>>Electronic Voice: Telekinetic Control of Android and Other Wonders of the Modern World Jorge Silva, October 21st, 2011 Google TechTalks are designed to disseminate a wide spectrum of views on topics including Current Affairs, Science, Medicine, Engineering, Business, Humanities, Law, Entertainment, and the Arts Disclaimer The views or opinions expressed by the guest speakers are solely their own and do not necessarily represent the views or opinions of Google Incorporated >>Male Presenter: Right Android is an open platform, runs on commodity hardware, runs on phone And we all use it on a daily basis But you’ll see a completely different perspective to what you can do with a device that’s running in Open Platform and has the ability to control other things and be controlled by other things They’ve been working on Android in the context of V-chat users They’ve done some fabulous work and they also have some great ideas on what they can do in the future So, rather than stealing their time then, I’ll let Jorge get the rest for his project and wow us with the wonderful work you’re doing Thank you >>Jorge Silva: Thank you Thank you, Stevie Thank you, Charles That’s very kind And as Stevie was mentioning, we’ve been collaborating on an accessibility initiative that I’m personally very– Oh, and this one’s working, right? >>Male Helper: Just stretch it >>Jorge Silva: OK Yeah, thank you So, yeah I was saying, this is a very exciting opportunity, has been a very exciting opportunity to be working so closely with the Accessibility Team at Google And this is a project that I’m personally very passionate about I’m here representing two organizations One is inclusive to Science Research Center to OCAD University in Toronto And the other one is a start-up company, Komodo OpenLab And those two organizations basically span the full breadth of what we’ve been able to achieve through this project with the help of an open platform, such as Android So, I’m gonna talk a little bit about that And as you can see, here in the slide, I borrowed this from the Rapture Historical Museum And this is an ad for Plasmid that the citizens of Rapture can purchase and will allow them to control matter with their thoughts Apparently, this particular ad is targeted at people who are just too lazy to put sugar in their own coffee There’s another ad–this one for a later version–new and improved version of the same Plasmid And of course, this has a little bit more of a mainstream appeal, right? It’s not just lifting spoons Now, it’s the ability to lift a couch and clean up, vacuum under the couch And of course, for those of you who haven’t realized this, this comes from a fictional storyline that was created for the game BioShock, which was one of the most played or popular games in 2008 as well as 2009 But wouldn’t it be great to be able to control matter just using your thoughts? And why wouldn’t we be able to do even more? I mean, controlling matter is cool But what about controlling atoms, controlling interfaces, controlling screens–every user interface that you find out there? Walking to an ATM and not having to actually push any buttons at all Just with the power of your mind, the ATM guesses, or knows, that you want to check your balance or you want to get some money out of the bank Without, actually, any significant effort, you can just do so Well, of course, this is a fictional storyline This is, of course, impossible However, on September 28th this year, Davey Thomas, who is a quality assurance analyst for a game development company based in Vancouver, created this tweet

And I’m just gonna read it for you Davey Thomas says, “Just installed HootSuite”–is that the right pronunciation? Yeah I guess Sometimes, my English fails me “Just installed HootSuite for Android and typed this without physically touching my phone.” And then he refers to a couple hash tags, such as Civility, Tecla And this is actually the result of work that started at the Inclusive Design and Research Center in the summer of 2010 as part of an experiment that was made possible by the Google Summer of Code program with a student that started working on could we actually control a phone without actually touching it? And in one year, or a little bit over a year, it has evolved all the way into a product that is about to be commercially released And I’m going to explain how this all works and what this all means, but before I do that, I’m gonna go and explain a very odd and very bizarre world, which is the upside down world of disability And this is a world in which powered wheelchairs, which are basically robotic chairs that you don’t have to make any physical or any significant physical effort to drive, cost more than the last car you bought Maybe a couple times more Maybe up to three, four times more even This is also a world in which single-purpose assistive devices can cost over ten thousand dollars with failure rates of 50 percent in the last three months And this is real data from the Centralized Equipment Pool, which is a program run by the province of Ontario in Canada, that provides assistive technologies for people with disabilities This is the actual failure rate for one of the most popular products they have I’m not gonna say the name That’s not the point But its main purpose is to generate speech for people who cannot actually speak by themselves So, this would be a machine that basically shows a flat screen and a bunch of icons that people select and they go through a few different menus until they compose a complete sentence And they press “play my sentence” and a gadget speaks for them So, they can go to a coffee shop and order a latte or they can request a ticket at a movie theater And that’s exactly the case, right? That this thing can cost up to ten thousand dollars and it fails quite a bit And this is also a world in which all this is requested, all this expense is requested from people who, on average, have only 72 percent of the income that their able-bodied peers have That’s again, data for the province of Ontario in Canada And it’s more or less very similar in most of the developed countries in the modern world So, obviously as you can see, this bizarre world of assisted technology and the bizarre world of disability is expensive, is completely unsustainable, and it provides– It’s buggy, right? Basically And it provides “better than nothing” workarounds as opposed to real, effective fixes for what people expect or what any of us would expect So, why is this? Well, I’ve heard over the years I’ve been working, Mauricio and I, have been working with people with disabilities for about ten years now And we’ve heard reasons why this is the case You can say, “Well, the market is kind of small, right? There’s very few people using these things So, it’s gonna be complicated Specialized equipment is required and that’s expensive You have to customize things to fulfill the needs of these users And that takes time and that takes effort There’s also a high risk A lot of liability issues involved.”

But I think all of that is looking at the problem from the wrong end of the spectrum, right? You’re looking at the problem once it’s already there–once it has already been created So, of course, yes If people can’t use a particular interface, if people can’t have access to a specific building, of course it’s very expensive to do it because you didn’t do it in the beginning So, just as it’s not necessary for wheelchair users nowadays, for instance, to carry around a piece of plywood if they want to go for a stroll, just as it is not necessary because there’s already many cities that have curb cuts It shouldn’t actually be necessary to have a ten thousand dollar piece of equipment–dedicated hardware There would be no need for them if mainstream devices, such as the Android platforms such as iPhone, smartphones, tablets, all of those products, if those products were accessible, then there wouldn’t be any need for a ten thousand dollar piece of dedicated hardware, right? So, yes If you look at it from the perspective of a context in which things are already inaccessible, there’s a lot of justifications for that, for not actually making it accessible But if you step back and realize that these barriers are actually caused by the fact that in the first place, it wasn’t made accessible, then you realize what a significant gap this kind of context can create And I’m gonna talk a little bit more about this as I’m get into the talk So, we at the Inclusive Science Research Center decided this is not acceptable This is not the way it should be And we tried to figure out how do we do it so that people with disabilities, say, power wheelchair users, can access the same functionality, the same power that is expected–that any of us expect–from mobile devices, from the new technologies, from ancient technology How do we do it so that they can access it without having to go these bizarre extremes of charging thousands of dollars and creating segregated spaces in markets that play by their own rules and all that? And we decided, we realized at the moment that the emerging technologies, the emerging mobile technologies offered significant opportunity for solving all these issues So, we went to all of them at the time and looked at which of these platforms can provide the most natural, built-in way of accessing, or tapping, and all that potential without having to create our thing from scratch So, right from the beginning, we realized there was a couple of the devices, or a couple of the platforms that we could not use They were still trying to get their act together It was just impossible to consider We later considered the iPhone and iPad platform, the IOS mobile platform, but it was just too– It has too many limitations for what you can do as a developer At the time, you couldn’t run background processes You couldn’t enhance or substitute the input method, which was essential We wanted to be able to control the phone or control these devices through alternative input methods, not just the touch screen or the keyboard We wanted to be able to allow people who can’t actually use their hands to control these devices So for that, we needed to have a way to either enhance or substitute the input method And at the time, the IOS simply didn’t have that option It didn’t offer that option

We also looked at Java There was some neat things that we could do, written in MIDlets, but at the end of the day, MIDlets run on foreign operating systems and if we didn’t have access to those operating systems, we wouldn’t be able to achieve what we wanted to achieve Symbian was interesting They were also going through a big transition And at the end of the day, it was possible to substitute the input method or enhance it, but we would have to deal with upstream pushes to their project And it was unlikely, or we didn’t know whether we were gonna be able to influence the development of that project at all The Maemo platform was very, very attractive because it was already Open Source and it was based on Linux It had all the right ingredients that allow these kinds of platforms to be enhanced by the community, but all of a sudden, they decided to drop keyboard access to their platform There was no more focus highlighting There was no more basically keyboard access, right? So, there was nothing we could do for the first version of MeeGo that came out of that The accessibility team at Research in Motion, being Canadian, was very, very eager to get this working on their platform We had a few technical discussions about how to do this And we ended up with a plausible solution The only disadvantage was we had to rewrite the entire input method from scratch And we didn’t have access to the built-in input method on Blackberry devices It would have to be a separate application And tried to do a bit of hacking to hide their input method and have ours come up to the front So, it was possible, but it a bit more than necessary The work was a bit more than what we were looking for And finally, the only real, real option for achieving this ended up being Android And that was a very obvious choice by then end, so the Android platform could at the time, and still allows, background processes to run on the device, which are essential to be able to gain information from alternative devices, which is what we wanted We didn’t want to have to ask the alternative device every time, pull it and say, “Hey, are you still there? Are you OK? Do you have any news for me?” Android would allow us to just simply send notifications directly to the operating system and go with it We were also, like Blackberry and Symbian and Maemo, we were also able to either enhance or substitute entirely the input method But the real thing that made us go for Android was that we didn’t have to start from scratch So, we could just work the input method that was built into the Android platform and then add the features that we required and then republish us a new application, which is actually what we ended up doing And the result, this animation works, is the Tecla Access Project The Tecla Access–or, the Tecla Access System, this system is composed of two, or it has two main components And I’m gonna– I think I forgot my laser pointer, but I’m gonna show you here with the pointer in the screen One of the components is a hardware component It’s called the Tecla Shield And the other component is a free app, downloadable from the Android market right now We just pushed the latest version on Wednesday, which has a lot of really neat features And basically, what the application does is– Well, I guess I’m gonna have to– I’m gonna go the other way, actually, ’cause this is really awkward to go backwards So, we have a user, say, in a power wheelchair

And something I should mention here is there’s a lot of resources that is going to making sure that a power wheelchair fits the user There’s a lot of things that you don’t usually think about, like sitting, for instance So, these are people that are gonna be sitting on their wheelchairs for 12, 14, 16 hours a day straight Many of these people don’t have the ability to adjust when one side of their leg gets tired Usually, if you’re sitting around, you’re moving around, you feel a little uncomfortable, you change positions Well, this is not the case in many cases with people with disabilities So, the sitting, there’s a lot of attention and researchers and money and people that are invested just in making sure that people won’t get what is called pressure sores, which is you stay too much with an unevenly distributed weight on a single part of your body and then the blood flow gets cut off and there’s infections And then, there can be even open wounds So, that’s serious stuff, right? So, there needs to be a lot of work invested in making sure it doesn’t happen There’s also a lot of work in making sure that whatever interface a person uses to drive the wheelchair is the best they can do So, some people, for instance, have difficulty controlling gross movement Say, if they were to go and try to push a button, there will be all sorts of unwanted movements And then hitting the button is like a crap shoot kind of thing Sometimes the hit it Sometimes they don’t So, some of those people will use their heads, for instance, so there’s gonna be a head brace mounted on the wheelchair so that they can, with the movement of their head, drive the wheelchair around Some of them will use shoulder switches, tongue switches, sip-and-puff switches with a straw and they just blow on it When they blow harder, the wheelchair does something else So, this is really quite an art form to actually figure out what works best for these people And this is all done in most of the developed countries–at least that I know of In Canada, a lot of this cost is subsidized by either government agencies or non-for-profit organizations But the point is, there’s literally tens of thousands of dollars going to this and hundreds of man hours going into making sure that this one person is gonna have the ability to drive around because mobility is one of the first and most essential needs that you will have as a person with a moderate to severe mobility impairment And then once it’s all done, in many cases, that’s all you can do You have the perfect interface fitted to your body You have a wheelchair that you’re driving around with a 12-Volt car battery on it And that’s it You go in front of an ATM and you can’t use it You go in front of an iPod or an Android device and you can’t use it So, we were wondering Well, can we tap into this effort? There’s a lot of people that have already solved that problem, so why don’t we just tap into that, provide some kind of interface, some kind of mediator, and then people can just do whatever they want to do like anybody else? And this is what the Tecla Access Project intends to do So, we see here a power wheelchair user Well, what you can imagine to be a power wheelchair user And the Tecla Shield is connected to their power wheelchair, or can be connected to their power wheelchair It can also be connected to standard on/off switches, like this one This is a very standard switch that occupational therapists in rehab centers all over the world use This is actually a sample–one of the latest prototypes of the Tecla Shield And so, the Tecla Shield allows these people to control the device with the interface they’re already familiar with, or they already have So, there’s no need to fit anything else or create any other special equipment

You get the Tecla Shield, which is a Bluetooth device And then, via Bluetooth, the signals are transmitted to the app that is running on the phone that has background process reading the Bluetooth’s input And then, it uses that to allow people to control the phone with actually a single switch So, I can actually control the phone And I think this is connected Yeah So, I can actually control a phone with a single switch And this is significant because single switches are probably the minimal unit of access in mobility impairment So, no matter how severe the impairment is, in most cases there’s gonna be a way to fit at least a single switch Now, it’s a little bit hard to show you how it works It’s easier to show you in person, so we have a setup here And I can show you later, after the talk perhaps So, what I’m gonna try to do is do it with the Android emulator And–oops Let’s see What’s going on? OK So, I have a Talk Android API level 7 here, running And let me see if I can– Oh, it doesn’t have the application I’m gonna install the application just very quickly Where is it? Actually, I’m gonna run this Talk 5, ’cause I know that one does have it Let’s see Do you have any questions, any comments, until now? Are you comfortable in following the talk? Yeah? That’s good to know OK So, what I’m gonna do is I’m gonna show you the application on the Android emulator, as I said The application itself has a mode called the “full screen switch mode,” which basically turns the entire screen into a single switch So, we use it for demo-ing it and for testing In practice, this is not necessarily a very good idea These switches get abused pretty badly So it would be a bad idea– Well, in many cases, it would be a bad idea to just have the phone there as a single switch for someone to use But it does go as far as showing how this can work Oh, this emulator reset the memory I guess it does OK So, let’s– I’m gonna install it quickly On this Stock 5 Let’s see OK, so it’s installing now It’s done So, there’s gonna be– I’m gonna use the mouse here Here you go Tecla Access It’s not showing the icon for some reason But then, the next thing is I go into “settings.” I go into “language and keyboard.” Tecla Access Enable it And then, I have to go and select it ’cause it’s an input method So, I have to substitute the stock input method Sure [pause] And, of course, as it should happen Maybe I’m installing the wrong version [audience murmurs in background] [pause] OK So, let’s try that installation again

[pause] Oh, geez It’s not Let’s try that again [pause] Refresh There you go So, we said Stock 5 There you go If I go into Stock 5– Let’s see What’s going on? I’m gonna try just one more time Let’s try with Stock 7 There you go OK So, again I go into “settings,” “language and keyboard,” select the Tecla Access input method And then, substitute the –. Oh, geez Substitute the input method Here you go Tecla Access And we’re in [pause] And then, the last thing I want to do is go into the Tecla Access settings and then activate full screen switch mode So, there you go So, this is how full screen switch mode looks like And as you can see, there’s always an on-screen keyboard at the bottom The keyboard is self-scanning The self-scanning feature has been activated And now, whenever I want to do something I just have to wait for the highlight to get there, to get to the command I want to send And then, press anywhere on the screen So, if I want to go back to my home screen, for instance, I will wait until that button is highlighted and there you go Then I wait maybe for the down arrow I’m gonna try to open the browser So, it’s highlighting And then I wait for the OK highlight, hit it, and now the browser is opening So, this is all using a single switch Even in the browser, I don’t know if I have a wireless connection now, so it’s not gonna do much But even in the browser, I can use the same– Oh, I have a monitor here I’ve been trying to– I can use the same feature to go and browse all of the active links So, you can see even there, in the 404 page, I can go into the link itself and then just keep browsing from there I’m gonna go back now maybe to the phone application So again, this is all using a single switch I’m going to the phone application Press OK I’m doing it slowly enough that I know I’m not gonna make any mistakes The actual users of this kind of application tend to go really, really fast because we have to remember, these are interfaces that are specifically designed for them, the interfaces they use, the switch interfaces they use I made a mistake there, so I’m gonna go back And then, I start dialing the phone number, for instance So, I’m just gonna do a six, four, seven thing, which is the area code for Toronto cell phones There you go Six, four Of course, it’s gonna be easy if I already have my contact in the contacts list

And I can just go to the list and go down, down, down, and select it But that’s the basic idea This is just so you get the idea of this And as I said, we can try it out after the talk with the actual device And then, we’re gonna move on to the next slide And I’m gonna show you a video of the first actual user of this system Eric Wan is an Engineering Master’s student at the University of Toronto He was actually the first student that started the code base as part of the Google Summer of Code You can there how he’s– Well, the video’s not great quality, but you can see there how he’s moving the highlights on the keyboard In the first version, the highlights were very faint gray Now, as you saw in the emulator, we made them a bit more clear And he’s basically, in that particular case, he’s trying to open the app drawer So, he finally gets it open And– Yeah? >>MALE AUDIENCE MEMBER #1: [ Inaudible ] >>Jorge Silva: That’s actually not single switch ’cause if you– You probably saw him backing out and there’s no self-scanning So, he actually has access to three switches, I believe And he drives his wheelchair with a sip-and-puff interface, so he blows and sucks for the switches to be activated There’s soft sip, soft puff, hard sip, hard puff So in total, he has access to four switches I believe he has a separate head switch–if I’m correct–to switch between the wheelchair and the phone Because you don’t want the wheelchair to go while you’re using the phone, of course And then, once he’s in the application, he goes in and starts typing “hello” I think I don’t remember exactly what he was typing there It’s not very clear But that was the first prototype This was completed after the Summer of Code 2009 No, 2010 So, about a year ago And since then, that’s Eric Wan again He’s was starting the Master’s then, I think He’s gonna be done next year And in one year, we’ve come all the way to this This is the first logo you saw there It’s a start-up company that is, or has been, set up to commercialize this technology It’s Open Source technology The hardware is based on the Arduino prototyping platform This particular video shows Caroline, who’s in intern in a magazine company that edits magazines And she’s talking about her experiences and her hopes as the first beta-tester of this particular device This one is particularly interesting because even though Eric Wan was actually using a straw and touching the straw to be able to control the phone, Caroline doesn’t actually touch anything ’cause her head switch array is composed of proximity sensors So basically, she just leans to one side or to another and that’s how she activates, or she has access to, the phone So, if you think about the initial slide that I showed you, the couple initial slides that I showed you, I think this is pretty close to something like telekinetic control of Android Like, Caroline is absolutely not touching any interface to be able to control this You can see here again, in the first session, we were trying to– Well, she was getting used to the interface and getting used to how to control it She uses two switches She does use self-scanning The second switch is for canceling whatever action that she did that she did not want to do–for correcting mistakes And so, I’ll leave that video like that

And I’m gonna go back to the slides So, this is just a sample of the kinds of things we’ve been hearing This is a mom of one of our beta-testers She came into the office the other day and I mean, it’s great, I guess, to have someone like her with a grin on her face saying, “My son texts me now every day from school.” That’s Caroline “I feel that Tecla has given me even more independence.” And there’s also one of the rehab engineers that we work with, Dave at Bloorview McMillan Child– Actually, it’s not Bloorview McMillan anymore–Holland Bloorview Kids Rehab Hospital in Toronto And he’s talking about what he thinks the hope for this kind of technology is Now, beyond this point, I really want you to know that this is, regardless of what I say next, this is definitely been possible in a great part because of Google and because of the Android team So, the Android team– Is anybody here from the Android team? Not here? Well, you should let them know Their work has made this possible and all their platform and all their company has been able to provide these kinds of facilities to do this With that said, there are some issues and this is actually why I came here I’m more interested on sharing what are the remaining barriers that exist This is a screen shot of menu options that is coming on top of an input method So, you can’t actually see the keyboard there This is the standard behavior for any Android platform The problem is not only that users can’t see the keyboard, but that the keyboard events are sent to the activity in the background, or in the back behind the keyboard Therefore, this particular menu is completely not accessible to these users And just to give you an analogy of what that means, with the Android platform, users are able to browse a launcher and open applications and maybe open the browser, follow a few links So, there’s a lot of work already done here to mitigate that first significant barrier Then, you can even go further and there’s lots of things– There’s a lot of barriers that this solves But then, at the very end, we have a little bit of a problem there So, there’s no way to get around that And it’s just the way it is This is another example This is actually a little bit worse, because at least the other one you can somehow escape from This one is a temporal breaking of the phone Alert dialogues and spinners also come on top of the keyboard So, when they appear and there’s no way to tell or to predict when they will appear, the user is effectively locked out of the phone There’s no other way to do it In the software, we have workarounds for this, but it’s not a fix It’s a workaround we basically call home–allow them to call home if they press a switch for a really long time And then it just goes back to the launcher But this particular pop-up alert dialogue basically has, or is equivalent of, this is great I’m gonna go in my ramp and I’m so glad that this thing is accessible And then, all of a sudden, there’s no way to go And in this one, you can’t even go backwards You’re just stuck waiting for someone to get you out of that trouble All in all however, if I was to do a completely arbitrary scale of whether this Android system

is either a paperweight or all the way from a paperweight to awesome, I would still put it very close to awesome It’s great It’s just great that people can make phone calls, can go into Twitter, do whatever the hell they want to do, same as anybody else would There’s a few other minor issues, but of course, this is just a first try, or at least with the Milestone– Well, in Milestone was branded in Canada was branded in Milestone This is a Droid here, I guess That was the first really successful, or what people see as the first really successful commercial example of the Android platform working on a mainstream device And it’s also the first try of something close to full accessibility So, to get that high that soon is pretty, pretty impressive The later release is totally on Gingerbread A few fixes on a couple of applications So, for instance, Gmail If you use Gmail in the Droids, it was not possible to look at different accounts because that was part of the options menu It was also not possible to go into different labels ’cause that was also part of the inaccessible options menu But then, there was a fix and the Android team created a nice Android bar And then, you had your labels and your accounts at the top and it was all highlighted and keyboard accessible So, people could use the phones And the other thing is something that hit Android in general, I think, and it was definitely not Google’s or the Android’s team fault, which is the platform exploded and there was all sorts of broken builds out there The wireless carriers in Canada said, “Aw, we don’t like the designers at Google They make ugly interfaces, so we’re gonna make our own and it’s gonna be great.” And that’s great, except they broke everything that the accessibility team had worked on There was no highlighting There was no keyboard accessibility So, it happened first with the Samsung Galaxy, the Sony Ericsson phones You could make a call, but you can’t actually hang up ’cause the button for hanging up is not highlighted There’s all sorts of issues We had LG phone throwin’ fits when Bluetooth was shut off because they wouldn’t close the Bluetooth socket cleanly So, the phone will do all these crazy things before killing the socket All sorts of workarounds we had to write in the software But if you stuck with the Google-evaluated Nexus S, for instance, you still had a pretty good experience There was a few issues here and there, but that problem of the fragmentation broken builds just really impacted the whole experience So, I would put it a little bit lower It’s not, in this particular case, it’s not Google’s fault And it just happened to be like that The problem is I was really excited about the Ice Cream Sandwich release this week And I was very eager to see the Keynote Was it this week? Earlier this week, I think? Yeah? And I saw the video And the video people mentioned something about accessibility They mentioned that there were enhancements And I was really excited because I said, “Well, they’re so close Google and Android are so close And if they are mentioning enhancements, then I’m pretty sure they’re already there for making sure that those pop-ups go behind the keyboard.” There’s actually just one flag, right? It doesn’t cost too much It’s not too much trouble to just turn it on or turn it off Maybe they realized it We’ve been busy working on this project We haven’t had time to spam you with bug reports and all that, but maybe they already realized

by themselves So, I went ahead and tried the Ice Cream Sandwich build Oh, this one didn’t like it I went ahead and tried it and the first screen that I encounter uses the launcher We have highlighting–not as great as the previous versions But it works People know where they are I go up I don’t know if you notice I’m already in the Google bar, the Google search bar That highlighting is a little less obvious But people maybe can get used to it That’s not the end of the world So, let’s go into the app drawer And then, I’m gonna try to select an application And actually, I have no idea now where I am Well, I guess I am in the apps thing I’m going to go into widgets and see what I can do there Nothing No highlighting Really? Well, maybe it’s just slow I tried it at home a few times and the highlights never appeared And I don’t know [chuckles wryly] I really felt– How do you say it when you feel there’s nothing you can do? You’re at the mercy of someone else There’s a word for that in English And this is basically what happened So, I did a bunch of tests The app drawer, as you saw, is unusable There was custom use Now, some of the settings, for instance, in the keyboard, the keyboard options were a little bit awkward before because they were divided in two You had to first select it in the check box and then go to the settings And the settings had the same name And people got a little bit confused So, the Ice Cream Sandwich showed that problem really well because then the created custom view that has a check box, the name of the keyboard, and the icon for the settings on one side Great If you actually go into that with a keyboard, you can’t actually access the settings You can’t actually uncheck the check box So, a lot of those setting boxes are unusable now There’s broken apps, now And those are the built-in apps So, I tried going into contacts manager–I think it’s called People now–you go into People and then the first thing it asks you is to create your profile There’s a little button and yeah, if you touch it, it works If you try to go in with the keyboard again, it doesn’t work It highlights, you press OK, which the D-pad center event on the keyboard and nothing happens So, that’s now unusable The one thing that it seems to do be aiming to fix though, is the broken builds My understanding is that the builds of Android should be a lot less fragmented now I guess we’ll have to see But this is the first time that this is actually something we can’t use Like, we went all the way backwards So now, all this excitement about being able to control the phone, about people in wheelchairs being able to telepathically, or telekinetically command their phones to do what they wish is gone in this particular version And I can’t help to think I know there must be a plan for this I can’t imagine there’s not a plan for this, but I can’t help thinking, “Was this just an accident? Was this level of accessibility really just accidental?”

Maybe the Android team didn’t even know that And I talked to my supervisor about this And my supervisor said, “Make sure to let them know that there’s others out there that are starting to get it.” The kind of work in accessibility that IOS 4, that people with visual impairments was phenomenal Phenomenal And now, in IOS 5, they’re mentioning switch access So now, we’re– What’s going to happen? And this one, this one here, apparently, the green one was accidental This one is purposeful So, I wonder what will happen And the question is what are you wanting to happen? What does Android team want it to happen? I meant to call this slide the Silly– It’s called Silly Math, but it’s more like the silly arguments I could stay here and talk to you, or I could talk you now about the hundreds of thousands of people just in the US and Canada who are depending on this kind of technology to be able to eliminate the barriers that currently exist to mobile devices I could also talk to you about the fact that, historically, anywhere from Alexander Graham Bell to Ray Kurzweil, any of the developers that–, any of you as developers work on technology that solves some kind of accessibility problems has to have really high probability of creating the next best technology Ray Kurzweil, he invented the flatbed scanner trying to figure out how to read characters from paper so that people with visual impairments could read them Alexander Graham Bell invented the phone trying to figure out how to, trying to understand how the human ear works to try to help some deaf children in a school that he was working at And the one that I think is the silliest one of all–you will make some money doing this There’s gonna be more people buying or using Android just because it’s accessible But I just feel these kinds of arguments are very silly I was talking to a PhD student at the Ontario Institute of Studies in Education They have a Human Rights program there And I started with a very bad question, which is usually the worst question you can ask a PhD student I asked, “What are you doing?” And I was waiting already for the full hour just nodding, not having any idea what he was gonna say And he said, “Well, do you know, you have heard of this term ‘systemic racism,’ right? Have you heard of that term?” And I said, “Yeah, yeah I’ve heard that term.” Well, I’m trying to figure out what makes it systemic I’m trying to figure out what is it that makes racism systemic Because we all know about that term, right? But what is it that actually makes it systemic? And that’s why I feel these arguments are silly To me, it’s like trying to tell the Montgomery City Transport Authority that they’re gonna make a few bucks if they let Rosa Parks sit wherever she wants I guess, are we really doing this these days? Isn’t it the right thing to do, to make sure that these things are accessible? And it’s not like there’s a lot work to be done Remember, the Android team was already here–very close to awesome I want to see it there And I’m sure and I know the Inclusive Design Research Center wants to see it there And I’m positive, Komodo OpenLab, the start-up company that was created to commercialize the technology, wants to see it there, too And it doesn’t seem like it’s too hard, especially if you were already there So, I’m gonna talk about and I want to close off with an example of just beautiful, beautiful

inclusive design A beautiful design that is existing now in the Android platform These are a couple screen shots you have on my left Your left, too You have a screen shot of the Android, the Droid phone, which is, to this day, the one that works best with this kind of technology And on the right, you have an example of voice actions–the Voice Actions and the Voice Search app And the very interesting thing about Voice Actions is that it’s an alert dialogue that actually comes below the keyboard I have no idea why it comes below the keyboard But it’s actually fully-functional It makes it fully-functional with alternative inputs My guess is the Android team is trying to anticipate the market of the distracted driver So, drivers are people, like people on wheelchairs, that cannot handle the phone during a context, a particular situation, in which in some cases is illegal to actually be holding the phone In other cases, they just can’t because they should be paying attention to the road So, if I’m trying to create an application that allows them to send an email with their voice, for instance, I have to make sure that they can use it without ever touching it And that’s my guess of why that dialogue actually exists and it works the way it works So, if you wanna go for it, if you want to let the Android team know, that’s the beauty of inclusive design You design, or you try to design, for people who can’t handle the phone and you end up benefiting a lot more people than you think And just to close off and I guess it just follows naturally from this, disability is still nowadays considered some kind of deficit or illness But it is very obvious, I think, as far as I can tell from what I try to say here, it’s very obvious to me that it is more the result of basically inaccessible environments And most of all, discriminatory contexts So, that’s about it for me And hopefully both of us, Mauricio and I, are completely committed to working with whoever we can work and whoever is necessary to make sure that Android goes all the way to the awesome side of the spectrum So, thank you [electronic music]

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