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As they sit, as the crust sits on top of the magma, some of them are moving away from each other, some of them are moving towards each other Now the blue dots you can see are where we have a high frequency of volcanoes You can see that they correlate very closely with a fault line Earthquakes do as well Dotted around not necessarily the same place as volcanoes because it depends on the type of interaction going on between the plates, but again these are commonly found at fault lines where two plates meet There are two different types of tectonic plates you need to know about The oceanic crust is very thin, and the continental crust is very thick The oceanic crust is less dense than the continental crust When two plates meet, there are three different things that could happen We can have a destructive or a conservative or a constructive If we have a destructive plate margin, we are going to have a continental plate meeting a continental plate If this happens, there is gonna be no subduction of the plates The plates will collide and they will crumble up to form mountains The Himalayas are an example of this happening Earthquakes will frequently occur when this happens, but you will not find volcanoes in this situation We can also have a destructive plate margin when we have a continental plate meeting an oceanic plate Now you’ve got to remember the oceanic plate is more dense than the continental plate So the dense oceanic plates will be subducted below the continental plates As the oceanic plate is taken down towards the hot mantle, the rock that it is made up of will move downwards and will melt This will become part of the mantle, this will become magma The new magma can then pop up over the other side on the continental plates because it is less dense, fluid, and this will form volcanoes Fold mountains often occur here, the Andes being one example Friction between the two plates as one goes under the other, friction of them rubbing against each other, can lead to earthquakes as well as the volcanoes that are seen in the same location Where we have a conservative plates margin, we are going to get two plates moving against each other, sometimes in opposite direction, sometimes at different speeds in the same direction Friction occurring as the two plates rub against each other will lead to earthquakes One example is the Sand Andreas fault line Where we have the slow moving North American plates moving in the same direction as the faster moving Pacific plates Friction and stress can build up over a long period of time, and this can lead to earthquakes But you are not going to see volcanoes In a constructive plate margin we are gonna have two plates moving away from each other in the opposite direction When they move away from each other, they leave a gap and the magma below, the magmas in the mantle which is exposed as the crust separates, can reach the surface and is cooled down This is gonna form new rocks When this is on land, this can lead to the formation of a rift valley The lava is cooled slowly and can sometimes reach very long distances before it is cooled down into rocks These can form structures such as shield volcanoes, or volcanic islands such as the Azules can also be formed by this slow cooling lava A stunningly beautiful example of this is the Mid-Atlantic Ridge underwater, so you can see there are rocks cooling quicker than they would on land and you can see the plates separating There are a few key words that you need to know Primary effects are the first effect

of a natural hazard or event on the population, that is the people or the buildings Secondary effects are the after effects of a natural hazard or event These are going to happen over a longer time scale This could be days, weeks, months, or even years The immediate response to a hazard is how people react straightaway This is as the event is happening and the immediate time scale afterwards The long term response is how people will react to the natural hazard in the weeks or the months after it has happened A HIC is a high income country This has been defined by the World Bank as a country where the Gross National Income, GNI, is over \$12,000 per person A low income country is a country where the Gross National Income is less than \$12,000 per person We are going to compare two high income countries where there was an earthquake We’re going to look at Chile where the earthquake measured 8.8 on the Richter Scale, and Italy where the earthquake measured 6.3 on the Richter Scale The earthquake in Chile occurred in February 2010 and the estimated cost of this earthquake came in at around \$30 billion Some of the primary effects include the airport and the port being severely damaged, limiting transport and supplies There was a loss of power which affected communications affecting how quickly aid could be delivered to the workplace and affecting supply of water Unfortunately, 500 people were killed, 12,000 were injured, and many many homes and schools were destroyed The earthquake in Italy in April 2009 had an estimated cost of \$11 billion It was very old parts of the city with lots of very old buildings and nearly 15,000 of these buildings collapsed, including the university, the hospital, and some very old churches This earthquake occurred very early on in the morning which meant the majority of people were still at home in bed asleep Unfortunately though, 300 people were still killed and there were 1,500 people injured The earthquake in Chile quickly led to tsunamis, landslides, and fire Now these tsunamis didn’t occur in Chile, they occurred in other countries The landslides meant that roads were damaged and blocks blocked which would prevent the supply and the delivery of aid to the appropriate locations Again in Italy there were landslides This time mud and rock Due to the large number of buildings that were damaged, Italy saw an increase in rent and house prices, and there were less businesses in the area Chile had national funding appeals and local and international emergency services came to the aid of the people in Chile Repairs began immediately, but would take a long time Due to the large numbers of buildings that collapsed in Italy, the search for survivors began within an hour Hotels and tents were provided for people that didn’t have anywhere to live anymore, didn’t have anywhere to sleep, and Italy suspended bill payments for the people that had been affected And there were funding appeals in Italy to help the people that had been affected by the earthquake The long term response to the earthquake in Chile was the government helping to rebuild a lot of homes’ businesses Italy reduced the amount of taxes that people affected had to pay Our low income country case study for an earthquake is Nepal, and this earthquake happened in April 2015 and measured a 7.9 on the Richter Scale The estimated cost of this earthquake was \$5 billion And the aftershocks of this earthquake were felt later on

flying around furniture can cause during an earthquake is reduced We can make sure the local population are well educated about what to do in the event of an earthquake, and we can stockpile food and medical supplies so they are ready and waiting if they are needed As part of the school day, as part of a work day, a business day, there might be earthquake drills where people have to practice what to do As part of protecting against earthquakes, we can reduce the risk New technology has meant we now know more about how buildings can be built, designed so they are earthquake resistant Predicting earthquakes is much harder than predicting other tectonic hazards and there are no clear warning signs It is very hard to predict when earthquakes are going to occur Some people think that animals can sense when earthquakes are about to occur and that their behavior will change because of it Smart phones are incredibly useful as they have accelerometers which can be used to, minutes before, sense when an earthquake is occurring, and they have GPS Short mental break here to bring yourself, focus yourself, before we move on to weather patterns Here we can see a map of the world and we’re going to be using this to look at global atmospheric circulation Pressure belts and climate cells are two important factors that affect the world’s weather We have rainy areas, hot areas, cold areas, hot and wet areas, and this is partly due to the tilt, the differences at the equator, and how the sun’s rays hit the Earth At the equator, the sun’s energy is at a 90 degree angle, so it has a very strong heating effect Whereas at the poles, the sun’s energy is much lower The angle that the sun’s energy hits at, this same energy is spread over a larger area Meaning it will have less of a heating effect There are some important features that you need to know about the global atmospheric circulation map where we have descending cool dry air and high pressure, descending cool dry air and high pressure by the poles, rising warm moist air, and low pressure Now the tilt of the Earth and the rotation are responsible for seasonal changes in the positions of these cells They can move north in the summer and south in the winter Tropical storms can occur in various different locations at various different times For example, we can have them over here in June and October, hurricanes moving around here from August to October, cyclones moving here in January to March, and then typhoons in May to December Now the difference between hurricanes, cyclones, and typhoons is all about where they start Hurricanes are going to start in the Atlantic in the eastern pacific oceans, cyclones are going to start in the Indian and the Southern Pacific Ocean, and typhoons are going to start west of the North Pacific Ocean There are a large number of tropical storms each year, roughly a hundred, and they are going to occur at the intertropical convergence zone To start, there are a few things they need A low altitude, a high temperature, high sea temperature, and the sea needs to be 60 to 70 meters deep There are some different categories of wind speed So you might have heard of a category one storm or a category two storm; this refers to their wind speed in kilometers per hour Tropical storms form as the air over warm tropical oceans is heated up This air rises under low pressure conditions

As the air moves upwards, it starts to bring with it more air and moisture from the oceans resulting in strong winds Coriolis effect, where the air spins around a calm center The evaporate moisture condenses, and as it moves upwards it cools down As it cools, more moisture is drawn upwards And we have large clouds forming leading to large volumes of rainfall The eye of the storm forms as cold air sinks, the eye of the storm is going to be dry and calm, and winds will move it towards land, but will stop gaining energy from water Here we have a cross-section through a storm Starting over this side, if you were here in this position, you would notice that it’s starting to get a bit windy That the temperature will fall and it will start to get cold, and the air pressure will fall as well You will notice that clouds are starting to form As the storm moves over you, so we are now here in this position, you’ll start to notice heavy rainfall and increased wind If the eye of the storm is passing over you, you’ll notice that the eye of the storm is very calm There is no wind, there is no rain And it might even be bright and sunny As the eye of the storm passes, you’ll find yourself again back in heavy rain and very high winds You’ll notice a sudden temperature drop as the sun goes away Then as the storm passes, the wind and rain will eventually stop Climate change, as we see temperatures, water levels, and wind change, is that going to be affecting tropical storms? As we see temperatures increase, as we see land temperatures and sea temperatures increase, we are seeing a rise in sea levels This rise in sea levels can be linked to higher storm surges The increase in temperature means that air can hold more moisture It means that with the tropical storms we are going to see increased rainfall, and then there are going to be more severe floods as an effect of that We also expect this to have an effect whether there’s going to be more destructive impact from the storms The tropical storms are going to be more frequent And there is going to be more uncertainty relating to tropical storms, when they’re going to occur, and how destructive they’re going to be And then we can also see if the climate change could have a possible effect on El Nino Here is a case study for a typhoon which was in November 2013 and first hit early in the morning This was a category five storm with winds up to 275 kilometers per hour and waves that reached up to 15 meters 6,200 people unfortunately die as a result of this storm 90% of Tacloban was destroyed with an estimated \$12 billion worth of damage And there were hundreds of thousands of people displaced Land and homes were destroyed The level of flooding and landslides meant that roads weren’t usable Unfortunately, the fact that the roads were cut off meant there was a delay in delivering of aid to the people that really needed it A large oil barge ran aground with oil spilling everywhere This has devastating environmental consequences Power, water, and food supplies were cut off This led to large scale looting as people panicked, as people needed to find something to eat, and fresh water There were damaged crops which led to future loss of income and lots of people lost their jobs The immediate effect was the evacuation of people and international aid being sent In the long term, there is continued international aid being provided to people in the area There is a large amount of rebuilding

that is going on, and when they’re rebuilding, they’re rebuilding it with better infrastructure so that same situation doesn’t occur again They’re providing more shelters for future use There are a few things that we can do to reduce the possible effects of tropical storms For example, we can plan storm shelters so that people know where they are so they are readily supplied We can have disaster supply kits These can be in every home, these can be in every school, in every building, with the things that people will need in the immediate aftermath to survive We can educate people so they know what to do in the event of a tropical storm and making sure that people have a family plan in place Where do you go, what do you do, who do you contact In terms of protection, storm shutters on windows will reduce the damage Storm drains and sea walls will protect people And reinforced doors and walls should hopefully means that some more buildings survive if this were to happen again Removal of any trees that could damage buildings will mean that if this happens there won’t be trees to fall on buildings and damage them The National Hurricane Center in Florida can predict when storms are going to hit land and potentially the impact they’re going to have and the level of storms This can send out a warning to the local people The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration has supercomputers which will take in all of the information about the local weather and see if they can take this large chunk of information and use it to predict when the storms are going to occur and what will happen And as we can see in the picture here, we can monitor them by satellites and aircraft Here in the UK we do get some extreme weather hazards as well For example, we can have snow and extreme cold 2010, 2011, 2014, 2015 These are due to depressions not passing over as normal There is a risk to crops and people’s livelihood There is travel disruption People are gonna have the heating on more, so there is going to be increased cost associated with that, and then risk to health of vulnerable people Strong winds which can be the tail end of hurricanes can cause damage to power supplies, potentially damaging power lines and cutting people off leaving them without electricity They can flatten trees which not only damage the trees but also damage anything that the trees falls on And we can have droughts with an extended period of low rainfall, so more than 15 days in a row where it basically doesn’t rain, or technically less than 0.2 millimeters of rain This is going to affect crops, it’s going to affect water supplies in reservoirs, and again we have a risk to vulnerable people On the other side of the drought we have extreme rainfall and flooding This is going to affect a large number of homes and businesses who could be flooded There is going to be disruption to travel and disruption to infrastructure Again, potential disruption to power supplies, and the heavy levels of rainfall and flooding could cause landslides as a secondary effect We also need to be concerned about storm surges, flash floods, slow onset flooding, and surface water Thunderstorms can come with heavy rain and wind The risk of flash flooding There is a risk, as with everything, of damages to home and infrastructure There was a large amount of flooding in December 2013 through February 2014 in the Somerset Levels This was due to heavy rainfall and high tides There were storm surges and the riverbed was clogged with years of sediment There were over 600 homes that were flooded Local farms were flooded, a large number of homes and businesses, a large number of people had to be evacuated out of the area, and power supplies were cut off

and then, when you’re calm, when you’re relaxed, we’re gonna move on to ecosystems When we are drawing food webs, it is important that the arrow is eaten by or is shown their direction of energy transfer Producers get energy from sunlight Consumers get their energy from producers From plants We also have decomposers which are going to be bacteria and fungi in the soil When we’re thinking about nutrient cycling, decomposers are going to make the nutrients available to reenter the food webs So they can take them and make them available again for living things to use Here we have one of my favorite small scale UK ecosystems But there are lots of things that are affecting it at the moment We need to be concerned about erosion, the effect on food chains that are living in the ecosystem, the effect of extreme weather, the changes to habitats, the changes to nutrient cycling, and then we also need to be concerned about the human impact on their ecosystem So we can think about conservation projects and we can think about the effect that development will have on it One small factor can have many larger knock on effects When we are thinking about the factors that affect ecosystems we need to think about the biotic factors, the living factors, and the abiotic factors, the not living factors For example, decomposers are biotic factors whereas sun, rain, and wind are going to be abiotic factors Soil is another abiotic factor, whereas the insects that you may find in and around it are biotic Rocks are an abiotic factor whereas plants and animals are a biotic factor Biomes are large scale ecosystems If we are looking at a tropical rainforest one, they’re going to be close to the equator with high temperatures, high rainfall, low pressure, little seasonal variation, a large number of green plants, and they cover approximately 6% of the Earth’s surface, but have over half of the world’s known species A quarter of all medicines have originated from plants, animals that are found in tropical rainforests Deserts can be found north and south of the equator These are going to be close to the tropics of Capricorn and with Cancer They have dry air, they have subtropical high pressure with high daytime temperatures, very little cloud cover, and low nighttime temperatures And low rainfall Tropical grassland has dry and wet seasons These are gonna be affected by the movement of Hadley cells The dry season is very hot and this can lead to fires The wet season is very wet which can have the possible consequences of flooding Large herds of animals will live in these areas Temperate grassland is going to be inland, away from coastal areas They will have hot summers and cold winters The mediterranean is going to be the west coast of continents They have hot, dry summers and mild winters Deciduous forests can be found at higher latitudes They’re very rainy and have trees that will shed their leaves in the wintertime Coniferous forests are gonna be found in places that have very cold winters, where there is going to be very little sun,

and the leaves on these trees reduce the heat and the water that is lost These trees do not drop their leaves We have two polar regions This is the arctic and the antarctic They have very cold air which sinks, very low temperatures, and it is gonna be very dry The tundra is the cold desert areas There are very low numbers of plants that can be found in these areas, it is very cold, it is very windy, and it is very dry You are doing amazing work, you have been revising for quite a while now, so again I want you to pause, I want you to go take a break Go get yourself a drink, go get yourself a snack, and then come back and we will start on tropical rainforests Rainforests have a very particular climate It is very warm with little temperature variation It is very wet There are rainy seasons There are different parts to the rainforest that you need to be aware of, and these different parts behave and look very different We have the top canopy, the middle canopy, and the lower canopy In the lower canopy we are gonna have shrubs, rodents, and there are gonna be woody creepers In the middle canopy there are gonna be animals that are especially adapted to living in the trees And in the top canopy, this is where we are going to find the very fast growing trees The leaves are gonna be adapted so that water drips off them, and the birds are gonna feed on the nectar The soil in the rainforest has to have a few adaptations to support the plant life there ‘Cause this is rather infertile soil There are decomposers in there, for example fungi, and the large amount of rainfall will quickly wash away any nutrients Tree leaves will fall to the ground This will be the litter that is on the ground The nutrients for the decomposers will become part of the soil, and then the trees can quickly take up the nutrients from the soil Plants are adapted to survive in this poor soil because of the rapid cycling of nutrients The warm, humid climate is ideal for plants that grow rapidly Plants in the rainforest have a number of adaptations that will help them survive They have very shallow roots Leaves are adapted so that water can drip from them The top canopy protects the soil from erosion And only the top layers of leaves, the top layer of plants, will get sun for photosynthesis Many of the lower plants that don’t get the light for photosynthesis get their energy, the nutrients that they need, from the soil There are a large number of plants that have developed parasitic relationships Animals in the rainforest also have a number of adaptions that they have evolved so they can survive Food and water is abundant all throughout the year This means there is a large amount of competition These animals are going to be specialists at living in the rainforest and many of them will have specialized to live off one plant For example, toucans have specialist beaks so that they can break open nuts Animals that eat the fruit are helping the plant by dispersing the seeds There is a large amount of deforestation that goes on in the rainforest and there are a number of reasons for this Clearing of land for commercial farming, whether this is crops or animals Mineral extraction from the soil

Again, the trees need to be cleared for the mining operations and for the roads that will allow access for the mining operations Logging so that the trees can be used for wood or paper Roads so that the various commercial operations can be accessed The building of homes in areas that used to be rainforests, and the river trees for the production of energy Half of the world’s rainforests is now gone It is disappearing at a rate of one hectare per second This is slowing down in Brazil, but it is still going on and increasing in other countries As with the majority of complex issues, there are positives and there are negatives Looking at the negatives of deforestation first, there is a loss in biodiversity 130 species are lost every day There is the impact on climate change Trees absorb CO2, every tree that is cut down means less CO2 is absorbed And the evaporation has cooling effects on the Earth Trees protect the soil from erosion The roots help bind soil together The mercury used in mining operations is polluting the rivers The indigenous tribes that have lived in the rainforest are losing their land And deforestation is leading to conflicts Differences in opinions, differences in ways of life between the indigenous tribes and the people that want to develop the land And the loss of plants means the loss of potential medicines The rainforest is a big source of tourism and if it is gone due to deforestation, we have lost the tourists However, there are reasons that deforestation is happening It provides a large number of job, jobs revive taxes The land can be used for homes and farming and for the development of infrastructure to support their local area There are several management strategies that have been put in place to protect the rainforest Conservation and education by NGOs, Non-Governmental Organizations, are focusing on local national parks, jobs for conservation workers, and they are buying up land There are intergovernmental agreements on hardwood, for example trade restrictions And registration numbers to prevent illegal logging Countries are being offered a reduction in their debt in return for protecting areas of rainforest And an increase in ecotourism They are using the rainforest as they are to make money Selective logging means that carefully managing the rainforest can allow them to thrive And then replanting of felled trees From this point onwards we are going to be looking at the options If you look in the pinned comment there will be the times for all of these, but you need to look at hot deserts or cold deserts and then two from coastal landscapes, river landscapes, or glacial landscapes Right, we are about to start hot deserts I hesitated there because what I want you to do is to write down how many times in this section you thought I was gonna say dessert instead of deserts because I’m getting these confused the whole time There are a number of hot deserts that are dotted all over the world You need to know the location and the names of these Now deserts can be both hot and cold In this section we are just looking at the hot ones They are mainly found between 30 degrees north and 30 degrees south The reasons for that climate is a global atmospheric circulation The lack of cloud cover, the lack of rainfall, means that these areas are going to see extreme temperatures To survive in hot deserts, the animals, the plants,

and the soil are going to have adaptations The soil is very very sandy and this is not going to hold water well Salt deposits are going to risen to the top due to the evaporation of water This soil is not going to have much organic matter in it Plants are going to have horizontal roots that run long just below the surface of the ground Seeds will have long dormancy periods, and these seeds will rapidly germinate when they find water Plants can have long taproots reaching far down into the ground to get to the groundwater And leaves of these plants are going to be adapted to retain water and reduce water loss These plants can also store large volumes of water Animals can get water from food instead of just from drinking it They may have light colored fur to reflect the sun and thick skin on the soles of their feet so that they don’t get burnt In this case study we’re going to be looking at the Thar Desert in Pakistan and Northwest India The landscape is full of sandy hills And these are mobile sand dunes Water, when it does rain, will drain away very quickly The soil holds very little organic matter and there is very low rainfall in the area The economy is based around tourism, mining for minerals For example gypsum Gypsum is important for use in cement And farms that are responsible for producing energy For example wind farms, solar farms, as well as oil and coal extraction Farming is part of the economy, but irrigation is needed for this The challenges of living and working in this area are partly due to the extreme temperatures It is hard for workers to work for long periods of time in extreme heat Supply of water is an issue, evaporation of water when it is around, and plants that are especially adapted to live in these extreme temperatures There are water shortages This is an increasing problem as the population in this area and the economy in this area grows There is a limited road network in the area which means things take longer to get places, and some places are very inaccessible, which is why the use of camels is still frequent The western desert in the US is actually made up of smaller deserts There is a large number of people in this area who live in very big cities The economy relies heavily on tourism For example in Las Vegas Farming is a big part of the economy, but again has problems with irrigation Extraction of minerals is important; uranium for production of nuclear energy, and copper for wires Energy production from the hydroelectric power produced from the Hoover Dam The challenges of this area is that outside in the big cities there is very low population density There are water shortages which are going to be increasing as the population increases The Hoover Dam provide large amounts of water for the area, but there is a cost to the ecosystem of this The Hoover Dam provides a large amount of employment, but there is still not enough water to support the local population and the growing local economy There are also agreements in place with Mexico that they must still allow the Colorado River to flow When desertification occurs, we have large areas of land that are gradually being turned into desert

Their crests are going to be far apart They will have gentle wave fronts They will spill forward They will deposit large amounts of sand This means there’ll be longer rides for surfers Destructive waves are often associated with storms They are very close together They will have very steep wave fronts and they will spill backwards As a wave moves up the beach, it’s gonna start off with a circular orbit of water in open water that’s be gonna distorted by friction with the sea bed, the top of the wave will start to move faster, and then the wave will break Cliff collapse is due to different types of weathering We can have mechanical weathering, also known as physical weathering, chemical weathering, or even biological weathering Biological weathering is going to be weathering due to the effects of plants and the effects that roots have on the cliffs Chemical weathering is due to acid rain and the rain that’s falling whereas mechanical weathering is going to be due to freeze-thaw or salt water Mass movement at the coast is often triggered by rain Slumping, or rotational slip, where we’re going to have a concave slip plane The heavy rocks and soil are going to fall down that We can have debris such as mud flowing down where the wet saturated soil will slip rapidly down a steep slope We can have a rock or landslide This is going to be the breakdown of the cliff due to freeze-thaw Coastal erosion can be due to hydrolic power, abrasion, or attrition Hydrolic power is destructive waves As the wave hits the cliff front there can be a change air pressure as trapped air is pushed or forced into cracks This increase in air pressure suddenly releases as the wave moves away Abrasion is a bit like rubbing sand paper on a cliff As sand and stones are being thrown against the cliff, the action of this, the friction of this, is wearing away the cliff We are going to see this happening more lower down on the cliffs When pebbles are moving along they are going to collide with each other This is going to result in the pebbles having a smooth round appearance If a wave hits the beach directly, then the sediment just goes up and down It’ll move up in one direction and back down in the opposite direction When we have a longshore drift it is if a wave hits at an angle Sediment will move up the beach at an angle but the backwash is direct to the sea leaving sand behind We can get beaches formed in bays where we have low energy waves depositing large amounts of sand in sheltered bays Here we are going to have constructive waves forming beaches We can see lots of examples of coastal erosion on the Dorset Coast When we have headland and bays we have different strands of rocks being eroded at different rates The weaker rocks, the clay, will be eroded faster than the harder rocks And this erosion will form bays The harder rocks are going to be made of things like limestone or sandstone Cliffs are gonna be large protrusions and the wave cut platforms are going to be at the bottom of these where we have slow erosion from the bottom and eventually the cliff will fall down When we have caves, arches, stacks, and slump, there is a small fault or crack in the rock Hydrolic action will form caves in that crack and the waves will make the cave larger until it becomes an arch The continual erosion of that cave or that arch will eventually mean that the bit over the top will collapse leaving stacks and stumps There are a large number of structures that can be formed at the beach

Beaches are formed by deposits of sand or pebbles or small stones These most often happen in sheltered bays Constructive waves are going to give us sandy beaches whereas destructive waves are going to give us pebbly beaches Sand dunes form around an obstacle When a large trunk or a large stone is on the beach, sand deposits will start to form around it giving us an embryo sand dune Eventually plants will start to grow on this sand dune and the effect of the roots on the sand dune will stabilize it Rotting organic matter from these plants will increase the fertility of the sand dune allowing more plants to grow Spits can be caused by longshore drift These are narrow sections of sand that reach out into the sea Bars are formed when spits form across a bay There are a range of hard engineering techniques that can be put in place Groynes can be built out into the sea to trap the sediment and to prevent it from being washed out to sea A sea wall can be built which will reflect the force of the waves backwards towards the sea Rock armor are large piles of rock that will break the wave Or we can have wire cages full of rocks There are also a number of soft engineering techniques that can be put in place We can nourish the beach with the addition of sand to a beach, or the movement of sand within a beach Dunes can be regenerated or we can create new sand dunes, and when we’re thinking about costal realignment we can move the population We can have a managed retreat of the shoreline Buildings that might be affected can be demolished Short break here because we are now moving on to river landscapes When we’re thinking about rivers, you need to know the long profile and you need to know the cross profile The long profile will look at the gradient of the river from the source to the mouth You need to note the volume and velocity of water, and this is gonna increase as you go downstream The cross profile of the river is going to change as you go downstream from narrow V-shape valleys to wider riverbed And this is going to change due to a number of reasons, including erosion and how the river is managed As a river moves along it will deposit, transport, and erode parts of it Erosion will happen in the upper and the middle courses of a river This can happen due to a number of reasons Vertical erosion is gonna be downwards whereas lateral erosion is gonna be sideways Erosion due to hydrolic action is gonna be due to the force of the water We’re gonna see this when we have fast moving water in large volumes Abrasion is going to occur when the river load hits the side dislodging particles Attrition is where stones knock against each other and they become smaller and they become rounder Banks can be slowly dissolved Transportation can happen in a number of different ways and this is a transportation of the river load So all the materials that is transported down the river This is gonna vary by flow and by velocity This generally happens in the middle course of the river This can happen by rolling, by hopping, by small particles in suspension, or particles that have been dissolved Material is gonna be deposited in the lower course of the river as the velocity of the water slows down The large rocks are only going to move short distances We’re gonna have large volumes of sediment deposited at the mouth of the river There are a number of landforms that are formed by river erosion Interlocking spurs are formed by a river

that is close to the source, but it cannot cut through land, so it has to go around it Waterfalls are formed when lowered down soft rocks are more easily eroded leading to a step that the water falls over And gorges are the gradual moving backwards of a waterfall Meanders are formed by sideways erosions Erosions to the outer side of the bend whereas sediment is deposited to the inner side of the bend Oxbow lakes can be formed when meanders move, the necks of these meanders may end up close to each other and join up Floodplains are wide, flat areas to either side of a river This is where we’re going to find very fertile soils so it’s popular for farming These can be joined with levees which are raised riverbeds mainly found on the lower course of a river Estuaries are going to occur when we have large amounts of material deposited and these can form mud flats or they can form salt flats There are a number of factors that affect flood risk This can be physical factors or these can be human factors The level of precipitation, the rock type, the steepness of the slopes, or the frequency of the precipitation Human factors can be how often there is building on floodplains A common trend for paving over gardens, deforestation, and some farming practices which can lead to things like unused fields For example, crop fields are used in the winter, and the removal of hedgerows Farms that are on hillsides can also have furrows which act as streams for water to flow down Flood hydrographs will show us the plot of a river discharge after a storm has happened Now you know from physics I’m a stickler for my units Discharge is measured in meters cubed per second, and after a storm, time can be measured in hour or it can be measured in days It’s important to look at the graph For discharge you’ll likely see a curve Now there may be two axis on the graph, another one for rainfall in millimeters, showing where the rain and how much rain happened The lag time is going to be the time from the peak rainfall to the time of peak river discharge The base flow is the normal flow of the river You need to recognize the shape of a few different hydrographs This is a flashy or storm hydrograph This is one that will lead to flash floods This can occur when we have a small river basin, prolonged rainfall, impermeable rocks, a steep sided valley, high urban land use, little vegetation in the area, and soil that is heavily saturated Here we have a slow or a flat hydrograph The peak discharge on this is much lower than a flashy hydrograph This could be in a large river basin It has a longer lag time They could be permeable rocks Rain or precipitation can be a very light level in a gently sloping valley that is covered in vegetation or even a forested area There are a number of different types of hard engineering we can put in place in river systems Dams and reservoirs can regulate water flow, but they are expensive And they can flood the local area damaging communities, houses, buildings, and habitats They are a tourist attraction, they can be used to generate hydroelectric power, and importantly, they can control downstream flooding Flood relief channels are manmade alternative routes for flood water to go down if it becomes too much for the main river This is to prevent flooding They can have sluice gates on them to further control the river flow Rivers can be straightened This will speed up the flow of water to move it quickly away from vulnerable areas

But this may lead to downstream flooding Embankments can be put in place This is where you raise the riverbank so the river can hold more water Soft engineering is managing the natural river processes to reduce flood risk We can give people advanced warning of a potential flood so they can get to safety so they can protect their valuables One problem with this is that not everyone will listen to this and not everyone has access to the warning system, especially if it’s internet based You can zone floodplains so that building is restricted near areas that are at risk of flooding This is gonna be less effective in built up cities and in the UK we have a housing shortage Trees can be planted so we can have a reduction in surface runoff And we can restore rivers, so we have areas like wetlands for water storage This can reduce the risk of flooding downstream In this case study we’re going to be looking at the creation of the Jubilee River near Windsor This is a relief channel for the River Thames This is a very low lying area, it is part of the floodplain for the River Thames It is home to a large number of tourist attractions that bring in money throughout the year and the Jubilee River was created to take overflow water away from these areas When the Jubilee River was created, lower income homes were put at an increased risk of flooding This was done to protect tourist attractions like the castle and to the people that live in the areas of Windsor and Eton This was a very expensive project to build and very soon, within a year, the weirs needed were damaged and needed fixing Since this has been created, there has been a large increase in downstream flooding in these lower income areas There has been disruption to homes and businesses due to downstream flooding and where the water’s been moved there is a buildup of algae Cherwell near Banbury, and this river is a tributary of the River Thames There have been a number of devastating floods in this area, in 1998 and in 2007 most significantly To help reduce the risk, a management strategy involved embankment building along the river Floodwater storage areas were created, the local road the A361 was raised, and around it the drainage was improved A new pumping station was also installed All of this work created new roads, it created new foot paths, and it created new green space for the local people It was expensive to build, coming in at roughly 18.5 million, but it is estimated that it provides £100 million worth of savings in potential damage A reservoir was created in the area that they removed all the earth from for the embankment, and a biodiversity action plan was put in place A cup of tea might be needed for this next one I know, tea jokes, that’s so hilariously funny Anyway, we are now moving on to glacial landscapes During the last Ice Age, the majority of the UK was covered in ice The melting of this ice shaped the physical landscape of the UK that we know today As a glacier moves, it can pluck stones The water freezes around these sections breaking them free And cracks form for more water to seep into Abrasion is erosion due to the rocks that are already in the glacier moving over the surface And freeze-thaw weathering is when water freezes it expands This will crack the rock

When the ice melts, the water will move further down into the crack, it will freeze again, and the cycle repeats Large amounts of material can be moved over a long period of time A glacier can move large amounts of material It starts with ice forming As the weight of this increases, the force of gravity will mean that it will start to move downwards Uneven movement can cause cracks in the glacier and meltwater will form and the glacier will move over the top of that The movement means the surface under the glacier is eroded and as the glacier moves further down it begins to melt As it melts, it begins to deposit debris There are a large number of landforms which we can see are caused due to glacial erosion They can be large hollows These can have steep back walls, lips at the front, and often they are filled with water to form lakes At the back of these there can be knife edge ridges And pyramid peaks can be formed by erosion when things are in close proximity Truncated spurs occur if ice cannot move around an area, then it will simply move through the area Glacial troughs can be steep-sided wide valleys We can have long narrow lakes, and smaller valleys are often called hanging valleys There are a number of landforms that are formed by the deposition of glacial material So we can have collection of rock debris This can come from various different parts of the glacier It can be underneath it, at the edges of a glacier, where glaciers merge together or meet, or at the end of the snout of a glacier We can have large boulders that seem to be out of place or are an unusual place due to location or rock type And we can have smooth egg-shaped hills Living in a glacial area can provide a number of opportunities For example tourism Lots of tourists will visit the area to climb, to walk, or to cycle They may visit to view the wildlife or the culture While upland areas have poor acidic soil, the land there can be used for grazing animals And the flat bottom of the glacial trough can be used for growing crops Conifer trees grow very quickly on the soft acidic soil This can be used for soft wood And the uplands are areas that have very good quarrying material Lots of hard rock, limestone But within all of this there is going to be conflict Quarrying will lead to pollution which could spoil the landscape affecting tourism Tourism will cause a rise in house prices, preventing local people getting on the property market, and access to land extensions with farmers as people think they can walk three fields of crops New infrastructure is a good thing, but it needs land to be built on Farming may come into issues with water use and reservoirs In this case study we’re going to look at an upland glacial area, tourism in the Lake District There were 15 million tourists in 2014 They mainly used cars to access the area and interest in the area has caused high house prices The local jobs are gonna be seasonal and they’re gonna be poorly paid However, tourists spend lots of money This creates jobs and new business opportunities in the local area Overcrowding of popular areas can have a significant impact on the local plant life and the local animal inhabitants This can also lead to significant pollution as people drive there, and damage to farmland as people walk on there They’ve put new roads in place, a park and ride has been introduced, and transport hubs where it encourages people to switch from their cars to bikes or to walking

A number of traffic calming measures have also been put in place This case study is looking in the upland glacial area Tourism in the Isle of Arran just off Scotland Now a large number of people who go to this area fall in love with it and tourists move here permanently This brings the average age of the population down This is keeping the local schools open, bringing new infrastructure, however there is a high number of injuries and fatalities and the local search and rescue is staffed fully by volunteers Tourists bring with them a large amount of traffic, but also new jobs and business opportunities There is significant erosion to footpaths in the local area, and better drainage has been put in place to prevent these footpaths becoming waterlogged Well done guys, you have made it to the end I am so so proud of all the hard work that you have been putting in (gentle melody)

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