>> All right. So this is the first webinar in a series that we’re trying to run — I mean, we are running — called Global Views of Covid-19. And today the opening one we’re doing some responses and perspectives in China, Taiwan, and Italy. This is a collaboration between me here and ORIAS and Richard, who is going to introduced himself in a minute at the East Asia National Resource Center at George Washington University I’m at UC Berkeley. And this slide deck, along with the recording will be available afterward. Okay. So our agenda here, we’re going to do a quick intro and overview. You actually have a small number one, two, three — oh, I just realized that we actually have two Huaying Bao and Qingyun Li are actually doing separate presentations now. We’re doing an intro. We’re going to have a series of very short presentations. During the presentations you can write your questions in the chat bar Richard and Trutee [phonetic] will be keeping track of those And then after that they will post them in a Q&A. So the first thing, just to do an intro here for ourselves so you know who we are, I’m Shane Carter. I’m the program coordinator at ORIAS ORIAS stands for the Office of Resources for International Area Studies. I do K12 and community college outreach to teachers on behalf of the eight area study centers at UC Berkeley. So I work almost entirely with teachers. I also am part of a consortium on campus here called UC Berkeley Professional Development Providers. And we are a group of people who do PD across disciplines, and we’re sort of housed under the graduate school for education And we’ve been doing a series of different webinars in response to what teachers seem to be needing right now and interested in. And so you can check at the end, I’ll share resources with you for that. And Richard – >> Great. So just a brief introduction then. So my name is Richard Haddock. I am with George Washington University’s East Asia National Resource Center, one of the Title VI NRCs. And we focus specifically on East Asia and North East Asia as well. And what we try to do, what my job is, is kind of the program manager of the Title VI project. So it’s all-encompassing with elements of events for the public, events and research for visiting scholars. In fact, all the speakers today are visiting scholars with the National Resource Center. That’s one of the really great programs that we are able to support. And we also have — we’re starting off with, but we have some very great partners, with our K through 12 outreach. And our curriculum developer Shruti [phonetic], who is joining us today as a co-host and will be helping me oversee the questions and answers. She and our team have really tried to create portable lesson plans that can help instructors teach about East Asia with a focus on contemporary issues. So if there’s pieces on the news, certainly this administration has no shortage of news pieces out there, so we’re trying to make these education materials to provide context to instructors and students alike about what’s going on in East Asia. And we have a few podcast series coming up soon. But don’t want to take further attention away from our scholars who I’m very interested to see what everyone will have to say about this. And I’m sure everyone has been following this as it’s been impacting our communities. In fact, just today Virginia got the stay-at-home order. So I’m looking forward to see how this has shaped Asia, how countries in Asia and Italy have responded to this, and maybe what are some lessons learned for us to take away >> I just want to also say one final thing, especially for the teachers who are on the call This isn’t meant to be instrumental. In other words, you’re welcome to share the video with your students afterwards. We certainly hope that you’re going to share the information and bring it into your conversations with them But we also understand this isn’t necessarily intended to just turn into a lesson for you It’s really because you are information providers for them And we want you to have a broader understanding of what’s happening with the Covid-19 pandemic globally. I think it’s really helpful to be able to understand it in this — in a worldwide sense >> Yeah, so Ms. Huaying Bao is the chief of Division for International Exchange at the International Exchange and Cooperation Office at the Beijing Foreign Studies University, where she focuses on comparative cultural diplomacy and immigration. At NRC she

studied cultural exchange and strategies between China and the United States and how to improve Sino-US relations in that regard. Actually one interesting tidbit as well is that she has recently published an article — was it about a month ago — on the diplomat, kind of discussing Coronavirus situation spread at the time and how can U.S. China relations move forward in that And she’s actively publishing and very much looking forward to hearing her thoughts So please welcome, Huaying Bao >> Today I would like to share with you China’s experiences on combating Covid-19 and the disease’s impact on China. So first, I will share with you the updates on the Covid-19 situation in China. And then China’s measures in combating Covid-19. And then Covid-19’s economic impact on China and also its impact on China as a global power, that means China’s relationship with the world, and finally, the conclusion. Okay This is the outline, just not already introduce you to the audience. And then can you show the next page? Okay. Okay First I’ll share with you the Covid-19 case update. At the beginning of March actually there has [inaudible] — been a period in China. And China’s increase cases almost [indiscernible]. This is only imported cases from abroad. And now the increased cases in China has been contained in a very low level. And till yesterday, [inaudible] the increase — [inaudible] in China is 31, among which 30 are imported cases from abroad. And there’s only one domestic case in China And also with this variable containment of Corona, the China’s businesses and industries nowadays gradually recover. And also China began to [inaudible] — share its experiences and publicize to the world Okay. Turn to next page. Thank you. So let’s see what measures did China adopt in overcoming this Covid-19 virus. Although China is the first country of outbreak and the one of the more — [inaudible] countries in world, but China now is considered as one of the most — [inaudible]. Let’s see what matters did China adopt First, China shut off Wuhan City in the first time — at the very beginning and adopted a very strict domestic travel policy And second, there has been an all-in engagement of the whole society in the entire virus campaign. So our central government, our military, our government agencies, hospitals, and numerous local community employees and volunteers have joined this what we call a People’s War And third, there’s incredibly high efficiency on producing medical supplies and medical — [inaudible]. As you heard, that the two hospitals in Wuhan have been established. So as you know at the beginning, we almost fell — [inaudible]. This soon was resolved. China can produce sometimes a facial mask — [inaudible] So and the fourth is the high technology. High technology play a very important role during the pandemic. But in some days China has separated the virus strain and the shares information — [inaudible] >> Huaying, we just lost your audio. Can you repeat that? >> Okay. I think I lost you >> Yeah. Now you’re back >> I’m back again. Okay [Inaudible] — advanced information technology has played a very essential role in maintaining a smooth operation of the society. The IT has

helped with temperature screening, logistics, food delivery, online education, online medical consultation, etcetera. And the sovereignty, according to — [inaudible] of the whole public in China to prevent the spread of the Corona virus, all Chinese people voluntarily and cooperatively take self-quarantine at home during the pandemic Can you hear me in the normal way? >> Mostly. Uh-huh >> Okay. Richard, can you turn next page? >> Yeah, just in the interest of time, maybe start kind of wrapping up the main bullet points >> Okay. So I will summarize that the China motto as a whole of government, a whole of society approach, that means it’s a unified action of the whole society under a strong and efficient leadership of the government. It is a conscious and irrational participation and involvement of the general public. Okay. Turn to next page Okay. Now, our analysis analyze the economic impact of Covid-19 on China. Covid-19 does have very severe strike on China’s economy, especially during January and February. This can be showing officials the economic statistics by China government. Due to time limit, I will not list in details. And China’s economy has also began to gradually recover. There is an optimistic view that by releasing economic repression during a pandemic, China will have a very expected rebound in the economy in the latter of the year. [Inaudible] — next page. Okay. Let’s look at the positive impact of Covid-19 on China as a global power. With remarkable achievement in this — [inaudible] — believe we demonstrative the strength of — [inaudible] system. [Inaudible] — of solidarity among its people. So in the world it has been — [inaudible] to provide the co-assistance and share its experience with the world. So with all this, China has gained a recognition and appreciation from the world. Dr. Chenyo [phonetic] WHUO [phonetic] director general. Matt Hancock, which is secretary of health — [inaudible] and the Serbian Prince, they all expressed appreciation for China. So in — [inaudible] — in interview with British media, Mr. Liu Xiaoming, the Chinese ambassador to UK privately announced that — [inaudible] responsible global player to the world Okay. Next page. Let’s look at the negative impact There has been criticism from international community about China’s way in responding to this virus. The delayed response against a pandemic — [inaudible] initial stage followed by the death of the whistle blower Dr. Li Wenliang has been seen as a deliberate cover up of the Chinese government. And also, been — [inaudible]. All our work has been suspicion. There has always been suspicion of a violation of human rights on the cutoff action of the lockdown of Wuhan City Next page. President Donald Trump referring to this pandemic as a China virus. [Inaudible] — as the Chinese people all over the world. And there is also some American politicians predicting a desinicization [phonetic] of the world supply chain followed by the pandemic That means, a return of the production plants from China back to U.S. or other places of the world. China has been providing aid to the world. Some countries doubt that China’s mask diplomacy is a skill to compensate for its cause of the pandemic And by showing a positive generous — [inaudible] — of China image chanting war the leadership of the world — [inaudible] [lost audio] Next page, okay so finally amid this Covid-19 pandemic, China seems to set up a responsible — set up an image as a responsible rising power in the world. But there has always been challenges and criticism. Covid-19 is still rampant — [inaudible] across the world. It is already on its

way to reshape our world. We don’t know when this crisis will end, but what we can foresee is by the time it does, our world will look quite different. Thank you. Due to time limit, I have to speak very brief. I hope we can communicate more in Q&A session. Thank you >> Thank you >> So next we have Dr. Qingyun Li, associate research professor of Chinese politics at the Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences. Her areas of expertise are on the theory and practice of socialism with Chinese characteristics, as well as the history of the Chinese Communist Party. She’s been a non-resident scholar with the George Washington University before And we’re very happy that she’s able to be an NRC-related scholar. And I think that she’ll have a lot of interesting elements to say. At this time, commenting on — [indiscernible] talked about kind of the structural responses and the State Society responses. And Dr. Li will speak more to the cultural-organizational culture, societal culture, that kind of goes in between these state and society structures So Dr. Li, please >> I’m glad to be here to share my views with all of you. Next slide, please. I will talk about what the domestic cultural norms in China contribute to the country’s response in addressing to lower the Coronavirus spread Next. There are four cultural norms, which contributed. In Chinese tradition culture China’s social ethnic order, the Red Culture, Red Gene, core socialist values Next slide, please So first, Chinese traditional culture was [indiscernible] — in Confucianism is deeply engrained in Chinese society and deeply affects psychologically to the Chinese people. Chinese tradition culture advocates the consciousness of every person is responsible for the rise and fall of the world and emphasized love and loyalty to the country Confucianism also emphasized a respect for authority, social stability, and national interests or individualism These core beliefs are most evident when the country is in crisis. Most the Chinese people trusted their government. They are willing to obey authority They are willing to obey state of control. And they are waiting to sacrifice their individual freedom in exchange for security, stability, and the unity of the society and country. These cultural characteristics — [indiscernible] the government’s lockdown and the state and home order to be widely observed and the better imposed with so many participation Second, China social ethic order. Chinese society has a profound beliefs that everyone is family and the entire society in a bigger family. And the moment of their country man’s crisis, tens of thousands of people, including doctors, nurses, from all over the country volunteered to go to help. Many people went to — [inaudible] to help those in danger, while at the same time risking their own lives. The sense of national identity and cohesion makes Chinese people willing to live and die together, share difficulties, and fight against the Coronavirus together. That was why there were so many volunteers to help in front lines The Red Cultural, Red Gene. The Red Culture was formed during the Chinese Revolution. The Red Culture cultivated different revolutionary experience in different historical period, such as the Red Lotus Prince, Jing Gong Chan [phonetic] Spirit — [indiscernible] and so on This experience all advocates the loyalty to the country, the confidence of overcoming difficulties, the heroic spirit of winning the wars, the sacrificial spirit, and the concept of military iron discipline and so on. The Red Culture built the modern Chinese spirit, values, and power while also providing spiritual guidance for the Chinese people The top-down system based on this Red Culture played a decisive role in the fight against the Coronavirus. It made the central government handle enough strong power to dispatch

our national resources in response to Coronavirus and to maintain social stability. Party members also actively participate in the prevention and the control of the Coronavirus. The parties organization became the anti-Coronavirus call — [inaudible] center Fourth, core socialist values Chinese society is now a society led by socialist core values, which are the mainstream values of the present Chinese society and people. The core socialist values are the concentrated embodiment of the contemporary Chinese spirit and the ideology and the moral basis of Chinese power. The Chinese government counts on the people to practice the core socialist value to reflect these values of the state and society and the individuals. These values guide all the aspect of moral construction, guided by the core socialist value, Chinese people have faith, country has strength, and the nation has hope. This has promoted the [indiscernible] operation of a society and can guarantee effective handling on the resolution of social crisis. In conclusion, I want to say virus have no borders, only cooperation can defeat the virus. Neutral assistance in the form of human civilization, China will assume the responsibility of a great power and do its best to help others Thanks for having me >> And if there’s any questions regarding the other slides, feel free to include them in the chat box and follow up in Q&A. Thank you, Dr. Li And now to introduce Dr. Eve Chiu. Dr. Chiu is a Fulbright grantee and CEO of the Foundation for Excellent Journalism Award in Taiwan, which awards prizes to outstanding journalists annually for improving the quality of news media in Taiwan. And she came in — actually many of our scholars when they joined, didn’t anticipate a crisis of this scale. So everyone has been very admirable in trying to conduct their research remotely And Dr. Chiu just came in when this started, but still she’s made a pretty good impact So looking forward to hearing her chat. Dr Chiu, please take it away >> Hi, everyone. Nice to meet you on screen. I’m Eve Chiu from Taiwan. I’m going to share the experiences of Taiwan and how is Taiwan dealing with this virus Please see slide one. Next one, please. You can see from the slide one, I have to do some — [indiscernible]. It’s necessary for paving the context of this narrative. Taiwan is 130 kilometers from China. You can see from the map. Taiwan Straits is in between. And more than 400,000 Taiwanese people working — [indiscernible], not including many students and tourists, flow frequently across the strait. Therefore, Taiwan was predicted to be one of the hardest-hit location of the novel Coronavirus pandemic, although the following scenery is quite another story Slide two, please. On March 30, there are 306 virus case of the 20 — of the 24 million population of Taiwan When global numbers comes more than 777,000 U.S. cases come, more than 160,000. The second slide shows the track of cases can every day since the first case found in January 21st in the flight from Wuhan, a province of China. The red strips mean moving cases. And the green strips mean local infected cases. The table you see and right side of this slide is the statistics met by March 20s. The search column is tested positive number per 1,000 people. Second column is cases of per 100,000 population. And the third column is the death toll per hundred. The lower the better; right? You can see the two red arrows, top one is Taiwan, and Lower one is U.S. This table is made by

Dr. Chen Chien-jen. He is the PhD of John Hopkins of medical and public health and also Vice President of Taiwan now. Please go to the slide three. Let’s go to slide three to find the answer of why Taiwan can make this. Here is the timeline, which shows the important measurements Taiwan did. On last December 17th, the first case of Wuhan was unveiled. December 31st, Taiwan started on-boarding checking to every plane from Wuhan — and from the first moving case on January 23rd, 2020. It’s the same day the U.S also has the first case, same day. When the National Command Center is set up for unifying orders for the coming outbreak in January 20s, it’s one day earlier than the first case found. Moving earlier is very crucial since right judgement of the circumstance and prevent deployments were met. February 6th, Taiwan closed the border to China with five cases moving that day. It’s four day later than U.S. Okay. Let’s go back to the second slide. You can see when case stopped coming temporary since February 10th, with spare capacity, Taiwan health officials started to survey [indiscernible] — not flucos [phonetic] pneumonia, then found a cab driver tested positive from 113 patient in whole country and did the necessary measurements. These cases very crucial for blocking more local infected cases advance. Let’s see those getting longer red strips on the top of this chart. They mean the second wave of moving cases. This time most from Europe and U.S Back to slide three, please Dealing with social panic is not less importantly preventing larger outbreak. Distribution of emergency supplies, like medical mask and disinfectant alcohol become everyone’s concern. Mask exporting ban was launched on January 24th. When the daily producing capability was 1.8 million per day. Mask ration launched on February 6th to calm down the social panic of the shortage. And the capacity has risen up to 12 million now after two months later. Taiwan Prime Minister Su Tseng-chang was in a funny — [indiscernible] show his fallback views and say, everyone has just one butt. It means, no need to buy so much toilet paper [LAUGHTER] >> Your city’s comic picture on the next slide So the economic impact comes immediately, especially for those tourists and airline business. After an emergent legislative process, people do quarantine or isolation without pay can get subsidy upon about $33 per day. And some companies in particular also get help. And people’s normal life keeps going on when a small parts of school and businesses close or run remotely for necessary quarantine and isolation Slide four, please. So you can see the comic picture I mention about toilet paper at the bottom right. It’s our Prime Minister’s bald head. He’s shaking his butt. And the other three pictures are about free media and crystal information This man on the table is our Minister of Health and Welfare, Mr. Chan. He hold a media conference every day, sometimes twice a day. Like governor Gohmert [phonetic] here to update the new situation and answer every question media journalist ask. I will back to the free media later. Please go to slide five. Let’s talk about masks a little more. You can see everyone is wearing masks on street. And people are staying in queue for getting their ration masks. Rationing usually happen in war. And however, no

one can deny that it is a real war when we face the virus A special thing I want to share is about this digital mask map made by [indiscernible] citizen who collaborated with this 39-years-old LGBT cabinet member [indiscernible]; the middle picture. She never went to school since she was teen. And she decided to be a girl in physical male. And she and her friends made a G0V [phonetic] Association. It looked like GOV; right? It’s kind of culture [indiscernible] action. The Association criticized Taiwan’s government, no crystallization Then she was invited to join the cabinet and became the youngest minister in it. And she grabbed a lot of media shots, especially international media, during these two months. At the middle is Diamond Princess Cruise Ship, which has more than 700 confirmed cases in the end from its 2694 passenger. It was stuck in northern Taiwan on January 31st. Most of passenger went ashore for one-day trip. Taiwan government then announced this [indiscernible] to remind everyone had been there to stay [indiscernible] Slide six, please >> In the interest of time — [cross talk] you might want to sum up the main points in the next slides. [Cross talk] >> Point one, for Geographic and historical reason Taiwan is always under caution. You can see the photo left upper one is earthquake, lower one is typhoon, and the right button is China fighters surrounding above Taiwan. They come even often after the outbreak. That’s why Taiwanese people always react fast when crises come. Point two, Taiwan know China very well. Also, learn experiences from SARS in 2003. Therefore, could do the right judgment and act soon in the very beginning Point three, the fully-cover health insurance become the strong basic facility to control the outbreak. More than 99% people Taiwan covered by this public-run health insurance Monthly payment less than $40 per person. And the virus test is free under doctor’s instruction. So the sufficient data can be used to trace all medical treatments, which mean to trace the virus. By the data also, Taiwan launched pharmacies dispensing mask ration three a week per person. Now, they can buy the rationed masks online too. Slide seven, please And it comes to the point four: Crystallized and fully-authorized experts commanding system makes high efficiency. The comembers of the command center with the supporting expert team — [indiscernible] medical trend, including vice president, the prime minister — a minister and many public health and medical professor. You can see photo on upper right is the vice president [indiscernible], the man with a PhD degree of John Hopkins. Upper left is Mr. Chen, the media conference guy, with a professor. And lower left is a Deputy Prime Minister. He is also a doctor. Point five, last, but not least, free media and plenty of quality information that people well inform and panic reduce. Taiwan is one of the country in Asia who has most press freedom. If you check the Press Freedom Index of reporter without borders, the 2018 [indiscernible] king of Taiwan is second — is 40 seconds next to Asia number one South Korea’s [indiscernible]. When U.S. is 48. Quality and responsible reporting from various free media helps people under crisis to do the correct measurements and remind their public morality with the social healing influence and the symptoms Slide eight, before the end, I want to say, nothing is perfect We want to trace the virus, which means we have to trace people. Therefore, here comes the privacy right issue. The pandemic also provoked the subtle and obscure boundary between individual liberty and

public interests, which affects individual goods. Most of the opinion supports to strengthen measurements for the outbreak When some critics challenged government’s doing, including using personal health insurance data to do mask rationing, tracing the people who had travelled overseas, or had contact with positive cases who should quarantine themselves, but might not have so. Human right NGOs in Taiwan launched a campaign for legislative action [Inaudible] — to clarify an emergent usage in limitation of governmental power expending The right bar on the slide link to the article written by the chairman of Taiwan Association for Human Rights. You don’t have to open it. And he is a lawyer — because it’s in Chinese. And so we just not going to see it He’s a lawyer. The other is a lawyer and also good friends of mine. So I’m very sure some people in Taiwan state of concern to the human right issue called the outbreak doing. In a demographic like U.S. or Taiwan with free press and information openings, every public issue is debatable. However, under the debating and social dialogues, our democracy going to set up deeper and stronger. That’s what I believe. Now, it’s the last slide. I release quote on March 21st in the “New York Times.” It says: “You can contain cluster You need to identify and stop discrete outbreaks and then do rigorous content — contact tracing.” Easier said than done though. Doing so takes intelligent rapidly adaptive work by health officials and near-total cooperation from the populace. It’s quite a description of Taiwan. Mm-hmm So preventing of the outbreak and advanced deployments and expert leading United Command Center with laboratory level accurate cases tracking, digital power the data by fully-cover health insurance, and most of all the hearty cooperation from well-informed unsuspecting populace are all crucial points, which make Taiwan among the best of dealing with this outbreak. A successful academic prevention needs to include social individual perspective, while a master in public health, medical expertise, and many necessary technology. When the second outbreak is going to arrive with the moving in cases from Western country, Taiwan are standing still just like it always does in all kinds of tribulation This is our presentation. Thank you. This is my presentation Thank you for listening >> Great. Thank you very much, Dr. Chiu. Dr. Guilio Pugliese specializes in the politics, both domestic and international of the Asia-Pacific with a focus on Japan, China, and the United States. He has presented at a variety of venues and published articles contributing chapters concerning academic, policy oriented, and commercial themes in Italy, the United States, and Japan. So Giulio, if you wouldn’t mind taking it away >> Great. Thanks for having me I’ll be very quick. I only have three slides. I will speak about the Italian case to make to clarion calls to the United States. The first one is a call for action domestically, and the other one is a call for leadership externally. And it actually has to do also with East Asia. And I’ll try to also bring East Asia more often than not in the very short presentation. The Italian case, as you know, is the worst faring in terms of death, because the virus — the Coronavirus has taken a heavy toll of our healthcare system, which actually is — the best health care system is in the north. And it’s very highly regarded, according to WHO standards. And this has happened because we have been overwhelmed. The Italian case is a clarion call to the U.S., in my opinion, because we have been the first West liberal democracy to be affected by this virus. And this is important because in East Asia, as made clear earlier, China, Taiwan, South Korea, have

dealt already with Coronaviruses in the past. And so there has been, if you want also, a chance to take stock and lesson from previous experience. And this has been the case for SARS. This has been the case for MERS. And experience does matter a lot, especially when you’re dealing with a crisis that has been hitting us hard; the worst crisis arguably since World War II. And the other difference that I see, but is a clarion call for other European countries, but also the United States; is the fact that the social norms are very different. Italy has a peculiar case of having multi-generational households within one roof or within a condominium. And so there is a very strong facility to get social contact. And this actually spreads then also the epidemic within communities But there are also other social norms. There is a relative, as mentioned earlier, a patient centered, an individual-centered attention to healthcare or to human rights rather than a community-centered approach, which is typical of confusion and Northeast Asia, not necessarily just about — this is not necessarily just true about China and autocratic regimes. And the other thing that is important is that of course we don’t have the same culture of wearing masks and perhaps of keeping social distance. We are blabbing Italians that release lots of droplets and hugs. And that also doesn’t help. But to keep it serious, Italy has tried to play a balancing act. As the first Western liberal democracy in trying to cope with new emergency, trying to figure out really how to balance not just a health and safety security problem that was underestimated with economic and political considerations. Because that’s the other trade-off that we need to take into account Italy is not a — it is not a [indiscernible] dictatorship And it’s very hard to enforce unprecedented lockdowns from the top down. These countermeasures that we are experiencing also in the United States and Italy has experienced already are unprecedented They — essentially you have to go back to history to a second World War to see something like this happening. And this politically is incredibly hard to enact, especially if you’re the first country. And it’s not crystal clear the dangers in terms of the health and safety of your citizens that you’re going to incur. And so it’s going to be a very tough political choice to make. And that’s why you see a lot of differing and why you see the many deaths that we have now in the country. And you shouldn’t forget that Italy has been then the first Western liberal democracy to enforce a lockdown, a lockdown that is very harsh and it’s statewide, nation statewide. And we have essentially constituted a role model to other European countries that have enforced similar lockdowns of equal entity. And we are getting there slowly, but steadily at least within the states thanks to state authorities in the United States of America. But I’ll skip this slide for the sake of being a succinct I think what you need to know is the difference between a mitigation strategy that has been in place at the beginning We’ve seen this in Italy. You’ve seen this is the UK. You’re seeing this still in the United States of America. [Inaudible] The mitigations strategy aims at essentially in slowing down the spread for moral suasion campaigns and through watered-down lockdown. This is also reinforced by the divide between central authorities and local authorities. The fact that there is a politicization of these of these matters, you see

it for instance in the difference responses that you see in New York State or the ones that you see in Mississippi. I’m talking about the state of Mississippi. And the differing and the lack of decisive action allows for more and more spread and the potential for domino effect So I would go back to the presentation made earlier, I think that there needs to be a coordinated and aggressive action that preempts the race But this has been already too late, even in the United States of America. As you know, the peak will be reached, according to Dr. Falchi [phonetic], two weeks the peak of death in the United States. And so the picture is not very rosy. And there needs to be a much more coordinated and much more sort of aggressive approach. But take stock also of positive and negative examples around the world. And for better or for worse, also for sheer bad luck, Italy is able to provide many of those virtuous and negative examples to the United States, to America Now, to conclude I think what is fascinating and it has been touched upon earlier is that Italy has been at the forefront because of the large death toll that has taken place in the country. And by virtue of being at the center of this global pandemic as we speak, it has also been at the very center of a series of medical health diplomacy, so to speak, that is also a byproduct of the turbulent times we are living in. China has been very prompt in lending its hand through medical equipment. Some of it was such as masks and protective gears were donated also by Whyway [phonetic] for instance, a Chinese company. And the rest of it was sold, such as ventilators, because China of course has a surplus right now and has also business interest in selling them, but it’s good that Italy got help from every corner, including thereby buying ventilators from China. Because we’re witnessing an emergency And emergencies don’t look at geopolitical games of who scores points and calling this bioweapon. And this has been the line, for instance, for the spokesperson of the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs. He has labeled this the U.S. bio weapon. Or the U.S government labeling this the Chinese Virus or the Wuhan Virus or a senator calling it a Chinese bio weapon, this is unhelpful in the face of global pandemic. And this actually speaks wonders about the problems that we are experiencing in terms of U.S.-China relations going down the drain. Because make no mistake, Italy and many other countries in Europe, and now Europe is the epicenter, are witnessing the biggest crisis since World War II. And what will happen now in terms of external support and who is going to help friends in need will be remembered for a long time, because this is a critical juncture. And I suspect, in fact, and we are seeing this already from — with leaks from Downing Street in the UK, that the politicians are already blaming China for this. And so there’s a lot of heavy lifting that China has to do in terms of making up for the very slow covered-up initial response, that also went through an effect less WHO response. Because the WHO, specifically the director general, was reportedly under strong influence from China. And so there was an interest on the Chinese side to quiet things down also because China was trying to grapple with advancing economic and international political necessities with the global pandemic And unfortunately, it squandered its initial response before the lockdown and the people’s war, as has been mentioned earlier. And I’m afraid that this is a weakness. And it’s

irresponsibility. But it’s crystal clear to American policymakers. And they’re trying to emphasize the Chinese and origins of the virus also to score political points in that regard. And I’m afraid that the U.S. response has been underwhelming. The U.S. will be better equipped in responding to this as the international stage by constructive example in full cooperation, not by finger pointing. And we’re seeing a bit of this. Trump today has announced aid of ventilators as well, which the U.S. now is producing for the Defense Production Act, to European countries. The equipment promised to Italy around 100 million. I think this stuff is part of a donation, but don’t count me on that because Trump is famous for contradicting himself. And the U.S. has announced that it will also help out France and Spain I think that the best thing to take stock of is that we should really get ourselves together and try to cooperate in face of this global crisis and be particularly wearing also of the careful of the day of — of the tricky balancing act that democracies, Western democracies, have to enact Because it’s very hard, for instance, to enforce measures similar to South Korea. And from what I understand, correct me if I’m mistaken, also in Taiwan, not to mention China, of course, which is an autocracy, the capillary use of the social media and technology, new technologies, to get hold of private citizens data, that it’s something that is a very hard thing to do at the moment. You need legislation. You need a Patriot Act, if you want, that allows central government to essentially get hold of your personal information for the higher — higher moral ground of saving lives. But it has to be done in the right way and in the sort of limited window of the crisis. And this is why I think that Western Europe, European countries, and the United States are witnessing a different approach from East Asian countries as — the ones I mentioned and of course with autocratic China And I think that’s the conclusion. Thank you >> Thank you so much, Giulio. So in the interest of time, because we are already a little bit over, and thank you so much to those who are sticking around, I wanted to open it up for a couple questions that we have recorded from our group chats And how I would like to do this, we have two questions that are applicable for all the speakers So when I ask this question, if each speaker wouldn’t mind giving a two-minute, no more than two-minute, and I will time you, answer to each of the questions. And we can just start in the order of presentation. So we’ll go with Huaying first, followed by Qingyun, followed by Eve, followed by Giulio. So the first question it was originally phrased as: What are the prospects for Taiwan’s entry into the WHO given its stellar handling of the Covid-19 crisis? But to extend that out for all speakers: What do you think has been the effect, positive or negative, with WHO and international organization involvement? >> I think this is a very controversial topic. Mainland China’s bottom line is Taiwan is an inseparable part of China So for WHO — [inaudible] international organization the condition to join into international organization is you have to be a country with a sovereignty. So I think — I guess for WHO, so Taiwan is not entitled with the condition to join WHO, but on the other hand, from a humanitarian perspective, Taiwan is entitled to be informed by the WHO information because this is — and also Taiwan is also burdened with one

of the important significant member of the international community. So Taiwan is also entitled to share its information, its variable — [inaudible] with the world >> Oh, sorry. We’re just going to — running over time, so just going to pass on the mic, but thank you for your input Qingyun Li, please, if you have a quick moment >> Yeah, I think it’s also debate or difficult to approach because transportation to China mainland. And so it’s how to approach [indiscernible] — the predation now it’s just difficult to approach to WHO >> Thank you. Eve >> Thank you for the question I’m more than happy to reply Taiwan is excluded by nearly every international organization because of China’s boycott, not just WHO. So without exception in WHO, we are basically on our own in this viral spacial, you know. But we just — we have some cooperation with the United States in [indiscernible] and medical research perspective WHO is doing less impressive this time, actually. It is disappointed and losing its leadership in the global public health field. If you look at what they have done, anything to help so many countries, you can tell. I can say Taiwan went to join WHO to get more information and resources, especially in a global pandemic like this And we also like to share our experiences through SARS to these novel Coronavirus. We would like to help, even we are not allowed to get in now, but we can help more if we are getting in, we are included. So we deeply need support from you and from the world >> Great. Thank you. And Giulio, your thoughts. And if you wanted also to — you mentioned before about generally what WHO was doing, if you had a quick comment on international cooperation or efforts >> I think the response by the WHO has been [indiscernible] actually, has been pathetic. One of the reason is because of the infective politicization of WHO The head of — the director general of the WHO is an Ethiopian politician who used to be Minister of Foreign Affairs for his country. And Ethiopia has a very strong economic link with China to the extent that it depends a lot on Chinese largesse and donations and whatnot. And so there is a political economic link that has facilitated the WHO closing a blind eye, in closing — yeah, closing an eye on what was going on at the beginning. And so for instance, as late as January 20th, if I am not mistaken, the WHO was still Tweeting, you can like go and look it up online, but that there are no proofs that novel Coronavirus who was easily spread between humans. So that is clearly also speaks wonders about how this will impact, not just the way we deal with specific countries, but also how we will look at international organizations. Now is not the time for this kind of debate, I imagine. I think that we now really have to care about the emergency, but make no mistake, once the dust settles, we will talk a lot about the responsibilities of each and every one of us, including international organizations >> Great. Thank you. And then to close us up with the last question, and actually this comes from Huagying’s presentation, if each of you could give a one-to-two-sentence answer: How do you think that the Covid-19 spread will reshape the world? Huaying, if you wouldn’t mind offering your thoughts on that >> Actually there are different views, different views of this question, different experts, scholars express different perspectives for this question Some people will — okay they will be a more closed up on this international [inaudible] — be more engrossed by themselves to

dealing with their own problems while not sharing too much duties or obligations or steps in international range. But there are also analysis that, okay, now human beings now actually from experienced SARS, from the Coronavirus, climate change, H1N1, all kinds of this cross-borders crisis — international crisis [inaudible] — that’s what we Chinese people say on human kind. So this world has to face like a more like a — we have to share a more global responsibility, like a corporation, unprecedented cooperation, with each other than ever before. So I think there are like a two trends with this how this Coronavirus or this kind of crisis will reshape our world And also, it’s very interesting — [inaudible] The different, the balancing, the shifting, balancing of like the status of powers in the world like America, European Union [inaudible] — their adjustment or their change of status within this global arena as a global powers. There will be variability [indiscernible] this shift, this changing of the trend in the international community. Yeah >> Great. Thank you. Dr. Li, your thoughts on how Covid-19 will reshape the world >> I think this is really make a bigger chapter for the globalization. And this — you know, even before this happened with China [indiscernible] it has already caught worldwide attention on China’s rising. And now it’s, yes, China can give help to other country. But as I read that many countries also take and think that China try to take it as good a chance to approach China’s own values or motto or something like that But I would just hope people calm down to see this in a more reasonable [indiscernible] to say it’s just a globalization — need more cooperation than computation. That is my opinion. Thank you >> Thank you, Dr. Li. Eve, your thoughts how Covid-19 will reshape the world >> Yeah, definitely you can see what a dramatic change that republican government’s led by president Trump is going to dispense 1000 — $1500 to everyone; right? If I’m right So it’s going to spend, dispense money to everyone to get directly. It’s amazing. I mean, it never happened or it can any — get any legitimacy before this pandemic come. Now people change. Their mind have changed So you can see what a dramatic change has been happen — is happening now. And I think talking about the international power balance, it also have a very — we can predict it going to happen, something is going to happen. Something is going to happen inside United States, we can see. And it’s going to happen in inside China, we can see. Many observation are mentioned about the power conflicts inside China now is a very high possibility to occur in the coming future. So we will see what happened then. Now, those inside countries change also will became or also will have interaction to — met international powers had those relations between the international powers and to have to interact those powers relationships among them. We haven’t mentioned about Russia

But I think Russia will take its part also. [Inaudible] — lots of and very huge change will be coming >> Thank you. And Giulio, to round us off. How do you think Covid-19 will reshape the world? >> I’ll give you my lecture in war-studies opinion. I think it’s making us all poorer. And so I am also very suspicious of people who claim that China’s trying to export something with — I don’t know, how will you call it — influenza operation If it’s not influence, it’s influenza. No, I think that’s a bit over-the-top claims. But what I think is happening is that we’re going to experience a lot of disruption internally Europe is already having another big stress test, certainly as important as the one that we witnessed following the financial crisis and the Greek debt that [indiscernible] crisis in 2008. We need to make sure that this crisis turns into an opportunity for deeper fiscal consolidation and cooperation within Europe — the Euro zone, otherwise the Euro is bust One other aspect that hasn’t been mentioned, and I would follow closely, because we will — we are dealing right now in the U.S. or in the UK, and we will take stock of this in the future, with underwhelming responses by politicians that have been warned by the Italian experience. And the same actually applies to Italy. We have been slow, and we could have been quicker and more — [inaudible]. Politicians don’t like to take bad credit for wrong decisions. Who are we going to blame? Themselves? I don’t think so. They might have to blame a foreign country Which foreign country will they blame? So I suspect that China is not in a very good position If we don’t get — if we don’t pull ourselves together and really try to cooperate, it might be the case that there’s going to be more and more blame placed on China. And this will actually reinforce a decoupling or whatever you want to call it tensions between countries and then China. I imagine this scenario playing out in the United States, especially as we’re nearing a presidential election. China is going to become the boogeyman. That’s my short-term prediction >> Great. Well, thank you all very much for your answers to those questions. Sorry if we couldn’t get to a question. We want to value all your time, especially as some folks here on the East Coast, it’s in the evening too >> And everyone can say goodbye to the speakers too >> Great. Yeah, thanks so much for all the speakers too for lending their expertise and answering our questions with poise

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