talking about today Welcome We have Heather Koldewey, a fellow of the National Geographic Society She works for the zoological Society of London She is also an honorary professor at the University of Exeter She is an expert when it comes to animals , and also animals of the sea I know she is very interested in seahorses and she’s done her thesis on Brown Trout in Wales So, if you have a question about the sea and water animals, please refer to her Then we are honoured to have Peter Thomson, the UN secretary Thomson, the UN secretary general’s special envoy for the ocean , the first one in this position I am happy and honoured to say you are the first Fijian citizen on the panel He’s from a region that is heavily victim to these issues that we are talking about so he can give his own personal opinion and approach to that as well Then we have Tom Szaky here He is the founder and CEO of TerraCycle TerraCycle , the global leader in the collection and recycling of post-consumer waste Very much involved also in the question of what we do with plastic What can we do better? How can we transition from a linear economy to a more circular economy? We are very curious about what you have to say about the title here, plastic pollution . an end in sight? Last but not least welcome also to Gloria Fluxa Thienemann, the chairman and sustainability Ofc of the Iberostar Group Iberostar Group Anybody who has gone on a faraway vacation has probably been in an Iberostar hotel Maybe to start off and give the people here of where you are sitting here , for some of you it’s easier, looking at your position in life, but maybe to ask in life, but maybe to ask you almost like in an elevator pitch way that we do the rounds, and why is plastic pollution, why is the plastic issue high on your agenda? >> Why don’t I tell you a bit about the global shapers committee at the world economic Forum? economic Forum? I’m here to represent the voices of you around the world in this forum Essentially, the community is comprised of over 7000 global shapers in over 150 countries that are committed to taking action on socially important issues in the regional communities We asked global shapers around the world, “What is one issue you are passionate about that we have to identify together?” have to identify together?” Climate change was the number one priority I am here not only to share ideas with you and share the great initiatives our young people around the world have taken, but also to take ideas from you so that we can then create a narrative and build action together We have 50 global shape this year representing the community at Davos That is less than 2% of the attendees I want to make sure I am amplifying the voices of you, so I rely on you to tell me what your ideas are >> Very important input, so we want to make this as interactive as possible, so sharing ideas should be the idea of today as well We will open discussion as well, so we are looking forward to questions, forward to questions, comments and criticism This is an open forum so we are open to everything However, please You have been doing a session this morning within the conference centre about that exact theme It is easier to understand why you are an expert in why you are an expert in this, but why is this issue so close to your heart? >> Rather than representing youth, which I wish I did , but I come from the angle , but I come from the angle of the fish I am a marine biologist, a fish biologist, basically I spend as much of my time as possible in, on or under the water So, coming to the mountains is a very unusual experience for me But over time, over the last 20+ years of working in this job, I have become more and more aware

of plastic and plastic pollution, and that starts pollution, and that starts from my own life, where I live I live in a coastal community When I was a child, if I went to the beach, I just enjoyed the beach Now, when I take my children, aged 10 and 12, to the beach, we do a beach clean Plastic is more and more present on our beaches Without even being a scientist, you can see that changing the behaviour and what is present and how our environment is changing Secondly, I am very fortunate with National Geographic and a number of the programs I work with to be able to explore some of the ocean wilderness areas A few years ago, I went to the Chagos epoch Archipelago It is uninhabited It is 55 uninhabited islands On one of these islands, we stopped for a short period of time and we were mostly doing scientific research from the scientific research from the boat In just 20 minutes, we collected 334 single-use plastic water bottles that came from 10 different countries, from the labels that were still on the bottle All of those bottles had been in somebody’s hand at some point in time, and those bottles will last in the environment for 500-600 years, slowly breaking down into smaller and smaller pieces, where they then start being eaten by everything from plankton to Wales This really elevated my action on plastic to try and do something about it, and I hope to talk about some of the solutions and not just the problems during this forum >> Absolutely We should talk about how to get out of it and how we can solve as much as we can Peter, I have talked about where you are from You are from one of those islands in those areas For a long time you have been involved in the UN You have been, among others, the president of the of the first session of the UN Gen assembly You have been a permanent representative of the future Islands to the UN Now, as I said, the special envoy for the ocean, or the God of the ocean, somebody said in a previous discussion Not a term you like to hear! Why is the topic so close to >> Wherever you are from, the ocean is central to your life Where does snow go to when it melts? Into rivers and oceans The ocean is very important to Swiss people One of the counts is someone I studied in university about the unification of Germany I remember him being asked what the difference was between a politician and a statesman He said that a statesman is a politician who thinks of his grandchildren, so I asked people to think like statesmen and state women Don’t think about your short-term lives, think about what your world will be like for your grandchildren When we look at the climate and the ocean, we see and the ocean, we see that, on current trends, we are condemning our grandchildren to very, very difficult times , so we are not behaving like statesmen and we have to start behaving that way if we are responsible grandparents , as I am , and I look around the room and see some of you are , so that is the motivation of our work The good news is there is a The good news is there is a plan to do the right thing for the planet and the climate and the ocean and I will be happy to answer any questions in relation to that plan relation to that plan , but see the world as connected in every sense, see the fact every second breath you take up here in Davos is coming from the ocean , oxygen produced by the ocean, and I think you will realise the importance of us realise the importance of us stopping the plastic getting into the ocean from the river as it runs from Davos down to the sea >>Thank you, Peter We are part of the ocean people as well, the Swiss for one We are all states women and statesmen in that regard We are in a way responsible for what is happening Somebody heavily involved and that is Tom You are the author of three books , one with your usual title Garbage is Great Can you elaborate?

>>I come to this from an overall waste respective, not just plastic but waste in general, which is incredibly problematic and it isn’t hard academic topic — is an art Every object in this room will become waste and will be owned waste and will be owned physically by the garbage industry Today many times we measure our status in the community by the accumulation of stuff we have, yet all of that will be waste and we will have paid someone to take it when that happens 99% of that will become waste in a single year Waste really came about 70 years ago or so which is a modern idea , where I have hope I hope we can solve it because it has not been with us for that long, the modern conception of waste, so what I am passionate about is thinking through how can we solve this through business mechanisms and other mechanisms to try to make things technically possible to be able to recycle? Then make that not just technically possible but practically possible which is all about the economics of waste Typically what tends to make something not recyclable is that it is not profitable for a waste management company to do it, and looking at us as individuals is for us to take part and I think we tend to all just point our fingers are large organisations, whether it is manufacturers or retailers who sell goods, but what is incredibly powerful is us as consumers, we vote multiple times a day, no matter how old we are for the future we want based on what we buy, and this is the most powerful mechanism to change this and to change it incredibly quickly and I hope we all wake up to that privilege we have and do it consciously >>Thank you, Tom Gloria, you are in an industry which produces a lot of waste when we talk about waste, the tourism, hospitality industry That is a reason you are involved in these questions >>For those of you who have not been at an Iberostar hotel, it is a tourism peace — business based in Spain We have travel agencies, our core activity being hotels We have 120 hotels being in 19 countries We serve 8 million clients and we have a family of millions of employees I believe we would not have been able to write all the history we have had We were born in 1877 as a family business It is a reality each generation adapts that responsibility to what they are more close to and my sister and I have been born in Bjork on an island in the middle of the Mediterranean We are both divers We decided, how can we take that responsibility forwards? — Majorca It is a movement that aims towards the stewardship of the oceans It is based on one commitment by three action lines The first is the responsible consumption of seafood, the second is incentivise Asian of coastal health and the last is plastics We have made the claim to become by 2019 a single use, plastic reorganisation within the limits the legislation will allow >>Are you working with other big companies or corporations? corporations? Or is there a more independent initiative ? >>I believe you first have to look inside and do your own homework and the collaboration come along the way Your credibility comes when you start doing things 2019 was the first year we were the first hotel chain in Spain to completely eliminate plastics and thanks to that action a lot of collaborations and alliances came along I would like to start with facts and figures If you dig deeper , some of these facts, figures and numbers are mind blowing When I read into it, it really makes you aware of the sheer size of the issue and the problem

just something you have heard as well , by 2050, the weight of plastic indices — in the sea will be bigger than the will be bigger than the weight of fish >>If nothing changes >>All of this is if we do not act now, this will be the case Something already the case is Something already the case is 1 million tonnes of plastic end up in oceans each year, which, for me is hard to grasp, but if you put it the other way around or if you put another fact in there, you can understand That I read somewhere It is the equivalent of five grocery bags full of plastics along every foot of shoreline in 192 countries of the world When we see and hear these facts, Heather, you kind of teach them all day long , there might be a thought this problem is so huge how can we grasp it and solve it? >>It took a while There was a very small number of scientist working on the topic to actually discover the problem and now we have the scientific information to the scientific information to know the approximate quantities going into the ocean, they amount coming from rivers, from mismanaged waste , and that is the primary problem it is coming from us and going into the environment , and even ignoring the ocean , it is otherwise going in to land four Globally only 19% is recycled so we are way off looking at the circular economy and proper waste management we dream of The problem is it is such a persistent material It last for hundreds of thousands of years and so it doesn’t go away, so unless it is burned, every single piece of plastic ever made still exists on our planet, so now we are working out what to do with that and we have that awareness The fact we have a full room today and you will see lots of stories in the media and you see such an incredibly diverse panel and that is represented around the plastic conversation is one everyone wants to solve one everyone wants to solve Working in conservation, which can be challenging in finding solution everybody once, the topic around plastic is really interesting because so many actors are coming to the table, either from a business perspective because it is with their personal values and identifies with that identifies with that organisation from a financial sense, from an innovation, from a design sense , and for me as a conservationist, it is all about change >>That me take up one figure you mentioned because I think you mentioned because I think it is important When we talk about the 9% of plastic being recycled . I think it is 9.5% . this is think it is 9.5% . this is not because of a scientific reason We can recycle them, with the pet industry we could it is just that we don’t That is the main issue >>It is a huge mix I will refer to Tom, who is far more of a specialist on this but partly it is around the lack of waste collection and management and some of it is around product design, which is designed to make it fabulous for us to buy and to appeal to all of our marketing but not necessarily around what happens to it at the end of life, and so what is starting to change by some organisations is to design with that Future in Mind with the grandchildren in mind and a more sustainable system in mind so we go from plastic to land full or plastic to the ocean, then goes from plastic to plastic, so, Tom >>I will happily build on that To give a sense of the factors playing into this, first, everything in the world is technically recyclable There is nothing that can be technically process so is it practically recyclable? Even in Switzerland, there are semi things you do not have a recycling solution for and that is why a lot of waste is incinerated What makes something practically recyclable is entirely due to economics Waste management companies are in the business of urban minding . that is actually recycling . and they will mind what they can mine at a profit after the cost of collecting it and processing it

If the last — if that cost is lower, they will do so If it is unprofitable they will not do it and will look at the cheapest way to dispose of it within the laws of the land Here it would be waste energy because there is landfill legislation In countries that do not have the infrastructure, a tremendous number of countries, are not developed, which will be a lot of littering, which ends up in oceans, so it all comes down to the economics of waste and some of the macro challenges that are taking us unfortunately in the wrong direction are driven by consumers, which as consumers, we want things that are convenient and affordable, so cheap If you think about packaging, how has it progressed? It has gone from refillable bottles to cartons, and every step is cut in half and when you get a (inaudible), it is not economic to do so This is compounded by macro economic trends, low prices of oil, so foil became expensive, recycling would boom and increase, and also end markets, China that stopped imparting — importing, find it harder to take it to It comes down to us as individuals who are out there purchasing these products to buy the product you can locally recycle and then to do so That is so critically important and try to resist that urge of the compulsive shopping where you blindly purchase whatever makes you feel at the moment good >> We could solve it , as much as Mick we can, quite quickly But if it comes down to money, we don’t want to spend too much, is that the main problem? We are not talking about a technological problem The solutions could be there, in a way >> When we are talking about solutions, first of all it solutions, first of all it is a complex problem with complex solutions We have to accept that We have got choices before us, though As individuals and governments and multilateral organisations, we have choices to make Obviously, the recycling one is an important part of it If you see PepsiCo or Coca-Cola here at Davos, you will see that recycling is a big part of the future big part of the future There is also the refuse/reuse/reduce aspect that we as individuals can take upon individuals can take upon ourselves I remember when plastic started I’m old enough for that I’m old enough for that In Fiji, we were sitting around smoking cigarettes is 11-year-old boys Somebody produced a plastic lighter I remember that we were all actually appalled by it, because there was nowhere to fill the lighter fluid in the top We said, “What is going to happen to this?” It was so cheap, you could get another one Sure enough, plastic cigarette lighters , a year later, were starting to show up on the beaches, and they have in the queue making there ever since So we have this personal choice of whether to use these or not I gave up smoking a couple of years later and personally I have never bought one of those plastic lighters I find repulsive, quite frankly I remember my mother and that time had the idea of using plastic bags in the kitchen On the clothesline, they will also trying out drying out She was part of the post-war generation that didn’t want to waste what we had Take me, a Fijian To be a modern person, you have to own a car When I got to be an urban person in the late 1980s, I learned , by the mid-1990s, why the heck am I living in the city with a car? I don’t need to own a car I have never owned a car I have never owned a car for, what, 25 years I now live in London If somebody gave me a car, I would refuse it Where would I park it? You have to worry about maintaining the car, everything We can make personal, rational choices

that are about not being in the consumer trap of having to buy When I go onto an airline, I protest because it is almost all wrapped in plastic . your blankets, your kit, it is all wrapped in plastic I didn’t ask for that, I didn’t pay for that . in fact, I did pay for it But I always protest Who is putting this stuff on us? As individuals, we have the power to refuse it The obvious one is the supermarket bag at the counter Developing countries are way ahead on this, I would like to tell you Over 50 countries have banned single-use plastic bags single-use plastic bags We have got to move on this stuff We are individual consumers and voters and we have the power to do this >> Some important takeaway is, not least that you started smoking at 11! But that is not the main issue It is a personal mindset as well I was just wondering, when we talk about plastic, it is something I don’t remember having talked about 10-20 years ago It was just normal Nowadays it is safe to say that it is the most demonised material we can talk about Could that be the first step to more awareness, more solution-based possibility, that yes, we still have everything wrapped in plastic, but in a way we all know that it is not a good thing? >> Right I do agree that plastics are associated with a bad rap On the other hand, there are climate change deniers but fewer plastic pollution deniers, because you see the real impact You can see the plastic bottles washing up on beaches It is hard to ignore the evidence in front of your eyes I am hopeful for the fact that it is hard to turn away from that problem I also wanted to talk about, you know, some of the solutions young people are coming up with address this issue This is all very regionally focused Every cultural context requires a strategy for real impact Global shapers around the world have taken it upon themselves to implement a project to both conserve our natural environment, reduce the use of plastic and also transform it into value added products One is from Lima, Peru They led an ocean cleanup movement that featured 10,000 youth volunteers This is the largest beach cleanup movement in Peru It was started by two global shapers and expanded to 10 volunteer . 10,000 volunteers The objective was to get Congress to adopt a plastics ban The government saw the amount of work that went into collecting data on the different types of plastic that were being down on the beaches This kind of data actually fed into a lot of the congressional, legislated debates in Peru It also kind of points to the importance of citizen science , being all of us able to work together and come up with the solution and collect evidence to inform policy So, going to Gloria’s point, we mention that we need to start locally before we expand This is an example of a grassroots, youth-driven movement that has a lot of corporate partnerships corporate partnerships Companies recognise they need to get involved in this The youth movement have a lot of energy to make change It is the right moment, the right place, and I want to leave it at that I can come to other examples later on as well >> In our case, there’s actually no manual for an organisation that tells you how to make the change We had to learn a lot the process We didn’t ban plastic We also look for the best alternatives in any moment We gave it a very rigourous approach We had guidelines like certification in Germany and Belgium Every time, we were looking either for a way of either for a way of recycling, where there was a waste recycling system available, or four elements that were completely compostable in order to compostable in order to prepare, because right now, in these three months, we are doing the roll out to other countries with a level of countries with a level of complexity like Cuba, Jamaica We said there is no system of

waste treatment there, so the only way we can start walking the path is to have that guarantee of availability and compatibility in order to shift forward I feel that what differentiated the effort we did is the approach of looking to the alternatives So, when you mentioned before the collaborations, I think it will be interesting if there was a common ground on what materials are available, what kind of alternatives work and what are the best usages for that >> How do you deal with it on a daily basis in your company, in your hotel, for example? Have you banned plastic bottles, are you only using glass bottles? Is there a corporate strategy or rules that you give to all of the hotels? >> We worked for a whole year, actually We did an x-ray of what we consume when it comes to single-use plastics We had 3600 items, different items of plastic, internally in the organisation We did an analysis of the department it pertained to, the kitchens, the rooms, and in every case we had a task force I will give you an example We wanted to change all of the holders of gels and shampoos in the hotel We don’t have them anymore They are multiple use We had to train the ladies coming to clean the rooms how to use the new products Another example could be the coffee capsules We changed those two compostable items We also had to explain how the client could come to a room and recycle that, and how to change it In that process, we realised that speaking about training and training our training and training our people was the most important part of it If our people didn’t understand it, it would be very difficult for our clients to understand it >> Did you have to explain more to the staff and clients? Facebook you have different stakeholders, and for us the most important one was the employees the employees We have to start with them We had to start with the 35,000 employees They have to understand why you are doing it One day, I was walking towards one of our hotels in the Dominican Republic I know it wasn’t badly intentioned, but I had a waiter saying, ” No, no, no, they are doing this to save costs.” I smiled this to save costs.” I smiled internally, but I said, “There’s a lot of work to do in training,” because you can’t do anything but convince them We are not dedicated to We are not dedicated to roll-out in 19 countries >> When you talk about 3600 products, is there an end goal where you say you want to go down to this or this number? >> Interestingly, without sounding arrogant, we are doing our homework There’s a last step that will come from the legislation I would love to go into one of the fridges of my hotels and not seek a cart completely rolled in film with the date of consumption But I can’t avoid that because legislation forces me to do it We are doing, parallel to the effort internally, work with economical interests and political speakers in the countries where we are, to make a shift in that aspect as well >> Sorry, I cut you short >> No, that’s fine It’s important not to demonise plastic It’s a phenomenally invention that has improved our lives also the wonderful things We are targeting particular areas where we take this incredible product that last for hundreds of thousands of years, and it is single-use 40% of all plastic goes to single-use That is the single biggest target of change Lots of different innovations are happening on that We have actually got a project happening in London, sort of an experiment to look at how do you change a system It is obviously a developed country, society, where you can go to the tap and have perfectly clean water that comes out of it, which is better regulated than water in plastic bottles We were like, “How do we change the system that has become, over a short period, a plastic, disposable society? How can we shift it to a refill one?” In the same way, we did the research We looked at interviews right the way across the supply chain, from producers to consumers We identified 11 barriers to change Some of it is people

just using a refillable bottle They are worried about cleaning them cleaning them They leak, they are not very good Men, we found, were less likely to carry a refillable bottle because they are less likely to have a bag with them There are all these things we have to overcome >> Quite basic things >> Quite basic things >> Basic, simple behaviour Again, it is a big city, on the go People are commuting, travelling, going to meetings, taking their kids to school, who don’t necessarily bring water with us And with British culture, it turns out that people want to refill their bottles but 80% were too embarrassed to go into a cafe or shop and ask for it to be refilled ask for it to be refilled We are trying to break down the system Working with the may of London, we have installed 17 water fountains in public spaces already They have got to be clean, got to be looked after and maintained, and we have got to encourage people to use them We are also working with a scheme called refill It is as simple as putting a sticker on a cafe or shop hotel and saying, “We are happy for you to come in and we will fill your bottle for free ” >> The famous British politeness >> It’s a big barrier in our society So it is understanding the local context and seeing how you can make the biggest change change Whether it is engaging youth, breaking down some of those barriers to allow the change to happen, then we can start >>I want to echo the statement we see as consumable — consumers the visible part What is important is to have a sense of the entire supply chain to get that item physically to you, for example, apples may show up at a supermarket with no packaging but they would have step two layers and layers of plastics to be able to arrive at that supermarket and be consumed It is like the food service items you were chatting about To echo behaviour, to build on the point, I think behaviour is really important We did a scary study . we went to a train station in New York City and put out a beautifully labelled recycling bin, there could be no confusion and then negatively labelled one negatively labelled one landfill 50% of people would put it in the wrong bin It was absolutely shocking Even if the package is technically recyclable , our apathy is so high They tended to be more men, so for many in the audience, we need to work especially hard Women were better Kids far below 18 with the very best It is important to self reflect on that, especially if you are in our demographic It was an interesting in terms of solutions . you could solve this by incentivising Deposit laws are an example You could save that — solve that by fining That also helps through carrot or sticks The We installed the tall computers in these bins When you put you computer in, it would trigger an infrared trigger and would say , “Thank you for recycling.” It boosted compliance just by having people smile The best was little kids running around trying to find the next bottle and taking them out of the wrong bin Just order tree feedback Just order tree feedback How do we make this topic exciting because I think , as it loses that excitement, we gain apathy and no matter what infrastructure, laws and capability are put in by stakeholders, if we, the people, do not act, it is all for nothing for nothing >>I’m very glad to talk about young people and kids It gives me the opportunity It gives me the opportunity to open up the discussion a bit and a warning, if you’re Swiss German is a bit rusty, maybe you take off your headphones because I want to introduce you to initiative from Davos — Up >> A great action, great campaign Yes, I’m sure there will be applause later and it is

well-deserved, I can tell well-deserved, I can tell you Plastic is an issue which has attracted a great deal of attention from young people in Davos , and so I think it is interesting for you who live in Davos to hear about it but also the others There are three pupils from the secondary school who are with us today and are representatives of their class, group of boys in Davos, young people in Davos who have decided to do something about the plastic issue I’ll put the question to you I don’t know if you have decided who will answer, who has two onto the question Ivan will answer the question Could you tell us briefly for the benefit of the panellists, how did you come up with the idea? >>Last year at the WEF, we were part of the sales force and we had a presentation by a professor from California , Prof Douglas, and we were horrified to see how much plastic ends up in the ocean , so we decided Our teachers at schools also discuss the problem at school, the plastic issue, and we decided we had to do something about this We cannot change the world but we need to start somewhere, and plastic is probably the most problematic kind of waste at the moment, and we thought we would like to try to do something about changing that, and starting changing that, and starting Davos,k so you have taken an initiative , just been told where the idea came from , and Marco will tell us about the next step We are determined to do something What was the plan? How did you implement this idea? >>We discussed the plan with our teacher and we thought we could do something about encouraging recycling in Davos Our teacher got some information He talk to someone who had been doing this for longer than we had We ordered bags , and all of us, from the secondary school , got a bag We were given it We were given it for free They are made of bio plastics, these recycling bags, so it is plastic , yes, but by a plastics, and everyone got a bag In Davos as in many other places,, pet bottles are collected Not much else is done about collecting plastic waste It goes into the regular household waste, apart from the bottles, so that brings us to the third step, and that is when you really get going Now these bags can be bought for Swiss francs . six the special waste collection bags It started in the autumn, is a huge success and this activity is ongoing Perhaps you would like to tell us a bit more about it Perhaps you can tell us what will happen next >> One of our ambitions was for this to become a sustainable project and we did not want it to do the just something that happened for a few weeks and then stopped and that is an admission we have achieved — ambition We wanted more containers in Davos We want to be able to process it here in Davos because if the waste is transported away from Davos to be processed, it generates more carbon dioxide because carbon dioxide because of the tracks, so that is what we are working on Now I think everyone can join in the applause because I think this project deserves a round hand This is really an example of an initiative that started on a small scale and it even started at the W EF last year and you have heard what has happened in the course of one year, started on a small scale, and a lot has happened since last year IC hands going up so I’m sure there will be an opportunity for questions and answers I see >>Start something from scratch scratch They did not have any health

They wanted more information and to take action — help It is something they are encouraging, I think we all agree on that In your experience is that something that is typical? That the action has to come from the bottom, from the grassroots? To all of you >>I think that plastic has its place, obviously, and will be with us until the end of time and I don’t think we will invent many new things (inaudible) It has to be the right plastic and Tom is in better shape than me to describe what I mean by the right plastic because not all plastic is recyclable When it is mixed together, it breaks the process down, so it has to be the right kind of plastic and the right kind of users, and most users of plastic in my mind are necessary It is useful in life if you think about the world to take it down to the household If you think about what you have a new house my wife and I do this all the time . it is amazing how much plastic you have a new house, how much stuff you have a new house you do not need At the heart of the United Nations sustainable developing goals . there are 17 . and there is the ocean one in which plastic is mentioned At the heart of the sustainable goals is SDG 12, and that is about consumption and production We have to change our patterns It is up to us as individuals as much as it is up to governments to do so We are consuming too much, we are all becoming the class, the whole world has two or three cars The planet collapses and cannot sustain that, so we have to change our consumption, the plastics part >>For the awareness part, we have seen here it is young people I know you have three granddaughters Is it a generational thing that young people get it more? >>While I was living in New York I said to my grandchildren they should not use that terrible playing wrap It is file — vile I said they should not use lunchboxes any more Then eventually said that at their school nobody was allowed to bring plastic to school The whole school is plastic free This is a little primary school in Auckland, New Zealand, and hopefully that is the way the world is is the way the world is going They get it They see they cannot have that stuff in nature >>Is it a generation thing? >>Firstly, congratulations It is an inspirational example and a lesson for everybody in the room If we are also here next time this year what will you have done? That compares with what a group of students did that listen to a presentation and it is all something everybody can do something about, so it is starting small, can start with an individual, so my plastic water bottle example Everybody in the UK . and it is a similar figure in Europe everybody uses. Adults use 125 + to water bottles a year, so if you do the maths in this room, if we all used a refillable bottle, that is a huge difference What I am thinking is , from Davos, what is your community, what schools can you reach out to? In the UK there is a similar initiative The youth are inheriting a plastic world from our generation and are part of the solution both from innovation and pressure, so there is a charity that I am a trustee of that has a plastic free schools initiative that provides examples to get from one plastic use to get rid of it, so to your example, Gloria, of the case document Gloria, of the case document and the case studies to make it easier for everybody else so can you share your example to other schools in Switzerland to see how many schools could have signed up to do exactly what you are doing by this time next year? >>I would like to make two independent points . one is to echo what you said, not just waste, but every environmental issues from

species reduction, deforestation, climate change, I cannot think of any environmental issue that is not directly linked to only one thing, which is consumption, and consumption is growing because the population is growing, but also growing per capita If you compare someone alive today, we consume 10 times more physical objects than 100 years ago So the absolute best thing you can do to save the environment without having to understand any of the details because it can get very complex very quickly is to stop purchasing or purchase less You can also share versus own These are foundational solutions and the easiest way to think about that is do you derive your joy from the act of shopping all your joy from some other way way , interacting with friends, experiencing nature, experiencing learning, like today, and I think we have to easily put our happiness into this act of purchase, and I am just as much hypocrite as all of us, but that is something to focus on Here is a simple guide to understand what plastics are good and what are not so good It is all about value, that is the point, it is not about the magic of if it can be recycled or not What is the plastic? Clear, rigid is really good , and the lighter the better Colour is a contaminant When children paint with pains, they all end up as brown, so you want to keep the colour separate, so try to buy clear and white, rigid and stay away from things that are complex Those are simple rules We have talked about biodegradable Not everything is so clear Buyer degradable has a place in emerging markets — bio de grad able Biodegradable plastics in developed markets are in developed markets are very big problem A good example , we have worked with Tesco, retailer in the UK, who has outlawed biodegradable plastics from being sold in their stores from this April and the reason they have is because biodegradable plastics are a contaminant to the people who have to degrade them, pastors — compost ers You can grow a plant from it to see really big transformations The compost is are sorting out of that biodegradable plastic, destroying it and actively processing what they want The key punchline is give the waste management industry what it wants, vs responding with putting pressure on it to respond to our problems >> We know there is not one solution globally >> I am a firm believer in the youth Congratulations, there is always such a special energy with the youth and the way you are doing things The leader of our project is constructing the way we do things The first thing he said is you have to tackle the children, tracked the youngsters We tracked the children who came to our host cells hotels, to explain what we do I couldn’t agree more with Tom If you have a biodegradable If you have a biodegradable product, ask what is it Is it made of a natural material? We use plastic bags that are made of potato starch We have brushes, toothbrushes that are made out of corn and shaving handles for shavers that are made out of bamboo We are in conversation now with all of the recycling companies We are asking them that question . is it worthwhile looking for that alternative? Those questions are key what do you do in Davos, how do you recycle it? do you recycle it? Continue expanding Continue with your energy Congratulations >> I would love to speak more about initiatives at an international level, before giving it to you as well , opening up for questions and comments >> Congratulations You guys inspire me You are the next generation of global shapers You don’t have to be part of the official committee to shape your society, so really, really proud of you I want to echo Heather’s point about what next You want to make the project sustainable, and thinking about what you can do to scale up or expand or tackle scale up or expand or tackle

other issues , and I wanted to give you something that is food for thought for you Youth shapers in Mumbai launched a project that collected over 6000 plastic bottles, and they turned that into bricks Those bricks were transformed into buildings and furniture that people could use It is the idea of using plastic and turning it into useful products They partnered with 50 schools and over 1500 schools and over 1500 students, and so I’m just thinking in relation to the project that there’s an element of capacity building and training and spreading the word to your peers and also people of other generations I think you guys play a big role in terms of being the messengers and emissaries of this project Don’t give up hope It is difficult to start a project from scratch, with no resources You guys are doing a great job I think the benefit of our generation is that we are a little bit impatient and we want change to happen right want change to happen right away Sometimes we also need to take a pause and think about what are the steps we need, who are the partners we need to scale up and move forward this initiative? I am happy to continue the conversation with you later as well >> Great, lots of praise for you Now I think you have got to spread it out Feel free . we have questions and we have raised arms I see three or four Oh, well, that’s a lot In the back there . do we have a microphone there? >> Can I? Hi First of all , I beg your pardon for my English It is not very good >> You can speak German or Swiss German if you like >> I don’t speak very well, anyway I don’t look young, but I am young I also associate a solution for this problem From one hour, I do not hear one word about a solution for plastic pollution Three months ago, with other people, I joined an association that has already two solutions to the problems of plastic solution One is for the macro plastic and one for the micro Two different problems We have two different solutions , machinery for cleaning the waters >> Yes, please, go ahead >> We start now to work I hope we can next year bring some results to you The Association in two weeks you can find online the website It is not yet ready >> Before we go too far into advertising, it is good to know there are initiatives and ideas I would suggest there are also people on the panel, so maybe you can bilaterally speak about solutions and possible ways out of the issue as well We gladly take this on board We can bilaterally speak about that Thank you We will be speaking about solutions, I assure you, as well Let me have a young voice there as well There’s a student sitting there >> Thank you This question is directed to This question is directed to Mr person You talked a lot about behaviour and the effect on consumption and production What other methods do you What other methods do you see possible for changing this behaviour? >> It’s a really good question because anywhere that all of us have a privileged audience, the infrastructure is there That wouldn’t be the case if we were sitting in Cambodia

or other areas But we are here in Switzerland, so most of it has to do with behaviour The other thing that is important is that all of us are incredibly aware of the issue I think that’s why there’s an audience here I don’t think what we need to do is We need to be aware, but doing it through negative reinforcement could leave to somebody saying what you said at the beginning of this whole Perth . panel , which is that it is too big a problem, and therefore I’m going to keep contributing to it It is very hard to avoid disposal It follows us like a wake on a boat You have to consciously avoid it, like you did in your hotels It isn’t necessarily the easy It isn’t necessarily the easy one that every hotel can follow The biggest lesson I have learned is you don’t necessarily need money You don’t have to pay people to change The incentive to give can be in the form of happiness and feeling purpose Today we live in a news environment where the news is horrible, no matter where we look, whether it is at the UK or the US or Brazil There are all these examples of negative stories Even this plastic issue is a negative story It is horrible There is not good out there People are good people Generally, we want to feel like we can contribute and we want to contribute in a positive way But we want to be given the choice to do that, and framing and social media . a good example would be shaming someone That does happen on social media, as opposed to doing the opposite Imagine if someone camped out and started posting everybody who did it right How good would that be? It may not seem meaningful, It may not seem meaningful, but it really multiplies in a brilliant way, and using that We tend to focus on the negative so much that the little smile is actually such a massive motivator Also, it is what was said earlier on the idea of consumption We need to make the idea of modest to reasonable living the way that it was a few generations ago it was cool What is cool at the moment? Three houses, big jets, lots of cars That’s a lot of stuff to deal with We also have to shift what is hip and cool You look pretty cool . do it yourself! I’m sure your friends will follow That is how these movements are created Do it all through the arts of positive >> The personal initiative is that the main driver? Or is the big elephant in the room that it has to be regulated and enforced as well? Should it go beyond the personal initiative? personal initiative? >> Just to answer the gentleman at the back He has been listening if it has no solutions have come from our talk this morning There is no single , silver bullet solution to this plastic problem we have put on the world There is going to be multiple solutions and everybody has to work to get their individuals, families, cities, regional governments, national governments, regional organisations of nations and the global organisations Everybody has a responsibility to sort out this problem this problem By the way, it’s only one of a multiple of problems that the ocean as has Because of our clothing, there are microfibres of plastic that have inundated the ocean Animals are eating that It goes to the pictures you have seen of the plastic soups out there in the graveyards It is a major problem, but it is just one of the many Responsibility goes from the individual to the global organisation and everything in between, and there is no simple solution We have all got to work at this with good intentions >> Can I just go to the point on the clothing? There are basically three types of clothing There is natural clothing, shirts, cotton-wool and so on Then you have nylons and so on on Then most of the clothing today is a hybrid, a combination of organic materials with plastic If your pants stretch, you have a hybrid 70% of the clothing in this room is plastic The big issue is when you watch a garment, microfibres come off None of our washing machines have filtered to catch these

Plastic packaging will also degrade over many years It is monumentally bigger than the disposable plastic issue, by far, from a microplastic pollution problem So what is the solution? When you buy a pair . when you buy a garment, most of the microfibres are knocked off in the first three washes Then there is relatively few Then there is relatively few every wash thereafter It’s important to note that an average woman in the Western world today buys 67 items per year and wears them three times before disposal, which is the absolute maximum of the washing issue The solution is by awesome clothing that you are going to love and enjoy for a very long time to avoid this what just by somebody’s used clothing >> Very good >> This year, we started to use recycled plastic in our organisation How does that statistic apply ? >> Exactly the same When a new item is made, there is a lot that can come off in the first cycles But the real answer here is to keep those moving As long as the staff and rotating through the shirts very quickly, it is better than if they have high than if they have high rotation If you have seasonal staff, cannot garment travel to the next one or does it end with that staff member? that staff member? It is a big question, making things last That is the foundational solution to this It is the incredible decision to go to recycled plastic The more information you have, the more you can point to the right direction >>We are looking at alternative products that are not plastic I believe this questioning comes back to the mention of Peter there is no cookie-cutter solution You just have to keep on moving, learning around the process but really start moving >>Its lifespan is the key >>We have other questions It is so hard to pick Somebody is waving like crazy crazy We will give him the microphone Please make it as short as possible >>My name is Kristian Thank you for all being here My question is about financially scalable solutions to plastic pollution full stop you talked about personal choice with regard to recycling I don’t want to sound like a negative guy in the room but it sounds a lot like that climate change movement People talk about not taking hot showers, was talking about behavioural change and not about real incentives to change behaviour It seems to me people’s willingness to change is not strong enough, and I honestly don’t want to come back here 10 years from now and see the same kind of thing I think nobody wants that My question is about scalable solutions to plastic pollution, and especially plastic that is too cheap to be recycled What is needed to solve the problem of source with this plastic, are we talking about a plastics tax like potentially a carbon tax? And especially for Tom, I would like to hear from you regarding technologies to potentially replace these types of plastic Do we have these types of technology and is it scalable and sustainable? SPEAKER: I think we had the answer to your question — if we had the answer , it would be solved just like that The climate change movement I would like to say that this is not about movements, this is about the climate changing, our ocean is changing, and all of us are involved , and as we have been talking about, it is about individual responsibility going up to government responsibilities I will let Tom onto the second part of your question but I would say I am neither an optimist nor a pessimist I am a pride that is — pragmatist I believe in pragmatic action to change things Change is the one constant I live in a house in London

which was a house for horses 100 years ago There are 10,000 houses like that in central London The mews houses were for the horses 100 years ago there were no cars cars Everybody was going around on horses Change happened overnight and all of a sudden everybody is in Castle Let’s be part of the change >>Interesting metaphor when you say from horses to cars, I think the question we need to ask you because the car is better than the horse for whole host of reasons and wider plastic win in 1950 ? You say you remember pre-plastic I’m sure others in the room remember, too I romanticise over it itself What did it beat? It was better What people wanted was cheap and convenient I think the key challenge and this goes to everybody, young folks, entrepreneurs, large organisations, governments . to set the stage and then to think about what are the models through which we do not have this addiction to disposal that are in fact ideally better for the consumer because I believe that is what will be the goal If we do it through sacrifice it will be a small group , but if we do it through improvement and bringing out the future, that’ll be what will really change the world, and we see this already in the sharing economy Look at what airbnb did in that travel industry That is an example of showing What has Uber done in the transportation market? If we think about these, there are lots of opportunities to explore and to bring out a better world >> Tom said cheap and inconvenient were the inconvenient were the winners, which which were the winners — Convenient We were sold a dummy . the We were sold a dummy . the cheap and convenient was the way to go, a throwaway society It is what has got us into the mess we are now Change is that constant Change for the better, we will change in a way that is not cheap and convenient, we will change in a way that will put us back into a relationship of respect with the environment on which we depend for our existence >>I’m wondering, Heather, to force a change, and that is part of the question, maybe we have to force people as well, the it through taxes or incentives — be Maybe regulation is needed What are your thoughts? >>There is not one solution We have said that multiple times but there is a huge portfolio globally of solutions, some developed at the grassroots level, some are led by governments, some led by huge change we are seeing within businesses, so we are seeing supermarkets, the big drinks companies, the packaging companies on the case, forming alliances, changing the way they do things It is being taken very seriously because of the responsibility of what is happening, the awareness, and from customer pressure, so there is a role for factional correct social media in that way Social media are saying their inboxes are full of questions about what they are doing with plastics The same applies to businesses It is a time of unprecedented attention on this issue and an opportunity to have your voice be a part of that and that means the businesses make it a lot easier If you go into a store and you cannot buy damaging stuff, even if you are reducing the stuff, it is an awful lot easier If you are out there with your refillable bottle and it will be super easy to fill it, it starts to normalise sustainable heavier and make it easier to implement sustainable behaviour and reduces the temptation for higher consumption that is less sustainable, so we are moving in the right direction in the right direction but it is not something that you can say is the responsibility only of businesses, only of the youth In the UK, a 5p tax on plastic bags reduce plastic bags by 80% Measurably, that is a huge response That will not work across all kinds of plastic >>It has to hurt a bit >>It has And the economics of And the economics of incentivising oil versus recycling is complex,

but it is certainly not tipping the balance of recycling for stop it certainly could change in a much more supportive direction to enable the recycling companies to compete fairly and to actually develop more solutions that also can work in developing countries where there is no waste management system, which is complex >> I have unfairly treated this side of the audience side of the audience He agrees Shall we take The female student there? I will not forget you >>There is a really big zero waste movement going on right now I wondered because a lot of people buy one use plastic for convenience in supermarkets How do you think supermarkets or things like the fashion or beauty industry could reduce the one use plastic to aid consumers in becoming more zero waste? >> I think that will be a question for Tom >>A really good question I will flip it You are right There is a zero waste movement and thank goodness Here is the way to think about the producer and the retailer, those actors Their job is not so much to give us To force things upon as Their job and this is the goal . to figure out what you want and to give what you want and to give that to you in the best , most cool, affordable way possible and maybe to extrapolate on what you may want tomorrow, but that is about it, so think about in the beverage industry Carbonated sales like sodas are going down, so what are the large companies in that space doing? doing? Investing in more healthy drink choices because that is what you want, and so what will be the leading goal in this? I work with these organisations and see them say is the consumer ready? Will they follow? It is always about the consumer Start demanding those things If they are not available, start writing about it They take social media seriously It is unbelievable how seriously they take it That is what they make their decisions on, so complain Complaining does so much in Complaining does so much in today ‘s social media space that the little boys amplifies in that it is much bigger in the actual decision-making rooms where people make decisions on 20 posts that may have happened and really acting, happened and really acting, and so do that and those choices will start appearing Then, especially when they appear, vote for them with your money because if they appear and you do not vote for them, they are gone and once they are gone, they are hard to bring back because the companies internally will say they tried authentically and the consumer did not want it It takes it — 10 years for it to be tried again Until that happens they will not have the internal ability to pull it out Speak one more question I am sorry for the others The shorter, the better >> May I ask you to use the headset? >>Of course >>I am grateful you have also given the floor to the left side of the room Let me begin by correcting two points raised by Tom In Switzerland we do not have landf ill Household waste is incinerated in very sophisticated units We don’t have any laws as to how we should handle plastic waste It is left up to us , and the initiative of the kids, my students, is a good example It took us a year The most important part was to get the people of Davos to join in, to follow the join in, to follow the project They went all the schools, provided information, talk to provided information, talk to children, the parents, they handed out leaflets and made a very detailed presentation, which was on a site that got a lot of hits and then the plastic bags were handed out This was the basic work they did and they did it very well, providing information, information, and these students showed how important information and training is We have not said much about that I am C everyone here has the I am C everyone here has the same intention 20 years ago it would have been different — Glad to see Information is crucial That is where we do not have

curricula for the schools, and a lot more needs to be and a lot more needs to be done about providing curricula in the schools to train and teach the children Thank you very much That is a useful message >>That is the main question here The issue was, are we teaching it enough? Our young people aware of it enough? Should it be part of a curriculum? Should we not talk to much about new technologies but also go back to basics? >> I think it is so important to start in the classroom When we talk about extrinsic versus intrinsic motivation, what starts in the classroom is teaching students about values, conserving, innovation, and these are the same kinds of values that can inform the skills in the future and a lot of the schools think about what happens after graduation The key theme of Davos is globalisation for .0 What can prevent disruption to jobs — — 4.0 What skills can be part of the modern economy that you can take advantage of and be of value to society? Starting with that awareness and capacity building of training students on how to communicate these values to others and their societies because once the students learn about it in the classroom they can also teach their parents back home I am from the Ottawa, Canada how, and one of my fellow global shape is implemented a project which basically is a robot designed with 3-D printed materials that also is powered by artificial intelligence to basically pick up plastic litter, microplastic litter, from beaches from beaches It is more than picking up plastic in this case It is more about the impact of this robot on shaping the narrative around STEM education , science, technology, mathematics, engineering, and how important that is to shaping innovation of the future and how youth can play a role in it Big kudos to you for >> Thank you so much We stretched the time limit a bit Thank you to everybody who wanted to speak but didn’t have a chance to

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