Hi everyone, my name is Janie and I’m going to be giving this lecture on as you can see, China, Korea, and Japan and today’s lecture is meant to be based off of your textbook for the class, chapter seven, so this is supposed to be a replacement for chapter seven, you don’t need to read it this week You can just watch this lecture take some good notes and you’ll have all the material you need for the quizzes and the tests So, I do recommend take some notes as we’re gonna be covering a lot of material I’m supposed to cover all of China, Korea and Japan from the 12th century to 1911 so that is a long period of time i’m not going to be able to cover everything i do include some links that i’ll post into canvas that you can look at more information if i cover a topic that you wanted to learn more about i’ll post some links that you can look at after you watch this lecture so without further ado let’s jump in China, Korea and Japan. We’re going to start off with China We’re going to focus on the “late imperial China” period and then the “revolutionary period.” I want to put the heavier emphasis on that but we are also going to be talking about two other dynasties the Yuan and the Ming and when i say dynasties i want to explain what that is before assuming you all know what that mean. Some of you may be rolling your eyes, you know what a Chinese dynasty is, but i want to have an even playing field. So, according to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, a dynasty is a succession of rulers of the same line of descent a powerful group or family that maintains its position for a considerable time. So in china there have been these dynasties these ruling families these ruling groups uh for certain periods of time ever since 220 bc, like the han dynasty, the shang dynasty, the qin dynasty you may have heard some of these names the Tang dynasty, the Song dynasty and then today we’ll be talking about the Yuan, the Ming and the Qing You don’t need to remember all those other names, you don’t need to know all the dynasties but it’s this idea of a period of time when a certain group or certain family are ruling china and then their dynasty starts to fall apart, they have a change of rulership and a new dynasty takes over. So also what you need to know before we jump into China, you need to understand a little bit about Confucianism, because that’s the philosophy that’s underlying everything in China especially up until 1911 After that it gets a little funky and you can debate whether or not Confucianism is still having an influence today but Confucianism was huge before then. This guy Confucius that’s not how you say his name in Chinese but that’s how we say it in English, he was a philosopher who deeply believed in the importance of reading classical Chinese literature which for him was, you know, way early third and fourth century BCE kind of writings. All of Chinese politics and governance have been based on those classical writings from the third and fourth century BCE up until that 1911 end of the imperial dynastic tradition period. That’s a really important thing to consider as we talk about how china loses this dynastic tradition because it really is based in a very old philosophy and some of the people in China believed that it could not translate to the modern world and that’s why they kind of forsook the dynastic tradition Two important concepts I want you to understand are ‘filial piety’ and the ‘Mandate of Heaven.’ Filial piety is this idea of deferential respect and submission to your elders, so that’s not just your parents; for sons it means respect for their fathers, for daughters their mothers and then their mothers-in-law when they get married. But it’s also your local governors, anyone in authority over you, and especially above all, the Son of Heaven, the emperor Whoever is the emperor you owe them your respect, you owe them filial piety That kind of lays the groundwork for all of the social, cultural, political, and religious interactions and relationships for people in China The emperor is the Son of Heaven and Heaven is this idea not necessarily like we think of heaven in the West, it’s not a place where you go when you die, it’s more of the realm of the gods, a concept of how life should be lived. Heaven dictates how life should be lived and so one of the commandments, the ‘mandate’ of heaven is for the emperor to do a really good job leading the Chinese people I found a really good definition of the Mandate of Heaven and I’m going to read it to you all The mandate of heaven also known as heaven’s mandate was the divine source of authority and the right to rule of China’s early kings and emperors

the ancient god or divine force known as heaven or sky had selected this particular individual to rule on its behalf on earth an important element of the mandate was that although the ruler had been given great power he also had a moral obligation to use it for the good of his people if he did not then his state would suffer terrible disasters and he would lose the right to govern so that’s huge the moral obligation to use this divine source of authority for the good of the people anytime a emperor of China does not fulfill the Mandate of Heaven that would spell disaster so things like famines and droughts and rebellions would happen and you would see the kind of hints of the end of the dynasty and then it would pass on to a new dynastic tradition a new dynastic ruler. I hope I’m explaining that concept well; if you want more information about that, I’ll include a link to explain it but it’s just this idea that whoever’s ruling china needs to do a good job for the people and if they don’t they’re gonna be done and a new dynasty is gonna take over The three dynasties that we’re looking at today are the Yuan and the Ming but then we’re gonna spend most of our time on the Qing dynasty You’ll see underneath each one I’ve put the ethnicity of the ruling class, this is really important too because Chinese people believed that they were supposed to be ruled by this ethnic group called the Han chinese but there were times in history, two right here, when the Mongols and the Manchus came in and took over the chinese empire and so they had to kind of play this PR game and kind of legitimate their rule because they’re not Han chinese and they’re trying to earn the respect and the mandate of heaven of China and so they they claim the dynastic tradition The mongols didn’t have dynasties, they would never have considered themselves subject to the Mandate of Heaven but because they’re trying to rule China they’re trying to rule Chinese people they claim to be the Yuan dynasty and legitimate their rule that way. Same thing with the Qing dynasty that we will talk about later. The Manchus do the same thing they claim the dynastic tradition in an attempt to legitimate their rule I want you to remember this page i’m going to show it again a little later I want to give you a visual picture of kind of where we’re headed and then underneath each dynasty you’ll see that i’ve included important names and important people you should know about those are the things I really want you to remember from this lecture. I really want you to focus on those people and those dynasties so hopefully those things kind of stick out as we go through. To briefly talk about the Yuan dynasty – if you’ve ever heard of the mongols they are the famous archers on horseback who took over all of Asia basically from the Mediterranean to the Pacific it was the world’s biggest empire ever. Rome looks tiny in comparison, the Persian empire looks tiny in comparison to the Mongol empire, it was truly remarkable There’s so much that could be said, I don’t have time to talk about here but three people you should know about are Genghis Khan, he was the first emperor of the Yuan dynasty. He led the first conquests of Asia he was an incredibly skilled and strategic military leader. They practiced kind of this pillage and burn strategy but it wasn’t like how people cast them as barbaric and they just killed everybody and they were terrible They actually were very systematic in the way they went about their expansion. They would send diplomats out to each village to say, “hey, the Mongols are coming, you can either submit to their rule and everything will be peaceful and you will be incorporated into the Mongol empire or we will kill you.” And a lot of them submitted and a lot of them just allowed the mongols to come in. But there were a also a lot of people who tried to fight for their honor, for their dignity, for their own right to rule and that is when the Mongols did not have a whole lot of mercy. But that’s how they were able to take over all of Asia Genghis Khan’s grandson Kublai Khan Oh, that’s a statue today in Mongolia that is the largest equestrian statue in the world That’s Genghis Khan there. But Kublai Khan is his grandson and he expands even further on his grandfather’s territory. A lot of people think Genghis Khan did all the work but Kublai also did a lot of the work as well and then so we’ve all heard of Marco Polo I’m sure or at least we’ve played the game in a pool “Marco! Polo!” He was This Italian guy from this backwater part of the world called Europe Europe is a mess right now there’s no unity, the black plague is killing everybody and nobody in the East or in the muslim world or anywhere in Asia really cares about Europe. It’s kind of not a big deal right now. It will become a big deal later, but right now it’s not really a big deal So this guy Marco Polo comes in and he meets Kublai Khan and he sees the Mongol

Dynasty and this empire and he is stunned, I mean he is so blown away, he writes a whole book about it and he goes on and on about how amazing China is because Europe is just completely a backwater compared to China at this point. So that’s a little fun fact about Marco Polo. These are some important things to know about the Mongols, as I said there is so much more that we could talk about but we are going to move on to the Ming dynasty The Ming dynasty This one is when they go back to a Han Chinese dynasty, the Yuan dynasty actually didn’t last very long it was only about 120 years (my math might be off there) And then the Han chinese were able to take over again The Hongwu emperor was able to win back some of the territory that had been lost to the Mongols but he also as you can see from this map here on the screen he lost a lot of territory. Shina kind of lost huge parts of Mongolia, Manchuria, and Korea used to be under the Mongol empire and they lost Korea and lost inner Asia but he re-founds this Chinese dynasty and calls it the “brilliant” dynasty because the chinese character Ming means brilliant. That’s the character down there on the left the first character is ‘ri’ for the sun and the second is ‘yue’ for the moon so the sun plus the moon makes ‘brilliant’. That is the Ming dynasty. The Hongwu emperor also continued reconstruction of the Great Wall. Lots of Chinese emperors have helped to build the Great Wall of China. It wasn’t all just built all at once It was started back in 200 BCE and it’s been continued to be built on for centuries. He continues reconstruction of the Great Wall because he’s trying to keep the Mongols out. The mongols wanted to come back and take over again. And then he reinstates this thing called the examination system. I am only going to talk about this briefly but there’s a lot more that could be said The examination system was kind of what qualified you for government office They didn’t have a system of noble lineage so it wasn’t about where you were born, it was actually what’s called a ‘meritocracy’ so it was based on your merit, could you prove your worth Which is really cool because obviously Europe and what we’re used to from a lot of cultures around the world they base their nobility off of what family you’re born into and whether you are wealthy and whether you are nobility whether you’re aristocracy whereas in China anyone could potentially become a political officer could become a government official you probably couldn’t become emperor because obviously that’s a dynastic family lineage tradition but you could get pretty high up in the government ranks because of this examination system where you take a test you study all your life kind of from the time you’re born you start studying for these Confucian, really hard tests and then you take the test, it’s a three-day test, you’re locked into a box basically for three days and you have to write and write and write and directly quote all these classic ancient Chinese texts and then if you pass the test then you move up and then there’s several levels of examinations you can take until you can become one of the great members of the government. Pretty cool, that continued through the Ming and the Qing dynasty and it started earlier in Chinese history That was a Hongwu emperor and then you have the Yongle emperor He comes a little later, just some notes on him he moved the capital to Beijing and he was the first person to start building the Forbidden City so if any of you know what the Forbidden City is, I had a picture of it at the beginning of of the slides, the famous red walled Chinese kind of pagoda style buildings in the center of Beijing that are beautiful they’re on all the postcards If you’ve been to Beijing you know exactly what i’m talking about or if you’ve seen pictures He’s the one who started building that, it didn’t actually start being built until the 15th century but it has been actually incredibly well preserved for being such an old city He further expanded the empire’s borders but again they’ve lost a lot of territory in the Ming dynasty. A quick overview of the changes: The reinstatement of the civil service examinations, the loss of key territories, sorry I’m going out of order Matteo Ricci, a Catholic missionary comes to China in the 17th century and begins to introduce Christianity to China for the first time That’s a really important moment because it becomes really complicated later when China begins to have a very tense relationship with Christianity and specifically with missionaries. But Matteo Ricci was actually a very positive influence and and the emperor actually converted to Christianity and it was a very positive moment for

Christianity in China Then they closed their treaty ports. The Ming dynasty was not interested in trading with anybody foreign, especially anybody Western. The West is still kind of a backwater at this point but they’re trying to get in to China, they’re trying to get into the spice world. But the Ming dynasty closes their treaty ports. Then lastly we have the voyages of Admiral Zheng He. This is just a really really interesting part of history that I love to talk about Zheng He was a a Muslim eunuch who makes it to be the admiral in the Chinese navy so he was most likely born in Chinese Turkestan and he was probably kidnapped as a child and made into a eunuch and conscripted into the navy and he works his way up and he becomes admiral and he is well loved amazing, really powerful, impressive guy and he does these voyages so he gets sent by the the Yongle emperor who we talked about earlier who started the building of the Forbidden City he gets sent to kind of travel around Southeast Asia the Indian Ocean, India, the Indonesian islands to kind of display the wealth and the power of China. In the book it says the purpose of these missions was to expand China’s knowledge of the world suppress piracy and control trade across the Indian Ocean Unsaid in all this was the desire to impress the rest of the world with china’s superior culture and increased tribute so it was this kind of multi-faceted attempt to kind of re-establish the hegemony of China in this part of the world say, “hey, look how impressive we are, look how rich we are,” and then they also collected tribute and they collected goods that they brought back to China. I love this picture This is a drawing of what one of Admiral Zhang He’s ships would have looked like he had a whole fleet that went with him And it’s in comparison to the Santa Maria which Christopher Columbus sailed the ocean blue on and I just think it’s a good reminder that we like to think of the west as very very advanced and and kind of on top of the world but I’m hoping you’re already hearing in this lecture until about the 16th century they really weren’t a big deal at all and especially in 1492 in comparison to Zheng He who was living about the same time, a couple a hundred or so years earlier or excuse me about the same time It’s pretty small. So I love that picture, it kind of gives you a good comparison of just how powerful, just how wealthy, just how sophisticated Chinese culture is at this point. So we’ve talked about the Yuan, we’ve talked about the Ming and now we are going to finally move on to the Qing dynasty and the two people you’re going to want to know about are Empress Dowager Cixi and Sun Yat Sen. The Qing dynasty is a Manchu dynasty they come in from the north they take over The Ming dynasty was starting to fall apart there were rebellions there were famines breaking out it was the signal of the end of that Mandate of Heaven They had lost the favor of heaven and so a new dynasty was going to take over and that was the Qing dynasty. The first about 200 years from 1644 to 1844 China operates pretty similarly to the way it did in the Ming dynasty There’s not a whole lot of change other than the dynastic tradition and a few cultural things. They start wearing the queue, they shave the front of their head the Manchus require everyone to have that haircut with the long braid and the shaved front of the head for the men And that kind of becomes traditional but other than that it’s pretty similar And then you have this radical, radical change happen in the 1850s and just before that with the Western powers finally having enough strength, enough wealth, enough technological advantage to come into China and absolutely take over and completely change the culture and it results in the end of this long dynastic tradition. There has been no end of this chain of dynasties of emperors and the imperial system in China since 200 BCE and it all ends in 1911 as a result of this chain of events of the West coming in and just kind of wrecking everything. Don’t don’t worry, I love the west, it’s great, but, you know, havoc was wreaked along the way So very quickly, the beginning of the Qing dynasty they kind of gained back some of that territory that the Ming dynasty lost you can see in the lighter yellow parts of that map Mongolia, Tartary, which is also called modern-day Xinjiang Province, that inner part of china in the light yellow there You may know the name because that is where the Uyghur muslims live which currently they’ve been in the news a lot because of the persecution that the Chinese government has been putting

on the Uyghur muslim people If you’d like more information, Google it, It’s really really interesting and really sad Then with Tibet in the South, they were able to kind of make some concessions with the Dalai Lama and make him a secular and religious leader, give him troops, make Tibet a Chinese protectorate and then they also took over Mongolia and then obviously Manchuria where the Manchus are from. They came down from there and took over and then the areas that you see in orange those are tributary states so they are paying a lot of money every year to China to not get invaded basically. So they’ve expanded their territory to kind of what we think of as modern China today that’s kind of what the Qing contributed and then in 1820s this terrible little flower starts to get grown. Opium comes from a poppy and basically I really want you to understand this, so I’m going to spend a little bit of time explaining this because it’s really important to understand why opium became so used and so addictive in China versus anywhere else in the world. I mean anyone can get addicted to opium but why was china so specifically addicted to opium and then why did it result in Opium Wars and what were the dynamics there So opium is this flower and it can be grown and it can be boiled down and turned into a drug that puts you into a vegetative state it’s extremely addictive and it has really bad health implications over the long term It’s where we get the word ‘opioid’ from opiates are different from opium Opium is a very specific drug that comes from a poppy. Opioids are kind of this general category we use in the modern world to talk about any drug that changes your behavior changes your psyche and addicts you So that’s why they call it the ‘opioid crisis’ It’s not talking about ‘opium’ it’s talking about drugs that cause these drastic changes in your personality in your behavior and your addiction to them, just to explain that So how does opium kind of get its hold on China There’s this global shift of trade where China has kind of been top dog for a while like i’ve been saying and the the Muslim world has also been kind of like second in command, they’re doing pretty hot, and then the West is trying to figure out, “how do we break into all this money that’s being made over in the East?” So they start having the Industrial Revolution in Britain they have coal and steam power, they have gun powder and cannons and they’re making all these amazing technologies, they have steamboats, and so they’re like “all right, we can break in” but the problem is china is not interested in doing any business with the British because the British have absolutely nothing to offer. They’re like “we have, you know, we’ve got cotton textiles!” and China’s like “well, we make silk and it’s cheaper and it looks better and it’s more comfortable.” So the British are kind of scrambling you know like how do we break into all this money that’s being made and provide a product that is some attractive to the Chinese people and they kind of find, I don’t actually know how they picked opium and how it was able to become so popular but they figure out that Opium has a market in china and they exploit it like crazy. They don’t force Chinese people to take opium but they market like crazy. You know I mean none of us are forced to eat oreos but you put a box in front of me, I’m gonna eat the whole thing They really do have a really good marketing game and they really push the sale of opium prominently and it takes off. People in china are being coming addicted to opium left and right, it becomes a huge concern for the government because they’re losing their workforce. People are stuck in these opium dens and they’re not doing anything with their lives, they’re gambling their money away trying to get money for opium, they’re selling their wives and their children so they can smoke more opium It’s a crisis in China, it’s a drug crisis So the chinese government tries to crack down on it. They try to get rid of this sale of opium and so they do this one crazy thing they burn a huge large stockpile of opium in Guangzhou bay and it obviously infuriates the British government. There was also a British guy who got killed and then everybody started blaming each other and it kind of got a little crazy and basically you have the first Opium War in 1839-1842 and they call them the Opium Wars because they are literally all about the legalization of opium and trying to make it possible for the British to continue the sale of opium. So this is where the Brits are kind of on the wrong side of history and China is trying to say, “stop selling us this thing, this is killing our people, it’s killing our culture,”

and Britain says, “nope, we’re making money off of it, we’re gonna make you keep buying it.” And so they win the first Opium War The second one is 1856 to 1860 Just because they lasted that length of time, don’t be confused that this was a fair fight Some of the battles in the Opium Wars lasted no more than 20 minutes. China was no match for the British They had this ship called the ‘Nemesis’ that was this hybrid steam and wind-powered ship and it utterly destroyed the Chinese forces, I mean just this one ship took out entire forts in minutes It was it was a bloodbath. They were never going to win So those years are more years of negotiation and signing of treaties which gets us to the unequal treaties Obviously the the British were not very interested in conceding to the desires of the Chinese. They really wanted everything that they wanted and because they had the gun power and they had the manpower, they could get whatever they wanted So they’re called the unequal treaties because it was a series of several treaties that began with the Opium Wars and then for the next 50 or 60 years, different countries, France, the US, Russia make these treaties with China that are completely unequal and completely favor the Western nations and leave China kind of in a really tough place. As a result of the Opium Wars specifically these treaties give Britain the status of the ‘most favored nation’ and so they kind of have the best the best when it comes to trade and when it comes to politics they get to put their own kind of customs revenue company in China which is unheard of, you wouldn’t have your own, it was the kind of the first idea of a corporation, you wouldn’t have that in another country, that was unheard of This is also when Hong Kong is ceded to the British, so they own Hong Kong, it’s theirs and that’s why Hong Kong still to this day has a very strong British influence. And then missionaries, this is huge, again the missionaries, they’re allowed to proselytize freely so that means they’re allowed to evangelize, to share their faith freely which is a big deal for china because at this point they hadn’t legalized it because of some bad dynamics between missionaries There were some good and there were some bad missionaries who were trying to get more power or trying to get more wealth, instead of just focusing on their religious mission. So that was really tricky so then they’re allowed to proselytize freely which actually really angers the Chinese government and leads to a lot of unrest and leads eventually to the Boxer Rebellion that we’ll briefly touch on here And then lastly obviously the opium trade is legalized and Britain gets to sell as much opium as they want. So as a result of this period you have the Opium Wars causing all this change, China, which had been the superpower, it was the heavenly kingdom you know they were on top of the world and suddenly they are so far behind they lose a battle in 20 minutes I mean that’s devastating, and so everyone is scrambling how do we overcome this, how how do we respond, and so this is a tricky time politically for china. The emperor is just a figurehead. He’s a boy and he’s not really important, he doesn’t have a lot of influence in court Even though he is the emperor, he just doesn’t have a lot of power because his aunt the Empress Dowager Cixi, she’s crazy, she’s so cool she was kind of crazy though and a lot of people didn’t like her But she had all the power and she had all the influence in court so she was kind of the emperor at this time and she kind of used her influence to puppet play the court. But the court becomes divided as a result of the Opium Wars and people don’t know whether they should stay conservative and and try to support traditional Chinese values, try to fight the Westerners, try to keep them out and try to maintain the integrity of the Chinese people Or should they reform and should they try to get with the times basically We’re going to talk about Japan in a bit and the Meiji Restoration and how that was this radical change that Japan did that was successful. They successfully modernized and met the challenge of the West and so there’s people in China who are saying, “hey we should do that too, we should try to reform and try to catch up with the west.” So you have this divide in the court Eventually the Qing dynasty falls apart because of these divisions in the court and because of the western influence. You have several rebellions, the Taiping rebellion, the Boxer rebellion the boxer rebellion was especially a dramatic outcome of those court divisions and then you have crazy famines and droughts and floods that plague the last years of the dynasty. And

then Empress Dowager Cixi never warmed up to the idea of reform, she was always a conservative and so there wasn’t enough change in the dynasty, so when she dies in 1908 it allows room for the Republican movement to grow This is the movement that wants to become a democracy, that wants to become Western and they end up taking over in the Chinese Revolution in 1911. This is what ends the Chinese imperial dynastic tradition. How that happens Unrest. There’s this kind of rebellion that started after 1908 after the Dowager dies It’s a small trading disagreement but it turns into this open rebellion and people want the end of the dynasty they they say that the dynasty has lost it’s a mandate of heaven and so they ask this man Yuan Shikai on the left to come in and try to save the dynasty. But instead he has to negotiate with the reformer people in southern China who want to make a republican China and he ends up kind of accidentally ending the dynasty but the trade-off is that he gets named president of the new republic of China Tthen this other character is Sun Yat Sen. He was a hugely hugely important kind of the philosophical founder of the Chinese Republican movement And he didn’t have as much power as he probably should have, he was a great leader, but he died young. But he was hugely influential to the movement and even today is considered a really important figure for the Republic of China (which currently is based in Taiwan and we don’t have time to talk about Taiwan versus mainland China but send me a message after this if you want more information). So sadly that’s all the time we have to talk about China, and it’s time to move on to Korea Then we’re gonna talk about japan and again there’s a lot more that could be said about all those things the Yuan dynasty the Ming dynasty the Qing dynasty, the opium wars, the revolution, the Republican era, and then there’s also just a really incredible story of how China goes from being divided and confused and just not modernizing, not getting with the industrialized world and then the communists coming in and the communist take over and kind of the transition to modernity you know there’s a really important historical question of how did china go from imperial dynasty in 1900 to economic superpower communist state in 2000, the current modern day. So if you ever want to talk about that message me, I’d love to talk about the communist takeover and all those things, so much that could be said But we will move on to Korea. I kind of labeled this “a country with a rich cultural heritage that’s been caught between competitions for territory by powerful empires” So Korea is smack dab on the map between China and Japan and they both want to expand constantly all throughout Korean history they keep getting invaded and so they do have their own unique cultural heritage but it’s also got some heavy influences from especially China and then Japan as well But what we’re going to be talking about is well briefly the kingdom of Koryo, I don’t have great pronunciation of Korean so I apologize if i say anything incorrectly but I believe it’s the kingdom of Koryo from 935 to 1392. They are a tributary state of the mongol Yuan dynasty. Their capital was established at the city of Pyongyang and then basically what happens with the kingdom of Koryo, well i’ll talk about in a moment but they they were more of a Buddhist culture than later when there was a switch to Confucianism. So that’s the kingdom of Koryo, just to kind of give you the comparison of what’s going on in Korea while China is having the Mongol dynasty there, Korea is a tributary state, Buddhist, stable economy, doing pretty good But then you have the kingdom of Joseon Joseon I think, and they kind of expand the territory all across the Korean peninsula and they last for a good long time 500 plus years. In the book they call it the Yi dynasty but I haven’t generally seen it called that in my reading, I’ve mostly seen it called the kingdom of Joseon. But how it starts is General Yi is this general in the Korean army and when the Ming dynasty takes over from the Yuan dynasty

there’s this kind of shift of power that’s happening and there’s opportunity to kind of change things up in Korea and General Yi is sent on this campaign to kind of quell the Ming and you know establish the kingdom of Koryo and continue kind of that dynasty but he takes the opportunity to actually take over and start this new dynasty, the kingdom of Joseon. General Yi starts the new dynasty and then they do remain a tribute state of Ming and Qing China but they have their own, they have a lot more control over their government than they did before They established the capital at Seoul where it is today for South Korea. Confucianism, so they switch from being a Buddhist culture to being a Confucian culture They copy a lot of Chinese culture at this point The Confucian administrative structure, the Confucian Chinese examination system that we talked about earlier, but two things that are different are that they develop this yangban class It’s different, there’s nothing like that in china They’re these officials who control the government. And then they develop their writing system which is a lot easier to learn than Chinese if you’re wanting to learn an Eastern language, I recommend trying to learn Korean. Because Hangul was actually developed so that it could be learned within a few hours they wanted the alphabet to be easily understandable so that more people more of the common people could become literate, which is really cool They develop this new writing system that’s what you see at the bottom of the screen there, the writing system that’s I think that’s the whole alphabet no those just look like words…the alphabet looks a little different But it’s that kind of writing style so there are clear differences between the writing styles and the characters of Korea, China and Japan, I encourage people to understand those differences so they don’t confuse those languages when they see them. Korea: part of their culture and their history is kind of the history of foreign invasion especially towards the end of the kingdom of Joseon. They’ve been getting invaded by China and Japan, there’s kind of a competition for the territory, they’re able to resist it, but then it comes back and then we’re going to talk about momentarily the Russo-Japanese war between Japan and Russia and in 1904 to 1905. And in order to fight Russia, Japan kind of comes to Korea like, “hey, excuse us we need to come through here and fight off Russia, and then we’ll get out of here.” Well, they don’t leave they stay and they realize, “hey, we’re already in Korea, why not just take Korea, so after the Russo-Japanese War In 1910, after centuries of resistance they finally succumbed to Japanese invasion and they become an occupied territory of Japan and now this is where I’ll end my discussion of Korea but briefly this was a very controversial time in Korean history because the Japanese rule, depending on who you ask, it was really positive or it was really negative. And so there’s a little bit of both There’s this kind of a widespread destruction of Korean culture that people aren’t allowed to speak Korean, they’re not allowed to learn Korean they need to speak Japanese, dress Japanese, adopt Japanese culture and so people feel very resentful for that but there’s also the group of people who say well Japan is what brought all the industry and technology to Korea Japan is what modernized Korea and brought technology and modern cinemas and factories and you know helped the economy and all these wonderful things I have this picture up in the top left corner of what’s called “comfort women.” I don’t have time to talk about it too much but there is one of the big controversies of this period is that the Japanese army kind of conscripted women to be prostitutes for the Japanese army against their will and it was kind of one of the world’s atrocities one of the world’s great tragedies of the modern era So a lot of people are really frustrated in Korea at Japan for that But again, there are also some really positive things that happen, so i want to be sensitive to the differing opinions on this topic because it is so controversial Feel free to message me if you disagree with anything I said, please So lastly, we’re gonna talk about Japan. And again i’ve been trying to go over a similar time period in each of the three countries so you kind of get a sense of what’s happening in Korea in this time period, you know what’s happening in Japan at the same time, what’s happening in China, how are they all kind of interacting It was a little hard to organize this lecture because so much of these cultures interact with each other and you can’t really

understand Chinese history unless you understand Japanese and you really can’t understand Korean history if you don’t know Chinese and Japanese so they’re all intersected and interwoven but I kind of wanted to move geographically from China to Korea to Japan So, now we’re moving to Japan and we’re going to focus mainly on what’s called the Tokugawa Shogunate and the Meiji Restoration, and I’ll explain what those things mean The Tokugawa period in Japan: it’s also called the ‘Edo period’ If you’ve ever heard of a little place called Tokyo, it used to be called Edo and that was during this Tokugawa Japan period. It’s also considered the medieval period of japan from 1603 to 1868. It was founded by Tokugawa Ieyasu. That’s a castle in the background, a Tokugawa castle that still stands to this day. Very beautiful architecture, high culture, high architecture at this time period. Excuse me Ineed to drink a little water So when you think of Japan, like ancient Japanese culture, you think of, you’re thinking of probably Tokugawa Japan which are shoguns and samurai and everything that’s cool about samurai and seppuku and daimyo. That’s all in the Tokugawa period. A little bit before too but especially Tokugawa, you have the kind of the rise of the samurai as this powerful force So, briefly the bakufu system just you just want to understand a little bit of medieval Japan before you get to modern Japan so there’s an emperor over Japan and in the 1600s he was kind of losing his power and there were these small kingdoms, the ‘daimyo’ as they’re called that had kind of broken up and they were all warring with each other they were run by really powerful samurai or just powerful figures called shoguns and they were all worrying that there was no unity This guy, Tokugawa Ieyasu comes in and he unifies all the daimyos under one rule, it’s the first time that Japan has been a united kingdom and he creates this bakufu government, so he’s trying to control all these warring people who everybody wants power and the samurai are trying to get power and the shoguns are trying to get power and everybody wants to be in control and so he figures out a way to kind of restore peace and give power back to the emperor not to these warring daimyos. So what he does, it’s meant to be a temporary system it’s meant to just briefly exist so that the emperor can take over and lead the country again but what happens is it lasts for 350 years and the power goes completely to the shogunate and not to the emperor So kind of some important things that happened during the bakufu time they close ports to Europeans, they don’t want to trade with Europeans. The Dutch get like one treaty port in Nagasaki and they’re like the only people who can trade because they’re actually the only ones who didn’t have missionaries who proselytized Christianity so the Japanese were like, “we’re cool with you, you’re not trying to convert us,” and then they’re based on Confucian values but it’s different from China because where China respects scholars you know with that examination system, where the ones who were the smartest in the Confucian virtues and the Confucian writings were the ones who are most respected. In Japan it’s different, it’s the samurai who are most respected, the warriors are the ones who are the most respected members of society This is a time when you have things like people are writing haikus, the Japanese poem, the 575 haiku and then an early form of the modern geisha becomes popular. They didn’t have geishas quite yet, that comes a little later. And then this this kind of this peace, this prosperity leads to this overspending, the elites overspend, there’s a rebellion of the samurai and they’re kind of bucking up against the daimyo system which by the way i don’t think I fully explained. The bakufu system is where the emperor is living in Edo or modern-day Tokyo and every year all of the leaders of the daimyo from around Japan have to travel to Tokyo a very long way for many of them and pay tribute. So it’s kind of re-establishing that the power is with the emperor. However, the emperor is only a figurehead, the shogunate, the supreme shogun, the supreme daimyo kind of person who is a member of the Tokugawa family, the Tokugawa shogunate, they kind of actually control and they make sure that the daimyo are kind of under control and following all the rules and paying tribute and that kind of thing So that’s how the bakufu system worked The emperor is a figurehead and really the power is with the shogunates All of *Japan’s* unified but everyone’s having to spend a lot of money to prove their commitment to the

system and people get really unhappy with that. The samurai get really unhappy with the way that things are working and so while they’re trying to figure out some of these dynamics, while they’re trying to wrestle through you know the political system, the Tokugawa, we don’t like the Tokugawa, we want the emperor to be back in power, the West comes knocking on their door. You have admiral matthew perry from *the US* coming in and I call it a forced opening because it’s actually it’s not as forced as it could have been it was definitely forced, Japan did not want to open and then they had to open because it was kind of this gunboat diplomacy, Matthew Perry shows up in, well I should actually explain the context, I’m getting ahead of myself. Japan kind of sees the Opium War happen in the 1850s and in the 1830s and 40s and they’re like, “that’s terrible, we don’t want that to happen to us, we may have to concede to the west, we don’t want to get completely destroyed and have to lose to all these unequal treaties. If the time comes where the West comes knocking on our door we’re going to concede.” So that does happen. Britain’s kind of distracted with what’s going on in China and Japan or excuse me the US kind of sees their opportunity for colonization. They want to go to Japan they want to open up trade Yeah so when I say Japan’s “opening” when people say the opening of Japan they mean opening to trade They want to make money off of Japan So admiral Perry comes in the summer of 1853 and he says, “hey, I’m gonna be back in the spring of next year and i’m gonna have a lot more ships and you’re either gonna open up trade or you’re gonna die so see you next summer.” or excuse me next spring so yeah in 1854, march 31st 1854, the Kanagawa Treaty of Friendship is signed and it officially opens Japan to foreign trade but it’s a lot more fair than what happened in China because Japan conceded right off the bat But slowly over time they have to give more and more concessions over the next few years and what that does to the Japanese people, some of them are really unhappy with that They look at that kind of the the loss that the emperor that the shogunate just kind of gave up they didn’t even try and they thought that they believed that they should have fought back even though they were gonna lose So it results in this war the Boshin War and I don’t have time to explain all the intricacies of the Boshin War, it’s very fascinating, look it up the Satsuma rebellion, it’s very interesting but it leads to this thing called the Meiji Restoration, where the samurai fight against the shogun at the Tokugawa rulers and they destroy the shogunate and they reinstate the power back to the emperor. The emperor had been a figurehead before remember so now he becomes a real powerful ruler and that is the he is the Meiji emperor his name is Meiji and that’s why it’s called the Meiji restoration, restoring the power to Meiji It lasts from 1868 to 1945 so 1868 that’s about 15 years after the opening of Japan, there had been that rebellion that war and then they finally do the Meiji restoration and then it goes till 1945 because that’s the end of World War II and we don’t have time to talk about that but that is really fascinating how Japan kind of loses their autonomy in 1945 So, important things to know about the Meiji restoration as we’re wrapping up, Japan became centralized. While it was unified before, it wasn’t centralized, you know the daimyo were still kind of controlling their little local areas and finally you have a centralized state where bureaucracy is run out of Edo which is now, the name is changed to Tokyo And so you have a centralized state. Industrialization. This is huge, right up until this point, no non-western country had been able to industrialize no one had been able to colonize no one had been able to catch up with what was going on in the West They didn’t have factories, they didn’t have cars, they didn’t have railways and telegraphs. They weren’t using the technology, the weaponry that the West was using and so everyone who wasn’t Western had fallen behind. And then you have Japan come in with the Meiji Restoration and they make this commitment to industrialization and it’s incredible. It happens almost overnight it is the fastest and earliest industrialization by a non-western power. It was unprecedented, no one has really been able to copy it since. They just they had enough money and enough ambition to just they built factories everywhere, they started employing the people in factories, they were building railways and telegraph stations and they kind of just, they built up their their military and their military power and then that kind of gave them this they also had this nationalism, so instead of, “i’m committed to my daimyo, i’m a samurai who is committed to the daimyo who who rules me” and it’s like a feudal system before, now it’s “I’m committed

to Japan. Japan is my identity not my local village or kingdom, but Japan as a country and this changes Japan, it’s completely unrecognizable, it becomes this new modern state that had never existed before as a result of that you have nationalism people have a pride in Japan you have a centralized strong state you have a strong military and industry if that were you and you lived in a world of say British colonization of India and America is coming into knocking on your door and Africa is getting cut up like a melon what would you want to do if you had all this resources and power? You’d want to expand, so that is what ends up happening. What I’ll close with on Japan in this lecture is the Russo-Japanese war which catches us up to what was going on in korea and then what was going on with the Republican period in China. The Russo-Japanese war is this the first victory of an Asian power over a Western power There’s a really really great video on this war that i’m going to include in the canvas post here um that i really recommend you watch to understand this war and how significant it was that an Asian power beat a western power and yes Russia would have been considered a Western power at this point, today it’s a little more confusing what they would be considered because of the Cold War, but at that time it was unheard of. Russia, when they entered into the war they’re like, “we’re gonna win there’s no question we’re winning this because we’re Western, we have better weapons and we have more people” but Japan was better organized and somehow they won and so in 1905 They win, and they were in Korea at the time when they went in to fight against the Russians and then they end up staying in Korea and taking over. So that is everything! We covered a lot of material, I hope you learned something today. I hope you got interested in learning more. I have some resources here again i’m gonna post them for you in the Canvas page, some good books I recommend reading and then I really enjoy a good YoTtube video so i’ve got some good links to some YouTube videos that I thought were really helpful and just give a really clear picture on more information on some of the things i talked about in this lesson. And then here are my sources So, that is all, thank you for watching and I’ll see you next time! Bye

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