he’s a Methodist minister not the the big you know Old Testament patriarch beard quite a young good-looking fella and he absolutely packed them into the tramples they couldn’t get enough of him so really grown yes yeah yeah their daily very charismatic and one person in other day was carted off the asylum with a cute religious mania give it a great boost gyro the closed Pope’s they closed written clips that’s right and it was the end of distilling and wheels it’s always searching something yeah it is so enormous did they stop meeting in chapels within beautiful so big it was on Lanny open hundreds of thousands of each a lot of breweries converted to making soft drinks its interests that’s right yeah which I mean it’s in and it’s not a comparison that I’d like but I mean anarchism is sometimes compared to Protestantism and saying the reason it’s so strong in Spain’s because they never hard courts and this is Conan or steer purist and reaction to Spanish Catholicism I’d already by that because I think it’s so different but they do you know there are quite the you know they do say don’t drink they do say you know don’t do all these things there are there are you know some parallels by Denny that’s enough to compare them and also you know in terms of religion I mean particularly I found in Spain but also when they’re right in from Dallas riddens a bit of a brick wall for them they just don’t engage with it and it’s such an anathema the idea of religion that they know their comments on it generally just it’s terrible is always terrible they don’t give some details about the revival so I don’t yeah I haven’t found too much alone wait a group I belong to in Cardiff had an exchange with Italian anarchists a

couple years ago and I remember trying to explain to one of the Italians that most of Christianity in Wales was nonconformist ten people elected their own ministers know what absolutely astonishing couldn’t they couldn’t believe such a thing so there must be a lot of non understanding a lot of different basic assumptions completely different perspective and it’s Young’s don’t yeah yes just a sec waiting for this feel it’s a real shame sons I mean I i held that position about 20 you know this guy buy it sort of nonsense but actually it’s very important to actually getting to get to grips with the different forms of religion their relation to politics especially in your class girls is great time with black people well that’s right understanding and tried to construct a bit more effective and go oh it’s all bollocks sorry is fairly obvious but I just want to sell show you the language was a huge barrier because they’d have to learn Welsh to speak to the people that were working with and then English to communicate with movements in across great britain and that must have been a huge barrier yeah definitely I mean I know Garcia did speak English and I knew that but most of them didn’t notice any most impudent have spoken well and then who else would have been too much for bearing downloads but Sony Ann Arbor cove where most of the memoirs are very much this was a well speaking community and and more journey looking beyond the Annika’s you know there are a lot of reports that they did they did learn whilst they did learn English eventually this is kind of one of the broader points that I was you know perhaps it was a bit of bleak but most of the kind of stories and the memoirs of it suggests that there’s this you know there’s a difficult beginning but then everything’s all right x 1920 and I’m kind of incline say well yeah but that’s 20 years where it’s difficult like I think that that’s important you know 20 years is a long time that’s a generation people and you know that needs exploring as well it’s not good enough to say in the end it was all all right that’s what some well now come back to me sorry one over there I was wondering if you knew what sort of like these situations paying currently in terms of the other customers is still questionable and I I’m you know I’m not that hot I’m not that on it to be honest at the moment I thought I’ve been in my weird PhD bubble for a while and it’s certainly not articulated how it used to be I mean it was particularly in the thirties but also kind of after the First World War a huge enormous organized movement at least a million strong after the First World War much more during the civil war isn’t there’s nothing like that the CNT still exists but it doesn’t have the same scale of support and but you know one of the things that are the kind of bigger project that I’m working on again is trying to perhaps look beyond the kind of label of anarchism and see how similar ideas are evident you know throughout and you can see similar ideas in McKinsey my own movement perhaps again I’m hesitant to kind of make that direct comparison people ask me about Bourdain was quite a lot if there’s some kind of connection there again like religion though I mean standing for election is a brick wall to the Anakin you know they just wouldnt they wouldn’t cut countenance that kind of behavior so you know weird everyone’s got their you know their moral their lines so I don’t know I think both Amos is actually comparable to different political groupings in the early 20th century yeah I just wanted to make love lived in South well done in Spain venison and an o globo’s of language that I think the point of our language like you know learning English you can learn to speak English well enough I would think to explain the basic concepts of anarcho-syndicalism without being able to either read or write well enough you know so like the absence of like articles and freedom say to me is not you know necessarily significant because they wouldn’t necessarily be aware the freedom existed or unnecessarily like be literate enough in English language to read about it i would think alike if they were living in the same street as english speakers or Welsh speakers again you know even if the majority of the community in in merthyr wouldn’t have might have been insular that’s just natural and all immigrant community that I think and then like I think if even if just a few people became mates and had conversations and kind of broke in English to me I think that could have well happens like and inspired some people that they might have used the word anarchism room the mother just said like well you know we

should control the means of production directly without it might be nationalized by the state or we should have you know unions without bureaucracies and you know you can explain those concepts without needing to use the word anarchism so but then again like your person I like evidence yeah yeah now i agree sanely and it’s I mean one of the biggest challenges that I’ve had looking into this movement in general by in Spain as well its literacy most of the mountain this room by and that makes studying print a bit of an issue you have to think of ways around it and papers were often rather loud to people and that kind of engagement and I so people talk to one another clearly they would and we would you know communicate on I think was freezing again you right in saying it doesn’t really matter the freedom don’t talk about them I just found it surprising because they were willing enough you know that this Harris you know chuckling was part of their group he was English or Wells was willing to write to Spain so I just wonder why he wasn’t writing writing you wrote two papers in Spain so I just wondered why he wasn’t doing up with freedom that was just one I don’t know why I just feel like so that our kiss the night ladies out about nothing to do with freedom maybe well maybe an ideological bit something yeah I think should know how many people are speaking Welsh inverted hereford Alvin migrants are there what language are they gonna share you know you’ve got English second language the third language English second language as well first I’m you years to God massive Irish migrants you’ve got in a Chinese in Wales Police these different and it’s not we had a long debate the everyday about actually is there actually anyone who’s from the way her fur develops a lien Archie’s a lot of English workers and over there because plans with police of things but then the other thing is yes I want to know how many people are speaking the language but this I think going from spanish to welsh it’s probably easier they go from Spanish learning roles of yours no yeah i mean it would be I I don’t know I imagine English was may have been the kind of go to language when you’re in a situation where you’ve got Irish Spanish Portuguese in a room probably some sort of broken English but i don’t i don’t know but again i said it comes out strongly in the memoirs of a back road that did the spanish often learn welsh before they learn English and because our growth is such a well speaking community Mathur I don’t know because it’s a bit bigger and the community has bit more mixed but it would again i don’t i don’t have kind of to hand you know stats are not do this interesting there’s no speak spanish in the country and they probably would have done at the time and around nine hundred a day would of them and a lot of them are actually aren’t necessarily Basque and Bilbao was a site where lots of internal migration within Spain they go to Bilbao and then from Bilbao they’ll don’t go onwards and certainly all of the anarchists but all written down is in Spanish

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