that’s fine all right so the topic is aerodynamic salt cod caucus I was always interested in poker and masters but do you understand actually the quadcopters itself I had to understand the basics like I wanted to go in a kind of flight let’s say starting from the basics of a plane on plane flies and using that idea putting it in the helicopter that is a 1 copter instead of four and then using that idea of helicopter putting it in the quad copters and I would help me do explain understand copters very well so so a terrific content is having aerodynamics of a flight I will explain the lift drag trust and all this stuff and then not a helicopter Mackenzie offline the swashplate the helicopters rotors I mean the lift produce light the Prague rafflecopter quadcopters and in the end I have a special thing that is a gyrocopter okay our values of flight let’s start with that simply a plane like how does that 737 big planes this managed to lift off the ground and it has actually four forces acting on it to lift the weight the dragon trusts so we produce a lift and drank kind of but wait and Trust are kind of a drag and make our produce automatically so the lift is a really critical and I’m going to explain one misconception I will just remove on this conception of lift because the professors and books and YouTube videos and all the content available internet it is lots of controversies so I’ve learned hard on that thing I’m going to remove it all right starting with there I mean you know weight and the drag is simply the resistance of air when the plane is going through the air pressure and the trust that we produced by the jet engine simply some of the planet or in the front we have a problem and the old-time old school fans but the lift it’s more important for me because it goes on for the quadcopters and the computer and our culture so let usually how I will just go ahead and explain that wrong conception the way to explain it it would quite make sense in the been hanged up I will tell wise advice and I need eq8 explanation so look at usually one professors and classrooms and both of the school grades they explain it like this let’s say so lift is simply the diff mean simply the difference of low and high pressure if you can see here low and high pressure of air so the because of the airfoil because of the curvy nature of airfoil and because this plane is going through the air and here is coming towards it and because of the upper part is longer than the locks box vengeance a over here the air is coming from there it comes it comes here and let’s see if you have two molecules here molecule on the bottom will reach here and upward upper molecule I will have to reach at the same time having to give a longer path so the upper molecule will have to move faster than the law the lower molecule so since this faster molecules go on foster so Bernoulli’s equation and Bernoulli’s principle says that if the if we have faster molecules of air we have low pressure and if we have like generally like normal if we have a high pressure so because of this pressure difference there’s a little well that’s true but not completely true it is in a geek week usually what they do it let’s look in the paper right and I I’ll do a demonstration let’s say this paper on yeah if I born in it lifts up right now of course my pressure of my speed up here on the top is higher because of that is a low pressure and high pressure is over here so that lifts it up right but I’m just this demonstration is wrong by moving like this let’s say nothing the same thing right so now you first have a little idea where variance is going so the point is ok it even if this that’s true what about the Wright brothers Wright brothers place simply had flat things they didn’t have air boy as you can see here is one of them when they flew the first ever play right I mean their their their wings would slap so how does that fly so I mean the point is there’s biscuits of flight anyway any D creating explanations are pressure different than YouTube they say like why do you complicate it is simply a pressure difference of Bernoulli’s principle we have a left-hander you find lots of articles and videos that will explain you stuff like this but that’s

not true when camera universities they to be put it put the air quality completely box office team up steam and they came out of the office of the reason so the most popular explanation are readily space and heater turning me right so on so this was the thing I mean well this is the edge of it the camber effect on the airfoil that is something to do with this so let’s go ahead okay so let me sit here and then explain so of course this is this is a reason right the low pressure here the hydrogen here is a low pressure over there and because of that it generates lift but it’s not only the reason it is the region no but it’s not the only reason the reason behind this is if the two molecules are here they end up in there why do we have to end up at the same time they don’t have to let sit me and some other guy are going out of this room one goes from a other goes from their side why do we end up with this time you don’t have to actually they don’t so this is one of the explanation when the explain where name is principal explaining the lip the usually professors talvez and that’s not true they don’t end up at the same time so this is proved by average university professor I was I can give you the reference links in my project report that the a value at the same time projected this one is slower that was one reaches fast so they don’t have at the same time so the longer one explanation is totally wrong the real real reason is most of the air doesn’t even stick to this because in the viscous fluid because when you talk about physics we in the area we talk about viscous as a fluid not a suppression of course but if we consider is as to a like in water or something because you never talk about resistance and everything so in the end it does not it’s not another most it’s a no slip condition at all like it doesn’t sticks all the way towards its end it goes and there’s some subspace generated here because of Mary’s face the air is turned down and because of this Newton’s turning based principle the air is actually thrown back down these both principals if you explain it to explain left it makes sense but if you take one of them as the Bernoulli’s principle as then you know like a rocket science for the plane that does not explain it completely so that was my point and yeah that’s it alright so this equation is simple it’s a the left the evolution for the defender density is actually the rose or they the air density of course if it is like a different kind of atmosphere it needs more more over to generate two because of resistance at all and then we have velocity of course now mostly we have two kinds of velocities one is relative and one is like the general so either we move the plane towards the air and air is coming towards you just like for the paraglider guys like they just put it on the ship and they go ahead and they’re like actually going through the air and this lie up right but in the like paint and planes you generate them also with the either everyday propellers or the jet engines we both would go to the trust and there’s a wind coming on social mortgages and it is more powerful and I mean very of course the larger the brains of course a bigger airplane flies in a super plane and then we have the lift coefficient that is a combination of lots of factors all right so here’s a small video now since we know and one more thing I just came across up this on my own when we live in a car like we roll down the windows and you keep our hand outside so let me give it some angle of attack if we change it we produce lift and also drag at the same time so lift is actually come to come to counter-attack by a gravity of course and a drag let me know please be different right so left is actually counter measured by the gravity and then you be produced thrust and now this is very important so using the same idea the same principle of the pressure high low difference throwing the airbag the turning down Newton’s principle this is the reason why and helicopter and the quadcopters let’s say small motor with the water is like played it goes up so it’s the same i know here so it’s a propeller it’s a combination of things so what it was definitely to propel a helicopter this was this is a small part

of a big presentation on YouTube that I just plucked it out and put it there to just explain like how a plane like if you can see there’s a fall over there to blight on the top that is doing its part for the lift and using that same idea putting in the front of the plane be using that same idea to produce them trust so um that’s all and I want to explain like how plane flies like wings of a plane keep rushing towards the air and it produces pressure difference and how we use that same idea put it on the hand of a plane and make it use for the trust and this is actually a you can get a library going so this is going towards the helicopter so let’s go ahead right so you can see it’s really interesting my helicopter so as you can see this is a helicopter daddy’s eye on the five feet we have a ground effect of helicopter so over here they tell you up in a stable ball knob since just like when we started dating the death the water or helicopter the main rotor will give you the station until five feet let’s say depending on the weight and other factors and it stays there for one and then if you want to have more left we have this mechanism over here on the comment over there let’s call swashplate I’ll explain and of course the swashplate is actually doing the annual of attack the one that I was just telling you when you’re in like in the car we just give a little angle of attack we have we have lift and drag as we do it Maura weekend we have box over so an Anglo attack is one more thing I wanted to explain i did not put it in the presentation is an angle all the time we have this the coefficient of the remember the CM the last part in the equation that is having a threshold love so if you have not left that look goes down like it that signal is like it goes up we have there okay we have like we have any of the greater angle of attack beautiful the grand lift the motor left but 11 if they blow name is too bad let’s see like this so it don’t live anymore we have like downfall so the end of the signal is like going up until 11 and then it falls down so over here the angle of attack as you can see it also changes by since the airplane is flying it is really precisely made this is from a game this video so as you can see that’s moving actually right so really small and global tech can make a larger difference because there’s an air that is already there we are moving through it there’s a ground if a glass of stuff so the swashplate is the one that actually helps the helicopter to left to do lots of things you’ll see in the next slide okay so as you can see I mean since we have produced one man let’s see if he analyzes I did not talk with that okay so this time anyway so in the next night we had a sea of the analysis let’s say there was a heat map of the pressure difference so you could see there was the same concept high pressure was down with the red color and the low pressure with the blue eye thing with the green on the top of a plane so considered bad things and put it here so this whole over the top is producing the high and low pressure difference right so if with this cyclic control stick or the top quite quick fast over the top you see the pressure difference red and blue and green all this stuff on the top you have just done pressure like glue let me go the next oh wait it’s it because the videos are really big here embedded in the presentation I’m sorry for that anyway so as you could see over there so all the all sorts of turning and going forward and when calculated everything of the helicopter is depending on this control stick right this is of course automated like oh no sleep is completely connected with a lighter aviation technology than air and then those are those idiotic story avionics technology and those are connected with this this hope of their the thing that is actually reason the reason to through the air down and go up so if you have to go forward let’s say it’s going let’s say it’s tilted that way so the air is coming down this way right this way right that makes it go down it’s simply the fair enough you can like equal an opposing direction right and then that’s that’s all that helicopter HD is flying on the basis of the earful and wings so the helicopters are big Manuel Ruiz takes your combination of small veins that are just for dating so the difference is that they’re producing the air and step like here using the air from the plane that’s the difference

here all right this is the ground effect of something about and this is underground affair okay these are like I just wanted to add this that these are the terms that terminologies that it is so the role is like this in a plane and y’all is this because we would need this in the quadcopter that’s what I want to do add it here and the pitch is actually when you’re n log tag simply you know so when you’re like running on it on the honor what they call it the thing that is on the airport the runway where you’re running on the runway and we have we give it give it a little pitch with the help of mainly sit down on the window seat of a plane you see this like air pear the little parts on the plane that comes out so those actually produce lots of air pressure difference because of them we can move the nose of the airplane up that will produce angle of attack of course we don’t have this swash plate mechanism and aeroplanes so we use those airfoils that comes out of the plane and they produce the nose of the airplane to move up that’s if your pitch and that’s how the movements of airplane are defined in avionics alright so now one more problem since I can you compare is having oh this is quite simple if you see the video let’s say they’re a hawk helicopter is this is running since it is in clockwise direction or counterclockwise direction it has a like a resultant directive force that is like let’s say you can see here so how does it a turn how does it job a helicopter okay turning a very average was control strip right but how does it yup let’s say you know for join the helicopter has this tail rotor on the back that is like empty part then be used for the any taught so if if this guy moving in one way then the cup will always go like have you seen black hawk down the tail is broken it’s goes to like it falls out that there so that’s it interesting so with this is same order then that’s that does the game changer like you just use it and it came your this is simple concept and that’s all so next alright i’m applying at the park office now hot cup is that right since you have this whole idea comfortable look that the aerodynamics of quadcopter now we’ll do like a piece of cake for you because for me the quadcopter has no no more there’s no / mates there’s no angle of attack there is love let me nothing at all we don’t pitch any kind of we just say for modern and they do the whole thing’s and the speed of water is all that we have to control but we have to keep it ready to size because quad copters are the more most efficient flight in the future and I mean they can they can be they can they don’t have a lot of space to run or something they just lift out and move in eight dimensions so quadcopter just because our speed of rotors now since I’m quadcopter we don’t have a tail rotor like a helicopter so what we do is two of them let’s say this one and that one where sink clockwise this one and that one will work in common clockwise so there’s no net force right we don’t have to talk from them in quad copters and only in helicopter that we have one so you think that and then we would change the speed of let’s say this one and over this one and we will say pitch and we will go we will do all kinds of even the special sorts of movements are produced by quadcopters by displaying the speeds of each rotor and that makes it simple so the main rocket science in the quadcopters is actually having an efficient flight automated that would just use two of the controllers to use the quadcopter and it could be automated in future let’s say yes on the map actually a Chinese company did that they have made a quadcopter kind of love playing for a one seater person that you just have a map you just put up okay Alan fly there you use an app and you you’re reaching there so it’s quite really interesting that all with all is like computer-generated codes that turn the speed of the motor and you’re really safe flight with the quadcopters so now this was under my presentation I wanted to explain it until here but percent promise of ever I have Mr Kristof they told me that you must tell they were interests and they asked me to do something on our guru doctors it was really interesting and I want to talk about it yeah so Gaara copters they’re really interesting kind of saw small up and I think it’s really cheap to make one and I’m not planning to make one when i go back to Pakistan but I’m sure I really want to do this I don’t think so anybody has done this before in fact that it’s quite simple the first thing

when when i first started to study this I was like I’m not going to sit in this but when I studied it more I’m confident that yes maybe I would try to do it and quadcopters is simply really really interesting so it will it doesn’t have any engine okay so the main loader is just about anything because of you just give it a stopping a true next one is just rotating and we have justice you just have to trust in this plane so we don’t produce any yes so there’s no so actually there’s nothing this damn simple light so let’s go ahead over here if you can see this one this image this was the quadcopter that was first made by a Spanish guy I forgot the name of him and then now these one day this is a very very old I mean this is not the same it’s in the museum it’s a replica but these are the one that I lattice and you can purchase them they have kids you bring it you can purchase it it’s bringing home make it yourself lat so let’s see alright so main components of God copter is you can see it’s like it looks like embedded in your life right you can actually do that people have done that I’ve seen blogs and articles and websites they have made it and 308 so let’s see it has a study elected Pedro dinner so it also needs line just like an airplane so this this this kind of swirl Ghana copter is a combination of a plane and a helicopter so you must look at them it becomes a garden copter so and then you have left it pre rotator so when of course I mean when you’re we’re sitting down on the runway for a gala doctor to fly away we don’t have enough ven coming of course and we don’t have a big challenge in via small water over there like murder to me to navigate to meet your diet propeller so just imagine for for for having a good thrust to fly away to have a good good wind coming in we address this electric motor so because of that the of the main room 211 turn so we have this racket p or data that is always install in every gal compromise and then we have of course this is all working on lucky batteries there is no lack of fuel I will come up to the next one that is working on a rocket power but Poyet is like a genuine like on the basic basic level general we are companies are working on batteries and then yes I mean it has even mechanical was actually to turn around there is no kind of just the altitude and such a stuff for atmosphere pressure temperature system we have electronics what usually to turn left and right and everything this mechanical total mechanical stuff so it’s quite like when you when you talk about it in the village quite dangerous you feel like it’s dangerous to run or may be dumb but people American American Aviation Authority actually gives you a license to fly away so it’s quite quite up if you know the right thing it’s quite safe to fly alright so now this one was more interesting it was rocket-powered diet dr now was then i mean ok so this is really interesting as you can see over here this is a passenger aircraft this is a passenger aircraft that q for quite three years in 1957 around it was using gala cocktails so the whole man wrote over up there well just powered by the small buckets it’s really it looks like talking this is my rocket so on the blades at you and though i am using the normal of simple Rockets flying hydrogen and the combination of chemistry they’re having those focus on the blades and they will office actually poof and shake the rotor starts rotating so this this one doesn’t even have to run on the runway so it actually lifts off as a helicopter it was the cheapest passenger aircraft up to now there was like having I mean there’s no few actually I mean this really cheap the fuse in this and is it compared to the normal 737 Boing something it actually took lot of people in it it was an American the American technology and educate see therefore truffle propeller there are none of that so they have in the front and yeah I mean this was the HP and so you can see that this is this is the safe thing to do so if they can carry a lot of people on a month and as you can see over here of course I mean this was the backup option right this one was backup option okay but as you can see here is not mean that that’s a level remain and there is not even the back corner so it’s a cylinder then spoofs up those Rockets on the blades and that’s funny tricks nope nobody’s going to try that of course if somebody has to make one he has to make the other one the battery one other suppose and by an application from val copters so of course i mean it’s a small one man-made

flying and other people are doing it people are doing it for the surveillance software field or like filming it is actually used by the mediation and lots of places in USA for like quantum plans for the agriculture purposes they just use this small flight it’s cheaper for agriculture and it’s for surveillance 24 the forest forest like fire and forest let’s say or also it is used for the medic it’s let’s say little of the quick approach to let’s say it’s a really difficult place to go and they use this because small it for landing it doesn’t need any problem is not having a big of like a helicopter is very spam and it is like really quick to approach any place and of course a lot of people doing aerial photography and filming with this so did she goes really high in the air above the clouds so I’ve seen the videos people are making it and going up there and coming back safe so this will hold off my presentation actually thank you thanks a lot thanks out nice presentation thank you

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