Detailed Guide. How I lost 100 pounds doing KETO in CHINA | Keto Friendly & Low Carb Chinese Foods

So I was looking through my comments the other day and I saw something to the effect of “I’m 100% committed to losing weight this time I’ll pay you twenty dollars if you make a video about this keto diet that you do in more detail Take me through a day or a couple of days or something of your diet, so I figure….challenge accepted! Challenge accepted This might be the last keto video that I do, but yeah – let’s go through a few days of what I eat and any kind of tips that I might have and stuff like that, because…yeah, the keto diet really did kind of change my life I lost a lot of weight Anyway – enough wasting time – let’s get into the video! A quick pro tip for anyone starting the keto diet is to just give it time Give it time, because it’s a major change for your body; you are going from being fueled by carbs, being fueled by sugars to fueling yourself with fats and protein Those are your main source of energy, especially fats It’s a big change for your body, and it’s sort of traumatic at the beginning You will feel really really weak, you will feel grumpy, you will feel — it’s sort of like when you quit drinking coffee or quit smoking cigarettes or whatever It’s an addiction, especially sugar, because you’ll have no sodas, no candies – no sugar of any sort – no fruit No rice, no bread, none of that That makes up a huge part of your (normal) diet, so when you start, you’ll feel awful for the first week, and the second week, you will feel a lot of cravings for this and for that and breaking your old routine of going to convenience stores and things like that Breaking that routine is really tough, so I recommend for people starting keto — do it on a vacation — do it on a holiday That’s when you should start, because you can focus more on cooking You can focus more on creating a new routine That’s definitely a big thing that I recommend starting with Now, these are just a few things that I have here – very, very few things So, for example – we have a couple of types of oil We have olive oil and we’ve got coconut oil Both easily purchased in China, as well as butter The three are things you’re going to be cooking with, so if you’re cooking something, cook with one of these three things, or maybe if you’ve got bacon grease laying around, cook with that That’s the way to go Now, in terms of meats, in keto, you’re going to become a sausage connoisseur You’re going to be figuring out what sausages you like because sausage is a great keto meat One: sausage is REALLY tasty, they’re great And two: they tend to have more fat than protein, which is ideal for keto, and three: usually the carb content is really low, if not zero So definitely get yourself some sausages They will be one of your staple meats And the other staple meat for me, of course, is steak I like buying steaks, so I go to a wholesale market and I buy these I think this comes out to 40 yuan each, but if you were to get this at a restaurant, it would be 200 kuai or more, so you save a lot buying wholesale And the other thing is cheese This is the other thing you’re going to want to have So I bought a seven-pound of cheese, Gouda cheese, to be specific, and I’m going with that Oh, I forgot – olives You’ve got to have some olives Olives will really help You can eat as many as you want on the keto diet I love them – green olives, black olives, whatever! They’re great! Something that I like to do whenever I need some extra vitamins and minerals and an extra source of healthy fats, especially if I want a snack….I would recommend not snacking on the keto diet, but if you have to, especially in the beginning – you’ll feel really really hungry all the time – get nuts and seeds and stuff like that This place right here, Liangpin Puzi, if you’re in China This is a great brand There’s another brand called San Zhi Songshu, which is Three Squirrels, that’s the translation of it Three Squirrels These places sell a lot of nuts, they sell a lot of seeds and stuff like that, so I’m going to go in here and get a couple All right, so right here we’ve got some things like pistachios They tend to be pretty carby, but pine nuts are really good They are rather expensive, but pine nuts are really good, so I’m going to go with that Everything is by 100g here in China, so let’s see — what is this for carbs?

10.3 carbs/100g which is not bad, so we’re going to go with that Macadamia nuts are good as well Almonds are fantastic, so I’m going to grab some almonds, and then there are some seeds that I really like right here Let’s see They’re very, very cheap and they’re perfect for this diet Bai Guazi – I’m not really sure what these are So these three are really good, and I might take a look at watermelon seeds and some others, but I think that’s about where I’m going to stop This place is great because they have just all sorts of dried goods And you can take a look at the packaging – the fat content, the carb content – but I tend to go with nuts and seeds because they have a lot of healthy fats in them along with other great nutrition….what am I trying to say? Other great vitamins and minerals in them, so yeah – definitely check out this store So, let’s talk about the daily routine What do I eat from meal to meal? Let’s break it down – breakfast , lunch, dinner – stuff like that I’ll take you through a few example meals that I have just as part of my daily routine, so let’s do it Breakfast is the easiest: coffee That’s all Black coffee And I do that because that I find that keto goes really really well with intermittent fasting Intermittent fasting, if you don’t know, is also called 16/8 It’s just a way to break down your day into two parts There’s one part where you take in calories, you consume calories And then the other part is when you don’t So you take 8 hours a day Those hours are the times in which you take in calories So, for me, 12pm to 8pm – that eight-hour stretch – that’s when I consume my calories I don’t eat breakfast, and I don’t eat late at night So those eight hours, I’m taking in calories, and then the other sixteen hours of the day, I’m fasting So I have twice as much time fasting as I do eating Even having sodas, of course, other drinks — no calories No calories in those sixteen hours Fasting! Now you CAN actually drink black coffee during a fast and you’re fine It doesn’t break your fast, so that’s what I do I wake up, have a little coffee at about nine o’clock or so, and that’s my breakfast, and I move on to lunch Let’s talk about lunch! Lunch could be just about anything, but for example, this particular meal: it’s sausage, it’s olives, it’s bacon and eggs with a little chives on top You can also throw in a little bit of cheese for example That’s a perfect keto breakfast / lunch because it’s a lot of fat, it’s a lot of protein, and it’s good stuff – it’s kind of – it’s meat heavy That’s good Because most of your macros are going to be concentrated towards fats and proteins, and these particular types of meats – these sausages and this kind of bacon – more fat than protein I want a little bit more fat, so I’ve added olives to it And that’s it! There’s a couple of carbs in the eggs, but that doesn’t really matter Doesn’t really matter I was a bit lazy tonight and got some delivery This is just a Subway salad right here So it’s got some bacon, salami, and ham in here – or pepperoni and ham – and for extra fat, I’ve got some guacamole Guacamole doesn’t really belong in this salad, but oh well And then … I do have onions, but my macros have been good today, so I can actually fit the onions in Onions are usually carby I’ve got some green peppers here and some olives I’m probably going to add some more olives just because I like olives and I’ve got them in the fridge So yeah, there’s dinner! And here we’ve got rabbit with lots and lots of different kinds of peppers and some ginger That’s all that’s in there So, a lot of protein, not much fat, so what I can do is eat that 100% dark chocolate or some nuts or some seeds Something like that That’ll work! And I don’t think I talked about the 100% dark chocolate, actually It’s fantastic for keto because it’s full of healthy fats Lots of fats It’s got so many health benefits, dark chocolate does – so please check that out If you look down here, the fat to protein ratio is crazy, so 55 grams to 13 grams of

protein is great Now, it is carby, so every 100 grams, 15 grams of carbs, so you’ve gotta be careful with however much you’re eating of this I try to stay at about 10-20 carbs per day, so if I have dark chocolate, if I have any dark chocolate that day, that’s going to pretty much be my carbs or most of my carbs for the day It’s pretty bitter, yeah, but it’s nice This is one of my favorite dishes right here – I LOVE TOMATO AND EGGS This is the best Yes They go perfectly well together You see tomatoes and eggs mixed together in different capacities, but that’s all it is Just tomatoes and eggs, a little bit of garlic because I happen to like garlic Boy, it’s fantastic! And you might think these are little mushrooms or something like that, but it’s actually bamboo! They call it baby bamboo Mix that with some chicken and some spices, and it’s awesome! A lot of fiber and a lot of goodness There you go So we’ve got another lunch here We’ve got Shuizhu Niurou, which is like “water boiled beef” , so we’ve got slices of beef here Bunch of garlic on top, but it’s mostly for flavor, because you don’t want to eat too much garlic when you’re on keto But yeah, you just kind of stir it up And we’ve got some veggies right here This is napa cabbage…and yeah! So it’s basically just beef with some onions and spices and all that kind of stuff Just look at it! It’s beautiful Yeah! That’s lunch So I noticed that I’ve been posting a lot of meat heavy stuff I haven’t talked a lot about the vegetables, so let’s actually go through the vegetable market and figure out which vegetables are good for keto We’ll just start here, I guess The rule of thumb is that basically — if it grows above ground and is green — you’re good to go! You’re good to go! So with things like green onions and leeks, you do have to be careful Cabbage is, of course, good to go Celery is amazing Spinach is one of the best vegetables for the keto diet Peppers are all good I would not say eat many bell peppers because they have natural sugars inside them Cucumbers – fantastic – eat as many as you want! Eggplant you can eat Eggplant, yeah – right there Any leafy green vegetable is good! This is called Kongxin Cai This is a Sichuan thing It might be in a couple of other places, but yeah Tomatoes I would say be careful with Be careful with tomatoes because tomatoes are technically a fruit and you’ve gotta cut out fruit on the keto diet That kinda sucks, but you know, you can have tomatoes Just be careful with them Just be careful with them And here we’ve got a bunch of mushrooms So basically any mushroom is okay in moderation, like most things are okay in moderation There you go, you’ve got little bokchoy, you’ve got — there are some things I don’t even know what they are — like this here I don’t even know what that is We’ve got a couple of types of lettuce right here Carrots you can’t have, unfortunately This is called ”bitter melon,” and it’s really really good for keto, but boy, it tastes awful It’s not called ”bitter melon” because it’s green Cilantro, of course, is all fine Corn – no corn, unfortunately Don’t do it It’s sweet and it’s carby This type of cabbage here, had this the other day No onions, no potatoes…or a few onions Not much Like…you can have maybe half an onion But be careful with the carb count So it’s really not so bad; the keto diet is not so bad YOU CAN EAT MOST THINGS Most things, you can have Oh, these are two of my staples I eat these all the time, cauliflower and broccoli along with this They’re just staples for me I love them Yeah, keto’s NOT that bad You can have most vegetables So many people focus on what you can’t eat, right? Everyone freaks out about things I’m not allowed to have on keto I’m not allowed to have this, I’m not allowed to have this, but actually it’s not that restrictive

of a diet once you kind of actually sit down and think about what the whole thing entails It’s just meat and vegetables Just eat meat and most vegetables Not so bad Now let’s talk about eat out If you’re out and you don’t know what to eat or what to do for food, something you can do, especially for dinner or if you decide to break intermittent fasting and eat later at night is barbecue BBQ is fantastic! So you can go to a place like this – these Xinjiang places – minority kind of BBQ places – and you can just sit here on the side of the road and eat something It’s just meat It’s just meat They do have some vegetables Roast garlic – don’t eat that – it’s a bit too carby But then you’ve got mushrooms, great! Mushrooms, great! Mushrooms, great! Peppers – all of the stuff on the top here is pretty good, except for the tofu And of course, you’ve got the meat! It’s got some lean meat, it’s got some fatty meat Peanuts are okay as well It’s all good! Stay away from the beer, but BBQ is a great option And I remember one of my subscribers saying, “Keto is hard? No, it’s not – it’s called the lamb kebab diet.” And yeah…..that’s it! You can do that Another meal that I had while I was out the other day was tandoori chicken and the local Indian place, so when you go to a restaurant, anything with meat in it, you’re fine Focus on the meat It’s easier Something that you just cannot get around the first couple of months of keto is research You HAVE TO go out and look at how many carbs are in this, how many carbs are in this What are net carbs, what are total carbs You have to look up so many things and learn to count your carbs You CANNOT get around it I don’t count calories on this diet, but I do count carbs, and I’ll tell you why later Something you’re going to have to do is track your meals Track your meals Track your eating You have to know what you’re putting in your face It’s really important So I suggesting using an app called keto tracker, or just type in keto tracker into Google Play or keto diet into Google Play or whatever app store you use, and you’ll see lots of different options for this sort of thing You have to keep track of what you put into your body It’ll spit out your calories and your macros into all the different percentages Why don’t I count calories? Because it’s something that naturally happens When you eat sort of the same foods over and over and over again, there’s this thing that happens called food habituation Whenever you get sort of used to certain foods, you’ve eaten them so many times…you just kind of naturally take in less and less calories because you eat less and less of those foods You’re not excited by them anymore You’re kind of over them So, that’s sort of what happened to me I don’t really care about food as much as I used to I just don’t I’m not a food guy anymore unless I get off keto, then I go totally nuts But while I’m on keto? Eh, food is just fuel I don’t care about it so much Worry about what time of the day it is and worry about how many carbs are in it, and that’s it And as far as exercise goes — I didn’t really do a lot of exercise I just didn’t because I just physically couldn’t in the beginning After I lost 40-50 pounds, I started cycling a lot more I started riding my bike I’d pretty much exclusively ride my bike to get where I was going I wouldn’t take any other form of transport, and maybe once a week or once every two weeks, I would play soccer with a couple of friends, football That’s about all that I did And that’s about all that I do I don’t do a lot of exercise now…even less than I did before I’m 187 – I actually just weighed myself today I was 277, 277 pounds – now I’m 187, so 90 pounds down overall I’m looking to get down to about 175 or so, and I think that’ll be about where I maintain And that’s about it – I don’t have a whole lot left to say We’ve gone through the meals, we’ve gone through snacks, we’ve gone through my exercise, we’ve gone through a few things that you can eat and you can’t eat We’ve gone through this — we’ve gone though so many different things So I hope that this was helpful to you guys out there! And that is it – challenge accepted and challenge completed! Bam – there it is! Paypal me, there it is Or you can check me out on Patreon as well Please check out my instagram I’m trying to get more followers on Instagram Let’s get going – I LOVE my instagram I think it’s great! I’m not posting a ton at the moment, but I do love what I post Such a great, simple little platform

Not getting in on the tiktoks No thank you, no thank you Yeah, I think that’s about it Again, thank you all very much for watching, and I’ll see you all next time!


Visa Pour Une Autre Terre (5) – Les Immortels

CHAPITRE V, Les immortels J’ai assisté moi-même, au camp de concentration de Mauthausen, aux événements que je vais raconter. Ceci se passait au printemps de 1944 Nous avons reçu un convoi de déportés qui n’étaient pas ordinaires : ils avaient demandé à être mis en camp de concentration Comme tout le monde en Allemagne – contrairement à ce qu’ils disent maintenant – savait ce qui se passait dans les camps de concentration, cette attitude était pour le moins surprenante. Aussi Ziereis, le fürher de notre camp, les interrogea-t-il aussitôt Nous avons très vite su ce qui s’était passé. Les nouveaux venus ont répondu : « Nous sommes les témoins de Jéhovah. Il nous a été rapporté que l’on commet des crimes ici. Nous voulons en être directement témoins et le jour du Jugement, placés à la droite de Dieu, nous lui rendrons personnellement compte. » Ziereis n’avait pas peur de grand-chose, mais il frissonna et leur a dit ; « C’est une erreur, je vais vous faire libérer immédiatement. » Sur quoi les Témoins de Jéhovah en chœur : « Mort à Hitler ! Périsse ce porc ! » Il a bien fallu les garder. Ils sont tous morts au crématoire. Mais je ne voudrais pas être à la place de Ziereis, que j’ai abattu personnellement à la Libération, lorsqu’il aura à s’expliquer devant le Visage juste C’est dire que je n’ai pas tendance à me moquer des Témoins de Jéhovah Or ils prétendent que 144 000 Immortels sont déjà parmi nous Cette tradition d’immortels parmi nous est très ancienne. En Chine déjà, on parlait de l’île des Immortels où on pouvait rejoindre certains sages du passé Dans toutes les civilisations, la tradition d’une petite minorité d’immortels vivant parmi nous est fondamentale. La légende la plus célèbre dans ce domaine est évidemment celle du Juif errant. Une de ses formes moins connue, et peut-être la plus belle, est celle-ci : le Centième Nom du Seigneur, le Nom ineffable, est inscrit sur une épée. Lorsque le Juif errant rencontre cette épée, il doit se remettre en route (il paraîtrait qu’il existe un analogue noir de cette épée, l’épée de l’Ordre noir, l’épée symbolique des S. S., qui porterait le nom secret de Satan en caractères runiques) Le Juif errant a bien entendu inspiré Eugène Sue et Alexandre Dumas. Mais il a aussi inspiré un nombre considérable de pamphlets racontant des rencontres avec cet Immortel fatidique. Des gens le décrivent, et d’autres comme Gustave Meyrinck disent : « Si tu le vois comme un homme, tu n’es pas encore éveillé. Mais si tu le vois comme un symbole sagittaire dans le ciel étoilé, sache alors que tu es élu faiseur de miracles.» Les apparitions les plus connues du Juif errant sont à Hambourg en 1542, en Espagne en 1575, à Vienne en 1599, à Ypres en 1623, à Bruxelles en 1640 et à Paris en 1644 Lors de l’apparition de Hambourg, Paulus von Eisen, l’évêque protestant du Schleswig, le rencontra En 1602, un pamphlet anonyme décrivant cette rencontre apparat C’est la première fois que l’on voit la légende désormais classique du Juif errant Ahasverus, cordonnier à Jérusalem, qui lorsque le Christ sur le chemin de la Croix veut se reposer contre sa porte le repousse. Jésus lui dit alors : «Je me reposerai quand je le voudrai, mais toi tu seras constamment en marche jusqu’à ce que je revienne.» Le pamphlet de 1602 a été imprimé on ne sait où, et l’auteur est inconnu. Le pamphlet a eu de nombreuses éditions. Au XVIIIe puis au XIXe siècle, le Juif errant devient plus rare. Il apparaîtra cependant à New Castle en 1790 et à Salt Lake City en 1868. Lors de cette visite et pour la première fois, il donne une interview à un reporter mormon appelé O’Grady du journal Desert News. Il ne s’est pas encore manifesté à Saint-Germain-des-Prés, mais tous les espoirs sont permis depuis que Saint-Germain le Rose-Croix immortel s’y est manifesté Il est trop simpliste, je pense, d’attribuer la légende du Juif errant à l’antisémitisme éternel. La tradition des Immortels vivant secrètement parmi nous ne dépend pas de l’antisémitisme, et il est assez naturel de penser qu’un Immortel ait pu assister à l’événement numéro un de l’histoire, la crucifixion Tout récemment, un auteur dramatique juif, David Pinsky, a repris la légende du Juif errant du point de vue juif : son Juif errant n’est pas un coupable, mais un chercheur immortel, désirant se trouver là lorsque le Messie viendra. Cela se rapproche de la version de Meyrinck La plus ancienne légende d’immortalité est l’épopée sumérienne de Gilgamesh Le héros trouve au fond de la mer une plante dont le suc restaure la jeunesse et prolonge la vie indéfiniment. C’est une idée assez voisine de la biologie moderne. Des savants tels que René Quinton ont pensé que le secret de l’immortalité réside dans la mer Depuis, et en passant par le Juif errant, la légende de l’immortalité physique, l’idée d’une minorité d’lmmortels parmi nous, est tellement répandue qu’elle mériterait un examen plus sérieux que ceux qui ont été faits jusqu’à présent. À ma connaissance, le seul examen

sérieux d’un moyen simple de parvenir à l’immortalité a été fait peu avant la Deuxième Guerre mondiale par le sénateur américain Roger Sherman Hoar. Partant de l’idée que la vieillesse est causée par l’accumulation de l’eau lourde dans l’organisme, Hoar en déduisit que l’élixir de longue vie pourrait être tout simplement une substance qui élimine de l’organisme l’eau lourde dans la sueur et les urines, de préférence à l’eau légère. Une telle substance aurait pu être trouvée empiriquement (ou obtenue par contact avec les Extra-Terrestres) dans un passé lointain et le secret serait conservé par une société d’immortels recrutant peu L’idée est assez plausible et une telle société d’immortels serait très difficile à déceler Même à notre époque, il est très facile de se procurer des faux papiers et de modifier suffisamment la classification de ses empreintes digitales pour que celles-ci ne soient pas classées dans le bon compartiment. Un petit graissage de pattes des fonctionnaires concernés suffit, et cela se pratique. Dans le passé, où il n’y avait ni empreintes digitales ni photographies, il était très facile de changer l’identité et de demeurer ainsi inaperçu Un petit nombre d’immortels parmi nous – quelques centaines dans le monde entier par génération d’hommes normaux – ne risque pas d’être détecté. Même en cas d’accident, on fait tout au plus une autopsie superficielle, on ne prélève pas de sang et on ne fait pas d’études détaillées Un Immortel écrasé par une automobile ou qui périt dans un accident d’avion ne risque pas d’être détecté Si les Immortels sont les seuls à connaître le secret de l’élixir de longue vie, d’autres l’ont cherché sans le trouver. Les alchimistes en particulier. La tradition chinoise dit qu’au IIe siècle de l’ère chrétienne, l’alchimiste Wei Po-Yang a découvert le secret de longue vie Il a rendu immortel l’un de ses disciples et ce qui est resté de l’élixir fut absorbé par le chien de l’alchimiste, qui devint immortel aussi Les alchimistes chinois croyaient que l’or était indispensable pour préparer l’élixir de longue vie, et comme ils étaient généralement des moines taoïstes ne pouvant se procurer de l’or, parce que trop pauvre, ils ont cherché à le fabriquer et ils paraissent y avoir réussi Mais ont-ils également fabriqué l’élixir de longue vie ? Malgré les légendes, ce n’est pas certain — Quant aux tentatives des alchimistes européens, s’ils paraissent avoir réussi le Grand Œuvre, ils ne paraissent pas avoir réussi l’élixir de longue vie, qui paraît avoir été trouvé indépendamment d’eux. Au XVIIIe siècle, le lexique universel de H. Zedler parle d’une panacea aqua, qui se présentait à toutes les analyses uniquement comme de l’eau très pure et qui cependant prolongeait la vie et guérissait de nombreuses maladies Elle était distribuée gratuitement par un M. de Villars, de Paris, sur lequel j’aimerais bien en savoir davantage. Il est tout à fait possible que ce soit là la première apparition connue d’un élixir dissolvant l’eau lourde C’est la même technique que l’élimination de l’eau d’un carburant : on ajoute de l’alcool qui part avec l’eau. Un traité attribué à tort ou à raison à Paracelse, et intitulé De Tinctura Physicorum, datant de 1570, parle d’une teinture grâce à laquelle des médecins égyptiens auraient vécu 150 ans. Vers la même période, un dénommé Salomon Trismosin se serait rajeuni plusieurs fois, aussi bien de visage que de cheveux que par le redressement de sa colonne vertébrale Interrogé jusqu’à quand il comptait vivre, il répondit : « Jusqu’au Jugement dernier » Lui aussi, semble-t-il, employait une eau modifiée. À notre époque, la société secrète possédant ce produit paraît s’être manifestée au XIXe siècle par la guérison de Goethe, qui était condamné. Alexander Von Bemius y fait allusion dans certains de ses ouvrages On a parlé d’une intervention de la société pour prolonger la vie du chancelier Adenauer, considéré par les membres de la société comme indispensable à la cause de la paix Cela n’est pas prouvé, mais Adenauer lui-même affirmait que des médecins possédant des techniques inconnues étaient intervenus dans son cas Goethe a été marqué toute sa vie par l’intervention des alchimistes pour le sauver À cette époque, en 1770, il écrivait à une amie, Mlle von Klettenberg : « Ma passion secrète, c’est l’alchimie » En même temps, et probablement sous l’effet du traitement, les dons paranormaux qui avaient toujours existé dans sa famille (sa grand-mère maternelle avait la seconde vue et interprétait les rêves d’une manière très freudienne) sont remontés à la surface Comme Newton, il s’intéressait à la fois aux disciplines paranormales, à l’optique, notamment à la théorie de la couleur, et à îa météorologie, notamment la théorie des nuages Par contre, il s’est détaché de plus en plus des religions, et à l’âge de quatre-vingts

ans il déclarait que la seule religion à laquelle il aurait voulu appartenir est celle des sectes du ive siècle qui voulaient faire la synthèse du christianisme, du judaïsme et des religions païennes On trouvera les preuves détaillées de l’intervention des alchimistes dans la vie de Goethe dans les références suivantes : R. D. Gray, Goethe the Alchimist (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1952). A. Raphaël, The Philosophe’s Stone (Routledge, 1965) Ces deux ouvrages sont vagues en ce qui concerne le nom de la société qui est intervenue Je n’ai pas d’information supplémentaire à ce sujet. Je voudrais simplement faire observer ceci : Beaucoup d’auteurs, et moi tout le premier, ont insisté sur l’Allemagne noire qui a culminé dans le nazisme. L’existence de cette Allemagne noire est malheureusement indiscutable. Mais il a existé aussi son opposé, l’Allemagne blanche. Et le nazisme lui-même ne paraît pas avoir été en mesure d’en détruire le centre. C’est ce centre qui, encore de nos jours, est le seul au monde en mesure de donner des autorisations de fonder des organismes d’initiation. La dernière en date de ces autorisations a été celle donnée à la fin du XIXe siècle à la Golden Dawn. Dans cette autorisation, le centre est désigné par les initiales S. D. A. C’est également cette organisation qui a donné l’autorisation de créer les « cercles cosmiques » de l’écrivain Stefan George. Plusieurs des officiers ayant participé à l’attentat du 20 juillet 1944 contre Hitler ont fait partie de ces « cercles cosmiques » Avec la mort d’Alexander von Bernus, le grand poète et alchimiste allemand contemporain, le seul lien que je connaissais pour joindre ce centre est disparu. Mais son existence est indéniable, et il est intervenu en 1770 pour sauver Goethe Il est à noter finalement que des savants aussi éminents que Max Planck et Werner Heisenberg ont pris ou prennent très au sérieux les idées de Goethe sur la relation entre l’alchimie et la science Il est donc possible d’admettre au moins comme une hypothèse l’existence d’une société des Immortels intervenant rarement. Et nos connaissances sur l’effet physiologique de l’eau lourde permettent au moins une hypothèse précise sur la fonction de l’élixir de longue vie Le lecteur pourra s’indigner à l’idée que l’élixir de longue vie est fondamentalement une découverte chimique basée uniquement sur les lois naturelles. Beaucoup de lecteurs s’attendraient plutôt à ce que le secret de l’immortalité comprenne essentiellement des éléments spirituels. J’ai le plus grand respect pour les conceptions de ce genre, et je voudrais recommander au lecteur qui s’intéresse à l’immortalité physique au point de vue spirituel l’ouvrage suivant : L’Immortalité physique, par Marcel Pouget (Editions et Publications premières) Raymond Abellio, dans la préface de ce livre, mentionne l’existence d’une secte californienne publiant un journal qui s’appelle Le Courrier d’lmmortalité. Ce journal aurait écrit : « Tout est possible, même l’immortalité Le jour viendra où les hommes s’étonneront que leurs ancêtres, dans leur ignorance, aient vécu des milliers de générations dans l’ombre terrifiante de la fausse conviction que la mort était inévitable. » C’est une belle remarque M. Pouget considère plutôt l’immortalité comme un état d’esprit pouvant être atteint de l’intérieur et constituant une résistance à la mort Malheureusement, si la seule volonté de résister à la mort produisait l’immortalité, il y a bien des déportés des camps de concentration qui seraient devenus immortels. Or les ex- déportés continuent à mourir et dans assez peu d’années il n’y en aura plus. M Pouget mentionne comme preuve de l’efficacité de sa méthode qu’il n’a pas consulté de médecin depuis quinze ans Je crois qu’il confond les effets et les causes et qu’il est en bonne santé parce qu’il n’a pas consulté de médecin depuis quinze ans et non pas le contraire. Son livre mérite le respect et même l’affection que l’on doit porter à ceux qui ont beaucoup souffert, mais il n’empêche pas qu’il répète les clichés parfaitement faux sur la pollution et les âneries habituelles sur le yoga, le prana, etc Par contre, sa description de la condition surhumaine est belle et mérite d’être reproduite : « On peut maintenant se demander pourquoi je nomme immortalité physique – ou même immortelle jeunesse – ce que j’ai ressenti d’incommunicable pendant ces quelques secondes C’est sans doute qu’au fond de moi-même

l’idée s’imposa avec force de l’impossibilité de vieillir et de mourir dans un état aussi formidable, aussi étincelant, de bonheur physique. La part de mon être d’où surgissait cette impression était un Moi qui ne se manifestait pas d’ordinaire mais qui, je l’éprouvais comme une indiscutable vérité, constituait le soutien lumineux de ma vie, ainsi que son guide vers une existence supérieure. » L’expérience seule compte : on verra bien si M. Pouget restera immortel. Je le lui souhaite vivement, mais je ne pense pas qu’il y ait quoi que ce soit de pratique à tirer de la méthode qu’il préconise. Si on veut absolument concilier toutes les idées, on peut d’ailleurs croire qu’à l’origine la société des Immortels a trouvé sa révélation dans ses intuitions paranormales, la prière ou même les contacts avec les extra-terrestres Ce qui m’intéresse, c’est de penser qu’il existe un produit simple, obtenu par le traitement de l’eau en présence de certains métaux dont très probablement l’or et qui prolonge la vie bien au-delà des limites que les biologistes considèrent comme normales. L’on comprend que le secret de ce produit soit gardé : il y a déjà suffisamment de problèmes de surpopulation sans qu’on vienne encore y ajouter l’immortalité Mais la société doit réserver ce traitement à certains êtres d’une valeur exceptionnelle, et elle doit aussi pouvoir remplacer ceux de ses membres qui meurent par accident : même un Immortel n’est pas à l’abri d’une guerre ou d’un accident d’automobile ou d’avion La société doit aussi veiller à la sauvegarde de son secret. Cette sauvegarde doit devenir de plus en plus difficile à mesure que les techniques militaires se perfectionnent. Dans le passé, lorsqu’on voyait que le portrait d’un homme ayant vécu au XVIIIe siècle ressemblait beaucoup à celui d’un homme ayant vécu au XIVe siècle sans qu’il y ait aucun rapport de parenté, on attribuait cela au hasard ou à la réincarnation. Ceux qui étaient frappés par la ressemblance de certaines signatures d’hommes séparés par des siècles, comme par exemple (surtout sous forme d’initiales) les signatures de Roger Bacon et de Roger Boscovitch, n’insistaient pas. Mais par la suite, si on trouve au XXIe siècle les mêmes empreintes digitales sur un fichier de police qu’au XIXe siècle, des questions vont être posées Il en sera de même des photographies, quoique toutes les photographies de passeport se ressemblent, et toutes les photographies de journaux. Avant la guerre, le Canard enchaîné a prouvé, preuves en main, que l’Aga Khan était le même que le politicien Albert Sarraut et que le Premier ministre grec Vascencellos. La ressemblance des portraits d’agence était réellement séduisante. Si on trouve des moyens d’identification encore meilleurs que les empreintes digitales : structure rétinienne, électro-encéphalogramme, et que tous les humains soient fichés par un ordinateur central, celui-ci s’apercevra que certains humains survivent à travers les âges. À moins que la société secrète des Immortels ne trouve moyen de détraquer ce calculateur à distance… On pourrait se demander si certains des symboles de la société ne risquent pas d’être identifiés. Le rapport entre la pomme et l’immortalité est tellement répandu dans le monde entier, partout où ce fruit existe, qu’il mériterait examen. De même, la légende des Immortels qui sont en train de dormir mais vont reparaître fournit peut-être des indices. La plus classique de ces légendes est le roi Arthur, celui de la Table Ronde, qui dormirait sur Richmond Castle, dans le Yorshire. Il y aurait été vu. Mais il y a également le roi tchèque Wenzel, qui dort sous le mont Blanik ; Frédéric Barberousse, qui dort sous les montagnes de Thuringe (je ne peux m’empêcher de citer une indication de jeux de scène de Victor Hugo, admirable par sa naïveté, dans Les Burgraves : « Mendiant, dis-moi ton nom. – Frédéric Barberousse, empereur d’Allemagne. » Et l’annotation de Victor Hugo est : « Étonnement et stupeur. » Il y a de quoi.) On cite aussi le roi Marko, qui dort dans les montagnes serbes ; le brigand Dobocz, qui dort sous les Carpates. Il y aurait également les fondateurs de la Fédération suisse, Ogier le Danois, et bien d’autres Chacune de ces légendes désigne peut-être des Immortels. Il y a également la légende des Sept Dormeurs d’Éphèse, légende chrétienne que l’on retrouve également dans le Coran On trouve aussi des dormeurs immortels dans les Niebelungen qui ont terriblement influencé Hitler, dont le mot d’ordre fut finalement : « Allemagne, réveille-toi » Une chanson de marche nazie dit ; «L’heure approche où les morts se réveilleront, y compris ceux qui se croyaient vivants. » Les mythes parlant, même de nos jours, des forteresses souterraines des Immortels, sont extrêmement nombreux Les Supérieurs inconnus, les maîtres qui ont inspiré des mouvements tels que la théosophie ou le Golden Dawn, seraient immortels Ils auraient également le pouvoir d’immobiliser leur corps dans une transe où il ne s’use pratiquement pas, pendant qu’ils font du travail mental, qu’ils réfléchissent ou même qu’ils voyagent par clairvoyance dans d’autres régions de l’espace Pythagore et Francis Bacon seraient de nos

jours encore parmi eux. Tout cela est évidemment difficile à prouver et ne peut guère être considéré comme établi. Il y a là peut- être cependant une piste L’état civil devrait fournir des pistes plus sérieuses. Quelques études là-dessus ont été faites par des médecins légistes à qui très curieusement on a refusé la publication et qui préfèrent ne pas être cités. On connaît la date de naissance de l’alchimiste Jean Lallemant, mais non pas la date de sa mort. D’une façon générale, et contrairement à ce qu’on dit dans la presse, on ne retrouve jamais dans l’état civil la mort de centenaires ou de personnes encore plus âgées Lorsque tel journal annonce qu’une personne est morte à l’âge de cent ans, la vérification à l’état civil ne montre généralement pas plus de quatre-vingt-quinze ans. Un statisticien français me disait : « Les centenaires ne meurent jamais. » Le phénomène est absolument général dans tous les pays du monde, y compris l’Union soviétique, mais on refuse généralement les communications à son sujet Les cas de gens, généralement des chercheurs spécialisés dans les sciences secrètes dont on ne peut pas retrouver la date de la mort, alors que l’on connaît parfaitement leur date de naissance, sont relativement nombreux. Y compris dans les pays où l’état civil est bien tenu, et dans les époques très modernes. Meyrinck dit poétiquement que lorsqu’on ouvre certains cercueils, on n’y trouve pas de cadavre mais une épée symbolique. Cette épée est taillée, dit-il, dans de l’oxyde de fer cristallin très dur (magnétite). Là aussi, il y a une symbologie intéressante En Chine, il y aurait des Immortels à la tête des grandes sociétés secrètes, et notamment du Dragon d’Émeraude. Même la police de Mao ne me paraît pas avoir détruit ces sociétés secrètes Il serait évidemment intéressant de savoir si l’immortalité se transmet à la descendance En principe, les caractères acquis ne sont pas transmis, mais tout récemment on a apporté un certain nombre de preuves que l’A. D. N peut être influencée du dehors. Il est possible aussi que certains êtres héritent de l’immortalité ou de la vie très prolongée sans le savoir Ne quittons pas l’état civil sans mentionner qu’il est extrêmement facile d’en avoir un nouveau et qu’il doit y avoir des Immortels qui changent périodiquement d’identité sans que cela leur pose aucun problème Les légendes sur des fontaines naturelles contenant cette eau modifiée que nous avons appelée élixir de longue vie sont très nombreuses. La plus célèbre est celle du conquistador espagnol Ponce de Léon, qui en aurait trouvé une dans les Bahamas. Chose curieuse, dans l’île de Bimini, où se trouve la fontaine de Ponce de Léon, on trouve aussi des reliques d’une civilisation disparue, et notamment le fameux mur de Bimini, vieux de dix mille ans. La coïncidence est pour le moins curieuse Des fontaines de ce genre se trouveraient un peu partout sur la Terre. Bien entendu, les psychanalystes ont superposé là-dessus leur symbolisme puéril. Ce qu’il y a de remarquable, c’est qu’ils rapprochent la Lune de l’eau Or justement la Lune, c’est le seul monde qui ne possède pas d’eau… tout au moins à sa surface. Par contre, le symbolisme religieux de l’eau bénite, de la fontaine de la vie éternelle, de l’eau qui donne la vie éternelle, doit être considéré avec la plus grande attention Tout récemment, un certain nombre d’autres formes d’eau que l’eau ordinaire et que l’eau lourde ont été découvertes. Citons en particulier l’eau super-lourde, contenant deux atomes d’hydrogène 3 et un atome d’oxygène, et l’eau polymérisée Quelque part dans la structure de ces multiples formes d’eau se trouve le secret de l’immortalité physique. Même l’eau ordinaire est en rapport avec le cosmos. Piccardi a montré que ses propriétés physiques et chimiques changent avec le temps. Il semble que ces changements puissent être reliés à la traversée par la Terre de diverses régions de l’espace La trajectoire de la Terre, qui est hélicoïdale (combinaison de la rotation de la Terre autour du Soleil et du déplacement du système solaire vers Véga), coupe le champ galactique à un angle variable, et ceci se reflète dans la structure de l’eau L’eau modifiée, l’élixir de vie, l’eau qui dissout l’eau lourde et l’entraîne hors de l’organisme, doit probablement être fabriquée à un point précis du cycle cosmique. Il n’est pas possible de savoir, tellement le secret est bien gardé, à quelle fréquence elle doit être administrée, ni en quelle quantité. En tout cas, la fabrication est probablement tellement simple que les Immortels ne doivent pas avoir de difficultés à se la procurer On peut se demander à quels autres signes on peut reconnaître un Immortel. La question est difficile. Peut-être à un manque de sommeil La libération de la nécessité de sommeil a été constatée médicalement plusieurs fois. Elle est rare, mais elle existe. En 1961, on a étudié un Anglais appelé Eustace Bumett, âgé à l’époque de quatre-vingt-un ans. Il n’avait pas dormi pendant cinquante-quatre ans Il était en excellente santé. L’hypnotisme n’agissait pas sur lui. Les somnifères lui donnaient un mal de tête. Il restait cependant au lit six heures chaque nuit pour se reposer

et passait le temps en lisant, en écoutant la radio et en faisant des mots croisés dont il était friand À vrai dire, on devrait surtout reconnaître un Immortel par la sagesse qu’il a acquise, par son détachement, par le développement progressif de son intelligence. Car à quoi servirait l’immortalité si on reste le même ? C’est une fois de plus le problème de la condition surhumaine que nous abordons ici et qui est au-delà des limites de notre imagination Pas plus que le singe ne peut nous imaginer, nous ne -pouvons réellement concevoir l’immortel ou surhomme. La solitude, l’insatisfaction de la vie, le manque de curiosité sont des phénomènes de mortalité. Quelqu’un qui a le temps devant lui doit avoir une mentalité très différente de la nôtre. Et la première conséquence en doit être la perte de toute ambition, de tout désir d’interférer. L’Immortel doit, dans un sens plus profond que celui de Voltaire, « cultiver son jardin» Chesterton a dit : « César et Napoléon se sont donné un mal fou pour qu’on parle d’eux, et on a parlé d’eux. Il existe des hommes qui se donnent autant de mal pour qu’on ne parle pas d’eux, et on ne parle pas d’eux.»


HOW TO APPROVED TO KOREAN SPOUSE VISA?(F6-1) Marriage Visa without AGENCY 필리핀 한국 결혼비자(F6) 취득과정/ 한필커플

Korean embassy have accredited school for the korean language for the one of requirements of spouse visa hello everyone our topic for today is for the korean spouse visa this topic is really interesting and can help the person who married to korean this is long talking because this is step by step i want to give full explanation and idea to the person who need to know what they need to do if they will have plan to married the korean nationality this is the steps for the visa requirements for the spouse f6 i will explain one by one about the processing let’s start now to discuss everything for the steps there is a 8 big subject for the processing of korean spouse visa so you have to remember because this is the most important for the processing you need to prepare the legal capacity this is certificate that you can get in Korean embassy what is the requirements for the legal capacity I will start giving requirements for the foreign(KOREAN) number 3 you have to get surely the detailed issued document in Korea remember this is the most important for our korean fiance if your fiance don’t get exactly the detailed decument it will have problem to get the legal capacity this is the requirements for the filipino about cenomar you can apply thru online or go direct to PSA have to remember filipino and korean have to get cenomar in philippines we can know there if we don’t have any history problem during the processing for example your korean fiance already married before to filipina but you don’t know so you can know t get cenomar is easy for me much easy to get thru online but expenssive than you directly to PSA the good thing is no hassle in online and no need to fall in line but still depend on you whch one you wanted it takes to receive 3 to 4days in my experience i get within 4days thru online you will fill up the basic informaton there but have to makesure you fill up is correct once you receive your cenomar you have to present your valid id if get it thru online in PSA you need your present and bring birthcertificate and valid id incase also 2nd have to apply Marriage license if you will marry korean nationality ,filipino have to apply marriage license to your residential place should be your address in your id is same municipal when you apply is like me i live in cavite and i grow up also there and is same address to my id we go to my place to get the marriage license once you go to municipal you need to fillup form and you have requirements that you need to bring you need to prepare this document

it’s better you have extra photocopy always and don;t forget to bring ballpen If your 25years old below you need consent to your parents this is the requirements for korean the last you need to do is schedule your pre marriage counseling after you done to requirements and fill the form you need to makesure that you fillup right .don’t make mistake cuz it’s too complicate to fixed if you didnt make it correct you will be trouble or have problem in your korean spouse visa it’s long processing even small mistake you need to schedule your seminar the day we called pre marriage counseling it need both present in seminar also DSWD is the will give the schedule and then you have to choose there in month i know they have few seminar only you have attend the seminar after you finish the seminar it means your complete done already to marriage license you can get your marriage license in municipal you can marry so it depends if you have ceremony or at the muncipal one thing you have to remmeber that marriage license is until 120days only if you marry 121days it means it’s already exoired it means you need to get new marriage license again you have to go municipal t process your marriage certificate municipal is the one will process your marriage contract and will bring to PSA you need to pay in municipal for Transferring to PSA after 15days you can request or get it your marriage license in PSA so it;s your choice to get directly to PSA or thru online in my experience within 15days i get my marriage contract in PSA

for me much easy is thru online what we need to prepare? original marriage contract PSA and photocpy of passport You have to give your PSA marriage contract to your korean husband cuz he is the one will register in Korea so it;s official married not only in philippines in korea also your korean husband is the one will translate to korean the marriage contract you can apply apply visa in korean embassy before you go to korean embassy you should go to the website and have to print the forms or you can search via google just search korean embassy in manila in korean website you need to print the form and you need to fillup all before you go to korean embassy makesure you will fillup right answer or spelling don’t make any mistake to fillup cuz its most important most important and takes to long time to get korean spouse is visa is about language.study korean language i will dicuss later later this and continue to korean language this is include to the one of the requirements in spouse visa that i will discuss one by one now thats it for the 8big subject let’s discuss to requirements for the korean spouse visa(f6) this form can download to korean embassy webiste no hassle just print and save thru usb and you just need to fill uop the form this is easy just go to the nearest photo shop and just tell the photographer that you need passport colored photo the passport picture you need to put to your application form that you fillup you can see there is a space everyone know your passport have to be valid atleast 6months if not you will be denied to visa you need to photocpy your passport bio page nbi clearance travel for abroad should be within 3months only this the looking of nbi clearance for travel abroad cuz the color yellow nbi when you applying work here in philippines

this is one the important and bit processing all of us know about processing in philippines even in hospital is bit long time especially when we waiting to the hospital much preferred of koream embassy to medical certificate is to the big hospital honestly they calling the hospital surely they really want to makesure if you don’t problem you do medical to them korean embassy call me to get the number of physician cuz they want exact number of physician so they can talk directly cuz if big hospital in philippines it takes time to answer and have to connect connect to operator i give the contact number to them i know many doing medical in robinson ermita it’s much cheaper but for me is better to do in big hospital especially accredited of korean embassy CFO is one the document bit processing and it akes time also you need to attend seminar and book thru online for your seminar i know in 1month 2batch only they do seminar it’s better schedule asap especially if your complete document already makesure that you prepare all the dcument and don’t lie once they interview cuz they are strict the seminar it takes 1 days and half day this is form that you can see in korean embassy website need to print also and fillup korean embassy have accredited school for korean language if your school is accredited to koream embassy you don’t need to take exam for hangul for example your korean husband can speak korean language only it means the filipina have to study korean language if i study to the korean school not accredited of korean embassy i need to take exam just advice its better study to accredited of korean embassy

about interview in english or tagalog my experience and y husband we choose to interview to english the person who will interview will speak korean to my husband and then my husband need to translate to me by english and then i need to answer don’t feel nervous cuz in interview is just basic and easy exempted if you have child already in your husband you don’t need exam and interview once you get the requirements ike birthcertificate,cenomar,marriage contract just request extra just incase you need from next time requirements no need to keep requesting and no hassle that’s it for the requirements for korean spouse visa if you complete all the information that i talk you will be approved in your visa if you have pther question that i didn’t discuss or confuse you can comment down below to ask me i will answer your question I have one more advice i know many people hired thru agency cuz agency is much easy and they the one will process everything all you need for me don;t hired agency ,you don’t need yes it’s expensive to pay the agency for this sametime not too much harder to fix all the papers If you know all the process is not harder to do because for me you wasting money is much easy the requiremens in korea easily to get thru online in philippines just normal bit takes time to get it the documents but is not totally harder you can process by your own same is like me and my husband we process well without using agency just be patience haha if you have problem to your korean document translate to english korean website have document already translate to english so they will feel not harder anymore i know many korean feel harder to translate to english there document thats why they hired agency but you don’t need cuz already have tranlate via english in there wbsite if you can’t see the website just ask me and comment down below to my youtube and i will help you that’t it for today and i hope i give you idea about the processing for the requirements of korean spouse visa


OG Redbull premiere True Sight Dota 2 TI 8 Champions interview !!

They clean up real nice, yeah Okay, so you just saw it. How do you feel? How does it feel watching that all back? Very emotional very very emotional. I mean like we kept talking about Ti afterwards and I think most of us shared The thing where we just seem to have forgotten a lot like we forgot over half of what happened. There’s so much happened I mean it’s it was like two and a half months of compressed soda into this ti and I mean seeing it you You actually is like some things it feels like it’s the first time you’re seeing it even thought you were there Does it feel like it was a very long time ago, even though it really wasn’t? It feels like it never happened. So very long time So, what did you think of the baby Jarrett’s what did you make of it? Hey motional I it’s one of the moments stuck And happy But you seem to be completely stable in the games like you just laugh at a joke and relax. How do you do that? I think it’s just a give but then outside the as soon as I come out of the booth. Is this different? It’s it’s just like the movie ended. It’s just like very different as well. What is the source of your emotion right now? my teammates It’s rare That one can go back and actually watch and see what the other team is doing in any sport you Had a chance to do that here I know you’ve had a chance to do that before but I mean this was the grand final what surprised you the most about What you were able to see? Watching it back seven. I Just how strong we were together. I mean we we felt it, but we’re kind of looking at it a spectator it Yeah, I think there was I mean something happened, you know something magical happen, and I’m also feeling it when I watch this movie There’s something that we cannot it doesn’t get to us, you know, nothing gets to us I mean I see these games now I watch back the replay. I’m like, I mean, they might lose like they’re 20 K gold I know we won right I mean I lifted the take out thumb trophy, but like I’m still thinking, you know But it’s like we’re protected in these games is how I felt and I felt very secure in these games I felt nothing could get to me and that’s that’s like thanks to them and thanks for to what we built together So yeah, I mean that’s what’s wrote me the most What about when you saw some of the strategies of LGD was there anything that surprised you based on the conversations that you were able to witness? I? mean, yeah a little bit obviously, you know, this is like something we would Really like how to put it like we would sacrifice a lot of things just to get in their brains for like just a minute You know because the entire tournament you spend it studying them and trying to try to understand how they think and how they think of you and what they have with heard and now Of course There’s a lot more to what they, you know build strategy wise But you got games of it watching true side and to us like this is really golden. Also, that’s what they thought So obviously they have so many good things going other things where they probably should have gave us a little bit more credit for certain things but Same goes here. It goes the other way right like we’re looking at some games and we’re look at it You were like, we got this. I’m here. We got this, right but, you know 20 minutes after I was not that problem It’s how it goes like you want to be considered Anyway, yeah Wow, so let’s talk about outside dota for a second after TI How would you say your day-to-day lives have changed in the last few months like you wake up every morning and think wow I won CI or is there more to it? How do changed obvious obvious house, I don’t think it’s changed much like I stupid order So anything is that I don’t have to I count my every euro I spend like I think I shop I can buy food that I don’t have a care like how much it cost like I can I think for a lot of people I don’t want to read a speak for all not but I think for generally people in this team like Kind of chief something that we’ve all been I mean in his own regard longing for and I would say life is much better for all of us I’m pretty sure there’s also the case of It’s not here, but I believe he’s watching and I think he’s also very happy about things happen Yeah, what would you like to say about Anna on his behalf? Because I know that you were such a tight-knit group I was early 2017 I believe and it’s the first sentence or elect lessons before he joined the team was let’s

Just win some majors and the TI and was kind of always missing so So so second you start off like with the team basically in the middle of the year Did you ever imagine you’d be winning T or were you just thinking I’ll just go along for the experience and see how it goes Must have some name and have you got the TI and some really good and So how come normally og go into Ti and everyone’s like they want the major that doing great They looking fantastic. It doesn’t work out but then when you have probably the worst Preeti I start you could possibly have you guys want it What changed what was the secret that you suddenly unlocked a tion you said? Alright, we got it guys. This is the key. I mean every single loss Definitely made us stronger. So there’s that There’s no other path to winning than like losing losing over and over again And we had losses They helped. I mean it really helps because you carry these with you as experience and you know Like a lot of other different things but it’s definitely the human aspect that I would say of course the toilet part it was on point because If you if it was not important that we had we would have gotten knocked out or we would have not even qualified But what made the difference is definitely the human aspect of it and how we were there for each other’s and yeah This is what I think you know May was the biggest difference between this guy and the other years. I mean I Also think that pitting set pressure on ourselves like Thompson said there’s no expectations You just play and I think most that fun Even the practice games like we didn’t take the losses very very strict on ourselves I think we were able to improve a lot but at the same time we were having the fun fun part of it always come together and like really just Enjoying does that change now? I’m curious what it’s like now that you’ve won. This is the Ultimate thing that you can possibly do in a dota career and now everybody treats you as the best Does that change the way that other teams see you and in turn does that have to change the way that you play together as? a team I You definitely have people look at you different other players. I think I mean I’m gonna speak for myself I always looked at a TI winner much differently I got one TI I know which one is like TI 5 or 1 or tier 6 1 and tier 7 winner, you know It’s it’s it’s very prestige prestige in a way I mean they beat you that I mean they beat me of that tournament. It was always like that And yeah, it’s it’s changed, but I don’t I don’t know. It feels easier now to play than it did before Easier. Yeah, but all of you agree with that. Yeah, it feels easier. Yeah pretty easy now right over I mean daughter thought it never gets easy as in to win but to not have that pressure on you, you know It’s at least now as for my personal case. Like I have been playing and having the most fun in dollar than I’ve ever had after ti It’s like no pressure at all, so why is it that winning to TI’s has been so difficult Thus far. Well, it hasn’t been that difficult for us so far. We’re all day Well, let’s you know after China I mean now that you’re there though, dude Do you see why it has been tough for other teams to reconvene and come back and make another run at it? Or have they just not been you I mean honestly speaking, I don’t think it’s named Ian maybe a fairly keeps winning Right. Now there’s a little player that keeps winning a daughter dota is that hard it is if your heart game it’s changed a lot Of people don’t want it and if you’re gonna do something like winning two ties, you’ve got a really really wanted That seems to be hard for people like really really hard but we’re here to try and they arrested it Okay, so if you guys think back to TI 8 What other than lifting the trophy? What was the moment where you really thought? We’ve got a shot here because Probably didn’t think that coming in but halfway through the tournament pretty early on just in the semi-final Where was the point where you thought lads we can actually make a real run at this? That’s a good question

first day, of course dick States you’re like almost winning the best teams there and I was like I was confident I Told my dad a few months before TI that this was our best chance. I Thought that we’ve had a few months before TI right in the middle of all that after we just established his team knew I Knew our chances were better than before. That’s what I felt It was interesting for me as an outsider to watch the different dynamics of the teams and obviously context is important there are cultural differences, but and you you’ve touched on this before but just how Important was it that you were having fun together because the balance between your personalities? Was so fun to watch it was fun to watch You know, somebody would make a mistake and immediately you all just said don’t worry about it move on. Is that is that the key? it’s just not losing sight of the fact that you get to play dota I Think it ties up people together where some people like had some rough games. They probably saw on the document and I think The older guys by Lifting you up it doesn’t matter how far you go Yeah, I think that’s mostly everybody is capable of doing it for the other person and That’s the fun part of it kind of like it’s a special you together You don’t have to think so lonely or sad or whatever. It’s just all the other guys always lifting up I think naturally daughter wants to kind of bring that out and you the worst in you it kind of what happens when you got it’s definitely true She has a group together try and fight that bad feeling of losing and the game like you get Unlucky at some point when you fight that as a group, then it becomes very nice. Like you’re finding a negative feeling together That’s a good way to look at us the next pup, that’s the next s your next Book fight it together So there was a moment when we watched you guys watch this Earlier because we’re super creepy We all kind of creeped that was excessive later were like watch it and it was really kind of a fun It was increasing cuz this was a bit that you oh, she jumped out of your chair good. So explain this bit to us Why this matter then we’re gonna show the clip now Tori no Zaza Yes. Yes, I fucking knew it. Yeah fuck it, because that there felt that I Had the same heading man. I think most people played that game had a really slightly. Have you had after we’re so So you never have a headache in the same game and when he came out What was it about the game that gave you guys all headaches? now is there who can speak for themselves but I like to think that everybody who plays daughter speaks the language of dota and To me. What was what was being a part of that game? And I think it’s more so for social some rules maybe but in general that game was so hectic and intense There’s so much to think about for so long And it just was just really heavy feeling like in your brain If we had to play right after we got an extra long break It would have probably been a really bad game and I think because most people would not have been ready Yeah, we needed a break and that was really intense a long game Game four. I know that pressure I can’t imagine they give you a headache alone But when you go to game 4 when you were down to when you thought if we lose the next one we’re out when you go to two – You could almost see that their energy sort of drained out because you guys were flying how important you think it is to like you Win again you so confident you can win the next one. I Mean momentum is definitely the thing it goes like both ways. So You know, let’s say, you know We lost Game two and also game three and of course if you know where it’s heading, I mean, you know You don’t have to be a genius to understand where this finals is going every just lost two games in a row now We’re not afford to lose another one so you have to fight this back, you know, you have to go get whatever resources you have whether it is like team resources or Mentally even physically like energy or whatever You know just have yourself up and get back there because obviously you’re not there as a spectator you’re the one that’s gonna decide the outcome, or at least you have a Say in it, right and as a team, we probably have a big say in it So you want to fight momentum when they have it and you don’t have it? It’s against you and when it’s with you you want to write it, but you also want to be careful about the traps it’s gonna set for you because now you might lose focus you might you know, like or Think ahead too much and at the end of the day You have to keep your head down and just get ready for what’s to come and it’s usually one game at a time I mean, we haven’t we we didn’t never had to play two games at a time, right? So It’s pretty simple. I mean we just keep Repeating it Yeah, I know that a lot of people refer to this as the best TI ever and

Credit obviously goes to you guys, but it also goes to PSG LGD They played a great match to what this is a chance for you that you know, they’re not here tonight But we all appreciate how hard they played as well What can you say about them as a team and the kind of effort that they put forth in the match? there’s one important thing about it is that In the documentary they sometimes had words against us that might seem offensive and we probably had the same it’s not a These teams and I mean with all that as a matter of fact that there’s like an immense amount of respect between these teams I’m sure they have an immense more respect for us and likewise sometimes a way to hype yourself up is to Try to convince yourself that they’re not as good as they look like because obviously you’ve been studying them and they’re really really good. But Maybe you want to try to tone that down a little bit because you’re gonna have to beat them You know, you’re not here to look at how good they are you hit you’re here to beat them I mean honestly props to them like they were an insanely hard team to to understand to face They gave it their all for sure Like, you know, I think it was like one of the I mean one of the closes series I’ve ever played in my life I’m sure it’s the same for most of us I say that they’re one of the more open-minded teams when it comes to many things even though this Documentary you have these bad words some things might be lost in translations even if it’s not it’s a matter of like you want to put your enemy below you always and if you’re having some Self-esteem issue. It’s also good to just put them down. It doesn’t matter. You have to be above them but like I said They’re very open-minded team and he literally could dota I’ve been playing against I find I must swim so many times in my life Aasif, I’m so happy I didn’t after loosing idea We have one more question, but before we ask it we want to give you a few details on the Q&A, so after this question We’re gonna start accepting some of the questions you guys have thought of some good ones, right? One guy nodded great. We’ll get right on that So you can start lining up in that back corner. Nick is waving that is Waving his fan. They’re waving his phone. If you line up there they will help get everything sorted out We also are going to have a director’s cut of what you just saw tonight and that will be available later soon Love like I pause later. Yes later. We give you this detail soon and that will also be worth watching. It’s all just fantastic So we look forward to hearing your questions. Yeah So sorry, sorry I mean don’t go this way go that way down the stairs I’m gesturing this way Do not come this way go down the other way one final question and I get a really good one that we had How can I write it down? I don’t know. I was gonna ask it that I felt like I was stealing it What did you say your handwriting is tiny? No, I’m sorry Right, I remember Ti9 you guys or whatever reason there’s some other team is in the final it’s unimaginable. But let’s just say it happened. Okay what advice would you give that team and Say these are the things that we learn and this is how we did it What would you what advice would you give to that team? I’d like to ask each one of you Regardless of who the opponent is or how they plan what a single piece of good advice. Could you give them seven? Yeah, I mean honest answer like good luck bro, like I’ll give you any advice I Mean, they’re gonna be playing us Oh get someone else. We said that they’re not Oh, is it just imagine this some of us only possibility? Okay There’s no other word. Okay, of course So if sim, can you think of anything that you’d say just focus on your own game? overthinking Okay, you can do what I did To go talk to quarrel, you know Huge thanks to quarrel. I honestly don’t think that I could have helped my team half as much if it wasn’t for him So she’s willing to speak to you. That’s what I would do That crewman All right, we’re gonna open it up to you guys well let’s do the Q&A, oh we’re gonna push me I’m gonna to the microphone, but if you’re ready, we’re gonna have to start lining up Setting me out. Here we go Can we get a round of applause for your TA Well connect what’s the first question you think they’re gonna ask you, huh? What’s the first question you think they’re gonna ask you

You’re gonna ask us I feel like all the questions. What’s the burning question on Oh chief. Anne’s lips would you say? Very sauna, where can you get this t-shirt that I wear? Yeah, there it is Miss pizza, I Two questions one quick sure, I’ll show you one quick. Come on long Alex the first one I’ll do for the means no tail Why did you steal top since mustache? I? Want to look like Charlie man eyes eye Mustache like Charlie. I’m just fine excellent second question And I’m really curious about this if you can just do a quick head math Between the four of you and maybe on behalf of Anna how many hours? Played in dota not including Han in dota 2. Do you have together? 15 thousand more than more like 19 with a sore forgot How much I have no idea Something on these lines probably around 20 like between 15 to 20 K. I don’t know it’s rotting potato five you 50,000 hours faith or morals and like 875 fast, but he was on 0 so I was take Should we see so we say 80,000 hours between the five of you brick muffs. That’s all great. That’s create a lot of quick mess Congratulations on your win. Thank you Make sure you get right up on that microphone with your name. Nice to meet you. Go ahead and ask my question to you is your run at the Grand Finals at CIA to really look like what you experienced are two Keith map Keith’s match or Grand Finals, what did you learn from there? And what? Experience. Did you take from Kiev to nti eight? Experience I Think for example for honor I’m just gonna say for honor it’s like here was a big turning point for him I want to say we had some strategy issues and software pushed in a corner by VP and m5 and yet we Bounced back and we went back to something that actually didn’t have that much success. But yeah, we just blindly believed in it I think for me that was something very beautiful is blind trust We kept seeing it all the time in Ti. Yeah infinite trust in each other Force a lot like up Matt attacked Followed up. Thank you. You ready to ask a question? I am and your name sir? My name is novice Continue so every T. I found has had like a 1/1 big play like the million dollar dream called the five million dollar echo slam Could each if you pick out One play that you want to highlight and give it give it like a name like on the spot On annuals are you saying what am I saying? I’m gonna be kind of easy I’m gonna pick. Oh, you gotta keep it a name. Were you gonna call this this at all? I’m gonna give it I’m giving it to Anna. I’m giving her giving him the Emperor touch think the Emperor thoughts on the Unbeatable FY shaker that echoes the ground because anna as you’ll be for yeah, that’s a good one for me. Yeah setbacks, I mean If you holy shit During the game top it I was there play I didn’t have to pay I just linked that. I’m like, oh, that’s good I think we played like 1vs5 There is no it was like I know I can go this also It came all of nowhere because my axe is not as good as people think it is. I Mean that’s not that’s not gonna get out there right like You don’t write your axe I mean actually I think it was the first acts that we play like it was not a hero that we played so much Yet I think he’d hardly played in at torment after that point. Oh, yeah, it’s not even in practice. Yeah Just casually strolling in and winning. Yeah, all those months away. I think from your last ax game right? It’s been months Yeah, it was a long time. Well, it worked. Yeah So Thompson $5.00 Chain Lightning, I don’t know Yeah, no, I should I’ll give it a sip if you want a real one from you

Also do the step ax on I ember you liked it. Those are those are the great ones Have a little I have a little follow-up Did any of you guys notice at any point The onna amber game the fight at the secret shop where he was locked down While he was locked down he sold his items so that when he died he had enough gold for a buyback Did any of a guy you guys noticed that at any porn or when did you learn about this? Anna told us after the game that he assaulted That’s what he said I think none of us know but he didn’t say anything in the game is not in the game Oh shit. They’re ganking me this last thing we heard and then I mean, it’s like I didn’t even expect him to the math that quickly, you know Like for normal things like it’s gonna take him longer. There’s some reason there’s usually one second he added correct How focus players can be in these games and it’s just like whatever Capacities you have like it just amplifies everything because you’re so in the zone and so focused that yeah You just push your limits constantly and that was a moment where he did I mean it was just a normal day in the office for him. Right but you’re gonna play a pop or something You’re not gonna be that focus probably gonna be harder to you know, do a play like this and friend. It was very casual I mean, he didn’t even say anything about it It was just like let’s move on You know, you don’t want to get stuck, you know, because I mean they keep bringing the fire to you They’re gonna do something else and stuff. You you wanna you want to keep the keep in the center floor? Good question. Thank you. Thank you. Alright, come on down Nicolay go ahead and ask a question this small sleep better This is nicely for sap So i’m I was wondering what made you eventually come back and play And how did they feel then to prove yourself as a player having already proven yourself as a coach. I Mean it felt great obviously and what made me come back is mainly the trust that I felt from my teammates and the fact that they believed that they needed me and This is something that gives you wings and it’s probably a big part of why it was able to To have a good performance Or a decent one because like they yeah it they just feed you confidence. This is where it comes from mainly I mean, yeah, you did Oh, even if you didn’t mean so if you ended up doing it Where it comes from? Okay. Yeah. Sure. Thanks. That’s that’s the confidence for tokio acid after such a motivational speech I’m just gonna leave mountains Lori. I’ve played okay Thank you


Plastic Pollution: An End in Sight?

talking about today Welcome We have Heather Koldewey, a fellow of the National Geographic Society She works for the zoological Society of London She is also an honorary professor at the University of Exeter She is an expert when it comes to animals , and also animals of the sea I know she is very interested in seahorses and she’s done her thesis on Brown Trout in Wales So, if you have a question about the sea and water animals, please refer to her Then we are honoured to have Peter Thomson, the UN secretary Thomson, the UN secretary general’s special envoy for the ocean , the first one in this position I am happy and honoured to say you are the first Fijian citizen on the panel He’s from a region that is heavily victim to these issues that we are talking about so he can give his own personal opinion and approach to that as well Then we have Tom Szaky here He is the founder and CEO of TerraCycle TerraCycle , the global leader in the collection and recycling of post-consumer waste Very much involved also in the question of what we do with plastic What can we do better? How can we transition from a linear economy to a more circular economy? We are very curious about what you have to say about the title here, plastic pollution . an end in sight? Last but not least welcome also to Gloria Fluxa Thienemann, the chairman and sustainability Ofc of the Iberostar Group Iberostar Group Anybody who has gone on a faraway vacation has probably been in an Iberostar hotel Maybe to start off and give the people here of where you are sitting here , for some of you it’s easier, looking at your position in life, but maybe to ask in life, but maybe to ask you almost like in an elevator pitch way that we do the rounds, and why is plastic pollution, why is the plastic issue high on your agenda? >> Why don’t I tell you a bit about the global shapers committee at the world economic Forum? economic Forum? I’m here to represent the voices of you around the world in this forum Essentially, the community is comprised of over 7000 global shapers in over 150 countries that are committed to taking action on socially important issues in the regional communities We asked global shapers around the world, “What is one issue you are passionate about that we have to identify together?” have to identify together?” Climate change was the number one priority I am here not only to share ideas with you and share the great initiatives our young people around the world have taken, but also to take ideas from you so that we can then create a narrative and build action together We have 50 global shape this year representing the community at Davos That is less than 2% of the attendees I want to make sure I am amplifying the voices of you, so I rely on you to tell me what your ideas are >> Very important input, so we want to make this as interactive as possible, so sharing ideas should be the idea of today as well We will open discussion as well, so we are looking forward to questions, forward to questions, comments and criticism This is an open forum so we are open to everything However, please You have been doing a session this morning within the conference centre about that exact theme It is easier to understand why you are an expert in why you are an expert in this, but why is this issue so close to your heart? >> Rather than representing youth, which I wish I did , but I come from the angle , but I come from the angle of the fish I am a marine biologist, a fish biologist, basically I spend as much of my time as possible in, on or under the water So, coming to the mountains is a very unusual experience for me But over time, over the last 20+ years of working in this job, I have become more and more aware

of plastic and plastic pollution, and that starts pollution, and that starts from my own life, where I live I live in a coastal community When I was a child, if I went to the beach, I just enjoyed the beach Now, when I take my children, aged 10 and 12, to the beach, we do a beach clean Plastic is more and more present on our beaches Without even being a scientist, you can see that changing the behaviour and what is present and how our environment is changing Secondly, I am very fortunate with National Geographic and a number of the programs I work with to be able to explore some of the ocean wilderness areas A few years ago, I went to the Chagos epoch Archipelago It is uninhabited It is 55 uninhabited islands On one of these islands, we stopped for a short period of time and we were mostly doing scientific research from the scientific research from the boat In just 20 minutes, we collected 334 single-use plastic water bottles that came from 10 different countries, from the labels that were still on the bottle All of those bottles had been in somebody’s hand at some point in time, and those bottles will last in the environment for 500-600 years, slowly breaking down into smaller and smaller pieces, where they then start being eaten by everything from plankton to Wales This really elevated my action on plastic to try and do something about it, and I hope to talk about some of the solutions and not just the problems during this forum >> Absolutely We should talk about how to get out of it and how we can solve as much as we can Peter, I have talked about where you are from You are from one of those islands in those areas For a long time you have been involved in the UN You have been, among others, the president of the of the first session of the UN Gen assembly You have been a permanent representative of the future Islands to the UN Now, as I said, the special envoy for the ocean, or the God of the ocean, somebody said in a previous discussion Not a term you like to hear! Why is the topic so close to >> Wherever you are from, the ocean is central to your life Where does snow go to when it melts? Into rivers and oceans The ocean is very important to Swiss people One of the counts is someone I studied in university about the unification of Germany I remember him being asked what the difference was between a politician and a statesman He said that a statesman is a politician who thinks of his grandchildren, so I asked people to think like statesmen and state women Don’t think about your short-term lives, think about what your world will be like for your grandchildren When we look at the climate and the ocean, we see and the ocean, we see that, on current trends, we are condemning our grandchildren to very, very difficult times , so we are not behaving like statesmen and we have to start behaving that way if we are responsible grandparents , as I am , and I look around the room and see some of you are , so that is the motivation of our work The good news is there is a The good news is there is a plan to do the right thing for the planet and the climate and the ocean and I will be happy to answer any questions in relation to that plan relation to that plan , but see the world as connected in every sense, see the fact every second breath you take up here in Davos is coming from the ocean , oxygen produced by the ocean, and I think you will realise the importance of us realise the importance of us stopping the plastic getting into the ocean from the river as it runs from Davos down to the sea >>Thank you, Peter We are part of the ocean people as well, the Swiss for one We are all states women and statesmen in that regard We are in a way responsible for what is happening Somebody heavily involved and that is Tom You are the author of three books , one with your usual title Garbage is Great Can you elaborate?

>>I come to this from an overall waste respective, not just plastic but waste in general, which is incredibly problematic and it isn’t hard academic topic — is an art Every object in this room will become waste and will be owned waste and will be owned physically by the garbage industry Today many times we measure our status in the community by the accumulation of stuff we have, yet all of that will be waste and we will have paid someone to take it when that happens 99% of that will become waste in a single year Waste really came about 70 years ago or so which is a modern idea , where I have hope I hope we can solve it because it has not been with us for that long, the modern conception of waste, so what I am passionate about is thinking through how can we solve this through business mechanisms and other mechanisms to try to make things technically possible to be able to recycle? Then make that not just technically possible but practically possible which is all about the economics of waste Typically what tends to make something not recyclable is that it is not profitable for a waste management company to do it, and looking at us as individuals is for us to take part and I think we tend to all just point our fingers are large organisations, whether it is manufacturers or retailers who sell goods, but what is incredibly powerful is us as consumers, we vote multiple times a day, no matter how old we are for the future we want based on what we buy, and this is the most powerful mechanism to change this and to change it incredibly quickly and I hope we all wake up to that privilege we have and do it consciously >>Thank you, Tom Gloria, you are in an industry which produces a lot of waste when we talk about waste, the tourism, hospitality industry That is a reason you are involved in these questions >>For those of you who have not been at an Iberostar hotel, it is a tourism peace — business based in Spain We have travel agencies, our core activity being hotels We have 120 hotels being in 19 countries We serve 8 million clients and we have a family of millions of employees I believe we would not have been able to write all the history we have had We were born in 1877 as a family business It is a reality each generation adapts that responsibility to what they are more close to and my sister and I have been born in Bjork on an island in the middle of the Mediterranean We are both divers We decided, how can we take that responsibility forwards? — Majorca It is a movement that aims towards the stewardship of the oceans It is based on one commitment by three action lines The first is the responsible consumption of seafood, the second is incentivise Asian of coastal health and the last is plastics We have made the claim to become by 2019 a single use, plastic reorganisation within the limits the legislation will allow >>Are you working with other big companies or corporations? corporations? Or is there a more independent initiative ? >>I believe you first have to look inside and do your own homework and the collaboration come along the way Your credibility comes when you start doing things 2019 was the first year we were the first hotel chain in Spain to completely eliminate plastics and thanks to that action a lot of collaborations and alliances came along I would like to start with facts and figures If you dig deeper , some of these facts, figures and numbers are mind blowing When I read into it, it really makes you aware of the sheer size of the issue and the problem

just something you have heard as well , by 2050, the weight of plastic indices — in the sea will be bigger than the will be bigger than the weight of fish >>If nothing changes >>All of this is if we do not act now, this will be the case Something already the case is Something already the case is 1 million tonnes of plastic end up in oceans each year, which, for me is hard to grasp, but if you put it the other way around or if you put another fact in there, you can understand That I read somewhere It is the equivalent of five grocery bags full of plastics along every foot of shoreline in 192 countries of the world When we see and hear these facts, Heather, you kind of teach them all day long , there might be a thought this problem is so huge how can we grasp it and solve it? >>It took a while There was a very small number of scientist working on the topic to actually discover the problem and now we have the scientific information to the scientific information to know the approximate quantities going into the ocean, they amount coming from rivers, from mismanaged waste , and that is the primary problem it is coming from us and going into the environment , and even ignoring the ocean , it is otherwise going in to land four Globally only 19% is recycled so we are way off looking at the circular economy and proper waste management we dream of The problem is it is such a persistent material It last for hundreds of thousands of years and so it doesn’t go away, so unless it is burned, every single piece of plastic ever made still exists on our planet, so now we are working out what to do with that and we have that awareness The fact we have a full room today and you will see lots of stories in the media and you see such an incredibly diverse panel and that is represented around the plastic conversation is one everyone wants to solve one everyone wants to solve Working in conservation, which can be challenging in finding solution everybody once, the topic around plastic is really interesting because so many actors are coming to the table, either from a business perspective because it is with their personal values and identifies with that identifies with that organisation from a financial sense, from an innovation, from a design sense , and for me as a conservationist, it is all about change >>That me take up one figure you mentioned because I think you mentioned because I think it is important When we talk about the 9% of plastic being recycled . I think it is 9.5% . this is think it is 9.5% . this is not because of a scientific reason We can recycle them, with the pet industry we could it is just that we don’t That is the main issue >>It is a huge mix I will refer to Tom, who is far more of a specialist on this but partly it is around the lack of waste collection and management and some of it is around product design, which is designed to make it fabulous for us to buy and to appeal to all of our marketing but not necessarily around what happens to it at the end of life, and so what is starting to change by some organisations is to design with that Future in Mind with the grandchildren in mind and a more sustainable system in mind so we go from plastic to land full or plastic to the ocean, then goes from plastic to plastic, so, Tom >>I will happily build on that To give a sense of the factors playing into this, first, everything in the world is technically recyclable There is nothing that can be technically process so is it practically recyclable? Even in Switzerland, there are semi things you do not have a recycling solution for and that is why a lot of waste is incinerated What makes something practically recyclable is entirely due to economics Waste management companies are in the business of urban minding . that is actually recycling . and they will mind what they can mine at a profit after the cost of collecting it and processing it

If the last — if that cost is lower, they will do so If it is unprofitable they will not do it and will look at the cheapest way to dispose of it within the laws of the land Here it would be waste energy because there is landfill legislation In countries that do not have the infrastructure, a tremendous number of countries, are not developed, which will be a lot of littering, which ends up in oceans, so it all comes down to the economics of waste and some of the macro challenges that are taking us unfortunately in the wrong direction are driven by consumers, which as consumers, we want things that are convenient and affordable, so cheap If you think about packaging, how has it progressed? It has gone from refillable bottles to cartons, and every step is cut in half and when you get a (inaudible), it is not economic to do so This is compounded by macro economic trends, low prices of oil, so foil became expensive, recycling would boom and increase, and also end markets, China that stopped imparting — importing, find it harder to take it to It comes down to us as individuals who are out there purchasing these products to buy the product you can locally recycle and then to do so That is so critically important and try to resist that urge of the compulsive shopping where you blindly purchase whatever makes you feel at the moment good >> We could solve it , as much as Mick we can, quite quickly But if it comes down to money, we don’t want to spend too much, is that the main problem? We are not talking about a technological problem The solutions could be there, in a way >> When we are talking about solutions, first of all it solutions, first of all it is a complex problem with complex solutions We have to accept that We have got choices before us, though As individuals and governments and multilateral organisations, we have choices to make Obviously, the recycling one is an important part of it If you see PepsiCo or Coca-Cola here at Davos, you will see that recycling is a big part of the future big part of the future There is also the refuse/reuse/reduce aspect that we as individuals can take upon individuals can take upon ourselves I remember when plastic started I’m old enough for that I’m old enough for that In Fiji, we were sitting around smoking cigarettes is 11-year-old boys Somebody produced a plastic lighter I remember that we were all actually appalled by it, because there was nowhere to fill the lighter fluid in the top We said, “What is going to happen to this?” It was so cheap, you could get another one Sure enough, plastic cigarette lighters , a year later, were starting to show up on the beaches, and they have in the queue making there ever since So we have this personal choice of whether to use these or not I gave up smoking a couple of years later and personally I have never bought one of those plastic lighters I find repulsive, quite frankly I remember my mother and that time had the idea of using plastic bags in the kitchen On the clothesline, they will also trying out drying out She was part of the post-war generation that didn’t want to waste what we had Take me, a Fijian To be a modern person, you have to own a car When I got to be an urban person in the late 1980s, I learned , by the mid-1990s, why the heck am I living in the city with a car? I don’t need to own a car I have never owned a car I have never owned a car for, what, 25 years I now live in London If somebody gave me a car, I would refuse it Where would I park it? You have to worry about maintaining the car, everything We can make personal, rational choices

that are about not being in the consumer trap of having to buy When I go onto an airline, I protest because it is almost all wrapped in plastic . your blankets, your kit, it is all wrapped in plastic I didn’t ask for that, I didn’t pay for that . in fact, I did pay for it But I always protest Who is putting this stuff on us? As individuals, we have the power to refuse it The obvious one is the supermarket bag at the counter Developing countries are way ahead on this, I would like to tell you Over 50 countries have banned single-use plastic bags single-use plastic bags We have got to move on this stuff We are individual consumers and voters and we have the power to do this >> Some important takeaway is, not least that you started smoking at 11! But that is not the main issue It is a personal mindset as well I was just wondering, when we talk about plastic, it is something I don’t remember having talked about 10-20 years ago It was just normal Nowadays it is safe to say that it is the most demonised material we can talk about Could that be the first step to more awareness, more solution-based possibility, that yes, we still have everything wrapped in plastic, but in a way we all know that it is not a good thing? >> Right I do agree that plastics are associated with a bad rap On the other hand, there are climate change deniers but fewer plastic pollution deniers, because you see the real impact You can see the plastic bottles washing up on beaches It is hard to ignore the evidence in front of your eyes I am hopeful for the fact that it is hard to turn away from that problem I also wanted to talk about, you know, some of the solutions young people are coming up with address this issue This is all very regionally focused Every cultural context requires a strategy for real impact Global shapers around the world have taken it upon themselves to implement a project to both conserve our natural environment, reduce the use of plastic and also transform it into value added products One is from Lima, Peru They led an ocean cleanup movement that featured 10,000 youth volunteers This is the largest beach cleanup movement in Peru It was started by two global shapers and expanded to 10 volunteer . 10,000 volunteers The objective was to get Congress to adopt a plastics ban The government saw the amount of work that went into collecting data on the different types of plastic that were being down on the beaches This kind of data actually fed into a lot of the congressional, legislated debates in Peru It also kind of points to the importance of citizen science , being all of us able to work together and come up with the solution and collect evidence to inform policy So, going to Gloria’s point, we mention that we need to start locally before we expand This is an example of a grassroots, youth-driven movement that has a lot of corporate partnerships corporate partnerships Companies recognise they need to get involved in this The youth movement have a lot of energy to make change It is the right moment, the right place, and I want to leave it at that I can come to other examples later on as well >> In our case, there’s actually no manual for an organisation that tells you how to make the change We had to learn a lot the process We didn’t ban plastic We also look for the best alternatives in any moment We gave it a very rigourous approach We had guidelines like certification in Germany and Belgium Every time, we were looking either for a way of either for a way of recycling, where there was a waste recycling system available, or four elements that were completely compostable in order to compostable in order to prepare, because right now, in these three months, we are doing the roll out to other countries with a level of countries with a level of complexity like Cuba, Jamaica We said there is no system of

waste treatment there, so the only way we can start walking the path is to have that guarantee of availability and compatibility in order to shift forward I feel that what differentiated the effort we did is the approach of looking to the alternatives So, when you mentioned before the collaborations, I think it will be interesting if there was a common ground on what materials are available, what kind of alternatives work and what are the best usages for that >> How do you deal with it on a daily basis in your company, in your hotel, for example? Have you banned plastic bottles, are you only using glass bottles? Is there a corporate strategy or rules that you give to all of the hotels? >> We worked for a whole year, actually We did an x-ray of what we consume when it comes to single-use plastics We had 3600 items, different items of plastic, internally in the organisation We did an analysis of the department it pertained to, the kitchens, the rooms, and in every case we had a task force I will give you an example We wanted to change all of the holders of gels and shampoos in the hotel We don’t have them anymore They are multiple use We had to train the ladies coming to clean the rooms how to use the new products Another example could be the coffee capsules We changed those two compostable items We also had to explain how the client could come to a room and recycle that, and how to change it In that process, we realised that speaking about training and training our training and training our people was the most important part of it If our people didn’t understand it, it would be very difficult for our clients to understand it >> Did you have to explain more to the staff and clients? Facebook you have different stakeholders, and for us the most important one was the employees the employees We have to start with them We had to start with the 35,000 employees They have to understand why you are doing it One day, I was walking towards one of our hotels in the Dominican Republic I know it wasn’t badly intentioned, but I had a waiter saying, ” No, no, no, they are doing this to save costs.” I smiled this to save costs.” I smiled internally, but I said, “There’s a lot of work to do in training,” because you can’t do anything but convince them We are not dedicated to We are not dedicated to roll-out in 19 countries >> When you talk about 3600 products, is there an end goal where you say you want to go down to this or this number? >> Interestingly, without sounding arrogant, we are doing our homework There’s a last step that will come from the legislation I would love to go into one of the fridges of my hotels and not seek a cart completely rolled in film with the date of consumption But I can’t avoid that because legislation forces me to do it We are doing, parallel to the effort internally, work with economical interests and political speakers in the countries where we are, to make a shift in that aspect as well >> Sorry, I cut you short >> No, that’s fine It’s important not to demonise plastic It’s a phenomenally invention that has improved our lives also the wonderful things We are targeting particular areas where we take this incredible product that last for hundreds of thousands of years, and it is single-use 40% of all plastic goes to single-use That is the single biggest target of change Lots of different innovations are happening on that We have actually got a project happening in London, sort of an experiment to look at how do you change a system It is obviously a developed country, society, where you can go to the tap and have perfectly clean water that comes out of it, which is better regulated than water in plastic bottles We were like, “How do we change the system that has become, over a short period, a plastic, disposable society? How can we shift it to a refill one?” In the same way, we did the research We looked at interviews right the way across the supply chain, from producers to consumers We identified 11 barriers to change Some of it is people

just using a refillable bottle They are worried about cleaning them cleaning them They leak, they are not very good Men, we found, were less likely to carry a refillable bottle because they are less likely to have a bag with them There are all these things we have to overcome >> Quite basic things >> Quite basic things >> Basic, simple behaviour Again, it is a big city, on the go People are commuting, travelling, going to meetings, taking their kids to school, who don’t necessarily bring water with us And with British culture, it turns out that people want to refill their bottles but 80% were too embarrassed to go into a cafe or shop and ask for it to be refilled ask for it to be refilled We are trying to break down the system Working with the may of London, we have installed 17 water fountains in public spaces already They have got to be clean, got to be looked after and maintained, and we have got to encourage people to use them We are also working with a scheme called refill It is as simple as putting a sticker on a cafe or shop hotel and saying, “We are happy for you to come in and we will fill your bottle for free ” >> The famous British politeness >> It’s a big barrier in our society So it is understanding the local context and seeing how you can make the biggest change change Whether it is engaging youth, breaking down some of those barriers to allow the change to happen, then we can start >>I want to echo the statement we see as consumable — consumers the visible part What is important is to have a sense of the entire supply chain to get that item physically to you, for example, apples may show up at a supermarket with no packaging but they would have step two layers and layers of plastics to be able to arrive at that supermarket and be consumed It is like the food service items you were chatting about To echo behaviour, to build on the point, I think behaviour is really important We did a scary study . we went to a train station in New York City and put out a beautifully labelled recycling bin, there could be no confusion and then negatively labelled one negatively labelled one landfill 50% of people would put it in the wrong bin It was absolutely shocking Even if the package is technically recyclable , our apathy is so high They tended to be more men, so for many in the audience, we need to work especially hard Women were better Kids far below 18 with the very best It is important to self reflect on that, especially if you are in our demographic It was an interesting in terms of solutions . you could solve this by incentivising Deposit laws are an example You could save that — solve that by fining That also helps through carrot or sticks The We installed the tall computers in these bins When you put you computer in, it would trigger an infrared trigger and would say , “Thank you for recycling.” It boosted compliance just by having people smile The best was little kids running around trying to find the next bottle and taking them out of the wrong bin Just order tree feedback Just order tree feedback How do we make this topic exciting because I think , as it loses that excitement, we gain apathy and no matter what infrastructure, laws and capability are put in by stakeholders, if we, the people, do not act, it is all for nothing for nothing >>I’m very glad to talk about young people and kids It gives me the opportunity It gives me the opportunity to open up the discussion a bit and a warning, if you’re Swiss German is a bit rusty, maybe you take off your headphones because I want to introduce you to initiative from Davos — Up >> A great action, great campaign Yes, I’m sure there will be applause later and it is

well-deserved, I can tell well-deserved, I can tell you Plastic is an issue which has attracted a great deal of attention from young people in Davos , and so I think it is interesting for you who live in Davos to hear about it but also the others There are three pupils from the secondary school who are with us today and are representatives of their class, group of boys in Davos, young people in Davos who have decided to do something about the plastic issue I’ll put the question to you I don’t know if you have decided who will answer, who has two onto the question Ivan will answer the question Could you tell us briefly for the benefit of the panellists, how did you come up with the idea? >>Last year at the WEF, we were part of the sales force and we had a presentation by a professor from California , Prof Douglas, and we were horrified to see how much plastic ends up in the ocean , so we decided Our teachers at schools also discuss the problem at school, the plastic issue, and we decided we had to do something about this We cannot change the world but we need to start somewhere, and plastic is probably the most problematic kind of waste at the moment, and we thought we would like to try to do something about changing that, and starting changing that, and starting Davos,k so you have taken an initiative , just been told where the idea came from , and Marco will tell us about the next step We are determined to do something What was the plan? How did you implement this idea? >>We discussed the plan with our teacher and we thought we could do something about encouraging recycling in Davos Our teacher got some information He talk to someone who had been doing this for longer than we had We ordered bags , and all of us, from the secondary school , got a bag We were given it We were given it for free They are made of bio plastics, these recycling bags, so it is plastic , yes, but by a plastics, and everyone got a bag In Davos as in many other places,, pet bottles are collected Not much else is done about collecting plastic waste It goes into the regular household waste, apart from the bottles, so that brings us to the third step, and that is when you really get going Now these bags can be bought for Swiss francs . six the special waste collection bags It started in the autumn, is a huge success and this activity is ongoing Perhaps you would like to tell us a bit more about it Perhaps you can tell us what will happen next >> One of our ambitions was for this to become a sustainable project and we did not want it to do the just something that happened for a few weeks and then stopped and that is an admission we have achieved — ambition We wanted more containers in Davos We want to be able to process it here in Davos because if the waste is transported away from Davos to be processed, it generates more carbon dioxide because carbon dioxide because of the tracks, so that is what we are working on Now I think everyone can join in the applause because I think this project deserves a round hand This is really an example of an initiative that started on a small scale and it even started at the W EF last year and you have heard what has happened in the course of one year, started on a small scale, and a lot has happened since last year IC hands going up so I’m sure there will be an opportunity for questions and answers I see >>Start something from scratch scratch They did not have any health

They wanted more information and to take action — help It is something they are encouraging, I think we all agree on that In your experience is that something that is typical? That the action has to come from the bottom, from the grassroots? To all of you >>I think that plastic has its place, obviously, and will be with us until the end of time and I don’t think we will invent many new things (inaudible) It has to be the right plastic and Tom is in better shape than me to describe what I mean by the right plastic because not all plastic is recyclable When it is mixed together, it breaks the process down, so it has to be the right kind of plastic and the right kind of users, and most users of plastic in my mind are necessary It is useful in life if you think about the world to take it down to the household If you think about what you have a new house my wife and I do this all the time . it is amazing how much plastic you have a new house, how much stuff you have a new house you do not need At the heart of the United Nations sustainable developing goals . there are 17 . and there is the ocean one in which plastic is mentioned At the heart of the sustainable goals is SDG 12, and that is about consumption and production We have to change our patterns It is up to us as individuals as much as it is up to governments to do so We are consuming too much, we are all becoming the class, the whole world has two or three cars The planet collapses and cannot sustain that, so we have to change our consumption, the plastics part >>For the awareness part, we have seen here it is young people I know you have three granddaughters Is it a generational thing that young people get it more? >>While I was living in New York I said to my grandchildren they should not use that terrible playing wrap It is file — vile I said they should not use lunchboxes any more Then eventually said that at their school nobody was allowed to bring plastic to school The whole school is plastic free This is a little primary school in Auckland, New Zealand, and hopefully that is the way the world is is the way the world is going They get it They see they cannot have that stuff in nature >>Is it a generation thing? >>Firstly, congratulations It is an inspirational example and a lesson for everybody in the room If we are also here next time this year what will you have done? That compares with what a group of students did that listen to a presentation and it is all something everybody can do something about, so it is starting small, can start with an individual, so my plastic water bottle example Everybody in the UK . and it is a similar figure in Europe everybody uses. Adults use 125 + to water bottles a year, so if you do the maths in this room, if we all used a refillable bottle, that is a huge difference What I am thinking is , from Davos, what is your community, what schools can you reach out to? In the UK there is a similar initiative The youth are inheriting a plastic world from our generation and are part of the solution both from innovation and pressure, so there is a charity that I am a trustee of that has a plastic free schools initiative that provides examples to get from one plastic use to get rid of it, so to your example, Gloria, of the case document Gloria, of the case document and the case studies to make it easier for everybody else so can you share your example to other schools in Switzerland to see how many schools could have signed up to do exactly what you are doing by this time next year? >>I would like to make two independent points . one is to echo what you said, not just waste, but every environmental issues from

species reduction, deforestation, climate change, I cannot think of any environmental issue that is not directly linked to only one thing, which is consumption, and consumption is growing because the population is growing, but also growing per capita If you compare someone alive today, we consume 10 times more physical objects than 100 years ago So the absolute best thing you can do to save the environment without having to understand any of the details because it can get very complex very quickly is to stop purchasing or purchase less You can also share versus own These are foundational solutions and the easiest way to think about that is do you derive your joy from the act of shopping all your joy from some other way way , interacting with friends, experiencing nature, experiencing learning, like today, and I think we have to easily put our happiness into this act of purchase, and I am just as much hypocrite as all of us, but that is something to focus on Here is a simple guide to understand what plastics are good and what are not so good It is all about value, that is the point, it is not about the magic of if it can be recycled or not What is the plastic? Clear, rigid is really good , and the lighter the better Colour is a contaminant When children paint with pains, they all end up as brown, so you want to keep the colour separate, so try to buy clear and white, rigid and stay away from things that are complex Those are simple rules We have talked about biodegradable Not everything is so clear Buyer degradable has a place in emerging markets — bio de grad able Biodegradable plastics in developed markets are in developed markets are very big problem A good example , we have worked with Tesco, retailer in the UK, who has outlawed biodegradable plastics from being sold in their stores from this April and the reason they have is because biodegradable plastics are a contaminant to the people who have to degrade them, pastors — compost ers You can grow a plant from it to see really big transformations The compost is are sorting out of that biodegradable plastic, destroying it and actively processing what they want The key punchline is give the waste management industry what it wants, vs responding with putting pressure on it to respond to our problems >> We know there is not one solution globally >> I am a firm believer in the youth Congratulations, there is always such a special energy with the youth and the way you are doing things The leader of our project is constructing the way we do things The first thing he said is you have to tackle the children, tracked the youngsters We tracked the children who came to our host cells hotels, to explain what we do I couldn’t agree more with Tom If you have a biodegradable If you have a biodegradable product, ask what is it Is it made of a natural material? We use plastic bags that are made of potato starch We have brushes, toothbrushes that are made out of corn and shaving handles for shavers that are made out of bamboo We are in conversation now with all of the recycling companies We are asking them that question . is it worthwhile looking for that alternative? Those questions are key what do you do in Davos, how do you recycle it? do you recycle it? Continue expanding Continue with your energy Congratulations >> I would love to speak more about initiatives at an international level, before giving it to you as well , opening up for questions and comments >> Congratulations You guys inspire me You are the next generation of global shapers You don’t have to be part of the official committee to shape your society, so really, really proud of you I want to echo Heather’s point about what next You want to make the project sustainable, and thinking about what you can do to scale up or expand or tackle scale up or expand or tackle

other issues , and I wanted to give you something that is food for thought for you Youth shapers in Mumbai launched a project that collected over 6000 plastic bottles, and they turned that into bricks Those bricks were transformed into buildings and furniture that people could use It is the idea of using plastic and turning it into useful products They partnered with 50 schools and over 1500 schools and over 1500 students, and so I’m just thinking in relation to the project that there’s an element of capacity building and training and spreading the word to your peers and also people of other generations I think you guys play a big role in terms of being the messengers and emissaries of this project Don’t give up hope It is difficult to start a project from scratch, with no resources You guys are doing a great job I think the benefit of our generation is that we are a little bit impatient and we want change to happen right want change to happen right away Sometimes we also need to take a pause and think about what are the steps we need, who are the partners we need to scale up and move forward this initiative? I am happy to continue the conversation with you later as well >> Great, lots of praise for you Now I think you have got to spread it out Feel free . we have questions and we have raised arms I see three or four Oh, well, that’s a lot In the back there . do we have a microphone there? >> Can I? Hi First of all , I beg your pardon for my English It is not very good >> You can speak German or Swiss German if you like >> I don’t speak very well, anyway I don’t look young, but I am young I also associate a solution for this problem From one hour, I do not hear one word about a solution for plastic pollution Three months ago, with other people, I joined an association that has already two solutions to the problems of plastic solution One is for the macro plastic and one for the micro Two different problems We have two different solutions , machinery for cleaning the waters >> Yes, please, go ahead >> We start now to work I hope we can next year bring some results to you The Association in two weeks you can find online the website It is not yet ready >> Before we go too far into advertising, it is good to know there are initiatives and ideas I would suggest there are also people on the panel, so maybe you can bilaterally speak about solutions and possible ways out of the issue as well We gladly take this on board We can bilaterally speak about that Thank you We will be speaking about solutions, I assure you, as well Let me have a young voice there as well There’s a student sitting there >> Thank you This question is directed to This question is directed to Mr person You talked a lot about behaviour and the effect on consumption and production What other methods do you What other methods do you see possible for changing this behaviour? >> It’s a really good question because anywhere that all of us have a privileged audience, the infrastructure is there That wouldn’t be the case if we were sitting in Cambodia

or other areas But we are here in Switzerland, so most of it has to do with behaviour The other thing that is important is that all of us are incredibly aware of the issue I think that’s why there’s an audience here I don’t think what we need to do is We need to be aware, but doing it through negative reinforcement could leave to somebody saying what you said at the beginning of this whole Perth . panel , which is that it is too big a problem, and therefore I’m going to keep contributing to it It is very hard to avoid disposal It follows us like a wake on a boat You have to consciously avoid it, like you did in your hotels It isn’t necessarily the easy It isn’t necessarily the easy one that every hotel can follow The biggest lesson I have learned is you don’t necessarily need money You don’t have to pay people to change The incentive to give can be in the form of happiness and feeling purpose Today we live in a news environment where the news is horrible, no matter where we look, whether it is at the UK or the US or Brazil There are all these examples of negative stories Even this plastic issue is a negative story It is horrible There is not good out there People are good people Generally, we want to feel like we can contribute and we want to contribute in a positive way But we want to be given the choice to do that, and framing and social media . a good example would be shaming someone That does happen on social media, as opposed to doing the opposite Imagine if someone camped out and started posting everybody who did it right How good would that be? It may not seem meaningful, It may not seem meaningful, but it really multiplies in a brilliant way, and using that We tend to focus on the negative so much that the little smile is actually such a massive motivator Also, it is what was said earlier on the idea of consumption We need to make the idea of modest to reasonable living the way that it was a few generations ago it was cool What is cool at the moment? Three houses, big jets, lots of cars That’s a lot of stuff to deal with We also have to shift what is hip and cool You look pretty cool . do it yourself! I’m sure your friends will follow That is how these movements are created Do it all through the arts of positive >> The personal initiative is that the main driver? Or is the big elephant in the room that it has to be regulated and enforced as well? Should it go beyond the personal initiative? personal initiative? >> Just to answer the gentleman at the back He has been listening if it has no solutions have come from our talk this morning There is no single , silver bullet solution to this plastic problem we have put on the world There is going to be multiple solutions and everybody has to work to get their individuals, families, cities, regional governments, national governments, regional organisations of nations and the global organisations Everybody has a responsibility to sort out this problem this problem By the way, it’s only one of a multiple of problems that the ocean as has Because of our clothing, there are microfibres of plastic that have inundated the ocean Animals are eating that It goes to the pictures you have seen of the plastic soups out there in the graveyards It is a major problem, but it is just one of the many Responsibility goes from the individual to the global organisation and everything in between, and there is no simple solution We have all got to work at this with good intentions >> Can I just go to the point on the clothing? There are basically three types of clothing There is natural clothing, shirts, cotton-wool and so on Then you have nylons and so on on Then most of the clothing today is a hybrid, a combination of organic materials with plastic If your pants stretch, you have a hybrid 70% of the clothing in this room is plastic The big issue is when you watch a garment, microfibres come off None of our washing machines have filtered to catch these

Plastic packaging will also degrade over many years It is monumentally bigger than the disposable plastic issue, by far, from a microplastic pollution problem So what is the solution? When you buy a pair . when you buy a garment, most of the microfibres are knocked off in the first three washes Then there is relatively few Then there is relatively few every wash thereafter It’s important to note that an average woman in the Western world today buys 67 items per year and wears them three times before disposal, which is the absolute maximum of the washing issue The solution is by awesome clothing that you are going to love and enjoy for a very long time to avoid this what just by somebody’s used clothing >> Very good >> This year, we started to use recycled plastic in our organisation How does that statistic apply ? >> Exactly the same When a new item is made, there is a lot that can come off in the first cycles But the real answer here is to keep those moving As long as the staff and rotating through the shirts very quickly, it is better than if they have high than if they have high rotation If you have seasonal staff, cannot garment travel to the next one or does it end with that staff member? that staff member? It is a big question, making things last That is the foundational solution to this It is the incredible decision to go to recycled plastic The more information you have, the more you can point to the right direction >>We are looking at alternative products that are not plastic I believe this questioning comes back to the mention of Peter there is no cookie-cutter solution You just have to keep on moving, learning around the process but really start moving >>Its lifespan is the key >>We have other questions It is so hard to pick Somebody is waving like crazy crazy We will give him the microphone Please make it as short as possible >>My name is Kristian Thank you for all being here My question is about financially scalable solutions to plastic pollution full stop you talked about personal choice with regard to recycling I don’t want to sound like a negative guy in the room but it sounds a lot like that climate change movement People talk about not taking hot showers, was talking about behavioural change and not about real incentives to change behaviour It seems to me people’s willingness to change is not strong enough, and I honestly don’t want to come back here 10 years from now and see the same kind of thing I think nobody wants that My question is about scalable solutions to plastic pollution, and especially plastic that is too cheap to be recycled What is needed to solve the problem of source with this plastic, are we talking about a plastics tax like potentially a carbon tax? And especially for Tom, I would like to hear from you regarding technologies to potentially replace these types of plastic Do we have these types of technology and is it scalable and sustainable? SPEAKER: I think we had the answer to your question — if we had the answer , it would be solved just like that The climate change movement I would like to say that this is not about movements, this is about the climate changing, our ocean is changing, and all of us are involved , and as we have been talking about, it is about individual responsibility going up to government responsibilities I will let Tom onto the second part of your question but I would say I am neither an optimist nor a pessimist I am a pride that is — pragmatist I believe in pragmatic action to change things Change is the one constant I live in a house in London

which was a house for horses 100 years ago There are 10,000 houses like that in central London The mews houses were for the horses 100 years ago there were no cars cars Everybody was going around on horses Change happened overnight and all of a sudden everybody is in Castle Let’s be part of the change >>Interesting metaphor when you say from horses to cars, I think the question we need to ask you because the car is better than the horse for whole host of reasons and wider plastic win in 1950 ? You say you remember pre-plastic I’m sure others in the room remember, too I romanticise over it itself What did it beat? It was better What people wanted was cheap and convenient I think the key challenge and this goes to everybody, young folks, entrepreneurs, large organisations, governments . to set the stage and then to think about what are the models through which we do not have this addiction to disposal that are in fact ideally better for the consumer because I believe that is what will be the goal If we do it through sacrifice it will be a small group , but if we do it through improvement and bringing out the future, that’ll be what will really change the world, and we see this already in the sharing economy Look at what airbnb did in that travel industry That is an example of showing What has Uber done in the transportation market? If we think about these, there are lots of opportunities to explore and to bring out a better world >> Tom said cheap and inconvenient were the inconvenient were the winners, which which were the winners — Convenient We were sold a dummy . the We were sold a dummy . the cheap and convenient was the way to go, a throwaway society It is what has got us into the mess we are now Change is that constant Change for the better, we will change in a way that is not cheap and convenient, we will change in a way that will put us back into a relationship of respect with the environment on which we depend for our existence >>I’m wondering, Heather, to force a change, and that is part of the question, maybe we have to force people as well, the it through taxes or incentives — be Maybe regulation is needed What are your thoughts? >>There is not one solution We have said that multiple times but there is a huge portfolio globally of solutions, some developed at the grassroots level, some are led by governments, some led by huge change we are seeing within businesses, so we are seeing supermarkets, the big drinks companies, the packaging companies on the case, forming alliances, changing the way they do things It is being taken very seriously because of the responsibility of what is happening, the awareness, and from customer pressure, so there is a role for factional correct social media in that way Social media are saying their inboxes are full of questions about what they are doing with plastics The same applies to businesses It is a time of unprecedented attention on this issue and an opportunity to have your voice be a part of that and that means the businesses make it a lot easier If you go into a store and you cannot buy damaging stuff, even if you are reducing the stuff, it is an awful lot easier If you are out there with your refillable bottle and it will be super easy to fill it, it starts to normalise sustainable heavier and make it easier to implement sustainable behaviour and reduces the temptation for higher consumption that is less sustainable, so we are moving in the right direction in the right direction but it is not something that you can say is the responsibility only of businesses, only of the youth In the UK, a 5p tax on plastic bags reduce plastic bags by 80% Measurably, that is a huge response That will not work across all kinds of plastic >>It has to hurt a bit >>It has And the economics of And the economics of incentivising oil versus recycling is complex,

but it is certainly not tipping the balance of recycling for stop it certainly could change in a much more supportive direction to enable the recycling companies to compete fairly and to actually develop more solutions that also can work in developing countries where there is no waste management system, which is complex >> I have unfairly treated this side of the audience side of the audience He agrees Shall we take The female student there? I will not forget you >>There is a really big zero waste movement going on right now I wondered because a lot of people buy one use plastic for convenience in supermarkets How do you think supermarkets or things like the fashion or beauty industry could reduce the one use plastic to aid consumers in becoming more zero waste? >> I think that will be a question for Tom >>A really good question I will flip it You are right There is a zero waste movement and thank goodness Here is the way to think about the producer and the retailer, those actors Their job is not so much to give us To force things upon as Their job and this is the goal . to figure out what you want and to give what you want and to give that to you in the best , most cool, affordable way possible and maybe to extrapolate on what you may want tomorrow, but that is about it, so think about in the beverage industry Carbonated sales like sodas are going down, so what are the large companies in that space doing? doing? Investing in more healthy drink choices because that is what you want, and so what will be the leading goal in this? I work with these organisations and see them say is the consumer ready? Will they follow? It is always about the consumer Start demanding those things If they are not available, start writing about it They take social media seriously It is unbelievable how seriously they take it That is what they make their decisions on, so complain Complaining does so much in Complaining does so much in today ‘s social media space that the little boys amplifies in that it is much bigger in the actual decision-making rooms where people make decisions on 20 posts that may have happened and really acting, happened and really acting, and so do that and those choices will start appearing Then, especially when they appear, vote for them with your money because if they appear and you do not vote for them, they are gone and once they are gone, they are hard to bring back because the companies internally will say they tried authentically and the consumer did not want it It takes it — 10 years for it to be tried again Until that happens they will not have the internal ability to pull it out Speak one more question I am sorry for the others The shorter, the better >> May I ask you to use the headset? >>Of course >>I am grateful you have also given the floor to the left side of the room Let me begin by correcting two points raised by Tom In Switzerland we do not have landf ill Household waste is incinerated in very sophisticated units We don’t have any laws as to how we should handle plastic waste It is left up to us , and the initiative of the kids, my students, is a good example It took us a year The most important part was to get the people of Davos to join in, to follow the join in, to follow the project They went all the schools, provided information, talk to provided information, talk to children, the parents, they handed out leaflets and made a very detailed presentation, which was on a site that got a lot of hits and then the plastic bags were handed out This was the basic work they did and they did it very well, providing information, information, and these students showed how important information and training is We have not said much about that I am C everyone here has the I am C everyone here has the same intention 20 years ago it would have been different — Glad to see Information is crucial That is where we do not have

curricula for the schools, and a lot more needs to be and a lot more needs to be done about providing curricula in the schools to train and teach the children Thank you very much That is a useful message >>That is the main question here The issue was, are we teaching it enough? Our young people aware of it enough? Should it be part of a curriculum? Should we not talk to much about new technologies but also go back to basics? >> I think it is so important to start in the classroom When we talk about extrinsic versus intrinsic motivation, what starts in the classroom is teaching students about values, conserving, innovation, and these are the same kinds of values that can inform the skills in the future and a lot of the schools think about what happens after graduation The key theme of Davos is globalisation for .0 What can prevent disruption to jobs — — 4.0 What skills can be part of the modern economy that you can take advantage of and be of value to society? Starting with that awareness and capacity building of training students on how to communicate these values to others and their societies because once the students learn about it in the classroom they can also teach their parents back home I am from the Ottawa, Canada how, and one of my fellow global shape is implemented a project which basically is a robot designed with 3-D printed materials that also is powered by artificial intelligence to basically pick up plastic litter, microplastic litter, from beaches from beaches It is more than picking up plastic in this case It is more about the impact of this robot on shaping the narrative around STEM education , science, technology, mathematics, engineering, and how important that is to shaping innovation of the future and how youth can play a role in it Big kudos to you for >> Thank you so much We stretched the time limit a bit Thank you to everybody who wanted to speak but didn’t have a chance to


SOLUTIONS with/in/sight: Using Artificial Intelligence to Make Mammography Smarter

Welcome to MIT’s Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research We’re delighted you’re all with us this evening And welcome to our program, which is SOLUTIONS with/in/sight It’s a series that we conduct And tonight, our title is Using Artificial Intelligence to Make Mammography Smarter So this is a series And it’s a series that attempts to explain to people where the excitement is, the excitement at the various convergences; the convergence between biology and engineering, the convergence between academic studies and clinical practice But the thesis of the Koch Institute is that, through these various intersections, we can actually accelerate progress on cancer And so tonight’s program will give you a little sense of that We have a really remarkable trio of women presenting tonight And I know this is going to be a really extraordinary conversation Between many new innovations, many new discoveries, there is, invariably, a personal story And there is a personal story here between Connie, Regina, and what they have put together to make mammography a whole lot smarter And it’s a very special treat to have Linda Pizzuti Henry as our moderator tonight She’s going to conduct the conversation and then take questions from you afterwards So if you have questions, hang on to them because we’ll turn to the audience So I want to make a few just very brief introductions to let you know who these people are Regina Barzilay is the Delta Electronics professor at MIT She’s a member of the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science She is also a member of the Koch Institute She is a member of the Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory Lots of words Simply put, Regina Barzilay is one of the world’s leaders in machine learning And she has committed herself to using her insights into machine learning to make clinical care better Joining her is Connie Lehman, who is the chief of breast imaging at Massachusetts General Hospital She’s also a professor of radiology at Harvard Medical School And she’s the co-director of the Avon Comprehensive Breast Evaluation Center at MGH Connie has devoted her clinical practice to improving the health of our communities by delivering the highest quality patient-centered care in a setting of active innovation and education And you’re going to see how the two of them have put their minds together and their talents together Now, let me just say a word about our moderator Linda Pizzuti Henry I have to first say we’re very proud that she’s an MIT alumna Hurray And she’s the managing director of The Boston Globe She’s co-founder of Hub Week, which is an annual collaboration among regional institutions that explores the intersection of art, science, and technology She’s founder of the Boston Public Market And I have to tell you, there are dozens and dozens of community-focused activities that she has made to happen and fostered She has been a real champion of our community So it’s an incredible privilege to have these three amazing women with us tonight I’m looking forward to their conversation I know you you’re looking forward to their conversation And at the bottom, it is, how do we make mammography’s diagnostic power even greater, so we can save lives? So with that, I’m going to hand it over to Linda, Regina, and Connie Come on up Get started [APPLAUSE] Well, good evening And thank you so much for coming And thank you so much for having me tonight I’m so excited about this time that we have together We have an incredible problem with breast cancer It is amazing and staggering when we look at the numbers I’m sure, if I asked for a raise of hands of how many of you have been touched by breast cancer, either yourself or a family member, a friend, and the hands all go up We all have And out of the 2 billion adult women who are of screening age, over 2 million are diagnosed every single year worldwide, over 2 million women every single year being diagnosed with breast cancer And globally, over 600,000 die year after year after year It is really staggering We all agree on a lot There are some areas that we get into, especially when we’re trying to be innovative, where people have a lot of disagreements But every person that I talk to emphasizes that we cannot

continue to look at late-stage disease treatment It is both costly and ineffective We must be better at identifying breast cancer early, when it can be cured But we are missing two key ingredients to that paradigm of early detection and cure of breast cancer We simply don’t have accurate tools to predict who will and won’t get breast cancer And we don’t have accurate tools to identify cancer early Now, we think that we do We talk about all the different tests that we have out there, the genetic tests, the screening mammography, the new tools, automated ultrasound, MRI But I want to share a little bit about how these are failing and what we need to do and the power of AI to address our greatest challenges Breast cancer impacts so many women And it has been doing this for decades and decades, young and old, all races, all walks of life, an incredible array of women And when you look at them collectively, you realize how far we need to go to change the face of breast cancer Each of these faces are so unique And also, what we’re discovering, that every mammogram of every woman is also unique When we look at mammograms, we can tell, as if that was the woman’s thumbprint, so much about that individual And we’ve never leveraged this before AI We’ve never actually taken all of that digital information in every woman’s mammogram and leveraged that information to predict the future and to assess more accurately, does this woman have cancer? What type of cancer is it? Will she have cancer in the future? And this is something that all of us have talked about in the clinical setting If I’m reading mammograms and a technologist accidentally puts another woman’s mammogram up in a collection of my patient’s, I’ll know that it’s not the same patient I can look at the different ones and say, well, this belongs to someone else So we’ve sort of known that But we didn’t have the tools to really extract that incredibly rich data out of the mammogram People have noticed this for a long time Someone that Regina and I like to read about is John Wolfe He’s still alive, so I really think we need to invite him out for lunch or dinner and talk to him and say how much we appreciate that, early on, he was noticing this He was writing about it, and everyone thought he was crazy I remember when I was in my early training And I asked about Wolfe and his patterns of the mammogram They’re like, oh, that was all debunked He didn’t know what he was talking about But what he said in 1967 was normal and abnormal parenchymal elements are noted And he was really looking at all of the data besides just, is there cancer or not? But these alveolar tissue and ducts, what’s their distribution? And he said this material was coded and later subjected to analysis by computer And I would love for him to see just how forward thinking that was and what we’re doing now in this same domain We could also laugh with John Wolfe because Regina will talk a little bit about some of the challenges we’ve had in getting our innovative thinking published and the rounds that we’ve done with the Journal of Radiology, which is considered the highest impact journal within the imaging sciences If you can’t get into Radiology, you go to AJR So I know when I see this paper when it’s first in the ’60s was in Radiology and this next one in 1976 was in AJR, Radiology did not accept this paper, which they thought was crazy because what he said was maybe breast patterns can be an index of risk for developing cancer He thought he was seeing something with his eye He thought he was noticing something in his practice And everyone thought he was crazy Maybe one of the reasons why they thought he was crazy is because they were so excited about the technology And it was like an arms race Who can build the better, faster, smarter mammography machine? And we saw incredible advances going from zero mammography– I’m so glad I don’t have to read the mammogram on the far left, but that’s what people were reading– to film-screened mammography to digital mammography But what we found was our advances in imaging technology outpaced our human ability to process the information that was provided And yet, we just kept collecting more data with our equipment So now we have tomosynthesis For any single woman, she could easily have 200 images that, as a breast imager, I need to sort through looking for a cancer There’s thin slices through the breast Each view of the breast is about 50 images in an average-sized-breast woman So think about the challenge that we present to humans to find six cancers out of more than 200,000 images? Now, I say it’s challenging, but it’s actually ridiculous This is not a feat that we should have humans be doing

This is a feat that we should be having highly intelligent computers doing This first level of screening mammograms, that 200,000 images, let’s have computers read that And let’s have humans work on then conversations with patients, calling them back, biopsying them, talking them through their cancer diagnosis, doing the things that physicians can do well and allowing computers to do the things that they can’t And we’ve all known this to be true I did a very large study the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium, hundreds of millions of mammograms, thousands of radiologists And what we find is there is wide human variation in mammographic interpretation So that we know that 40% of US-certified breast imagers are not meeting the criterias that are set And we give people a lot of latitude In fact, the requirements for cancers diagnosed per 1,000 mammograms is as long as you’re finding 2 and 1/2 cancers per 1,000 and above So on these graphs, what I’m showing is you have radiologists that can read thousands of mammograms and find six cancers out of every 1,000 or five That’s pretty average But it’s OK if they’re only finding two And in fact, some are reading here, that we did in this huge study, and they would find one In other words, they’re missing a lot of cancers There’s no performance of mammography There are these wide error bars We can talk about recall rates or sensitivity How good is mammography at picking up cancers? It depends on the human And we want to change that We don’t want this to be tied to that human variation Sensitivity of mammography average is 80%, but we have people that it’s 30% And we have others that it’s 95% These wide error bars in performance in this domain And we talk about it amongst ourselves We talk about the fact that, in about 30% of cases, when you identify a cancer, you can see it in the year before when you look back We talk about in our false negative mammograms, when the mammogram is read as negative But some time during that year, the woman feels a lump or identifies something, goes into the doctor and has cancer diagnosed When we look back at that negative mammogram again, 30% will say, we actually can see something This is an example This was read as negative But in hindsight, we can see this spot Now, why did a human miss this? Because for breast imagers, you look at this, and you say, actually, I can see that cancer It’s that little white spot There’s a human reading hundreds of mammograms, going through, gets distracted It looks like the other tissue It is not something, again, — for hundreds of thousands of images looking for six cancers — that’s well suited to humans So the government has tried, as much as they can, to help us with very good intentions We have a Mammography Quality Standard Act to improve the performance by radiologists The standards that are set for us are higher than any other field in radiology We have to read a certain number, which is not required in other areas We have to take CME We have to audit our practices to know, how good are we at what we do? How many times do we miss cancers? How many times do we have false positives? And then more recently, the government also said, let’s share information with women Let’s make sure they know their breast density So what about that? I’m going to now shift over and sort of bring us to the transition over to Regina by asking the basic question, can computers read mammograms better than humans? We think that they can In fact, we know that they can The first question, and this is going to be audience participation I like that people raised their hands before So pay attention because this is all the education you’re going to get These are mammograms of different density White means dense And the grayish is not so dense And these last two are very dense Turns out that radiologists don’t do a very good job of this We did a large study of 83 radiologists At one end of the spectrum, the radiologist said, I think 6% of mammograms are dense And at the other end, they thought that 85% were dense, and everything in between So this is the information that the government is asking that we share with all women So we developed a model that had 97% agreement with expert readers and 94% agreement in the clinic This has been implemented And we’re using it now And every patient that comes through Mass General for their mammogram has their density assessed with this MGH-MIT deep-learning model This is the sorting that one would do You have all these different mammograms And we’re asking the models to sort them out depending on how they were assessed I’m putting the fatty ones, the gray, to the left, and the dense ones to the right This is a confusion matrix And I want you just to look at these patterns Reader one sorted these mammograms into columns Reader two sorted them into rows And so look at these patterns And which look more similar to you, the columns or the rows?

Which do you think was the machine? And which do you think was the human? This is where there is agreement Both reader one and reader two said that the upper left was fatty and the lower right was dense And that makes sense That’s what they look like But these are disagreements One said dense And the other one said, I don’t think it’s dense So the model is the columns That’s the computer And the rows are the radiologist You can see the variation by the humans And the consistency by the models It was giving this feedback to our radiologists that had them accept using AI in the clinic because there is a lot of resistance The more they got this feedback, the more they realized, oh, there is human variation I don’t know what I was thinking that day But I was wrong Maybe my fingers slipped I don’t know And so that is why, at MGH, we have our radiologists that are supported both in the infrastructure that we’ve built and the tools that we have to integrate seamlessly the AI assessments into their clinical practice It doesn’t increase their time They’re not working at separate computers It’s been integrated into the standard clinical flow We’re now ready to launch this into other areas Regina is going to talk about our other models But we’ve built a platform where all images at MGH are pulled into a PACS or an archiving system, run through an IT application, through a model, and then back through into our EPIC and our reporting system And finally, the final question, the first step to independent reading, where we actually get to the point where it’s computers reading our mammograms, not humans, is our one-year triage model, where we are showing, right out of the gate, giving this model very little information, not the prior mammograms, not the advanced tomosynthesis mammograms, just the basic 2D mammograms, we’re showing that we can identify those mammograms with a high likelihood of having cancers And we can identify those mammograms that were human-read false positives We are already at a point with our computers where we are performing better than many, many radiologists certified in the US to read mammograms And we’re truly just getting started So I couldn’t be luckier to have been recruited to Boston to have one of the men at Mass General that recruited me say, you have to meet my patient who’s just finished her treatment Her name’s Regina Barzilay And she’s spectacular And then I’m like one little T stop away on the Red Line from Regina, her lab All that MIT has to offer is something that was beyond my wildest imagination when I made this move from Seattle to Boston And couldn’t be more proud, also, of my team back home at MGH that’s open and excited, enthusiastic about how we can do more for our patients in the future So I’m going to turn it over to Regina And thanks for your time [APPLAUSE] Can you hear me? Hi [INTERPOSING VOICES] Yeah OK, I will try to shout I am an MIT professor, so I can try to shout I’m teaching one of the biggest machine learning classes And it’s a big class So, at any rate So, it’s really my pleasure to be here And I remember a few years back at the time that Connie and I met, I also came to this particular place and met a number of people and told them, you know, guys, you don’t know what you’re doing I’m going to show you the way So you can see that I was totally obnoxious I came just from across the building And I started my journey into this area And while Connie focused on talking about how a machine can help radiologists to do a better job than they are already doing, the question that I personally cared about is to use AI to solve questions that humans cannot really do So for instance, here, you can see two breasts Both of these breasts do not have cancer OK? And I don’t know if there are any more radiologists besides Connie in the audience But we tried it on many expert breast radiologists They cannot say which one of these breasts are likely to get cancer They can say there is no cancer now But they cannot really assess what’s to come in the next two, three years And this is the question that I really cared about So now let’s think how humans are thinking about risk So the way humans think today about risk, because it is a lot of research in this area, is they start by thinking, what can be correlating with the risk of cancer? So for instance, for breast cancer, it will be maybe your family history, your BRCA status, your breast density So you’re going to think about various factors, combine them with a statistical model, and you’re going to get a prediction Now I’m sure not many of you remember what is the area under the curve, which is, in this case, 0.6

But it pretty much tells you, how accurate is the model? Let me give you the ranges If you totally do random guesses, you’re going to get 0.5 If you are perfect, you’re going to get 1 So you can see that the models that is currently used today for predicting who needs extra screening, who can be on chemo prevention, they’re closer to random than to 1 And the question is, can we actually do a better job? And I know that many women in this room who are getting their mammography yearly are getting this letter that comes back home and tells them, you have high density You’re an increased risk of breast cancer and so on and so forth And now it became a federal law Now let’s look at how predictive is this indicator because we are telling somebody, you should be worried So if you’re looking at non-dense women, if you look at the cohort of mammogram, you would find six out of 1,000 cancers If you are a dense woman, you are the one who got the letter, it’s eight out of 1,000 Today, we are sending 42% of patients the letter that they should be worried Now I will tell you my personal story So this is me diagnosed in 2014 And this is me in 2013 And this is me in 2012 And you know what’s interesting about 2012? When I went to do my first mammogram, they saw that I have a dense breast And they told me, you know, you shouldn’t worry about it You’re going to get this letter, but it doesn’t matter because 40% of women are getting these letters So this is the type of information, the risk assessment that we’re giving to the woman And the question that I thought about is, forget about using human to predict the risk factors Our capacity to identify patterns is very limited because it’s like the dogs have better sense of smell than we do The same way machines can remember many more pixels that we would ever be able to do So the question for me was, if I am going to get a very large cohort of mammograms, let’s say, for 50,000 patients or 100,000 patients, and I would know for each one of these images what happened to this woman in two years or in five years, can a machine discriminate the pattern that human eye cannot really discriminate? And the technologies that we use is a deep-learning technology It’s the same technology that recognizes your face when you have the new iPhones So this is a deep-learning model It pretty much takes an image, I think, it’s a dog here It takes the image of a dog, which machine sees just as a matrix of zeros and ones There are many different nonlinear transformation on this image in such a way that it correctly predicts the label It has the image It has the label And it tries to just, all this wires, to predict the correct assessment And what’s interesting about these models, in contrast to what we, as humans, are thinking, when we are thinking, we need to tell the machine what is the right pattern That’s what Dr. Wolfe was trying to do He was saying, if you see more white or dense white, it’s predictive of future cancer Here, we are not telling it to the machine We’re giving the machine the input and the output and let it figure it out And if you’re not convinced, I want to give you an example from another area, which has nothing to do with breast cancer Whenever you are training the machine to predict, to recognize faces, OK, again, you give to it an image and the label And what happens, you would see that, without ever teaching the machine explicitly about the eyes and the ears and the nose, through the layers, you can identify increasingly complex patterns The first layers of the network, the one in the very bottom would recognize these very simple lines When you go one layer higher, the machine would identify bigger parts, ears and nose and so on, until it recognized the whole face So this is quite remarkable So we want to take all this power and to use it to identify these very subtle patterns in the breast tissue to predict future risk So we collected with Connie– Connie led this part of work– all the patients that we had for whom we knew the outcomes And we trained two models, one model took the breast and predicted five-year outcome And the other model used the image and some risk factors, so for instance, BRCA And this is kind of surprising because you say, what can you learn from the image? Can you actually learn something, even if you don’t tell the model how old is a woman, did she ever have cancer in her family, and so on? So let’s see how it works You can see the green one is image alone And the yellow one is the image plus risk factors So you can see it helps But it already does pretty reasonable Now, I will tell you more what it means, but I just want to show you one graph that was the most striking graph for me and for Connie

when we did this research We actually wanted to stratify the population and to see how the model does for different classes of subpopulation And what we have seen here that our model, the yellow one, sustained good performance for different races What you can see is that the model, which is called Tyrer-Cuzick, which is currently in clinical use in many hospitals in the city, actually performs below random on African American population, but not enough below random so that you can actually switch it And Connie and I met Dr. Cuzick a few months ago And if we asked him about it Do you know that your model, which is currently used, according to which you can get tamoxifen as chemo preventative, that it performs so badly on such a big subset of population? He said, yes, of course, I know because this model was developed on white women from 50 to 70 in London So you can really see that these models, not only that they’re not very powerful, they also are quite biased And coming back to Connie’s point that what we’ve discovered that, of course, there is a correlation between the risk that our model predicts and the density But they are not the same You can see that there are some women who have high risk and low density and women who have low risk and high density So they don’t totally and fully correlate So that’s why the recent law that was just developed, actually, accepted by and signed by our President Trump, actually goes based on the science that was developed in 1967 That’s where the Wolfe density paper came out At any rate, I want to give you some more intuitive understanding of how this model works And I showed you the model for two years out So what you can see here, this is the deciles So for instance, this is top 10% of the patients that the model predicted high risk You can see that 40% of the cancers fell into this category If you look top 20%, 60% of the cancers happen to be here At the same time, if you look at the bottom 40%, these women have very, very low chance of getting breast cancer So what you can imagine may be happening when we move forward, that we can do the first mammogram, assess the risk, and then create personalized screening, depending on your particular tissue Either you look really suspicious, and you may need an MRI and other things, or maybe it’s OK if you’re coming every two or three years for screening And what I wanted to say, I don’t know how many of you know this story This is a woman called Nancy Cappello from New Jersey In 2003, she came and did her mammogram Her mammogram was fine Within, I think, a month, she found a lump And she was diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer when her mammogram came out fine And at that moment, this woman realized that there is something wrong with the process She was a high– she had high density And nobody told her that her mammogram may not be very predictive and maybe she needed additional screening So what she did, she actually decided to reach out to her state government and to change the law, which requires the providers to tell women that they have high density And even in states like Connecticut and New Jersey, you can get a supplemental screening from your insurance based on this information And I really applaud her for what she did, despite her own unfortunate circumstances But what I feel we should be doing now is to move to the best science to help women And today, the deep learning models, like the one we developed with Connie, actually are much more accurate They’re bias free And they are consistent And those are the papers Now I want to take three minutes and tell you how did I get to this research because we had a conversation with Linda prior to prepare for this event And she told one should share stories So I’m going to tell you some stories So I got tenure at MIT when Susan was the president And my core research is in natural language processing And I work on a variety of topics Like for instance, we developed the first model which took dead language like Ugaritic and fully automatically deciphered it using Hebrew Bible We taught the machine to play Civilization reading manual symmetrical language to play better, so variety of fun things, OK? So I had fun And then in 2014, in April, it’s actually the April five years ago, I was diagnosed at the end of April with breast cancer And this is the spring vacation when my son and I went to Florida And within a month, I was diagnosed And this is him in July when I was already doing my chemo, and he had to cut my hair because I couldn’t do it myself

At any rate, I went through the treatment All was fine And then I came back to MIT And when I came back to MIT after really seeing human suffering at MGH and rethinking completely, is it the best use of my time to do Ugaritic or Civilization or other things? I was totally confused And I remember this was the biggest confusion of my life You see my hair is curly because that’s how it comes after chemo And I was just thinking, what can I do to change it? Because what I felt that we have such an amazing technology that we are developing in computer science and at our lab here, but it really doesn’t go to MGH And I was trying to find a place how I can contribute And I went from office to office Part of it was coming to Koch and saying that they don’t know what they’re doing But the second part, I was going from office to office at MGH and saying, I don’t need any money I can do machine learning Can I help you? And in most cases, the answer was, thank you very much We’re doing great And then I found Connie And then we started our work And I remember that it was very funny I had to give a talk, which is like a big plenary talk in my area in a big conference And it’s like once in your lifetime you give this talk And I was thinking, what do I want to talk about to my community, to my research community? And so I cannot talk about anything else I want to talk to them that they have to do what I am trying to do, to use technology to help patients And I gave this talk And it was kind of amazing People were saying it was such a great talk I was so happy And I said, wow, this is great Then the reality hit So we submitted some proposals to NCI and other agencies And I wrote in the proposal, I’m a breast cancer survivor I know what needs to be done You know? And I want to make sure that the technology comes to the patients So I was sure that I can write proposals My proposals are almost never rejected I wrote this plea And I was sitting there and waiting millions to come And then all my proposals were rejected Connie and I were trying to get access to data Typically, I never wear a suit because there’s definitely nobody, unless they are not at computer science department, wear suits So I was wearing suit and meeting a lot of different officials at MGH And we couldn’t get the data This was just terrible And I remember I was reading these reviews And we were talking about 2016 And people were asking, why are using neural deep-learning models? Why are you not using something else? I was thinking, if these people just read New York Times, they would know the answer So it was just unbelievable And then I realized that this is bigger problem because if you look, for instance, this is a DOD breast cancer panel, who is missing here, there is no computer scientist Computer science, three years ago, and AI were not part of this story at all So obviously, this people cannot read my proposals At any rate, and I don’t know how many of you read this book, Americanah I highly recommend And there is this place where this woman describes how she [INAUDIBLE] And she goes from place to place And everybody hears And it sounds good And nobody gives her money This was me I mean, I read this book And this is me And then what we’ve done, so Connie and I didn’t stop This was the point that we said, we’re not stopping here So I gave some humongous amounts of talks all over the world I met with any person who say they want to talk to me I said, fine I will find time for you We wrote a lot of nonfederal proposals And we tried to get some publicity while we continued doing our research And I should say that I’m really grateful for people from Koch who really helped us Among the first grants that we got was a Bridge Project grant from Koch Susan and Phil really help us to negotiate a variety of different complex interactions with various agencies and MGH So there were people who started helping us and start moving things along And I have to tell you the last funny story So I was participating in some podcast in Washington Post And when they were putting like makeup and beautifying, there was some guy sitting near me And the guy asked me, what are you doing? I said, I’m professor of computer science And he asked, why are you here? Because it was about cancer So I told him, you know, I came to tell to all this room or people that they really should be using machine learning They really don’t know what they are doing People in NCI are clueless And I was going on and on and on They finished my makeup And at this point, I say, oh, I’m really sorry, that I came from MIT, we’re very, very intense I said, I’m really sorry I’m sure you have nothing to do with it OK, who can recognize the guy? I mean, it’s– yes? He’s the director of the NCI Exactly So he told me, he actually has a lot to do with it,

so we made a picture But it was really funny And anyway, and he’s still the director of NCI Somebody and then there was a time, we got in our funding to do our research So we’re doing well I am now in the data science advisory board to the NCI director We have images from multiple hospitals And we are really spreading it across the country And the part that I am really most excited about is that whatever tools we develop, besides writing papers, we really clinically implemented them at MGH So everybody who does their mammograms at MGH has them read by our tools And I hope that we will spread it to partners in other institutions Thank you very much [APPLAUSE] Thank you Thank you Those were both extraordinary presentations Can’t hear you No? Am I on now? Sorry Those were both extra– can hear me? We’re good? Those were both extraordinary presentations And what I love is, so many things about it that I love about how you’re changing things but that this is an unusual collaboration that you are making happen And it so represents, I love that we’re sitting here in the Koch Institute talking about it because that’s so much of what the Koch Institute stands for is this integrative approach to finding ways to battle cancer And you are a living example of what the Koch Institute stands for So thank you for having us here This is a perfect setting for this conversation So we heard your side of the story about her saying that everybody in this industry is doing it wrong How did you feel when she approached you? I was incredibly excited because my career had always been seeing the problem, chipping away at it, making a little bit of a dent, either of the work in Uganda or other countries where we just don’t have radiologists or the patients that we have that would come in with a palpable lump that had had a negative mammogram And so there were just all of these problems where we were chipping, chipping away And then I had Regina come in with saying, I have these tools I think can help I have something I think could be really powerful And once we started the discussion, it also really impressed me I’ve always said if you get like-minded people that have the same vision, have the same mission, have the same tenacity, they can do great things And that’s what impressed me most about Regina She was in it for all the right reasons She wanted to help patients And that was pretty extraordinary Of course, having people, trainees and residents often say, now tell me the difference between a sponsor and a mentor And I was like, OK, look up sponsor You’re going to see Susan Hockfield because she knows what that means When she says, I see these two women I want to support them I want to help them And I’m going to figure that out So it was really a spectacular process And so what you walked us through here was really incredibly persuasive I’m pretty sure everybody in this room would prefer to have any sort of screening read by AI, to just have this database One of the things that you talked about is how you have the training from looking at thousands and thousands of images over your career, that things pop out to you, that you were able to see it The same thing happened with the woman who discovered the CTI injuries in the brain You were just able to see these patterns You heard this And you said, that’s not good enough I do appreciate that Connie reads my mammograms every year together with the machine But I think that it’s not about who is better We have a really challenging task in front of us, trying to predict And what we’ve had, I want to reiterate statistics from Connie’s presentation, 30% of breast cancer, one year, were growing in the breast because they were not identified And we’re even talking about top institutions So the question is, can we put machine and human together to do it better? And we all know that, and I’ve been to the room where Connie reads these mammograms, it’s eight hours You’re just looking at the images And I’m sure each one of you can think about part of the day when you’re distracted, or you want to make a phone call,

or you need a cup of coffee And you just lose this concentration So if machine can help human to do their job better, I think we all will benefit And furthermore, we can ask machine questions that humans cannot answer like predicting risk And the question that I’m asking myself, and Connie’s asking the same question, let’s say now, we are putting into the clinical implementation this model that predicts risk Model can actually tell you what it looked at when it identified risk But the pattern is so complex that human cannot comprehend it So how do you work in this world where machine, in some ways, are smarter than us? Because it doesn’t mean you can open the black box You can You can make it white box It will show you what it’s seeing But the human still may not be able to understand it And even with AI, there is still a really important human element, which I’ve heard you identify, Connie, where there is a human trust And you yourself played a really important role in showing that computer-aided, what is it called? The CAD, Computer-Aided Detection radiology was not effective because the element of human trust is so important So can you tell us a little bit about that story and what you learned from that to help with what you’re working on today? Right And so one of the things that Regina and I are excited about is not repeating the mistakes of the past So computer data diagnosis, computer-aided detection has been around in mammography for decades It was a very different approach Rather than the approach that Regina explained where you give lots of images and say the outcome and the deep learning is going to learn that Instead, we would segment the breast We would say, this is what a cancer looks like These are what calcifications look like This is what a mass looks like And we would teach those features and then run the mammograms through, and it would flag and highlight like, look at this Look at that What about that? Well, it turned out, when those products came out, and they were, really, the companies were rushing to get them to market, they put marks on all the mammograms So we had radiologists with lots of false positives saying, oh, maybe that’s something Maybe that’s something So then the companies said, well, let’s try to filter that down Don’t make so many marks If it’s really obvious, we won’t have to put a mark on it When we actually studied what happened when radiologists used that all across the country, they performed worse with this assistance than without And that was something that people were pretty upset with me for publishing because there had been a whole industry that had been created around this People were billing for it They were collecting for it And so that was an unpleasant story It was an uncomfortable story But it is, it’s the power of science and research and information to guide people’s best practices So we don’t want to repeat that We know a lot of this study designs that were done, although they were accepted in journals that would reject us, the study designs were pretty sloppy They were reader studies They were highly, highly biased, data samples that wouldn’t translate over into routine clinical practice So we’re paying a lot of attention to those lessons And we’re really determined not to repeat them And, Regina, you’ve talked about how this is another aspect of medicine that you think is broken, which is the clinical trials Can you talk about why you think they’re broken and what we can do about it? So thank you for bringing it up This is my other favorite topic is the question of how the information is used today in medicine Because if you go to Amazon, go to any company that deals with data, they would use every single piece of data that they can put their hands on Now if you look at cancer, cancer care today, and I took this statistic from American Society of Clinical Oncology, if you want to check it, they claim that, today, all the clinical decisions are based on 3% of the population that participate in clinical trials So it’s not random It’s not random It’s not random, and it’s only 3% People who said– It’s just why not 97%? Each one of us went to the doctor Something happened to us It is a clear outcome Given how different we all are, machine or human, should be learning from all the information, not only for a small, non-randomly selected subset And one of the shocks of mine, when I started understanding how it is done in cancer clinic at MGH, was the fact that, if you want to use the retrospective data about the patients, actually, there is a fellow, which is a clinician, who needs to sit down to extract this information by hand into the database and then run the statistics Clearly, you cannot do it on thousands of people They can write a paper, which will have 200 samples of retrospective data, and it just looks, to me, totally bizarre because in no other industries that I work with, people have this type of practice

There are tools to do it automatically Why are we not doing it automatically? Cancer registries in the whole country are done by hand They’re not done automatically as it’s done, again, everywhere And there is really not much value by doing this by hand It delays it It introduces mistake It increases cost So how I envision it moving forward, that we can really utilize the data for every single patient that went through the clinic And we can adjust their treatment accordingly So this gives us an opportunity to fix You talked about how the model didn’t work for African-American women But there’s a real opportunity here with AI because you’re dealing with such a huge amount of data and so many more points of information of correcting this What are some of the ways that you anticipate this correcting the discrimination that’s built in in the past? I think one of the– we had a lot of highlights We’ve had some highs and lows on this whole journey But one of the highest was we were invited to give the keynote addresses at a national conference for breast cancer centers And we shared our experience, what we’ve discovered and what we’re doing And it was a little bit like being at a rock concert I mean, people came up afterwards They were hugging us They were thanking us They were like, what can we do to be part of this? We just had a phone call the other day with a group in Chicago and a group in Wisconsin that heard us there and said, we have over 200,000 mammograms that we run every year We want to provide this We want to study We want to be part of this What can we do? One of my former trainees in Seattle now runs a gigantic, many hundreds of thousands mammogram program in California He’s like, we’re all in We’re in this We want to do this And it feels like there’s a real groundswell of people saying, we know it’s been broken We know we’ve tried to say, well, there is a better technology coming out Or now we’re going to do something a little bit different, sort of these incremental changes But they know it’s broken And now that they see something that they could be part of that would really be a lot larger, so I think that’s what’s going to happen I think people are going to want to be part of this And they’re going to see the value of it We’re going to work through all the challenges But I think there’s so many people out there that want to do this And those that don’t or those institutions that can’t figure it out, they won’t I think there’ll be so many that will, that we’ll move forward What’s extraordinary is you were talking a little bit about the numbers of mammograms out there According to the FDA, there are more than 39 million mammograms performed annually And so if you think about the number of radiologists, and we’ve been excited, you showed the progression from the quality of the imaging, the technology side, but that we’ve really just been relying on the training of the radiologists for this And what the potential is, if you have 39 million every year to really synthesize and learn, it brings me to the question of there’s a full spectrum when we think of cancer There’s predicting risk There is the early identification And there’s treatment Where do you think AI has the biggest potential impact on this whole spectrum? We see the full spectrum from the identifying those at risk, being able then to not just predict any cancer but the specific types of cancer, and then have prevention strategies that work So for example, if we can predict this woman is at risk for an ER-negative tumor, why put that woman on tamoxifen that will block ER-positive receptors and all the morbidity associated with that? There would be a different prevention strategy based on the type of cancer that woman is at risk for So there’s a whole domain in there We’ve shown that early detection, more targeted therapies, more personalized care And what we wanted to do was, in some ways, have proof of principle early on So we got engagement from clinicians saying, we see the value We want to use this We have it in our clinics Now let’s build upon this because we felt like that would be the biggest hurdle, just being comfortable with having it in the clinic as part of routine clinical care Susan has talked about the importance of bringing down barriers to getting these things forward You’re really good at identifying barriers We talked about clinical trials But you’ve identified the FDA as another barrier So I think FDA, in some case, it still kind of learns, what is the right way to engage in how these tools need to be regulated? The place where I see one of the biggest barriers to bring AI, and I’m not talking about like MIT, I’m talking the whole army of people who are getting into AI, is the lack of data So as you just mentioned the number of mammograms available in the country, so I think the biggest collection

of mammograms that is available for public use was collected before digital mammography It was films And it was done, I think, in the ’80s or early ’90s And it hit maybe 70,000 mammograms So you can say, how come all this data getting generated and we don’t have one collection in which everybody, any hacker in this country can just try to build the models? Again, while we are obnoxious MIT professionals, I can totally recognize that there are people who, in this area, will be much better than me and can do better stuff or can do different stuff And as you’ve said both that we can ask different questions But to date, this resource just doesn’t exist And it’s not only the case for breast cancer It’s the case for many, many other cancers Today, the data is held within the institutions And nothing is shared with researchers who actually can benefit and build better model To me, this is the biggest hurdle today Well, for the AI to get broadly adopted, we need to have the right regulatory environment, what you’re talking about, but we also need the right pay structure How do we change the pay structure to incentivize clinics to adopt this? I think that this is one of the barriers for a more rapid implementation So there are companies with AI and health care, and they’re looking at different models, expecting that we would have left fee for service behind us But we haven’t So if you’re not in a fee for service, you want to have the highest quality, most efficient care possible If you’re in fee for service, you want to make money every time you do an exam, whether it improves the life of the patient or not I think the AI can be helpful in both domains So if I’m running a large hospital fee for service, I’m not going to be able to keep up with my competitor across the street that as an AI reading mammograms rather than paying those expensive radiologists to read all those mammograms So that that is going to be one method And then if I’m a Kaiser Permanente that’s looking to be more targeted, more precise, that these women should get mammograms every two years, these should get them every year, these need an MRI, that’s going to help me as well on my higher quality, lower cost How, though, the government starts to have the CPT codes and the billing and all of that with each of these, that’s going to be something we’ll have to keep working on We can again look back at the history of CAD Lobbyists successfully convinced Congress to pay $18 every time we pushed a button to have a CAD overlay on the mammogram It didn’t have value, but everyone was doing it because they could push the button and make $18 Over time, that dropped and dropped and dropped Now there’s really no added payment for CAD It’s all bundled into the mammogram But that was a 20-year story of, from my perspective, people figured out how to get paid for it Did it really provide value? It didn’t So we’ll have to figure that out I have a lot more questions But I want to share this with the audience So I think we have some runners here with microphones, if other people in the audience, I’m sure, have questions There’s some this side of the room One here Oh, one here This is fantastic research I was wondering how applicable this has been to other populations, such as younger women, older women, men who might get breast cancer, and how it might be applicable to other kinds of cancers that might have patterns that could be recognized and what not Thank you We’ve been very excited about taking exactly this model and applying it to lung cancer For us, that would be the next because the domain is the same You have CT screening that has been shown to reduce lung cancer mortality and all-cause mortality So you have images You have different risk factors that you can assess And then you can have algorithms trained to do a better job going through those hundreds of thousands of CT slices and images trying to find those small cancers There’s other domains as well In some ways, pap smears and cervical cancer, and, of course, there’s a whole domain where vaccinations are going to have dramatically reduced cervical cancer But in that domain, they already have been having computers read the pap smears And in some ways, we can look back and say, well, we had that model We used to have humans looking at the pap smears, and then computers did So how do we just keep doing that with any of the imaging that we have? Let me just add, we’re actually, in addition to stratifying the model by race, we stratified it for a variety of different areas, the age and the menopausal status And the models seem to be pretty robust across different subpopulation And in addition to just predicting cancer, Connie and I are now starting collaboration in the area — May I say? it’s not cancer, right, even though we’re in Koch..– to actually predicting the heart attacks because this

is actually the killer of women way before the breast cancer And apparently, looking at the mammogram, you can predict the risk of heart disease because of the calcifications So we have a collaborator who studied this question And moving forward, you don’t only want to do a single read on the mammogram, but you want to predict all other conditions where the sign of it are there So the way I envision myself, health care or MGH partners and other places moving forward, that whenever you do any scan or any test, you’re not only evaluating for the disease that initiated the scan, but you’re changing probability distribution over all different diseases And in addition to lung, I don’t know if Phil Sharp is still here, but he actually was one of the initiators of a program, Stand Up to Cancer, to do similar type of analysis for pancreatic cancer screening So we collected a very large set of screens of people who were incidentally screened for, say, belly ache or accident or whatever And some of them developed pancreatic cancer later So the question is, can you early enough to detect who is likely to develop the disease? And we are in very early stages But we can imagine what kind of potential it could be for this disease, where, today, it’s pretty much deadly when it is diagnosed Oh, I imagine there’s some kind of tension between building a really complicated neural net that treats everything as a special case and just sort of a more general neural net But if you don’t want to make some crazily complicated neural net, just a reasonable neural net to analyze this, is 70,000 images enough? Do you get a lot better with 200,000 images, with a million images? Or are these just complicated problems, and the area under the curve will never be over 60%, 70%, 80%? So I think that we have, I would say, not overly complicated neural net It’s fairly standard neural net I mean, we do different things, which are specific to this domain But it’s not something totally crazy and unique There is science to be done, and we’ve done it I think the question that you are asking is, how much data do we need? And if we’re increasing the data, are we going to get better evidence? And I think it really depends on the task So for instance, breast density, which was our first product, you can train it well even on 15,000 images If you’re looking at the cancer detection, there, we do see improvement Because even if you have 200,000 mammogram, how many cancers would you have? 2,000 cancers maybe? So you have highly imbalanced data set And now we’re getting 86%, 87% I believe that if we can increase the size, we can do even better I think that totally outperforming the radiologists is just a matter of getting a bigger data set The question where I am not quite sure where even with increase in size we can improve, if you look at what I demonstrated the AUC for, let’s say, two-year prediction where it’s high 70s, I don’t think that even– the perfect risk model cannot be perfect Because within two years, you may change your lifestyle You can go to medication You can lose weight You can change a lot of things So we’re just talking about probabilities So I think there, it’s not the matter of adding more images It’s a matter of adding other information, for instance, sequencing data, blood work, a variety of other things And the beauty of this model is they actually combine all of this information to make predictions There was another question So MGH is using your tools on all the scans Breast Breast All the breast scans Are there other hospitals that are going to start using the tools as well? So currently, we are in the process of transferring the tool We tried on data from Newton Wellesley And we’re moving now Partners-wise It was Newton Wellesley and all the others outside of Boston As Connie mentioned earlier, we’re talking, and they’re moving forward with this network Advocate, Lutheran Advocate, which is pretty big network in Midwest Detroit, Henry Ford, and Montefiore Hospital, so this is our immediate kind of network for expansion And the way we’re selecting the hospitals is, first of all, they need to be large So we have a lot of test ground They need to have a reasonable IT system And we want hospitals which are really diverse in terms of their population

Very good It’s very exciting Thank you Yep? Do you update the tool that you’re using at MGH with a retrained data center or is it just static right now? So right now, the breast density, for instance, we’re already outperforming humans And whenever humans disagree with the system, the experienced human actually sides with the machine So for breast density, I don’t see there is a point even to improve it further Now, in terms of the cancer prediction and triaging, we are retraining the model pretty regularly And as we move forward with risk assessment, when the new data becomes available, we are retraining the model So it’s just a matter of the amount of compute when it runs on the side It’s all automated And that’s one of the parts– OK, so what’s the protocol for introducing a retrained model into actual clinical use? So in this case, I want to remind you that it’s not instead of radiologist It’s just information that is given to radiologist Then they need to accept or reject And we record all this information At the end, it is a radiologist responsibility about the final read So we didn’t follow the exact procedure It’s a different level of control that you need to have when you’re taking a radiologist out of the reading or whether they are collaborating together I don’t know where the microphone is You can just talk loudly Sure So the question I had was, you had the earlier slide where you showed a neural net doing face detection And you showed how from layer one to layer two, it started detecting eyes Is there a way you could interrogate your model to see what kind of patterns it’s detecting in the images? And in other words, it’s there new knowledge that we can learn from these models on what it’s picking up? So this is a great question In terms of what the model does, and again, I want to tell you, it depends on the type of question If you train the model to predict density, to zoom in on the white pieces and do what you expect it to do, if you ask the model to predict cancer, it can, again, zoom in on certain parts of breast where there is cancer The pattern here is clear So whatever machine shows to you, it’s called attention mechanism, where the model attend to when it trains Human and machine can understand this It’s great The really gray area is when we are asking machine to make predictions that human cannot make And I am pretty sure that if you even show it to the human and say, OK, there is this pattern Since our, I would say, –I’m not sure what is politically correct,– cognitive capacity here is a bit limited in which patterns we can visually recognize, the fact that the machine illustrates it to you is not going to be really informative And there is a lot of work in AI about how to make black boxes open And it’s a very valid question And in some cases, when we can understand the explanation, of course, it’s worth to provide this explanation But there will be cases like this one when it’s not clear what the explanation will be We have time for one more question Hi I’m Robbie Kahn I’m a former microfabrication researcher here at MIT And I just wanted to talk to the relevancy of what you’re doing on behalf of a stranger I met a couple years ago at the Boston Beer Works We were both having a burger and a beer I was going to go to a seminar in an hour She was going to go downtown to the hospital to find out if the treatment for her stage four metastatic breast cancer had been effective And what was more impactful than even that was that she told me that she had been going for regular screenings every year And the way that she detected this cancer was just through her own sense of touch So on her behalf, I just wanted to mention the relevancy of what you’re doing Oh, thank you That was very kind And there are so many stories like that You two are doing something really remarkable Thank you Thank you for your ingenuity and for what you’re really making happen Thank you to the Koch Center for having us here today And thank all of you for coming and learning and having this discussion with us I’m going to end on one thing Is there anything– what can we in this room do to help this? Is there anything we can do? Wow One, the engagement is fantastic for us We certainly have benefited, as Regina said, when we needed to pursue other avenues that weren’t the traditional NCI and Department of Defense I can’t tell you what it meant to me for my chairman in my department to see that people were interested and wanting to support what we were doing

and to be able to start that up That has been really incredible We can’t wait for the next step Because the next step in having computers read mammograms that we’re very excited about is sequential mammograms and tomosynthesis We need bigger servers We need bigger storage We’re working through all those pieces But we’re barely scratching the surface on what we can accomplish, and to your point, not just in breast but in other cancers as well So I should say that I was an outsider, which started my second career I was really grateful for all the support that I got from Koch And for many, it looked like the crazy person who tries to break into the clinical care But people at Koch actually did seed and supported me, as much as they could, in all different ways And I’m really grateful that this environment exists And everything that we can do to keep this environment going and supporting all types of different research and not the same, all the same, but really different approaches, people coming together and making the change And then that is something that I want to ask you as patients because of all of us, at some point, are going to be patients The question is when and how, but we’re going to be patients I am thinking about this woman Nancy who changed the laws And she took her own sorrow and used it as a specific case to change the law And I think there will be a lot of exciting things going on in AI in breast cancer and all different diseases And I think we, as patients, deserve to get the best technology And it shouldn’t take 60 years to translate scientific insight into clinical practice So each one of you who is a patient or going to be a patient, we all need to think very creatively, what is a path we can take to bring the science into clinical care for all of us? That’s great Wonderful Thank you Thank you all so much [APPLAUSE]


Packing for a FAMILY ROAD TRIP with FOUR KIDS 🚙 Packing and Car Organization HACKS

– [Jennifer] Hey guys and welcome to the Family Fudge Today I’m getting ready for our huge cross-country family road trip with four kids so that takes a lot of packing, a lot of planning, but I actually really enjoy it so come along with me today and I’ll share all of my tips with you (contemporary music) Now first thing’s first you guys, this car is a mess so I’m actually gonna do something I’ve never done before I’m gonna take it to an auto cleaning place and let them detail clean it I’m super excited Here’s the before and then here’s the after They did such a good job It looks almost like a brand new car now In fact, it actually looks better than when I bought it So we’re gonna be driving from California to Florida and we think it’s gonna take at least six or seven days but we’re not really on a tight schedule so it could be up to 10 days We’ll just have to wait and see (contemporary music) So when it comes to packing clothes, definitely one of the biggest jobs that I have to take care of and I’ve learned over the years that it’s better to pack fewer clothes and then just plan on washing them along the way So I decided to only pack four outfits for the kids that way it’ll take up a lot less space and I’m still only having to do laundry maybe once or twice on our trip Now beside the regular four outfits, I’m also packing one nicer set of clothes just in case we wanna visit a church and I’m also packing one set of warmer clothes just in case Now since we travel pretty often, last year I did go ahead and buy each child their own suitcase and their own set of packing cubes Packing cubes are so helpful and they really help keep everything organized when we’re traveling Kenzie has the pink set, Lilly’s are the purple ones, Griffin has the green ones, and Jackson has the blue set I find all these on Amazon and they’re surprisingly not that expensive but buyer beware you guys This brand is the TravelWise brand and they’re not the greatest quality so I wouldn’t recommend those There are definitely better ones on Amazon for a similar price Now if you can find an Ikea brand packing cube, those ones are really good, probably my favorite, but then I also have some of these HopSooken brand They’re also from Amazon and they’re much better quality I think they’re more durable and they’ll probably last a lot longer And then as you can see here I still have a lot of space left in these packing cubes so what I’m gonna do is use that space to add in all of the underwear and the socks and the undershorts and things like that that they might need to go along with their outfit for that day So now I have all the kids’ clothes separated and packed and then in this last packing cube which is a little bit smaller I have all of the girls’ hair accessories So I have headbands and hair clips, bows, a brush, some hairspray, gel, rubber bands, and detangler So basically I have everything I need to do my girls’ hair and my boys’ hair all in one place This seriously comes in so handy when we’re traveling Now I just have a few more steps before I’m all done packing the clothes Now I have to be honest with you guys Sometimes I do all the packing, it’s often late at night, and then we get to wherever we’re going and I can’t remember where I put each item So I went ahead and picked up some of these key tags from the Dollar Tree and then on each one of these little tags I’m going to write basically what is in each bag and I’m gonna use these as labels for each bag so I’m just gonna go ahead and write it in there I have one tag for day one and two clothes, day three and four clothes, you get the idea And then because these are on rings they’re really easy to loop through the zipper directly onto the bag just like this That way I can just open up the suitcase, I can easily see what bag I need I don’t have to actually open up the packing cube to tell what’s inside And it’s really great too if my husband wants to help get the kids ready he’ll know what bag he needs to grab and if next time I wanna pack something else in that bag these key tags are really easy to replace They’re not stuck on there forever So now it’s time to put these into the suitcases and as you can see, I could fit one to three packing cubes in each suitcase But here’s my tip you guys, before I close a suitcase I’ll snap a quick picture of each individual suitcase so that I can remember exactly which suitcase has which packing cube in it The kids suitcases came with a matching carry-on bag that I’m going to use to hold all the bathroom items during our trip So as you can see here, I have some haircare items, deodorant, shampoo, and other essentials we might need on the road I also try to make sure to pack these inside of a larger Ziploc bag just in case any of the bottles leak Next up I have my new walking pharmacy, my diaper bag, and my mom bag and I’m keeping them all together in this laundry basket so they don’t roll around in the car In my mom bag I like to store all the essentials that I personally like to have when traveling

and I actually have a separate video on that I’ll go ahead and link it in the description box below if you’d like to see exactly what I like to bring for myself Next up is our actual diaper bag and normally I would put a ton of stuff in here but for this trip it’s just gonna hold diapers, oh yes and wipes of course Thankfully Griffin is the only one who is currently in diapers but he’s almost ready for potty training but I definitely didn’t wanna start that until after this big road trip Finally my new walking pharmacy No I actually got this bag like on Amazon and I think it is so cute I love the flowers but it’s actually a diaper bag but because it has so many different pockets, perfect for holding all kinds of things In this front section I just have some sunscreen, some essential oil-based insect repellent, and some body wipes Then I also got a brand new first aid kit off of Amazon and this has all of the real first aid essentials And then thankfully my kids don’t get sick very often but just in case they do I have things for allergies, colds, sore throats I have things for bug bites and I have eye drops Hopefully we won’t need any of these things but I feel a lot of piece of mind knowing that we have ’em just in case we do Moving on to the food and lunch supply storage system, you guys know I can’t go anywhere without my lunch supplies And for this I’m using one of these plastic three-drawer units I found this at Walmart Now as you can see all three drawers are very full but pretty organized In this first drawer I have an assortment of reusable bags so I’m not using a ton of Ziploc bags I also have several of these little MiO energy water flavorings I love to add these to my sparkling water Over here I have a few measuring cups Right now I’m actually on the Weight Watchers program so measuring out my food is something I’m gonna try my best to do while we’re traveling I’m also bringing a few of these little bag clips so I can close up any bags that we open along the way and then over here I have some reusable straws Over here I do have a few paper bowls and paper plates and then underneath those I have some disposable utensils and I also have reusable ones as well, I have both And then last but not least I also have a few little food picks, some dip containers, and some silicone liners that way I can continue to make cure lunches while we’re traveling In this middle drawer I’m storing all of our Omie boxes I decided to bring these because they have a built-in thermos These will definitely come in handy while traveling I also have a few of these Rubbermaid take-along containers which are great little reusable containers They’re perfect for snacks or even leftovers And then something that definitely comes in handy on road trips with kids, a roll of paper towels Now this top drawer is kind of dedicated to fruit storage These are things that don’t necessarily need to stay in the ice chest so they’re perfect in here I have lots of freeze dried fruit packets I have several different flavors of applesauce pouches and I also have one of my kids’ favorites, the unsweetened apple berry sauce And then there’s just enough room for a few apples and little oranges And as we’re traveling, if we run out of any of these things I know I can just stop at a Target or a grocery store and restock them In this plastic bin is where I’m holding all of the other snacks and food items that we’re taking on the trip and if you’re curious to find out exactly what kind of food and snacks that we bring I do have a separate video on that, I will link it down below So our ice chest will have plenty of other drinks but I also wanna make sure to have lots of water So for this I’m using this collapsible tote that I got on Amazon and it can hold eight gallons of water They fit perfectly in there and we’re also bringing all of these insulated cups and water bottles Everyone in the family has their own so we’ll be able to refill them with the water as we need it Now for my suitcase I’m actually using my small pink roller bag which has definitely seen better days In here I have my packing cubes Just like the kids, I’m only taking four outfits Over here is my travel makeup storage container I love this thing I found it on Amazon as well This fits all of my makeup and my brushes perfectly and in this other bag I have more personal items and skincare products Now for my husband, he’s actually gonna be using my larger pink suitcase He totally doesn’t mind And when it comes to his stuff he packs his own bags I’m not in charge of what he brings That part is totally up to him but because he’s using the larger suitcase we’ll also have a lot of room in there to put any odds and ends or we can even put some souvenirs that we might buy along the way So now that I have all of my containers packed it’s time to get it in the car First, I’ll go ahead and put in the water On top of that I’m adding our food bin Next I’m going to add my three-drawer unit and that’s gonna sit right in front

so I can have easy access to it when we open up the back of the car On the left side I’m going to put my ice chest Like I said, I’m going to be putting all of our drinks in there, also milk for cereal, some pre hard boiled eggs, lots of watermelon, there’ll be string cheese, yogurt, and things like that On top of the ice chest I’m gonna go ahead and add the basket of bags This just fits perfectly in there I can still easily grab out anything that I need Now in this space between I’m going to go ahead and add these soft car trays These are perfect for traveling I found them on Amazon They have a bag on either side where the kids can store their items and there’s even a little belt to help keep it in place And finally we have just enough room for an umbrella stroller Now when it comes to the suitcases we don’t actually put any of them inside the car We have this nice big rooftop carrier that will fit all of them, so that’s where they go Okay guys, so not that I’ve shown you the suitcases and what I put in the very back of the car I can show you what I put in here for the kids and then I can show you the adult area Now as you can see, I don’t have the kids’ car seats in here right now because I just got this car back from the cleaner and I still have to put their car seats back and overall my number one goal for this trip is to not be overloaded with too many things We’ve gone on road trips before where the car was just jam packed full of stuff and it’s not very comfortable So we just have the essentials in here and of course if the kids run out of activities and things to do then we can always stop at a Dollar Tree or Walmart, maybe pick up a few things along the way We are changing the seat configuration just a bit for this trip This one is actually usually Kenzie’s seat We’re gonna go ahead and put Griffin here so that I can still reach and help him and then McKenzie is actually gonna be here so she can help Griffin and she can also run the DVD system as well And then back here the seating is gonna be pretty much the same This is Jackson’s spot over here and Lilly’s spot over there Now normally when we travel we let the kids bring their own backpacks with their own stuff in but I decided to get all the kids their own little backseat organizers instead so they can keep their stuff in there So each of the kids will have their own in the seat in front of them and they can put whatever they want inside So there’s lots of different compartments in here, lots of pockets, a lot of storage in here but in this one I actually added something of my own, something that I’m hoping will work out really well for our trip and it’s an incentive program So this is a little whiteboard that I got from the Dollar Tree I also got some stickers from the Dollar Tree too and I put each of the kids little nicknames on there and they’re gonna start with five tallies a day and they can gain more tallies for good behavior and lose tallies for bad behavior and each tally equals one dollar So they’re gonna be able to use that money to buy souvenirs or things at the grocery store as we’re traveling And of course this is right behind my seat so if I need to I can just grab it out, use my little dry erase marker to either add or take away, hopefully not take away, the little tallies Now along the bottom here I still have to put back the car mats, tey just got cleaned as well, but I thought I would show you this area This is a container I got from the Dollar Tree and there’s actually VELCRO on the bottom so that it can actually stick to the bottom of the car here It won’t shift or move around as we’re driving down the road so it’s nice and secure and safe but in here I have all the kids’ DVDs and movies and they also have their own set of bluetooth headphones so they can listen to their movie but the adults don’t have to listen to their movie We have the remote in here and then right here we have the drink holders for McKenzie and Griffin So on this side I wanted to make sure to keep the floor pretty clear but this is gonna be Griffin’s side and his feet don’t reach all the way to the floor so I’m taking advantage of some extra space and I decided to store the little car vacuum here So this is kinda like a DustBuster type situation It has its own little bag that fits perfectly under there And then this actually will plug in right here So all we have to do is plug it in and we can quickly just vacuum up any crumbs or spills and hopefully keep the car clean Now like I said, all the kids have these little organizers and I went ahead and left most of it empty so they can decide what should go in here all by themselves They can have whatever I think they’ll like to have that independence I have their little writing toys in there so far and I also have one pair or sunglasses for each kid as well Now as far as up here goes I did let the kids decide what stuffed animal they wanted to bring so this one is Griffin’s McKenzie has a little rainbow-corn Lilly picked Vampirina

Jackson has a little puppy dog So between Jackson and Lilly’s seats and between Kenzie and Griffin’s seat I have a little basket absolutely full of different activities I’m hoping will last a long time These bins are from the Dollar Tree and they’re really cool because I can actually use the seatbelt to seatbelt this into place so I don’t have to worry about it flying around in the car as we’re driving So then way in the back here as you can see on this side I have room for two blankets and Jackson’s water bottle and on this side we have two more blankets and Lilly’s water bottle This little side area here and that little side area there is perfect for storing little blankets that are perfect for the car And then up here of course we have the DVD system so the kids can watch movies They also will have their little laptops that they use for schoolwork and we have a hotspot so we can actually use the internet or the Roku stick We can stream movies while we’re traveling And the very last thing for this area is that under the seat I have a few reusable shopping bags that I can use to collect garbage or to use when we actually go grocery shopping along the way or if we need a sick bag, we can just pull it out and use that Now onto the adult section of the vehicle I try to keep it really simple in here too, just what we need I hate feeling cramped on a long car trip So I’ll go ahead and show you what I have on my side door I’ve got these really cute tissue packs I got these on Amazon and I really like these because they clip right onto here so they’re always handy And of course I love that Mickey’s on there So you just open this up You can easily grab your tissues in a hurry And then down over here just a few more essentials I have my favorite lotion so I can do that as we’re going down the road I have some body spray, some antibacterial wipes, and in this little pouch I have some feminine products And then also on my side I’m keeping this little binder between here It just fits perfectly and this is so I can put all of our travel documents or anything that I need to print out and keep, I can just put right in there and pull it out when I need it And now for my husband’s side who is definitely gonna be the main driver for this trip I kinda help the kids and he does the driving, it works out nicely that way On his side I also have a pack of tissues so he can help himself when he needs to I have a backup bottle of sunscreen I have a bottle of mosquito repellent This comes in handy and I really like this one because it doesn’t smell so bad It’s plant based I also have a full size umbrella in here and then way down there, let me see if I can grab it out, I have a nice full sized flashlight in case of emergencies And now as far as a center console goes, if you guys have seen my previous car organization video you’ll know I love to have this area stocked full of lots of things And to keep things organized in here I use lots of different bins from the Dollar Tree I also have a stack of plastic cups It just kind of keeps everything in its own area Now in this little compartment I have sticky notes, tape, a stapler, paper clips, toothpicks, things like that I don’t anticipate needing any of these but it’s nice to have just in case And then in this little cup area I have pens and pencils and a pair of scissors I can’t tell you how many times I’ve actually ended up needing scissors on our journey So these come in handy for sure And then in this compartment I have this container Now this looks like a gum container because it used to be but I’ve actually used up all the gum and filled it with quarters instead So if we end up stopping at a place where we need to pay a parking meter we have plenty of quarters for that or if we end up needing to go to a laundry mat we can do that as well So lots of quarters in there I also have an extra set of sunglasses ’cause I lose mine all the time I have some hand sanitizer and then I also have some car essential oils These aren’t really like fancy essential oils, just the basics, but I really like to use these in the car so it smells good and each essential oil does something a little bit different The orange essential oil definitely is like a cheery bright scent The peppermint really helps if you’re getting sleepy and you’re trying to stay awake, that helps invigorate The lavender is a really good one to use if I really want the kids to kind of calm down, it’s almost bedtime And then these three I don’t quite use as much but I actually use these in the car with this little clip that goes right into the air vent I found this on Amazon So with this little clip you actually can open it up like this and inside there’s a little round of felt You just drop your little essential oil, whatever kind you wanna use, right in there You can close it up and then clip it onto and as the air is blowing through it really helps to distribute the essential oil smell In this little bag I have a few more of my favorite essential oils that are in roller balls and then I also have this little pouch In here is where I have all my extra felt pads

for the essential oil diffuser I can change them out so I don’t have to cross contaminate the oils And then I also have a second little vent clip Now I found these on Amazon In fact, most of my car organizing supplies I found on Amazon I’ll go ahead and stick that back in there and then there is still some room in here My husband usually has headphones that he’ll store in there, extra cords and phone chargers, batteries we’ll also put in there and that’s pretty much it for that Now I’m super excited My husband and I got new cups for this road trip They hold 40 ounces of liquid They are nice and insulated so you can fill ’em up with ice in the morning as we’re traveling and have cold drinks all day Don’t forget to give this video a big thumbs up and subscribe if you’re new Thanks for watching and we’ll see you next time


Texas Boys Outdoors (Season 06 – Episode 11) "Texas Boys Road Trip"

(rock music) -Wooh! – Welcome back to another all new episode of Texas Boys Outdoors Roy here, we got Harhead Jeff, Gonna head out down south to South Padre Island, Mansfield, old school TBO Road Trip You guys check it out -Gettin’ it done with Texas Boys, got a little shark, little black tip -Finally got this Oryx down on the ground -That’s a nice buck right here Welcome to Texas Boys Outdoors where we are all about giving back to our heros, and showing kids the beauty of the great outdoors (rock music) -Alright, so as you guys know, man, the virus has really just shut a lot of things down We’ve had several months now with a lot of us haven’t gottin’ to hang out Haven’t been able to do fishing or TBO trips We figured it’s time to get together The crew is going to meet up in Houston Gonna head down south, have a good old fashioned Texas Boys road trip, Texas Boys style -So Jeff ate some tacos earlier from a not so little, hole in the wall place A little sceptical about it, and he’s been in the bathroom here for about 30 minutes now We’re trying to get to South Padre but, I think we had a little, Jeff had a little blow out – [Zach] What happened buddy? – [Jeff] Huh? – [Zach] What happened? – [Roy] Thirty minutes later – I filled up y’alls tank and then I went in there (horn sound) and got a bag of chips – [Roy] And we got to edit that (horn sound) part out – [Zach] Good job Roy (rock music) – Alright, we’re doing a little road tripping Took off from Houston about 1 o’clock today All the way down here About to be in Port Isabel, TX Going to head to South Padre Island It’s the most beautiful water you got in the whole Gulf of Mexico over here so it’ll be a cool deal Got big Zach driving Hardhead Jeff’s in the back playing poker I think (laughs) – [Jeff] I’m about to raise on your – [Roy] He’s playing on my account so I think he’s about to go all in with a 7, 2 off suite – [Jeff] Nah, you got ace, king – [Roy] Oh, do I really? – [Jeff] Yeah – [Roy] Oh, here we got to see if we win this hand, hold on What should we do with ace, king? What are you going to do Jeff? – [Zach] He’s like, “it ain’t my money.” (laughs) – [Roy] Alright, let’s see How did we do? C’mon flop! If we hit the – [Jeff] You won – [Roy] Oh, won, good job a whole dollar twenty big baller – [Jeff] Woo! – [Roy] Alright, you guys, going to be an action packed week Stay tuned (rock music) – [Roy] So here we are finall down here, you know eight hour drive South Padre Island, TX one of the most beautiful areas in Texas Going to see a lot of old friends You got Capt. Brian Barrera Our buddy Joe Swaboda’s down here Got the Heaven Louis, Verne Louis family, love those guys We’re going to get out here We’re going to seperate into two boats the first day We got Jeff going out with Capt. Joe Swaboda, An army veteran, good friend of ours I’m going out with my buddy Capt. Brian Barrera Going to go out and chase tarpon You guys check it out -Alright, good morning, first moring down here in South Padre Island, TX Going to get out and bounce around a little bit We got our buddy, Joe Swaboda, from the United States Army going to take some guys out These guys had a few to many wine coolers last night, so they are a little slow this morning but Joe’s ready to rock Got the big booty Judy over there ready to go We are going to get out with buddy Capt. Brian Barrera, one of the locals down here, with top guides Get out and try to do it, to it You guys stay tuned, let’s have some fun (rock music) If somebody hooks up then reel in quick though Get out of the way If somebody hooks up, everybody reel in fast – [Josh] Okay – [Brian] If you do feel something bite you, set the (horn sound) out of it, like I said Let me check your drag (rock music) – [Roy] So here we are, South Padre Island we are all pumped up but day one for my boat was a really tough deal Winds blowing about 30 miles an hour No fish, just a tough, tough deal But apparenlty, the other boat – [Jeff] we had no issues, I mean, we had the same weather

– [Roy] Ahh – [Jeff] We caught limits of trout We had a good day We did have some camera malfuntions but, we had a good day – [Roy] So you got both sides – [Zach] What’s up guys, we’re out here with Jeff, Joe, – [Joe] C’mon – [Zach] And this guy I still don’t know his name yet We’re still learning Anyways, we’re out here South Padre Island Roy’s out chasing like, big (honk sound) minnow, big minnows – [Jeff] Big what? – [Zach] Big minnows, big minnows But we’re gonna get out here, we’re gonna chase some trout, some redfish Y’all stay tuned (rock music0 – [Zacj] Jeff, what are you doing? – [Jeff] Trying to get this slime rocket off of here Get the, that’s a pretty good sized Gaff top – [Joe] Yeah, – [Zach] I mean, we’ve caught bigger (rock music) – [Zach] I mean, it’s only taking like 15 minutes to get the hook out of it – [Jeff] Man it’s in there, isn’t it (rock music) – You ain’t fishing until you lose a hat – [Zach] Hoah! – [Jeff] Oh, snap – [Zach] More than Roy caught so we’re good More than Roy caught, Roy didn’t catch nothing (rock music) (rock music) – So, man, we got a heck of a first day As you guys saw, a tough deal for my boat, but my boy Captain Brian’s a stud You know, that’s how it goes sometime with the weather Apparently, the other boat did a good job, and you guys got a chance to go out and do a little night hunting, right? – Absolutely, Joe Swaboda and Cory the Hog Snyper, they took us out They had some public land that they’re having issues with the nilgai coming off this public land and ruining these farm crops and we had the opportunity to go out there with the thermal, and try to get some nilgai, pigs, some predators – All right, guys, Zach here, we’re down here in Brownsville Texas We’re with our buddy Joe, Franky, and Cory Cory reached out to us, man They got these nilgai overrunning this property Some of the farmers asked permission to ask Cory to get down here and take some of these off So, we’re going to get out here and get it done Texas boy style Y’all stay tuned (rock music) – You don’t even have to close the legs You just carry it like that Okay, let’s go (rock music) – [Jeff] Oh, we didn’t have any luck We did see some nilgai, we did see some pigs They were out of range We had a strong crosswind We tried a couple opportunities to stalk up on them, but we were unsuccessful, but overall it was still awesome hunt It was a really cool time (rock music) – Well, we had a fun action packed day one Little fishing, little hunting We’re going to regroup, be ready to rock and roll tomorrow morning We’re going to separate into two boats, we got Captain Larry in one boat, Captain Luiz in one boat There both my buddy, Captain Brian Berara’s buddies Going to go out here and do a little drift fishing in the wind, artificials Let’s see if we can get it done You guys check it out Good morning, we’re here in South Padre Island, Texas And we’ll go out with our buddy, Captain Luiz We got our veterans going out with him They’re going to go out and do some drift fishing We have our group of the non veterans Probably going to whip their butt, but we’re going to get out, try to do it to it See who’s boat can catch the most fish You guys stay tuned (rock music) – [Male] Came up and splashed and shook I thought it was about a 22, 23 (rock music) – All right, hello everyone I’m captain Luiz Flandes, out of South Padre Island, and a fishing guide out here And, you know, fishing the lower Laguna Madre is a very unique place

You know, I grew up here all my life, and the thing about this place, what makes is so special here is the abundance of species You know, there’s so many different species you can catch out here So it’s very unique We got real shallow flats, you know Right now, we’re fishing a little deeper, but we’re targeting trout, and you can catch just about everything here You know, your Texas Red Fish, your Speckled Trout, Snook, Tarpon, you know, and Flounder, Black Drum, you can get the Mangrove We got a good variety of species here, so that’s what makes this area pretty special And, it’s special to me (rock music) – [Josh] Dude, he’s showin’ you all up – Yeah, he is (laughter) – So, see, we got Luiz out here, our guide, and he’s supposed to be putting us on the fish – [Male] Guiding – Not himself – I mean he put us on the fish – He did – And you think that we might catch them – He put us on the fish – [Luiz] I’ll pass you the rod right now (laughter) – Hey, Roy, want to see what trout looks like? (rock music) Roy’s over in that other boat, probably crying right now because these Army boys, and, you know, that one Marine Corp guy filming for us, we’re getting it done today, boys – And that’s what’s called – [Man] Andy hooked up – [Andy] Oh, there he is – [Zach And Luiz] Double hooked up – Doubled up – [Luiz] There we go – [Zach] Who’s is bigger – [Josh] Eh, Andy’s is bigger – [Zach] What? – [Josh] Andy’s is a good size – [Zach] Right on brother – [Josh] freaking trout – [Zach] Hell yeah Right on, right on, doubled up – Good job guys Look at that slick, too – Yeah, we’ll send this to Roy (camera snapping) – What an awesome time down there in South Padre Island It really is, and Jeff’ll tell you, one of the most beautiful bays in the entire state of Texas But, we’re going to pack up, head up north a little bit My main man, Captain Mike McBride’s up in Mansfield waiting on us Got Captain Joe Prada waiting too Going to head up there, have a little fun, do a little fishing, stay tuned (guitar strum) (upbeat music) – So, here we are, another beautiful bay, in the state of Texas We’ve got Port Mansfield, we’ve got Captain Mike McBride, helping out Captain Joe Prado, just another young cat, that can really get on there, and catch them We’ve got the guys, all ready to rock and roll We’re doing a little wave fishing Check it out (rock music) (rock music) (rock music) (rock music) (rock music) (rock music) – We’ve got a real shot, to catch some real fish, here, real quick, let’s give it a try – Yeah, no, no, this sounds like a good- – I ain’t gonna put my pole down, because I drift into you, but I think we need to be up there, a little further (upbeat music) (upbeat music) (upbeat music) – Get anything? – No, I didn’t get anything Oh, going great (water splashing) – So, how does that look, up there? – [Cameraman] Just don’t dip the camera in the water – More bait, I feel (laughs) – Just the tip, man, just the tip (laughs) Do I adjust the tip? – [Cameraman] No, that’s good – It don’t reach the water, completely – [Cameraman] That’s good (upbeat music) (upbeat music) – Do you guys sell that glow, with the chartreuse toe, not glow, but like, glittery white, whatever? (upbeat music) – [Cameraman] Starting off with a dink – Yep I’m on the board, sort of (upbeat music) (upbeat music) (upbeat music) (upbeat music) (upbeat music) – You gotta take of these fish, when you unhook Especially when you got them on the top of the water They are the future (upbeat music) (upbeat music) (upbeat music) – [Cameraman] Mike, why is the, why is that new moon important? – Man, you tell me the man that can answer that question, and I’ll talk, I’ll show you a liar We don’t know, but over all the years, watching logs, and watching what the ancients wrote about, there’s something to that moon phase

You know, going into a big moon, with a new or full, we see increased activity We see more and more activity, in smaller and smaller windows That’s when we see that blue planet Earth stuff going on You know, stuff dying and flying out of the water And there’s another phase, too There’s a moon rise, moon overhead, moon set and moon over foot And we don’t know We’ve just watched it and watched it, and you know, there’s a lot of overriding factors There’s no question about it There’s barometer, there’s weather, there’s wind, there’s temperature But day in and day out, if conditions are the same, you can almost set your clock by that moon And who knows why You, who knows I will just say, that I would suggest being in your highest percentage spot, during one of those windows: moon rise, overhead, moon setting We just, we don’t know why – So, man, first day at Mansfield, what a great time Had the whole crew out there And I can’t say enough about my main man, Mike McBride Jeff, what did you think, about old Mike McBride? – Man, it was special, fishing with Mike He’s the most knowledgeable fisherman, I’ve ever fished with He was awesome, I learned a lot from him And I enjoyed it And it was a great time and he’s a great fisherman – And he’s a character, so if you don’t have fun, and learn with Mike, you’re doing it wrong So, what an awesome day Been up since five o’clock in the morning But this is Texas Boys Outdoors, no time to rest We’ve got a crew, that’s gonna go out, try to get it done, on some wild hogs Do a little thermal predator control You guys, check it out (rock music) (rock music) (rock music) (rock music) (rock music) (rock music) All right, so, we’re kind of excited, you know, a lot of us hunters, one of the things we enjoy doing, is when you get someone, that’s never shot a hog, or never shot a deer, to get their first one, and my man, Josh – Got it done, on the first time – Dropped the ham, right up, we’ve got a big boar, it looks like, down over here So, let’s check it out I think we’ve got the one I shot down too But mine took about 17 shots So, what a great time, out there, just a cool deal, did a little thermal hunting, in south Texas Appreciate Joseph, for getting us out, and big props, to my main man, Joshua Baker, United States Marine, got his first hog Got it done, Texas boy style I got lucky, there at the end, and got me one too So, we’re gonna hit the hay, get a little rest, get it done, tomorrow morning, get out there, do some fishing, on Mansfield again, with Joe, Captain Mike McBride, stay tuned (rock music) (harmonica music) ♪ I put 32 ropes on my boat to keep it tight ♪ (laughing) – After a fun night getting a private concert from Mike McBride and producer Pat, we got up early Roy and them decided to sleep in, so me, Zac and Joe, we hit the water a little early and we jumped ahead of the cameras, but we did good, how d’you guys do? – Well, you snooze you lose sometimes, in our case, you snooze you win Went out there, old Mike put us on them, had producer Pat, Josh Baker, whacking those speckled trout, getting into our Texas boy style, and you guys check it out, it was a pretty cool deal (upbeat music) – Out here with my buddy Mike McBride, Wind’s blowing about 30, but still catching ’em, got about a 22-inch trout if I can not mess it up (upbeat music) Got him That’s a little bit better one Nice Down South Lures, Spicy Pumpkin That’s kind of one of the ones we’ve been after, right here (upbeat music) – Got me a little trout here, speckled trout, woo He’s still a little small(mumbles) See that’s a pretty one, there we go Getting it done out here in Port Mandeville – [Man] Nice job, was that spicy pumpkin? That was a DSL spicy pumpkin right there – [Man] All right If it’s a trout it’s a good trout Ah, it’s a red No Wonder Those things are tanks man Specially on this rod (Inaudible) Probably just under Just, there you got it, that’s a keeper He’s probably right up that’s fifteen and a half probably A little Texas two step action – (Groans) Pretty red fish, reds, they put up a good fight – Take the hook like this and just push down on it, and usually it, will, pop ’em right out (upbeat music)

You can see we’re coming in here to the Port Mansfield Channel in here, you got the, the winds pumping like we said, you got the beautiful water color change line and, what’s the name of the condos over here Mike? – [Mike] That’s Pelicans Point – Pelicans Point, beautiful place, you looking for a rental to come down with the family, awesome, you know, real clean, everything’s nice, great place to stay Get up here, clean these fish, and you guys check it out (Upbeat Music) – Had an awesome time down here, started off in South Padre Island, had a great two days there, then came to Port Mansfield, one of the most, just beautiful bays down here Both of these bays are truly just beautiful beautiful places Had the whole crew with me man appreciate my good buddy, Joe Prado, getting us out here – [Joe] Yeah no problem man My old fishing buddy that I’ve learned quite a bit from over the years, one of the best in the business, You know, they call him ‘Mic Trout’ for a reason It was blowing about thirty miles an hour out there today, we had a couple guys, the camera guy, that actually don’t even fish a whole lot, out there whacking them on plastics, I’m sure a lot of these guys struggle with live bait, so that’s just a testament for both of these guys I’m Roy at Texas Boys Outdoors, had an awesome road trip, We’ll see you guys next week So man, the Corona virus, 2020, Texas Boys outdoors road trip comes to an end Appreciate you guys for tuning in We really want to thank captain Joe Swoboda for helping out, Captain Mike Mcbride, Joe Prado, Brian Barrera down in South Padre, and Luis and Larry, awesome guys down there I’m Texas Roy, I’m Hard Head Jeff Check us out on Facebook, Instagram, the website We’ll see you next week


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