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a session of Irish history from the hedgerow at the Irish roots cafe produced by Irish roots calm with Peter Reilly adams and michael o’laughlen find a spot on the warm sunny side of the hedgerow now today’s session is about to begin they were rough unpolished men brilliant scholars teaching by the side of the road in small rooms in nooks and crannies wherever and whenever possible such men as these they were the teachers of the hedge with only two or perhaps three exceptions every native landlord and every native tenant within the bounds of the six counties were dispossessed and displaced and although a few of both classes were afterwards permitted to share slightly in the great land spoil it was only in some other and less attractive localities than their own conquest of Ireland by Hill good day students here we are again at the hedgerow we’d like to start our lessons with the 1500s and going then into the Battle of Caen sail and the flight of the Earl’s but first just a couple of ideas of what happened the struggles of Ireland are so often tied in so strongly with the struggles in England now you all know about good ol Henry the eighth very famous for all his six wives who lived from 1491 to 1647 and Henry was a great Catholic who even suppressed or at least attempted to suppress a Protestant Reformation that had begun earlier even before his term as King he was pushing down the ideas of John Wycliffe which was a precursor to the Reformation Henry even went after Martin Luther and received from Rome the title of defender of the faith but where Henry got in trouble with the church is when Henry’s wife Catherine the daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella from Spain youngest daughter wouldn’t bear him children or couldn’t bear him children or a son she did bear Mary who is the sister of Elizabeth and will talk about her as we go on and Henry wanted an heir and he didn’t want to have a woman as the heir to the throne he needed a son and so he went through all of his wives searching for one Henry then broke with Rome made himself the head of the new Church of England or the Anglican Church and of course wanted control of the parliament and did very well he wasn’t terribly concerned about what was going in Ireland he did send an army over at a time but didn’t there was not much of a struggle between them the struggles came later after Henry died of course Elizabeth becomes Queen after she fought with her Catholic sister Mary she was a Protestant and when Mary died and Elizabeth became the queen she then wanted to enforce the Protestant religion upon the Irish and she sent a number of people in Ireland to try to keep the Irish down and we have the beginnings of the Protestant ascendancy which is also something we will talk about later but we move into the next century and we have all of the different characters that are involved and Michael you can carry on with some of the great ones starting with the O’Neill’s well that’s right I tell you this red Hugh O’Neill and a red Hugh O’Donnell and Hugh O’Neill were two of the main characters that featured really in the Battle of Kinsale and the same families for the flight of the Earl’s which we know quite a bit about today old Hugh O’Neill had built quite a reputation he his father had been assassinated in some of the intrigue of the court over there in Ireland and he was really raised by the English after that and they thought they had an ally there because he came into Ireland and fought against Desmond for the Queen so he did her a great service and he ended up becoming the Earl of Tyrone and he had set aside the title of the O’Neill saying that that was rather old-fashioned I believe is the the way he said it at the time but

it didn’t last for long he still had Irish in his blood so it had all spurned up again but several things had happened and one thing that happened that the Spanish Armada shipwrecked off the northwest coast of Ireland and O’Neill took those shipwreck victims in and he was ordered to to murder them to put it frankly and he didn’t do it and so that brought up a lot of suspicion saying well what’s the deal here so a lot of the English side of the fence started to think he was a little suspicious and they couldn’t trust him and I think that would prove out later so that started and they had what they called O’Neill’s war or Tyrone’s rebellion some call it the nine years war some say six some say eight but the authorities say nine years and that was quite a battle and came out victorious so many times that he had those people worried because that didn’t usually happen and he had the geography of Ulster in his favor the lands were just perfect for guerrilla fighting and what he was known for was luring the troops into positions that he could then attack and be victorious at and he sure do it sure did it and it led up to it led up really to the Battle of Kinsale which everybody had their hopes on and that’s where the two Hughes Hugh O’Neill and red Hugh O’Donnell joined together and read he O’Donnell was his son-in-law actually and the two families who had been at odds for so many years the O’Donnell’s and the O’Neill’s two leading families United at this point and the younger red Hugh O’Donnell he was always ready to go and ready to fight and the older Hugh O’Neill he was a little cagey ER and he knew he knew how to lead a battle that they’d come out victorious in Peter if you heard of the Battle of can sail at all well absolutely in fact some say that if you want to know what’s the problem in Northern Ireland go back and look at the Battle of Kinsale and of course can sail in Ireland is a very beautiful Harbor a very old town and there’s a fort there and they built a kind of it like a star and they did that in order to protect themselves but why they could also retreat and yet still see the front line of the castle itself that stuck out quote it’s for some of its destroyed now that stuck out into the harbor so that they could all be visible to each other and fire even from one point of the star be able to fire across at another point of the star where the enemy may try to be coming in well you if you take a look at some of O’Donnell’s out and O’Neill’s Ally the biggest one mentioned are the red shanks and those were Scottish mercenaries now you take a look at his men one third of his men had firearms and they had very little artillery which is another reason not to do pitch battle with the forces that they were fighting against his plan was to have the Old English Catholics that had settled and become more Irish than the Irish themselves in some ways that they would join with him as well as the Spanish and since the time of Henry the eighth’s things had taken on a religious composition which made people even a little more firm in their opposition so here we are moving into the Malecon sale in the fall of 1601 O’Neill’s dream came true and the Spanish army landed at Kinsale and they brought men and supplies and loaded up the town and they were prepared for a siege they were prepared prepared for the English to come and lay siege to that Camp town and within seven days the English got there and they did just that but it was no surprise to anybody now the English came I think they had 7,000 men pretty quickly the Spanish had 3,500 men on hand there and they fired volleys daily at each other not much happened as far as to change the course of a battle but they were just waiting for the time now what was happening during all this well O’Neil and O’Donnell were gonna come down from Ulster because the Spanish chose the furthest most point from him really way down south there so that though Neal and O’Donnell had to bring their two armies all the way down both coasts of Ireland I think O’Neill came down on the east and O’Donnell came down in the west coast and they gathered men as they went and a couple of the really dis disenchanted and disaffected Munster Nobles had come up there and we’re staying and they then came down and rallied more troops as they went and so finally they’re almost there they’re meeting and they had come down through Galway and such a gathering of Irish chieftains hadn’t been seen maybe since the time of Brian Boru I’m not sure but they were pretty confident they had they

had fate on their hand this was this was going to be the first time that the Irish broke free completely and this set it up because O’Donnell and O’Neill then started marching towards Kinsale and the English were sitting there and they were hurting a little bit their horses were just starting to run out of feed the men were getting tired they were even thinking about leaving at one point but they got reinforced with some new troops so they’re sitting there and they’re just they don’t really know what to do and here comes the beginning of the battle now as that battle shaped up we want to take a look at who were some of the families that arrived there with O’Donnell the young maybe maybe a hot-headed O’Donnell and that included O’Rourke and Burke and McDermott of Moyer and O’Connor row and O’Kelly and and the Chiefs that had been banished from Munster one of those was Mac Morris of Carey and also the knight of the Glen and McMahon and one of the McCarthy’s so he had just earlier crossed south into Galway and then crossed the Shannon and waited for 20 days for O’Neill to arrive before they departed and as O’Neill came down there he crossed the Boyne and boy the boy is gonna play a large part in Irish history later in this century and he wanted to create some possible diversion so maybe some of those English troops would have to stay in the Midlands of Ireland as he was headed to the south and when he met up with O’Donnell like we said his spirits were high the whole they all they were thinking that within a month or two they’d be celebrating a great victory that of the kind that Ireland had never seen before and they basically ended up they had the English covered on two sides and even the English reported that they were in bad straits their horses almost done for and that if they just would have been starved out with sort of a guerrilla tactic it might have been a completely different story and from there the story really unfolded terribly for for the Irish O’Neill was a great guerilla tactician and he had always lured the enemy into a position and attacked them it was never a pitched battle this was different it would be a standing battle and O’Neill it owned O’Donnell its belief spoke for having this fight outright and just do away with the the opposition you know really and a whole different style and Neal and his men were not used to fighting now the Spanish in the town you know the Irish right now were just coming down meeting the forces the Spanish in the town didn’t know that O’Neill and O’Donnell had arrived according to all reports so they were in the town just doing fine and they might have heard distant gunfire but the gunfire was moving away from them they didn’t know that was the Irish being routed now the Irish horsemen it appears were not well trained for this type of battle they really didn’t had never engaged in it before to any extent and the English horse were very well disciplined and they knew how to fight and that would come to play a big role in this battle now in this little so-called skirmish they thought at first the Irish outnumbered the English by up to six to one and that was according to accounts on both sides and now let’s take a look at what happened the battle largely unfolded right on O’Neill’s troops the Irish horsemen not only did not hold the line or even engage in a true battle with the English they ended up rich reading and they fled right into the Irish infantry which broke the Irish lines it created quite a bit of havoc and then a bag of gunpowder exploded by accident because the Irish I don’t think were that used to handling the Gunpowder for artillery one man fled and then another and soon it reported that they were running they were not looking back throwing their weapons aside six flags were captured along with two thousand arms one’ll cut once that once it started it was all over they panicked is what it amounted to this was not the battle they were expecting and O’Neill and and his contention continued to flee with wagons and drowned men left behind as they ran according to reports of the day so that small English force did something there to spook the Irish and it turned the whole course of the day and strangely enough enough O’Donnell shows up after that had happened to O’Neill’s troops and he tried to rally the men to the writings that we have available but it just didn’t work they met later in misery after the retreat they said O’Donnell could not sleep and he was screaming at the top of his lungs for three days how this was not the expected

outcome how could this be and it was decided that O’Donnell and a couple of others go to Spain on a waiting ship and that Spanish ship took no time to visit the Spanish that were locked inside the city the Spanish actually heard the English victory shots after the battle thought that was the real battle started to come out of the city got repulsed and pushed back into the city so that just totally did not work at all but O’Donnell now takes off for Spain to the court of the king of Spain and he brought with him something called the book of invasions which by the way was translated by Michael Clary who actually translated all those and gathered together all that work for the annals of the four masters and they’re in the shadow of the o’donnell castle up there in the north of ireland but he took that book which described a Spanish soldier who came to Ireland and from whom all the Celts and all the Irish are descended malicious arma led depending on how you translate it and he went to the Spanish king and said look at this book this ancient book of ours tells us that a Spaniard founded our country we have our blood in your veins will you please not give up give up on us this was just one battle and Peter I think you know something about tying in with Spain there don’t you sure doom like Allah because remember I had spoken earlier about Henry being married to the daughter of the king and queen of Spain well then Henry’s daughter Mary who succeeded him as she actually succeeded her brother Edward who died as a teenager and then Mary became queen and Mary was Catholic well Mary married Philip the second the king of Spain and the Pope then granted to Philip the king of Spain the kingship or the title of King Ireland but married I they never really stayed together and married I’d and Philip made no claim to that and he was engaged in a great war with Mary’s half-sister Elizabeth and you do have some of the Catholic Protestant fighting going on here and he had been in war with Elizabeth’s from 1585 and then his successor in Spain was Philip the third and he supported the Catholic rebels up until this siege of Kinsale in 1601 and it was with the at great expense but with little a very little support and he Philip then offered the kingship to O’Neill and his allies but only Yule turned it down so you have this Spanish Irish English confusion but sometimes it’s all about the relatives all amongst the good the the cousins and then of course then the Irish are hand standing on their own for their own property and so right after that battle of Kinsale red Hugh O’Donnell goes to Spain makes that plea to the king of Spain which Peters explained some of the connections with the church there and the Pope trying to get it going but O’Donnell dies in about a year or so some people say he was poisoned we’re not quite sure of that intrigue but so O’Donnell dies that leaves O’Neill on his own O’Neill fought and negotiated and finally came to a treaty with the crown in 1603 but the terms were just intolerable to him and I think he had a little advance notice and in 1607 well that’s when O’Neill fled the fled the country and I think he had advance notice I think it might have been a gentlemen’s agreement I’m not sure but I read about it in the conquest of Ireland and in September of 1607 a fridge ship departed from Wrath Mullen in Lough Swilly and Hugh O’Neill the Earl of Tyrone and Rory O’Donnell the Earl of Turkana with 90 followers and friends left they were bound for Spain the same place read Hugh O’Donnell had gone but that didn’t work either the storms forced them to France in October and they made their way to Rome O’Neill died in 1616 and one more comment and it was sort of poetic as I was reading about the departure as the Englishmen arrived in the castle where they were going to take O’Neill and of course after this they took him and confiscated its confiscated many lands they saw old beaten up wooden harp in the corner that had been left behind and they commented on it so they knew that that harp would have been a symbol of Irish something and it seems like it had fallen into disuse and it was no use to the Irish King at that time and they did

and they were given in 1607 they were kind of given three options they could flee with their friends and hope for a reinvasion by Spain they could go to London stay at court until grievances were reached we knew where that would go or do nothing and live on a reduced income sometimes things come down to economics and so finally we know that they chose the third option and that was to flee what that’s right and I had one other comment and that was about one of the ways that O’Neill rose to power even while he was under the honour honorbound under the Queen he was funded by the Queen to keep 600 soldiers and that he did but he rotated his soldiers in and out so he might train 600 one year and a brand-new 600 the next year and so his actual fighting trained Fighting’s force was much larger than anyone knew and when time came to reroute to put a new roof on his castle at dun Gannon instead of using the lead for the roof he used it for bullets so he was planning for a long time to come back up with the Irish he just knew how to bide his time you mentioned that the Earl’s set sail from Earth Malin in the village of lux Willy in County Donegal and of course with the followers that they had but in 1998 there was a lecture given by the Archbishop of Armagh remember our ma is once again it keeps coming up as a very important place in Irish history but the Cardinal said that the Earl of Tyrone allegedly had a gold cross which contained a relic of the true cross and this he trailed in the water behind the ship and it gave some relief from the storm because there was a great storm in the crossing and they finally reached the continent in on October of 1607 and they all said the significance of the act underlined by the fact that the date of the exile from Ruth Mullen was the Feast of the exultation of the Holy Cross and they also say that maybe that relic was obtained at Holy Cross Abbey which they had visited when they were enroute to conceal in 1601 boy there’s so many connection to this story that we just follow up and it gets wider and wider and and it also goes back to what the Irish felt about things how they how they even in the battles they still were holding on to a sense of religion their own against the one that was bringing another well Yin you know as this as this century took place by the end of this century the Irish had been crushed and we’re just singing the first of really three three confiscations of Irish lands power and culture and this is with the flight of the Earl’s you saw a gigantic confiscation in Ulster and then of course in our next segment we’re going to talk a little bit about the Cromwellian settlement and that was just savage operation and then at the very end you’ve got James James the second coming in and the William William might problems so we’re going to cover that later but we thought we’d start off with this first part and as the Irish culture was collapsing here you’re gonna find that for some reason there was a rebirth maybe a final gasp of Irish literature and courting of history and you’ve got several works but I’ll just mention one here and we’ll talk about others as we go on in those other segments but Keating’s history of Ireland Geoffrey Keating recorded his great history in this century the annals of the Ireland by the four masters which I’ll speak a little bit on because that was put together in County Donegal about 1632 to 1636 and that was done mainly under the work of Michael O Clary but that’s quite a story there must have been somebody that sense that things were coming to an end for the Irish sometimes the four people that put this together the four main people that are recognized were called the four friars and the annals were at one time referred to as the annals of Donegal because of where they were put together now there were actually six men who worked on the annals so perhaps it should be called the annals of the six masters or maybe even more you never know all those other little helpers but the primary authors of the annals of Ireland by the four masters were the oak Larry’s who were the hereditary historians to the O’Donnell’s of Turkana in County Donegal so that’s really one of the best-known histories in ireland compiled and it was at compiled in the old days in the irish language it was not translated into the

English until the 19th century when really two versions two major versions of it came out once by penelon and one by John O Donovan and I think most people are who have studied Irish history we’ll see references to both the annals of Ireland by the four masters and Keating’s history of Ireland that I’ll talk a little bit more about okay so we looked at the O’Neill’s and we’re gonna find out the O’Neill’s were extremely important family and of course a family from Ulster we’re going to see how that the Irish are really becoming at greater odds with the English because of religion and because now of other things the Irish are playing another part in this battle in the European the element you know Spain in England and France and so these things as we go step by step in order to discover what’s the Irish history because as I said before it’s it’s so much in intertwined with histories and experiences in England and other countries that were emerging also in the European theater we’re going to go do something in the next segment we’ll talk about the Confederate Ireland I bet that’s something a lot of people haven’t heard of and that was what was going on in Ireland while the English were over doing their little battles with each other and we’ll talk about James the first of England will talk about Charles the first of England and we’ll talk about that fellow mr. Cromwell and so we hope you’re enjoying what we’re given and we’re still working hard for you and we’ll go into the next segment and we’ll talk to you then so ends this chapter of Irish history from the hedgerow the entire series is available at WWII schrutes calm we have broadcast series on genealogy song local history as well

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