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my name is Joshua I founded and added the China change.org website which is a website in English that translate and write about human rights rule of law and civil society in China we have over the last three years become a major source in English for for this area of information now today I want to the topic and the title of my speech is a reverting to totalitarianism China’s response to perceived internal challenges and threats on july 2012 people’s daily overseas edition published the very short essay only 1200 words in translation will be about 800 words another little op add the title of the article is china’s a real challenge is the next five to 10 years and the author is the director of institute american studies which is one of the cluster of institutes under china’s under a research organization called the china institute of a contemporary international relations which is a sink tank of china’s ministry of national security up front the article states that the china’s real challenges are not in international or regional situation but quote internal change and social ecology and quote and that china’s real threats are not the military kind but the non-military coins such as a financial social internet and diplomatic the premise of the article is that the u.s. is and will be contain in China and prevents its further rising the American strategy against China according to the author has an economic social military and diplomatic components now today I want to talk about one of the components one of the components is quote the infiltration of Chinese society from bottom up and quote to cost regime change the author identified five kinds of a people who are the conduits or the targets of such infiltration namely human rights lawyers underground believers dissidents internet opinion leaders and the disadvantaged social groups such as petitioners and you know people who are not happy with their life in China sound familiar well you just got a map of China’s crackdown over the last few years at the end of the article the author recommends that China quote shifted the strategic focus of national security among away former emphasis on external regional military conflict to a comprehensive or restructuring of its internal system and the institutions and quote now if you read this article was published the little little essay published in the emitted 2012 if you mid you read the article when the first appear that you might dismiss it as just some researchers heightened state of a paranoia but where we’re in late 2015 today and we have the benefit of hindsight of three and a half years almost and we can see that there has been indeed such a process of a comprehensive or restructuring of China’s internal system and situations and it has by no means completed yet now before I move on to review this restructuring process let me quickly note two things in this article that struck me one is the deeply rooted the anti-americanism it’s almost like it’s part of the CCP’s ideological DNA no amount of accommodation and good will

on the part of the u.s. can change that however if you study the nature of the communism this kind of antagonism should come as no surprise and Americans should really should stop deluding themselves the other notion is that that struck me is that the party’s utter refusal to recognize chinese people’s genuine aspiration for free and democratic system the way it speaks of the people the five is particularly the five kinds it’s like it there it’s like these free thinking free freedom loving members of the Chinese society can be nothing nothing more than the chess pieces of the ill meaning scheming Americans such a view I find at the same time insolent of course but also very pathetic now let’s move on to review how over the last three years also the party has set out to restructure the system to staff off the internal challenges and threats they perceive i will just arbitrarily start from the beginning of 2013 which which is at the time shortly after c Jinping took the leadership position of the party before he assumed the position of the president in March 2014 um in March 2013 I’m sorry and at the lot of you probably remember at the very first day and the second day of the chinese new year on 2013 there was the southern weekend incident where a long time liberal-leaning newspaper called the southern weekend in guangzhou had a incident where the editors had a New Year’s greeting to their readers where they expressed the hope for Constitutional listed changes in China the propaganda official overseeing this paper took to change the content without letting the editors know so this caused the revolt and over Internet and the activists chipped in and went on the street and in Guangzhou supporting freedom a free press and freedom of expression so that is looking back it is very symbolic event and also of what what to follow a liberal-leaning paper revolted against the papers over the party’s overbearing control and the intrusion and was then the last three years the southern weekend was has been beaten so badly in that that these days we almost don’t remember it exists anymore and other liberal-leaning papers in China today also fall to pretty much the same situation very silent or they were just completely taken over now in March 2013 very few took notice but in March 2013 the general office of the State Council issued the document laying out a timetable for implementing the Information Network real name’s registration system and establishing a unified credit information platform and the unified Social Credit coding system based on citizens identification numbers this at the time very few people notice we translated a piece by a very famous a dissident intellectual called emoji she but no major newspaper took any notice of this this event this document but the last week CNN reported on quote the title CNN’s quite title China’s chilling plan to use social credit ratings to keep score on its citizens so here it comes now people began to see it when

the reading the rating system is fully in place more juicy predicted in 2013 that it will mark the arrival of an unprecedented information totalitarianism and he also wrote in 2013 that the rating is top tenth month to issuing a driver’s license for speech you will be subjected to point deduction for speech violations once you have no point left you will be barred from a going on the road again so from there I what I want to point out I was just told i only have a five minutes left so obviously i can’t go on for too long what i want to point out is that the party in 2012 pretty much identified these five areas rights movement which is represented by the rights lawyers and political dissident religions and internet and civil society so these and lo and behold the last three years systematic measures we’re taking in these five areas to to smother what they conceived threats and challenges so we are you all ready you all know the several waves of arrests throughout 2013-2014 until a very reason to July I mean up to 300 the rights lawyers were questioned and 17 of them now remain in secret the detention without access to lawyers I want to very quickly starting the last year also China past several loss so what in the past what was a implemented as policies and now they written them into lost the first law you probably remember is that the first law was enacted in November 2014 is the counter spent an espionage law which was so loose the other day I try to see several read through a few lines I was like a G I look like a spy you know any anyone can be easily fit into their vague terms in April this year the national congress of people’s representative you all heard a lot about this foreign NGO management law the goal of that is to you know again the idea of infiltration to stop that and also a lot of it you have to keep in mind that a lot of the truly independent rights ngos and china are funded by foreign ngos because in china guess whether nobody finds them right then also in April the national security law was reviewed and that was covers the political social financial cultural information security but above all the regime security so this August China was the Congress China’s fake Congress was discussing the international security law so under this law you know the major Internet portals are responsible for keeping the harmful information off your site so that means more censorship and the under emergencies Internet can be cut and and also this notion of a internet information sovereignty and just the lat this week earlier this week November first China passed the criminal law and meant to act nine in which developing VPN could be punishable by law and be jailed for three years or spreading rumor can be punishable by law but what is spreading rumor if you are spreading your posting something that does not come from people’s daily or seen one use

you’re spreading rumor so so finally I want to wrap up this so this is the so-called inter internal restructuring going on you know all these laws in place to staff off what they perceived as internal challenges and threats now finally I want to quote a Chinese young political science professor who has recently expelled from a very prominent universe I don’t want the name name it for his views he recently argued that we are seeing the arrival of a new cold war he wrote quote the coming new Cold War will be nothing less than a fight for our own freedom a conflict in which the free world will be forced to contend with a China that’s reverting to a 1984 style totalitarian state thank you thank you thank you yes we so I was asked to comment on the legitimacy of the Chinese government from perspective of the one-child policy and legitimacy can be established in one of two ways one is by the consent of the governed and as one of the previous panelists said the Chinese Communist Party is governing without the consent of the garou there either elected by nor are accountable to the Chinese people the second way to establish legitimacy is if a government is is ruling for the benefit of the people and I’m not going to comment on that bottom line you could listen to what I have to say about the one-child policy what we all have to say about human rights and make a decision for yourself in any case you probably heard that China has substituted its one-child policy with a two-child policy and that has been touted by the mainstream media generally with a few exceptions as being the end of the one-child policy and as congressman Smith had said earlier today and by the way congressman Smith senator Ted Cruz senator marco rubio have all agreed that coercion and repression are going to continue under the new two-child policy in the same way that they did under the one-child policy the exception is that the limit has just been moved from from one child to two children so forced abortion will continue women who are single mothers will continue to be forcibly aborted you will still need to have a birth permit for the first child and the second child or face forced abortion unless you are wealthy enough to pay an exorbitant fine that can be up to 10 times a person’s annual salary third child will third children will be aborted the entire infrastructure of coercion the entire system of surveillance of women’s fertility is going to remain in place so we have to keep up the fight to end this incredible atrocity against women and not just relax because they’ve moved the limit from two children from one child to two children now what is the ongoing legacy of the one-child policy the Chinese Communist Party itself has boasted that they have prevented 400 million lives through the one-child policy that number is greater than the entire population of the united states and canada combined they actually broke it down and reported more than 300 million abortions and almost 200 million sterilizations all of which arguably were forcible and many of which were conducted without anesthesia so we’ve got the coercive low birth limit that leads to forced abortion and forced sterilization the next unintended consequence of the one-child policy is a sex selective abortion of baby girls girls are routinely aborted especially in the Chinese countryside where already they have something like a two-child policy if your first child is a girl you’re allowed to have a second child and many people regard that second child as their last chance to have a boy so these girls are routinely aborted and they’re in the 2005 census in China there were three provinces where the average was a hundred over 190 boys born for every 100 girls born on that second child and that entire gender disparity was due to sex selective abortion so we

at women’s rights without frontiers have a save a girl campaign where we’re actually saving baby girls who are at risk of sex selective abortion in China you can ask me more about that in the question time so sex selective abortion has then led to a gender imbalance where there are approximately 37 to 40 million more men living in China than women and what that is doing it is as it as driving human trafficking and sexual slavery not only within China but but from the surrounding countries as well and then people sometimes ask how to Chinese women deal with this well the answer is a very somber one which is that China has the highest female suicide rate in the world and it’s increasing right now it’s hovering at around 600 women per day ending their lives in China so this is the legacy of the one-child policy and it will continue unabated until all cores of population control is ended now that’s on the human rights level let’s talk about demographics briefly the one-child policy has caused a three-fold demographic disaster the first one is the 1i just referenced the gender imbalance the second one is that there’s there’s that the China has appt a rapidly aging population and there is not enough young people to sustain this aging population the result of that is that there has been a rash of senior suicides in China and then the third one is that China’s labor force is decreasing they peaked in 2013 and it’s on its way down now so why does China keep its one-child policy when it makes no demographic sense whatsoever in my opinion the reason that China keeps the one-child policy is that the one child policy is keeping China in the Chinese Condon’s party in place why would that be I believe that whereas in the beginning the one-child policy was instituted genuinely for population control purposes so under the Mau era the average fertility rate was 5.9 children per woman almost six kids per woman when Deng Xiaoping came into power he saw that there were too many that they were having a population explosion and instituted the one-child policy but that big explosion under the mount era is now heading towards towards retirement and they’re just there’s no young population to sustain it so why do they keep it whereas in the beginning it started out as population control and the terror of forced abortion in particularly late term forced abortion was a byproduct of the policy now that they don’t need the policy anymore for demographic reasons I believe that terror is the purpose of the policy and that this is the way that China as a brutal totalitarian regime is able to extend its arm from Beijing to everyone in China to declare life or death over the beating heart in there so under this to child policy China is still regulating not only what goes on between the sheets in people’s bedrooms but actually regulating women’s bodies and have turned a woman’s body into the domain of the state thank you Alex yeah okay so let’s turn to Hong Kong let me share with you a story when I went to Australia earlier this year so there were two bizarre things like encounter Australia one was that I in our trip there was a guy from Hong Kong who is quite pro-beijing he works in a television called a TV in Hong Kong so that’s definitely a pro Beijing media which is also controlled by po bridging businessmen and I’m kind of surprised that when he was in a tripper bus then I asked one of the organizer and one also led my colleague so why he was there and they told me if it is not him then there will be somebody else following us then that means that the United Front in Hong Kong it is kind of resourceful that they would follow whatever they warned they were input resources so I guess are in this room maybe we will have those gases to so welcome and another bizarre thing i have but let me let me elaborate more like when we talk about the United fund you know like in Hong Kong now they also

Beijing they also set up office in Hong Kong so that’s called a liaison office because after 1997 that was a handover of sovereignty from Britain to the Chinese government so they will set up linssen office so as a demonstrate that they are really operating the so-called one country the system but in reality of course the ladies and office has taken control of everything if you notice or if you have a chance to come to Hong Kong you could see that a liaison office actually a puncture a whole block of building in Hong Kong and there were also record in recent year that they punches loss of apartment for their members to live in Hong Kong but here we come to me mark in Hong Kong you you have to understand that the land price and the rental price is very high that like almost like the most expensive land pricing in the world and but at this moment like that and the lesson of his do could have such resources two countries apartments in Hong Kong it reflects that but the Chinese government really allocated a lot of resources in Hong Kong in especially in this kind of like security issues and when we so let’s go back to Australia so and that that is the second be surfing in Australia is that during the panel we also we have different gases so there was also a guest from Taiwan so I guess I forgot which party he was in before I’m pretty sure he’s not from Mean Gene down but he should be a formal former planetary members of warming down and so during the panel while he shared his bills on the Taiwan Hong Kong relation so he made different claims several times saying that Hong Kong people Taiwanese and China Chinese we all share the same origin we all share the same culture so we have to rescue China we could not separate one another so in the panel is like in that room there were also like around ten Hong Kong students when they listen to his work and I could already was like see that facial expression ah ah and then when it comes to the Q&A section they challenged the former parliamentary member and then they post question like this but do you mean by Hong Kong people as Chinese how could prove that how can we share the same culture when you witness what Chinese people come and thus the things when they do shopping on or where they are in the public transportation in Hong Kong and the phone parliamentary member since like well he has undergone a process of cultural shock it’s like wow he didn’t really imagine that before like before umbrella movement this is not really the case that he encountered when we share this kind of will but after umbrella movement there seems to be a bit more exaggerated even for overseas students in oven still overseas Hong Kong student in Australia they also have a sense that identity politics are comes to the stage that they were values a lot so now in Hong Kong if you speak mandarins and you don’t look like Westerners then while we have to cross fingers for you because I’m pretty sure that you booze like receive a quite poor customer service and that’s what happens in Hong Kong yeah immigrants and also uh people who speak Mandarin they will receive a kind of poor reception when they come to Hong Kong and it reflects as like Hong Kong now is having a very tense relationship with China in different aspects it’s not simply the political expect about election democracy not only about the constitutional reform but also for the economic expect they have lots of conflict and this you could see it from how Hong Kong people try to like subject themselves to choose another identity of course this is not the to me this is not a solution for Hong Kong but this is actually what’s happening in Hong Kong and on one hand youngest they are feeling like well we don’t want to be Chinese we won’t abandon the identity of Chinese because well at the end of the day this is a construction and but on the other hand some officials in Hong Kong they’re also playing this kind of identity politics earlier this year’s like girl well should be jan 2015 january the chief executive of hong kong is like chief executive it’s like a mayor of hong kong he was like mentioned something in his policy address he made

a quote and the quote is from of 4 is from students publication from a university that’s Hong Kong University and he quote the publication saying that that is the evidence of Hong Kong people would like to hold independence of Hong Kong and that also will fax then major idea of why umbrella movement comes out and you can see that like officials like him some people in Hong Kong they will also like to uphold this kind of like iodine in politics so that they could construct an enemy that they could like a position themselves as well we are so important now there are some people in Hong Kong they would like to uphold independent so we are that important that the Beijing government or even a chinese government you should support us so that we could continue our official term so that we could continue safeguarding Hong Kong so this is actually what happening in Hong Kong so here comes a question so when the youngest they are kind of like hostile to the Chinese government legitimacy is actually sell our there’s no legitimacy for Yonkers did to the Chinese government is bankrupted but why Hong Kong is it could still be governed by the current Hong Kong of us shows and the Chinese government then it comes to another expect so we could look into another story that’s happened in recent months as another interesting story so that’s about that’s an issue about like some appointment of vice president in one of the University in Hong Kong so that’s the Hong Kong University so say like Hong Kong University was like there’s a vacancy for Vice President so they set up a selection committee and then they employed internationals like companies to search for candidate so that they could make sure that they could say well go through a very internationalized procedure and when they have the people to recommend to the Hong Kong you cancel hungry Council the governance structure is like the highest governing body of Hong Kong you then the question whether the guy would be a good person to be a vice president then why why why they questioned that wow they set up the selection committee and they employ the international companies to go through that procedure why then now’s like the person that they recommend is pro-democracy so here’s a lawyer pro from the pro-democracy camp and you always comment on China Hong Kong issue criticizing the Hong Kong government and this now becomes the burden of him to be eligible for being a vice president so in Hong Kong you counsel at the end they vetoed the record nine candidates then here comes another question how could hunker Council veto the the proposed candidate then we could see that in Hong Kong you cancel half of them are elected well from the University internally and half half of them were appointed by the ship executive externally but what interesting is that most of the people appointed to Hong Kong You counsel they actually the local Alixe of Hong Kong they’re not people from mainland China they actually Hong Kong people there Hong Kong people living in Hong Kong for more than decades and here comes a problem is well how come Hong Kong he lists as Souls like well delighted to cooperate with the Chinese government and and also like the Hong Kong government then well you can see that this is what happened in Hong Kong although they are radicals in Hong Kong they’re a progressive camp would like to oppose like the so called a bankrupt political reform proposal but there’s also a group of people that would highly cooperate with the local official then the techniques the tactics like the ladies in office the Hong Kong government or even a Chinese government they are using they’re not simply the tactics they use today but it is a tactic actually they inherit from the British government before 1997 and here comes an interesting point it’s like what kind of practice they are using so that stick was like ongoing as well as example again so how comes like the components like the chief executive could appoint half the members externally fraud to Hong Kong council then we have to go back like 10 years ago like 2003 the Hong Kong government would like to have a reform on different aspects no matter that’s university or social welfare they would like to introduce an idea call we like to incorporate a business model into different aspects and that would increase our efficiency in mckean decision and we will come with a better policy and better decision and why they would come come with this ideas like we will have to intro those business ideas and then we have to select go back a bit early as like before 997 it’s like 80s and 90s the

British government and trans government and even some Hong Kong schools they are kind of constructing an ideal call that Hong Kong sad as based on Hong Kong people’s hardworking and because Hong Kong government employ em and days free market and this becomes the major story of psyche of understanding how Hong Kong success in a secure pace in the world then when this story becomes like a mainstream sort of story then you have the reform and it justifies your free form but this kind of like process of interest even introducing business model it turns out that locally list Dean really is like well only one hand we embrace free market but on the other hand we would like to also prepare for democracy but they’re actually doing the things contrary they actually it’s like only one hand while okay we need money we need business the only other hand well I’m fine with the current system as long as its safeguards my interest and this is what Hong Kong is phasing in Hong Kong encountering so this is not hong kong’s issues a bit tricky is that it reflects that is not simply about the Communist Party but it’s also about how Hong Kong people imagine what is the best system for Hong Kong and how they could govern hong kong in a good way and how they interest imagination and the actual governance structure mingo all together to it’s like position hong kong in the current status so this was like what we are facing now so thank you thank you for boc to hold her so wonderful conference and I want to talk with my personal experience I to the beginning in april 12 1991 i stoled it in the courtroom in beijing and I was sentenced 13 years by the changing the comment form a row in 1989 movement at that time I defend the moment and also I truly believe the change in gonda lost his legitimacy for dreams of crackdown and also I truly believe democracy will becoming reality sooner or later in China but I never Salter I will be here 25 years later talk about the legitimacy of Chinese government in United star of America I want to see legitimacy of China in China is a very serious issue for me so let me first clarifies I’m a confusing point first legitimacy a wat legitimacy we are talking about it we are not talking about a Xi Jinping our single ruler to legitimacy fear I believe Oh people talk about the legitimacy fear is about the China the future is there any chance the democratization will come in China sooner or later or so today I want to talk about a rigid the regime legitimacy second legitimacy crisis is not a governance crisis if we talk about the economic or ecological problem I believe in open society those issues most serious to rulers than rulers in China because you have open society you have a independent media and the opposition party to create aside the ruler legitimacy is more than governance crisis it is it is based on the idea how to justify or dinnae a regime so we cannot talk about you know the utility issue to talk about the legitimacy third without the alternative idea about how to build other or to justify a good governance there is no legitimacy even your face the greeter operating in the country it’s just mice uprising it will not lead to legitimacy crisis finally I want to talk about the legitimacy is ID as idea to justify our denied a governance it is developed and created by political forces it is not you know the it’s not an accurate statement to see changing the gun the loser it’s a legitimacy because the china cabinet and

create its own legitimacy and opposition party can create its own legitimacy if we see the legitimacy crisis it’s it means that the change in the government in competition with the opposition forces it’ll their legitimacy is now so attracted to people so let’s talk about legitimacy crazy tea in China now as the high really mentioned in the early days of the year the Chinese comes a party of the meter they have the DG thomassy crisis that means in China Oh political forces realized there is a legitimacy crisis in China but why what causes the legitimacy crisis it’s a divided in among the Chinese and so let’s review the legitimacy probable issue in the commons a part of the rule that we know that in the counterparty established it’s a regime in metal 19 a middle 20th century it’s based on the communist ideology in the late nineteen seventy that such ideology bankrupted even the looting core of the counterparty realized they need to open the China to talk to capital lease the world and also they needed reform they are replenish anomic system but it is still want to maintain one-party rule and now the legitimacy that christ is the new legitimacy crisis emerged in china because the tension pins reform policy cannot be maintained in china let me see the tongue shopping based on it his legitimacy on three issues of first economic development second political stability third national increase imposed on all three issues the Chinese akhanda cannot maintain its legitimacy the first economic development although China maintains the best the economic development in the world I mean the in economic indicators but the economic development is unfair small powerful elite group controlled the company opportunity and treasure and most popular people suffered from unfair economic development and also the China ganda cannot maintain the political stability that because there is so widely develop the developing you know operating in China I mean they call it a 20cm and oh the third issue is that the training under cannot provide the security to the Chinese people personal security property security and the food security environment security so the really face legitimate a problem however what next the four Chinese to rebuild up its legitimacy the rest we kind of effort xi jinping the current ruling call of china come to party who want to rebuild legitimacy with traditional chinese the counterparties idea about how to build of good China they call it a chi minh due to EE and so and he thinks that the Chinese account the wider China’s you know the phase legitimately problem because the control to lose they lost control in China so he want to tighten the party stated machine and also he want to enhance the control over the civil society and but his effort is challenged by many political forces including the whole party is data machine you know although the condo officials as a joy in the counterparty they want to take precision in the counter just because they want to get corruptive benefit but now they lost those chances so they are very negative to do anything in China so it’s why so much you know the big disaster happening in China now because he didn’t want do anything to manage those crises and then the second effort is from the traditional Marxism they believe with

the Chinese that so much problem in China just because the Chinese come to party atop the capitalism from the Western world we call it a new life ism the third advertiser from constitutional team Democrats they believe that those kind of problem caused by the to centralize the power structure I was solutely power cause an absolutely corruption so they want to to establish a constitutional democracy to serve the problem so in the conclusion the although the Chinese reach a consensus on that statement we have a legitimacy problem but the china / what caused the legitimate the problem and how to serve it so let’s link to the China’s future the China’s future is uncertain we cannot see you know the economic development or crisis will cause the legitimacy crisis or you know automatically and also we cannot see the professional efforts within or complying with the current regime conserve the legitimacy problem it if we really hope that constitutional democracy we have to build up democracy force in China and I think in the United States of America we need to support to focus to Democrats in China not only focal to economic development not only focus to professional efforts are such kind of lawyers the journalism is not enough it’s probably you know some in operate you know some kind of operating gave the chain gun the chance to in to serve the policy problem and the attack can enhance the non democracy regime it’s your sociology the conclusion and so I so in one sentence we if we really want the legitimacy democracy gave provide the opportunity for constitutional democracy in China in the future we need to develop on it cannot keep the market report in China we need a support those forces in China thank you you

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