alright we’re back with flip video number two for agriculture which is how did agriculture evolve over time and we’re going to be looking at we’re going to pick up essentially where we left off because our last flip video is discussing the first agricultural revolution the origins of Agriculture now we’re going to take a look at is the second agricultural revolution because there are obviously tremendous differences between first agricultural revolution and that small-scale domestication of plants and animals to our modern day what’s known as agribusiness and so we’ll take a look at how through this video our central question how has agriculture evolved over time so the first major shift and first major transition in the production of food globally came with the second agricultural revolution I’m giving you a wide range of dates here we’re going to call this from 1750 to 1900 also very wide range here reason being that the second agricultural revolution essentially was a large-scale movement to achieve higher yield per acre so higher number of crops per acre if you forgot what that your word yield is please put that on the left-hand side of your notes and let’s define that as output the output so second agricultural revolution it’s a general movement to achieve higher yields per acre with the use of technology i’m going to stop myself there before i continue this definition because it’s important to remember that technology isn’t just machines you and I associate technology with Apple and Google and Facebook things like that the technology just can be more simplistically defined as anything that improves a process anything that makes something easier so that picture on the top left that may not look like technology to you and I but that early form of a plow is very much technology and very much improving the process of farming so I’m giving you these very wide range of dates because the earliest transitions of the second agricultural revolution or just the utilization of technology what really put this into high gear was the in the second a group code agricultural revolution coincided coincided means happened at the same time as coincided with the Industrial Revolution so let’s read the whole definition considering that second agricultural revolution achieved higher yields per acre per area of land with technology fertilizers and industrialization of Agriculture and the improved collars for draft animals let’s break this all down technology we’ll come back to that but again things that are tools that are making things easier fertilizers better ways of tending to the crops and to ensure that they get the nutrients that they need and are able to well giving the nutrients that they need to feed the crops industrialization of Agriculture we’re now looking at how technology is now being incorporated specifically mechanization machines are going to begin affecting agriculture and this last ones a little bit specific but still important during the second agricultural revolution we saw that they were improved collars for draft animals draft animals are animals that work that are used so I used a phrase in the last flip video the beasts of burden so working animals when need improved collars that meant that they could pull much heavier loads and much be much more productive I’m just generally speaking they started the second I Agricultural Revolution where I’m going to credit this in England because England is this the beginnings of the Industrial Revolution and the Industrial Revolution largely happened in England or what largely but one of the reasons being as I had extensive river system blah blah blah I feel alone and he’s in your view I should say learn you’ll review that in world history too but we started we’re taking a look at how they adopt the mechanization of farming changed their agricultural production so I’m going to actually take off this second floor points that also is a repetition so generally speaking what we’re looking at here is we’re looking at our how during the second second agriculture evolution this is really the introduction of mechanization of farming to make to use machines in farming what that has created is led to is sort of what these pictures at the bottom or poor training which is the growth of industrial farming using that this the the idea that farming is going to be a process involving machines and involving more than just a single farmer that’s sort of all originated here with these the second agricultural revolution and mention this already but you can copy this down now that this second agricultural revolution coincided happened at the same time as the Industrial Revolution which is really changing how all goods across the world were being produced but an agriculture certainly was not left out how it was a little speaking a little bit more specifically some of the examples of what began to change with the second agricultural revolution is we have greater technology so we have thrashers who can well I should do in a different

order the Reapers which are able to take the crops off of the better harvest the crops the threshers they can kind of shake the crop and make sure that the the crop comes off the stock so just reducing the amount of work an individual has to do through the harvesting process combines is what you see on the top right there that these can do all three and one and can harvest the crop it can thrash the crop but it can do do so at a large scale as you see with that that picture there so technology generally speaking is just making agriculture and I should back myself up these threshers and Reapers and combines all of us in necessarily start off on the scale that you’re seeing right there they started off just like any technological advancement and much more simplistic even handheld ways and ultimately developed into the industrial agricultural machines that you see in the top right another important invention are important component of a second agricultural revolution was the changes to transportation so the Industrial Revolution brought the creation of railroads and steamboats and more specifically what that meant is that these railroads and steamboats as appertained agriculture meant that food could now travel so much farther I mean that this really revolutionized agriculture and and really even where people could live because now food you’re no longer limited to living in in the proximity in the close range of a farm this the can now be shipped in a much much much broader range and this is also a proper tunity for farmers to expand their reach as well what’s also important is this that bottom picture shows us is that food oh not immediately but the development of a refrigerated cars refrigerated rail cars was a huge huge advancement for the agricultural industry agriculture industry because now food I mean this is really just transforming where the the range that farmers had that they now can sell their products in a much much much larger scale than they were able ever able to do so before so refrigerated car lines though extremely expensive and do this day still it’s a very expensive way to ship things it’s still an important very key and important mention another thing to mention that was also increasingly common during the second agricultural revolution was the use of crop rotation now that term you see on the right hand side in the picture there of the term fallow is essentially just a leave alone so if you want to put fallow on the left-hand side of your notes to leave to leave an area of land fallow is to leave it untouched just to leave it alone what this crop rotation is just exactly what it sounds like rotating different fields for different crops in order to avoid exhausting the soil so just kind of an illogical way that if you keep doing the same thing over and over and over and you’re requiring the land to perform and to provide nutrients in the exact same way over and over again by rotating and through three field crop rotation and this is done in many different ways and also I should note this has happened that ancient civilizations use this practice that well as well but it grew it expanded in scale after the Industrial Revolution in the agricultural second agricultural revolution three crop rotation we’re going to simply change which crop is being grown on which field leaving one of those fields fallow for a period of time to allow the soil to replenish the nutrients so just another change we saw in agricultural practices so now that we see with the Agricultural Revolution the second Agricultural Revolution was let’s kind of step back for a minute let’s put on the left hand side of our notes to causes the causes of the second agricultural revolution for why it had large scale effects that it did was because one industrial revolution brought greater technology so with greater technology that meant that we have the better ability people were more enable they were enabled excuse me to begin improving the industrial and their agricultural output secondly the Industrial Revolution meant that more people were moving to the cities people were moving to the cities because there are now more jobs available in the cities there are now factory’s being built within the cities that meant that we that as a society we needed to provide more food to feed those factory workers if the people were formerly in these rural areas and they are now moving to cities then that meant there was a need there was more technology that allowed it to happen but there was also a much greater need to provide food for all these people who once lived in rural areas but are now living in the factory not living in the cities and working in the factories the consequences of the second agricultural revolution on a more sort of logical level when we have this more technology

we used creator technology we use different farming techniques we have more efficient farming and we had much higher yields of crops that meant that we now have the food for the city workers another sort of by-product and other consequences that farms begin to increase in size because as people began to become more efficient with their farming that meant they were able to now form a much larger amount of land much larger battling with the same amount of labor so in other words what one farmer was once able to do on a small area of land he is now able to expand his farm to a much bigger size with the same amount of well exerting the same amount of work himself because he now has all the technology that will allow him to still be economically productive so causes we’ve got this industrial revolution the technology is there and not only technology there but there’s a great need to improve this the amount of crops that were growing once we’ve done so the consequences do get much more efficient farming much higher yields people in the city people can now live in those cities effectively because we can provide the food for them the technology like the railroads and the steamboats allowed us to get the food to them and lastly farms have now increased in size because they are now being more productive that brought us through so we that was about 1750 to 1900 I want you to put in the back of your mind now actually out of the bag of your mind let’s now consider let’s loop this right on back to our second unit of the study of population between that period of time the 1750 to 19 i’m going to say 1940 here as you well know the population began to skyrocket in particular we skyrocketed in at least at all upfront trees at well ashes enough global population changed but one of the areas of the world experiencing a lot of that change with least developed countries of the world the Industrial Revolution was mostly effective in the industrial in the countries that are now well let’s back at all industrial the population changes around the world created great created tremendous consequences across the world and the countries that were most directly experiencing the agriculture of the Industrial Revolution in the mid 1800s to early 1900s we’re developing all kinds of different technologies to expand their societies let’s fast-forward here the third agricultural revolution began in the 1940s and generally lasted through the 1970s what this meant is that in this period of time the most developed countries of the world began to ship their technology or provide their technology to the least developed countries of the world to feed their growing populations with this in a more practical level what the third agricultural revolution was is that the between the second agricultural revolution of the third agricultural revolution the most developed countries of the world had created some tremendous agricultural advancements that improve the yields improve the quality improved all kinds of components of Agriculture by the least developed countries in the developing countries of the world we’re still using some of the early early agricultural technologies introduced in the second agricultural revolution this revolution the third agricultural revolution is also known as the green revolution what they this met in a more specific sense is that fertilizers artificial fertilizers so there are fertilizers that are natural fertilizers that are chemical artificial fertilizers better irrigation techniques pesticides genetically modified organisms mechanical machinery crossbreeding and hybridization and talk about all of those these different techniques were all began with the most of all countries of the world began to implement those techniques in some of the least developed countries of the world so irrigation techniques meaning that we’re let’s put that left hand side if we’re not too sure what that means irrigation techniques bringing water to areas that we’re farming was previously unable to be done because irrigation without irrigation without specific systems from bringing water you can’t just farm anywhere pesticides of course when they’re natural pesticides and their chemical pesticides many of the lease developed countries were facing problems with many of their crops dying as a result of pest problem that continues to this day and MDC’s began providing LDCs with very targeted pesticides genetically modified organisms that was introduced a little bit later in this third agricultural revolution but these GMOs we’re as they were developed begin to be implemented some less developed countries to increase higher yields to create drought-resistant crops who can to create crops that we’re better able to resist pests

mechanical machinery of course just providing the different technology and in the machines to improve agriculture in the LDCs crossbreeding and hybridization essentially just creating stronger and different um stronger and better crops varieties of crops through hybridization taking one and the other and creating strong crop what this meant this guy named norman borlaug he’s basically considered to be the father of the Green Revolution because it was his variety of wheat that really drove this green revolution with this so we had high-yield rice and wheat varieties they began to be used globally particularly in India and Mexico as you see here India was the rice production Mexico was the wheat production a lot of the success from this came from Norman gulags version of the week that he created that was actually drought resistant and better able to resist pests but most of the success of the Green Revolution them in in Mexico and in India was based upon the use of fertilizer to help help support the crops the Green Revolution exporting these technologies in these different processes from MDC’s to ldcs it basically saved India from famine I mean it India was on the verge of with their enormous population growth we’re facing tremendous tremendous conflicts feeding her problems feeding their population and the Green Revolution basically saved India from famine initially and it also helped fuel development both in Mexico and in India similarly provided results in Mexico but India had such a tremendous population boom that they were you gotta had a more dire need for the Green Revolution at the time with the green revolution there are there’s a mixed bag of results that the weather a green revolution was a positive or negative change is debatable let’s talk first about the positive effects and why it’s largely supported this enormously enormously increased wheat wheat production so this is a chart or graph actually move this up a little bit so you can see our years it is drastically drastically increased wheat production around the world especially in these mdcs excuse me LDCs so for looking at the wheat production in India Pakistan in Mexico in 1950 so really kind of early cusps of the Green Revolution very low production you can see Mexico has skyrocketed and their ability to provide wheat that means I’m really basic level that means more money for the farmers they can sell the wheat and provide for themselves also in a very basic level it feeds people feeds the both of armor and the people that are buying the week so this this alone is a tremendously important consequence it also increased the calories that were available per person so not only are people not starving but when you have greater access to goods like to crops like wheat and rice there’s a greater calorie consumption which leads to just generally better nutrition for people and also provided a more diverse diet in some senses on that because people were able to eat more good there’s also a kind of a minor but still important consequence was that when when the Green Revolution began to make farming more efficient in some of the ldcs that means that the plot of land that was used to grow let’s let’s just hypothetically say one farmer was growing was using one acre and he was getting ten bushels of wheat well if that farmer is now growing with these agricultural technologies and he can now produce a hundred and fifty that mean bushels of wheat from that same one acre that means that farmer doesn’t need to expand his land that means that he’s that essentially we’re saving land we’re preserving some of the land such as forests that would have otherwise been cut down to create more land more room for farmland so in some sense this is a little bit of a kind of a conservation technique and I shouldn’t say technique but the consequences some of the preservation of land the conservation of land that because of irrigation the irrigation again creating ways to provide water for areas that are otherwise too dry for farming this now places that don’t have particularly high rainfall we’re now able to farm and that that’s not that’s that’s not a small consequence that’s important and that is that sort of in some senses empower different groups of people to provide for themselves so lots of positives the one that’s not listed there but we just basically know is that people were able to eat and better able to provide for the country was better able to provide food you can see here this is just a another graph a graph there though i r8 is actually the version of the rice that

was one of the that was used on the Green Revolution so you can see that rice it says kilocalories per capita rice and wheat you can see how many calories that that actually and this is calories often discussed in a negative sense like you want to avoid calories but calories or energy calories are what you and I eat food specifically to do was just a live so rice and wheat for lesser developed areas of the world and just actually anywhere in the world they’re going to provide better nutrition than you can see some of the potatoes or vegetables even corn um much much fewer much fewer calories and therefore people aren’t eating quite as well you can see I’m going to read the caption there the rice is one of the most important food crops in the world providing more energy to humanity than any other food source yet rice yields have more than tripled since nineteen sixty one which is keeping up with Asia’s growing population so as Asia’s population continues to increase then the need for caloric foods like rice and wheat to increases however the Green Revolution didn’t come without main criticism one of the key things that people criticize the Green Revolution for is the lost biodiversity biodiversity is just the diversity of biological organisms many people criticize saying that when farmers are only growing these high yield crops such as rice and wheat that they’re actually losing some of the diversity that diversity of crops and diversity of food that was once present in that region a lot of people a lot another very common criticism in the green revolution is that it was it’s expensive to maintain that the machinery necessary and would I’d call the infrastructure so infrastructure just sort of means the processes the machinery be the whole system of using the Green Revolution techniques in analyse developed country of the world are very expensive and it’s not it’s not a organic process in other words it’s not coming necessarily from the resources available in that place it must be brought in and that doesn’t necessarily all bad but that does mean that the the country must then depend upon the most developed countries of the world to provide that that’s changing over time but that was some of the initial criticism and I mean still rings true but there’s many of the least developed countries there now sort of developing countries so for example Mexico and India are now increasingly able to provide that infrastructure but it certainly can’t be denied that many of the seeds that are used or maybe a lot of the technology that’s used on is is more expensive a lot of people also cite the Green Revolution for causing environmental damage so some say that there’s groundwater contamination in areas which is always which is not always which is a consequence of using different different most about country techniques there’s also some unintended cotton some people also argue for on the unintended consequences of introducing foreign varieties so for example taking a good that is not natural to one environment and begin to beginning to farm that crop in a new area some people often criticize these techniques because they there are many on there they argue that there are many unintended consequences for introducing a crop it is not native to one Pacific specific place desert if occation and i’m sad i don’t have the definition of does certification is when the land has been is no longer fertile and essentially becomes a desert so this is when you des certification was one of the criticisms in certain areas when they’ve sort of exhausted the soil that that the lantern they learn the land is no longer fertile but that’s really sort of a minor consequence specifically associated with the Green Revolution one of the other things that other people site is that this is many people argue this is disempowering the farmer that the farmer is now an assistant not necessarily is in control of their own crops in their own farm and their own farming decisions as they once were when they were growing things on a smaller scale but something just keep in mind or something to kind of frame the discussion around so these things were all the criticisms of the Green Revolution are valid the the benefits of the Green Revolution are valid but one of the arguments and one of the things we’re going to explore a little bit is that as the future of our earth has a population of our Earth’s continues to skyrocket I mean we’re looking here that 1927 we had two billion people in 1960 when the Green Revolution started to happen we were in get three billion people we’re here in 2015 we are in seven billion people we’re going to very soon be reaching eight billion people so we have to consider this is a tough question facing our world is how do we continue to feed our world and utilize effective agricultural techniques all across the

face of the earth while still maintaining environmental consciousness and things that are affecting the environment this is something the net the National Geographic magazine did a really cool um series and it’s actually why we went to go to the national geographic museum exhibit is because it’s all about food and the future of food and I’m going to keep one of your analysis questions take a look at this in greater detail because this is this slide right here discusses some of the very specific technologies that allowed the green revolution to occur and what it meant for the Green Revolution took her and this next slide is when a National Geographic is suggesting some of the techniques that can be used to further back drive benefits so they’re calling this a greener revolution about how we need to we don’t we’re not get more earth there’s not any more land so what is it that we can do to better increase crop yields into to better provide for our world in our environment so there it is we’ve got our first second and third agricultural revolutions here is your hair your analysis questions and it looks like i have one that is cut off here so i’m going to pause this video fix that and then you can go ahead and pause the questions and entities alright there we are so here are your questions again I mentioned number four it says return to the National Geographic Green Revolution costs and benefits slides that slide that’s the first one I mentioned that shows how the green revolution occurred in the early 1960s already thanks

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